Private Pilot Lessons - Geoff Hatcher Multi Engine Flight Instructor

Private Pilot Lessons - Geoff Hatcher Multi Engine Flight Instructor
Private Pilot Study Guide
Pilots Handbook of Aeronautical Knowledge
Airplane Flying Hand Book
Four Forces Of Flight in constant airspeed constant direction or straight-and-level flight, lift
equals weight, and thrust equals drag. Phak 3-1
1. Lift, 3-6
2. Weight, 3-5
3. Thrust 3-2
4. Drag: 3-3 acts parallel to and in the same direction as the relative wind
Parasite Drag 3-3: is the resistance of the air produced by any part of the airplane that does
not produce lift.
• Parasite drag is proportional to the square of airspeed
• The more streamlined an object, the LESS parasite drag
• The more dense the air, the GREATER parasite drag
• Form Drag: is the frontal area of the airplane exposed to the airstream.
• Skin Friction Drag: caused by air passing over the surface.
• increases if rough and dirty
• Interference Drag: caused by interference of the airflow between adjacent parts of
the airplane.
Induced Drag 3-3: a by product of greater AOA
• rearward component to the lift vector which is induced drag.
• (Induced drag is inversely proportional to the square of airspeed)
Lift/Drag Ratio: 3-4 establishing the proper glide attitude and airspeed is critical to ensure
the best possibility of reaching a suitable landing area.
Relative Wind: the direction of the airflow produced by an object moving through the air; the
actual flight path of the airplane determines the direction of the relative wind.
Cord line- line from leading edge to trailing edge.
Angle Of Attack: 2-8 the angle between the wing chord line and the relative wind.
1. The angle of attack at which an airplane wing stalls will remain the same
regardless of gross weight.
2. Critical angle of attack- angle of attack at which a wing will stall (determined by
the design of the wing usually between 14 and 20 degrees)
Stalls occurs when the critical angle of attack is exceeded
Horizontal Component of lift: 3-17 (centripetal force) is what make an airplane turn.
Pitch movement about the lateral axis. Elevator.
Roll Movement about the longitudinal axis. Ailerons.
Yaw: 3-9; 4-5 Movement about the vertical axis. Rudder.
Flaps: 4-6
1. high lift/ high drag device that enables the pilot to
2. make steeper approaches to a landing while
3. decreasing landing airspeed & ground roll
4. decreased stall speed
-3Maneuverability: 3-10 an aircraft that readily permits changes in pitch roll and yaw and
direction while withstanding the resulting stresses imposed on it, is considered to be
Controllability: 3-10 the capability of an aircraft to respond to the pilots inputs, especially
with regard to flight path and altitude.
Stability: 3-10 the tendency of an aircraft to develop forces which restore it to its original
condition, when disturbed from a condition of steady flight.
• An aircraft that is inherently stable will
1. require less effort to control.
2. More effort to maneuver.
• No airplane is completely stable but, all airplanes must have desirable handling
Static Stability: 3-10 is the initial tendency that the airplane displays after its equilibrium is
• Positive Static Stability –goes back to original condition
• Neutral Static Stability- stays at its new condition
• Negative Static Stability
Dynamic Stability: 3-11 is the overall tendency that the airplane displays after its
equilibrium is disturbed.
Positive Dynamic Stability
Neutral Dynamic Stability
Negative Dynamic Stability
Positive Dynamic Oscillatory Longitudinal Stability: 3-11 Pitch stability about the lateral
1. The CG being forward of the Center of Lift
2. negative lift component of horizontal stabilizer.
• An aft CG reduces stability and can be difficult to recover from a stall condition.
Load Factor: 3-26 is the ratio of the aerodynamic load on the airplanes wings (Lift) to the
actual weight of the aircraft and its contents. (Load/weight)
• To determine load on the wing structure, multiply the airplanes weight by the number of
• An increased load factor will cause the airplane to stall at a higher airspeed.
• Stall speed increases by the square root of load factor.
• The amount of additional aerodynamic load available depends on its speed.
• Level Turns increase the load factor and stall speed of an airplane, as compared to
straight-and-level flight.
• Dramatic Flares from steep approaches increase load factor and stall speed
• At 60 degrees of bank, 2 G’s are required to maintain level flight.
Maneuvering Speed (VA): 3-28 the speed which abrupt control movement may be applied
without causing structural damage to the aircraft.
• The speed that the aircraft will stall before it over stresses.
• The speed that you would use in severe turbulence.
• Is not on the airspeed indictor.
• As weight decreases, VA decreases.
• Adjusted Va= (√ (total weight/Max gross weight)) x Va
-4Ground Effect: 3-7 within a wingspans distance- the ground interferes with the airflow
patterns about the wing increasing pressure below the wing and reducing the following:
1. wing tip vortices
2. down wash
3. induced drag
4. angle of attack
5. required power
6. airspeed required for flight.
• The slower airspeed requirement may dangerously result in becoming airborne before
reaching recommended takeoff speed and inability to clear an obstacle.
Conventional Horizontal Stabilizer v.s. T-tail
• affected by prop wash and flap position more 4-3,5
• when power is reduced, the aircraft pitches nose down because the reduced
induced flow on the stabilizer reduces its negative component of lift.
• flap extension directs airflow from the wing downward to the stabilizer increasing its
downward lift component. (pitch up)
Spins: occurs when, after a full stall, in uncoordinated flight the inside wing that drops,
continues in a fully stalled condition while the outside partially stalled wing regains and
continues to produced some lift, causing and continuing the rotation.
• The difference between a spin and a steep spiral is that in a spin, the wings are stalled.
Wingtip vortices 3-6 Spillage of air from the bottom to the top of the wing causes vortices
that trail the tips of the wings for relatively long distances behind and downward from the
*effect is greatest at low airspeeds, high power setting and high angles of attack*
Torque: 3-23 based on Newton’s third Law of Action “ Every action has an equal and
opposite reaction”. The clockwise rotation (as seen from the rear) of the prop torque rolls
the aircraft counterclockwise causing a bank to the left. Requires right stick!
Spiraling (cork screwing)Slipstream: 3-24 is based on the reaction of the air to the
rotating propeller blade forces it rearward in a spiraling clockwise direction of flow
around the fuselage and striking the left side of the vertical stabilizer. Pushes a
conventional tail down (yaw left). Requires right rudder.
Gyroscopic Precession: 3-24 When a force is applied to a spinning object (the rim of
the propeller) the result of that force occurs 90 deg. later in the direction of rotation, and
in the direction of the applied force.
• the “yaw causes pitch, pitch causes yaw” phenomenon: as the nose of the
airplane is raised, a deflective force is applied to the spinning propeller which results
in a yawing force known as precession. pitch up=yaw right=pitch down=yaw left=
pitch up etc.
“P” Factor: 3-25 (asymmetric propeller loading): occurs when the airplane is flown at a
high power and angle of attack. The downward moving blade which is on the right side
of the propeller arc, as seen from the rear, has a higher angle of attack, and therefore
higher thrust than the upward moving blade on the left.
• Fuel; Air; compression, Spark
• Four Stoke operating cycle
1. Intake(suck)
2. Compression(squeeze)
3. Power(bang)
4. Exhaust(blow)
Abnormal Combustion:
1. Detonation occurs when the unburned charge in the cylinders explodes instead of burning
2. If the grade of fuel used in an engine is lower than specified for the engine, it will most likely
cause detonation.
3. If a pilot suspects detonation during climb-out, the initial corrective action would be to lower
the nose slightly to increase airspeed.
4. pre-ignition- The uncontrolled firing of the fuel/air charge in advance of normal spark ignition
• Mixture: the purpose of adjusting the air/fuel mixture is to decrease fuel flow to compensate for
decreased air density.
1. Takeoff at high-elevation airports may require leaning the engine during run-up for best
2. The mixture must be enriched prior to a descent
3. and low power settings regardless of altitude.
• Alternate source of air
Carburetor: the operating principle of float-type carburetors is based on the difference in air pressure
between the venture throat and the air inlet.
• Carburetor ice: sharp temperature drop due to fuel vaporization and the decrease in air pressure in the
venturi, can condense and freeze water vapor in the venture throat and the throttle valve
• Float-type carburetors are more susceptible to icing than fuel-injected systems.
• Conditions most favorable to icing include an outside air temperature between -7° and 22° C(20° and
70° F) and high humidity.
• In a normally aspirated engine with a fixed-pitch propeller, the first indication of carburetor ice is a
loss of RPM
• Applying carburetor heat will:
1. Enrich the fuel/air mixture
2. Cause a decrease in engine performance
3. Cause a temporary decrease in RPM, followed by a gradual increase.
• Dual Magneto system: two purposes of duel ignition systems on aircraft is to provide for
1. improved engine performance.
2. redundency
• Magnetos are a self-contained, engine-driven unit that supplies electrical current to the spark
plugs and is completely independent of the electrical system.
Electrical System:
• Alternator; light weight, lower maintenance, uniform output even at low RPMs
1. Alternators produce alternating current (AC) first, and than convert it to direct current (DC)
2. Direct current is delivered to a bus bar which distribute the current to various electrical
3. Circuit breakers protect various components from overloads
4. Ammeter or Load meter
• Battery
5. Main purpose is to start the engine
-66. Also used as a standby or emergency electrical power
• Oil Systems
• For internal cooling, reciprocating aircraft engines rely on the circulation of lubricating oil.
• An abnormally high oil temperature indication may be caused by the oil level being too low.
• Fuel System:
• On aircraft equipped with fuel pumps, the practice of running a fuel tank dry before switching
tanks is unwise because the engine-driven or electric boost fuel pump may draw air into the fuel
system and cause vapor lock.
• Using fuel of a lower then specified grade may cause cylinder head and engine oil temperature
gauges to exceed their normal operating ranges.
• Fuel of the next higher octane can be substituted if the recommended octane is not available.
• Filling the fuel tanks after the last flight of the day will prevent moisture condensation by
eliminating air space in the tanks.
• Cooling System:
• Excessively high engine temperatures will cause loss of power, excessive oil consumption, and
possible permanent internal engine damage.
• If the engine oil temperature and cylinder head temperature gauges have exceeded their normal
operating range, the pilot may be operating with too much power and the mixture set too lean.
• To aid engine cooling in a climb, the pilot can lower the nose, reduce the rate of climb and
increase airspeed.
• To cool an engine that is overheating, the pilot can enrich the fuel mixture.
• Propellers: two basic types; fixed-pitch and constant-speed
• Constant Speed;
1. Permits the pilot to select an RPM for the most efficient performance
2. Engine operation on an aircraft equipped with a constant-speed propeller is conducted
with the throttle controlling power output, as registered on the manifold pressure gauge,
and the propeller control regulating engine RPM.
3. The pilot must avoid high manifold pressure settings with low RPM.
Pitot-Static Instruments:
• Supplies static ambient air pressure to operate the altimeter and vertical speed indicator,
• and both static ambient and ram air pressure to the airspeed indicator.
• If the pitot tube becomes clogged, the airspeed indicator is affected; if the static vents are clogged,
the altimeter, airspeed indicator, and vertical speed indicator are affected.
• Standard Temperature and Pressure values for sea level are 15 degrees C and 29.92” Hg.
• Red line = never exceed speed
• Yellow line = indicates the caution range
• Green line = normal operating range
• White arc = normal flap operating range
• Maneuvering speed
• Indicated, Calibrated, True, and Ground Speed.
• Altimeter setting is the value to which the barometric pressure scale of the altimeter is set so that
the altimeter indicated true altitude at field elevation.
Altitude Errors “High to low watch out below”
warm days indicate lower altitude than the true altitude. Aircraft will be higher
Cold days indicate higher altitude than true altitude. Aircraft will be lower
-7Higher barometric pressures indicate lower altitude than true altitude. Aircraft will be higher
Lower barometric pressures indicate higher altitude than true altitude. Aircraft will be lower
One inch of barometric change causes 1000 ft of altitude change in the same direction if
the altimeter is not reset.
Types of Altitude
True-, above sea level
Absolute- AGL,
Pressure-, above standard datum plane 29.92
Density-, pressure altitude corrected for non- standard temperature
• Higher temperature raises barometric air pressure levels decreasing air density and increasing
density altitude
• Indicated-, on the dial
Gyroscopic Instruments:
Include the turn coordinator, attitude indicator and heading indicator. They operate off of a gyro’s
tendency to remain rigid in space.
Turn Coordinator
• Provides an indication of the aircraft’s rate of movement about the yaw and roll axes.
Attitude Indicator
• A pilot determines the direction of bank from the attitude indicator by the relationship of the
miniature airplane to the deflected horizon bar.
Heading Indicator
• Must be periodically realigned with the magnetic compass as the gyro precesses.
Magnetic Compass; contains a bar magnet, which swings freely to align with the Earth’s magnetic field.
Points toward Nova scotia and deep into the earth accounting for acceleration and turning errors
• Deviation; caused by the magnetic field in the aircraft distorting the lines of magnetic force.
• Variation; angular difference between the true and magnetic poles (Isogonic + Agonic)
• Acceleration Errors (ANDS); on a East or West heading the compass will show a turn towards the
north if accelerated and a turn toward the south if decelerated.
• Turning Errors (Roll out Before North After South) (UNOS); on a North heading a turn to the right
will indicate a turn to the left and on a south heading a turn to the right will indicate an accelerated
turn to the right. There are no turning errors on the east west heading.
Factors Affecting Performance:
• Weight of the aircraft
• Wind
• Altitude
• Runway conditions and obstacles.
• Temperature
• Pressure
Density Altitude: is air density expressed in terms of height above standard Sea Level
If the outside air temperature at a given standard pressure altitude is warmer than standard,
the density altitude is higher than pressure altitude.
• High temperature, high relative humidity, and high density altitude all reduce aircraft takeoff
and climb performance and increase density altitude.
• Use the chart to find Density Altitude.
• Density altitude and pressure altitude are the same value at standard temperature.
• Approach Airspeed should be used regardless of temperature and altitude combinations.
Runway Gradient: refers to the amount of change in runway height over its length.
• A gradient of 2% means the runway height changes 2 ft. for each 100 ft of runway length.
• A positive gradient indicates the height of the runway increases, while a negative value
means it decreases.
Braking Effectiveness: refers to how much braking power you can apply without skidding the
Hydroplaning: happens when a thin layer of water separates the tires from the runway.
Takeoff and Landing Performance
1. Find the headwind and crosswind components
2. Determine the total distance required to land (Graph and Table)
3. Determine takeoff distance
Climb Performance:
• VX = is the best angle of climb, and it provides the greatest gain in altitude over the shortest
distance during climb after takeoff.
• VY = is the best rate of climb, and it provides the greatest gain in altitude over a given period
of time.
• Cruise Climb = is generally higher than VX and VY, and rate of climb is slower; it improves
forward visibility and gives better engine cooling.
• An aircrafts operating limitation are found in several places, including the current, FAAapproved flight manual, approved manual material, markings, placards, or any combination
• Absolute ceiling = when an airplane is unable to climb any further.
• Service Ceiling = refers to the altitude where a single-engine airplane is able to maintain a
maximum climb of only 100 ft. per minute.
• As altitude increases, the speed for best angle-of-climb increases, and the speed for best
rate-of-climb decrease. The point at which these two speeds meet is the absolute ceiling of
the airplane.
Cruise Performance:
1. Determine the TAS
2. Determine the expected fuel consumption
3. Determine the manifold pressure setting
• Maximum Level Flight Speed: when the force of total drag equals the force of full thrust;
• Maximum Range Speed: lets you travel the greatest distance for a given amount of fuel
• Maximum Endurance Speed: the speed and power setting which allows the airplane to
remain aloft for the longest possible time.
Weight & Balance
Weight and Balance Terms:
Center of Gravity—which is the imaginary point where the aircraft would balance if suspended.
CG Limits—are the forward and aft center of gravity location within which the aircraft must be operated at
a given weight. (Normal + Utility Category)
Reference Datum—is an imaginary vertical plane from which all horizontal distance are measured for
balance purposes.
Basic Empty Weight—includes the weight of the standard airplane, optional equipment, unusable fuel,
and full operating fluids including full engine oil.
Unusable Fuel—is the small amount of fuel in the tanks that cannot be safely used in flight or drained on
the ground.
Licensed Empty Weight—(used in older airplanes) is similar to basic empty weight except that it does
not include full engine oil. Only un-drainable oil.
Ramp Weight—airplane loaded for flight prior to engine start. (includes taxi and run-up)
Takeoff Weight—the airplane weights just before you release the brakes to begin the takeoff roll.
Landing Weight—is the takeoff weight minus the fuel burned en-route
Useful Load—includes the weight of the flight crew and usable fuel, as well as any passengers,
baggage, a cargo.
Payload—weight of only the passengers baggage and cargo.
Maximum Ramp Weight—is the maximum allowed for ground operations, such as taxiing.
Maximum Landing Weight—is based on the amount of stress the landing gear can handle.
Usable Fuel—the fuel available during flight.
Arm—the name of a distance from the datum.
Moment—weight x arm (expressed as a station). (total force of the weight)
• Few airplanes can handle a full cabin and full fuel tanks.
Principles of Weight and Balance
• The CG is the total moment divided by the total weight.
• To calculate aircraft moment, multiply the weight at a station by the arm. Positive CG values are aft of
datum, negative CG value are ahead of datum.
• Determine aircrafts weight and balance
Weight Shift Formula
• Use the weight shift formula to determine how for the center of gravity shifts when weight is added to
or removed from the aircraft:
• moment+ ∆moment
weight +∆weight
Effects of Operating at High Total Weight: more weight added means the wings need to generate more
To Far AFT
1. Less stable
2. May be impossible to recover from a stall or spin.
3. Fly Faster
To Far Forward
1. Requires a greater tail down force, this force is equivalent to adding weight.
2. Must fly a higher angle of attack to generate the lift to counteract the greater tail-down force, it is
closer to its stalling angle of attack for any given speed.
3. Increase stability
- 10 4.
The elevator may not have sufficient force to raise the nose for landing
Fly Slower
Flight Planning
Notices To Airmen (NOTAM's)
Notice to Airman Publication (NTAP) issued every 28 days
Time critical aeronautical information which could affect your decision to make a flight.
NOTAM (D) or distant
navigational facilities, public use airports, seaplane bases, and heliports listed in the
Airport/Facility Directory (A/FD).
Distributed automatically via Service A telecommunications so placed like FSS can have
access to them.
Remain Available via Service A for the duration of their validity or until published, then the
information is deleted from the system
Think of NOTAM (D)'s as things that could be "Deadly" to your planned flight
NOTAM (L) or local
taxiway closures, personnel and equipment near or crossing runways, airport beacon
outages , lighting aids that do not affect instrument approach criteria, such as VASI.
Distributed locally only, meaning the FSS only have information for their area. You must
specifically request information for other FSS areas generally enroute.
information that is regulatory - amendments to published IAP's - current aeronautical
charts. - temporary flight restrictions - congestion of air traffic Distributed automatically
via Service A telecommunications.
Remain Available via Service A for the duration of their validity or until published, then the
information is deleted from the system
FSS's are responsible for FDC Notams concerning conditions within 400 miles of their
facilities. FDC information concerning conditions that are more than 400 miles from the
FSS, or that is already published, must be requested by the pilot
Publications and Charts
Aeronautical Charts
Latitude and Longitude; in the U.S. latitude increases as you travel north, and longitude
increases as you travel west. Each tick mark on the sectional chart represents on minute
of latitude or longitude.
Revise every 6 months. must accompany A/FD published every 56 days
scale TAC 1"=3.43 miles sectional 1" = 6.86 miles
Airport/Facility Directory
• Reissued every 56 days
- 11 •
Items in the back of the book
Seaplane bases
FAA Phone
VOR Check
Chart Bullitin
Airport Diagrams
Look up and read the following entrys
Federal Aviation Regulation
• Part 43 Maintenance
• Part 61 Certification
• Part 91 Rules of the road
• NTSB 830 Accident reporting
Aeronautical Information Manual
• Revised twice a year
METAR (Aviation Routine Weather Report): METAR taken every hour & (SPECI) unscheduled.
• Winds reported are referenced to true north. 00000KT = Calm; if the wind direction varies 60 degrees
or more and speed is above six knots direction is separated by a V, if less than 6 knots “VRB”
• Peak gust are denoted by a number following a “G” after the wind direction and base speed.
• Visibility is reported in statue miles, “SM”
• Ceiling is defined as the height above the Earths surface of the lowest broken or overcast layer or
vertical visibility into an obscuration.
• Definition of VFR is visibility of at least 5 miles and ceilings of at least 3000 ft.
- 12 PIREP (Pilot Weather Reports): confirm information on height of bases and tops of cloud layers, in-flight
visibility, icing conditions, wind shear, and turbulence.
TAF (Terminal Aerodrome Forecast); your best sources for an estimate of what the weather will be in the
• Usually valid for a 24-hour period and are scheduled four times a day (0000Z, 0600Z, 1200Z, 1800Z)
• “BECMG” = a gradual change in the weather
• “FM” = a rapid change in the forecast is expected.
• “TEMPO” = expected to last less than an hour at a time
• “PROB” = used when a probability of occurrence is between 30 and 49 %
• “NSW’ means that no significant weather change is forecast to occur. Only appears in BECMG or
TEMPO groups.
• Cumulonimbus clouds are the only cloud type included. “CB”
• “WS” = low-level wind shear not associated with convective activity; WS015/30045kt = wind shear is
expected at 1,500 ft with wind from 300 at 45 kts.
FA (Aviation Area Forecast): conditions over a wide region (several states) and is a good source of
information for enroute weather. FA’s are issued three times a day.
• “OTLK” = the outlook for a specific period of time.
• “SIG CLDS AND WX” = is the section that contains a summary of cloudiness and weather significant
to flight operations broken down by states or other geographical areas.
• The HAZARDS section lists hazards to aviation, such as turbulence and icing, for selected areas.
1. FD (Winds & Temperatures Aloft Forecasts): wind direction in relation to true north, wind speed in
knots, and temperature in degrees Celsius, for nine levels between 3,000 and 39,000 ft.
• Temperatures are assumed negative above 24,000ft
• FD does not include levels within 1,500 ft of the stations elevation, and temperatures are not forecast
for the 3,000-foot level or for a level within 2,500 ft. of the stations elevation.
• Winds of 100 to 199 kts have 50 added to the direction.
• “9900” = light & variable and less than 5 kts.
AIRMETS (Airmen’s Meteorological Information): issued every 6 hours w/ amendments as necessary.
Moderate icing, turbulence, sustained winds of 30 kts or more at the surface, ceilings less than 1,000 ft
and/or visibility less than 3 miles affecting over 50 percent of an area at any one time, and extensive
mountain obscurement.
Sierra: for IFR conditions and mountain obscuration.
Tango: for turbulence, strong surface winds, and low-level wind shear.
Zulu: for icing for freezing levels.
• After the first issuance of the day, AIRMETs are numbered sequentially.
SIGMET (WSs): issued for hazardous weather (other than convective activity) to all aircraft.
• Sever icing, sever or extreme turbulence, duststorms, sandstorms, volcanic eruption and volcanic ash
lowering visibility to less than three miles.
• Use alphanumeric designators November through Yankee
Convective SIGMET (WSTs): always imply sever or greater turbulence, sever icing, and low-level wind
• Tornadoes, lines of thunderstorms, thunderstorms over a wide area, embedded thunderstorms, hail
greater than or equal to 3/4 inch in diameter, and/or wind gust to 50 knots or greater.
• Issued for the eastern (E) central ( C), and western (W) and are numbered sequentially for each area
(01-99) each day. Bulletins are issued 55 minutes past each hour and valid for 2 hours from the time
of issuance or until it is superseded by the next hourly issuance.
Surface Analysis Chart: shows weather conditions as of the valid time shown on the chart
• You can get a picture of atmospheric pressure patterns at the earths surface.
• Transmitted every three hours
• Station Models—round station symbols depict stations where observations are taken by human
observers and square symbols indicate automated sites.
Weather Depiction Chart: chart is derived from aviation routine weather reports (METARs)
• Transmitted every 3 hours, and is valid at the time of the plotted data.
• Pressure patterns and wind information are not provided (areas of adverse weather)
• Station Models—depicted as circles; a bracket ( ] ) to the right indicates an automated station.
Radar Summary Chart (SDs) : data depicts the location, size, shape, intensity, and intensity trend and
direction of movement. Also shows echo heights of the tops and bases of precipitation areas.
• Produced 35 minutes past each hour. Conditions that existed at the valid time.
• Only detects precipitation and does not detect all cloud formations.
Satellite Weather Pictures: two types, Visible and Infrared (IR)
• Both are transmitted every 30 minutes except for nighttime when visible photo are n/a.
• Visible pictures are used to determine the presence of clouds, the shape and texture.
• IR photos depict the heat radiation emitted by the cloud tops and earth’s surface.
U.S. Low-Level Significant Weather Prog Chart: helps you avoid areas of low visibility and ceilings as
well as where turbulence and icing may exist.
• Valid from the surface up to the 400-millibar pressure level (24,000 ft)
• Consists of four panels, is issued at 0000Z, 0600Z, 1200Z, 1800Z; the two lower panels are 12 and
24 hour forecasts of surface weather conditions , the two upper panels are 12 and 24 hour forecasts
of weather between the surface and 24,000 ft. (surface Prog Panels)
• The upper panels show areas of non-convective turbulence and freezing levels as well as IFR and
Marginal VFR (MVFR) weather
• The lower panels show fronts and pressure centers, and forecast precipitation and thunderstorms.
Severe Weather Outlook Chart: is a 48-hour forecast of thunderstorm activity
• Issued every morning at about 0800Z
• Left panel depicts the outlook for general and severe thunderstorm activity for the first 24-hours
• Right panel depicts a forecast for the next day beginning at 1200Z
Forecast Winds and Temperatures Aloft Chart:
• 12-hour forecast valid at 0000Z and 1200Z daily.
• Flight Service Station (FSS), National Weather Service (NWS), DUATS, and internet.
Flight Service Stations (FSS):
• Weather briefings; Standard, Abbreviated, Outlook, and Inflight
• 122.2; Airport Advisory/Information (Local Airport Advisory LLA) 123.6;
In-Flight Weather Sources:
• Enroute Flight Advisory Service (EFAS) “Flight Watch” 122.0 above 5,000 ft AGL and below
18,000 from 6 A.M to 10 P.M.
• Transcribed Weather Broadcast (TWEB): including winds aloft and route forecast for a crosscountry flight.
• Hazardous In-Flight Weather Advisory Service (HIWAS): such as AIRMETs, SIGMETs,
Convective SIGMETs, and urgent PIREP. When a HIWAS is updated, ARTCC and terminal facilities
will broadcast an alert on all but emergency frequencies.
• Automated Weather Observing System (AWOS): was the first widely installed automated weather
- 14 data.
AWOS –A = only reports altimeter setting
AWOS-1 = also measures and reports wind speed, direction and gust, temperature, and
3. AWOS-2 = everything in AWOS-1 plus, visibility
4. AWOS-3 = everything in AWOS-2 plus, cloud and ceiling data.
Automated Surface Observation System (ASOS): is the primary surface weather observing
5. Measures everything in AWOS-3 as well as variable cloud height, variable visibility, rapid
pressure changes, precipitation type, intensity, accumulation, and beginning and ending
Atmosphere: 78% nitrogen 21% oxygen 1% other
Circulation—refers to the movement of air relative to the earths surface.
Temperature—every physical process of weather is accompanied by, or is the result of heat
Atmospheric Pressure—Isobars reveals pressure gradient
• Isobars spread widely apart, the gradient is considered weak; results in lighter winds v/v
1. High = center of high pressure surrounded on all sides by lower pressure
2. Low = an area of low pressure surrounded on all sides by higher pressure
3. Ridge = elongated area of high pressure
4. Trough = elongated area of low pressure
5. Col = can designate either a neutral area between two highs or two lows.
• Airflow Rotational patterns: High pressure areas flow downward clockwise and outward; low
pressure areas flow inward, upward and counterclockwise, roughly parallel to the isobars
• Unequal heating of the Earth’s surface causes variations in altimeter settings between weather
reporting points.
• Coriolis force: High always wants to go to low pressure; however, as soon as the air begins to move,
it is deflected by a phenomenon know as Coriolis force deviates the air to the right.
• Frictional Force: Below 2000 ft AGL friction caused by the earths surface slow the moving air and
reduces Coriolis force; pressure gradient force is now greater than Coriolis force and wind is diverted
from its path along the isobars toward the lower pressure.
Local Wind Patterns:
• Sea Breeze—since land surfaces warm or cool more rapidly than water surface, land is usually
warmer than water during the day; wind blows from cool water to warmer land.
• Land Breeze—at night, land cools faster than water and wind blows from the cooler land to the
warmer water
• Valley Breeze—as mountain slopes are warmed by the sun during the day, the adjacent air also is
heated, since heated air is less dense than the air at the same altitude over the valley an upslope flow
is created.
• Mountain Breeze—at night, the high terrain cools off and eventually becomes cooler than air over
the valley.
Atmospheric Stability: is the atmosphere’s resistance to vertical motion
- 15 -
Air that moves upward expands due to lower atmospheric pressure. When air moves downward, it is
compressed by the increased pressure at lower altitudes.
• Stability of the air can be measured by its actual lapse rate
• A characteristic of stable air is the presence of stratiform clouds.
• Characteristics of unstable air include turbulence and good surface visibility.
• The average lapse rate is 2 C (3.5 F) per 1,000 ft.
• Temperature Inversions: When temperature increases with altitude. (Temperature usually
decreases with an increase in altitude.)
1. The most frequent type of ground or surface-based temperature inversion is that which is
produced by terrestrial radiation on a clear, relatively still night.
2. The weather conditions that can be expected beneath a low-level temperature inversion layer
when the relative humidity is high are smooth air, poor visibility, fog, haze or low clouds.
3. A temperature inversion is associated with a stable layer of air.
Processes by which moisture is added to unsaturated air.
• Change of State: Water is present in the atmosphere in three states: Solid, Liquid, and Gas.
1. Evaporation = changing of liquid water to invisible water vapor (latent heat of evaporation)
2. Condensation = water vapor changes to a liquid (latent heat of condensation, important in cloud
3. Sublimation = changing of ice directly to water vapor
4. Deposition = water vapor to ice
5. Melting + Freezing
Humidity: refers to moisture in the air.
If the air is very moist, poor, or even severe weather can occur; if the air is dry, the weather usually
will be good.
• Relative Humidity, is the actual amount of moisture in the air compared to the total amount that could
potentially be present.; the amount of potential moisture depends on air temperature.
• Dewpoint: is the temperature to which the air must be cooled in order to become saturated.
• Frost:
1. If the temperature of the collecting surface is at or below the dewpoint of the adjacent air, and the
dewpoint is below freezing, frost will form.
2. Frost on the wings affects takeoff performance by disrupting the smooth flow of air over the airfoil,
adversely affecting its lifting capacity. Frost may prevent the airplane from becoming airborne at
normal takeoff speed. Frost is considered a hazard to flight for this reason.
• Clouds often form at altitudes where temp. and dewpoint converge. (4.5 f/ 2.5 C per 1,000 ft)
• Clouds, fog or dew will always form when water vapor condenses.
• Condensation Nuclei—can be dust, salt from evaporating sea spray or products of combustion.
• Cloud Types: clouds are divided into four families according to their height range.
• Low = surface to 6,500 AGL.
Middle = 6,500 to 20,000 (alto)
• High = above 20,000 AGL (cirrus)
• Clouds w/Vertical Development (cumulus, towering cumulus, cumulonimbus); associated
turbulence can be expected when an unstable air-mass is forced upward.
• Nimbus = denotes a rain cloud
• Stratus = form when moist, stable air flows upslope.
Fog: if the temp./dewpoint spread is small and decreasing, and the temperature is above freezing, fog or
low clouds are likely to develop.
• Radiation fog—forms as warm, moist air lies over flatland areas on clear, calm nights.
• Advection fog—forms when a warm air mass moves inland from the coast in winter.
- 16 -
upslope fog—when moist stable air is forced up a sloping land mass.
Steam fog—occurs as cold dry air moves over warmer water.
Precipitation Induces fog—when warm rain or drizzle falls through cooler air near the surface.
Precipitation: defined as any form of particles, whether liquid or solid, that fall from the atmosphere.
1. Snowflakes, raindrops, drizzle, ice pellets, hail, or virga.
2. The presence of ice pellets at the surface is evidence that there is a temperature inversion with
freezing rain at a higher altitude.
• Airmasses: is a large body of air with fairly uniform temperature and moisture content. classified
according to the regions where they originate. (stable or unstable)
• Fronts: the boundary between two different Air-masses Cold front; warm front; stationary front;
occluded front.
1. An easy way to determine the cross of a front is a change in temperature.
2. Change in temperature is an obvious indication of frontal passage.
3. One weather phenomenon which will always occur when flying across a front is a change in
the wind direction.
Thunderstorms: cumulonimbus clouds have the greatest turbulence.
1. 3 conditions must be present: 1. lifting action 2. unstable 3. moist air
2. squall line A non-frontal, narrow band of active thunderstorms that often develops ahead of a
cold front.
3. Life Cycle: 1. cumulus 2. mature 3. dissipating
4. If there is thunderstorm activity in the vicinity of an airport at which you plan to land, you can
expect to encounter wind-shear turbulence during the landing approach. ;
5. lighting is always associated with thunderstorm
Turbulence: upon encountering severe turbulence, the pilot should attempt to maintain a level flight
Wake Turbulence: wingtip vortices are created only when an aircraft is developing lift.
• Greatest vortex strength occurs from aircraft heavy, clean and slow.
• Taking off or landing
• The wind condition that requires maximum caution on landings is a light, quartering tailwind.
Mechanical Turbulence: when buildings or rough terrain interfere with normal wind flow.
Convective Turbulence: which is also referred to as thermal turbulence. (indicated by towering
Mountain Wave Turbulence: Standing lenticular cloud, rotor cloud.
Wind Shear: is a sudden, drastic shift in wind speed and/or direction that may occur at any altitude in a
vertical or horizontal plane.
• May be expected in areas of low-level temperature inversion,
• frontal zones and clear air turbulence, and
• whenever the wind speed at 2000 to 4000 ft above the surface is at least 25 knots.
Icing: must have visible moisture and freezing temp. two types; Structural and Induction Icing
• Rime
Clear Ice
Mixture of the two.
Flight Procedures & Technique
Taxiing in Wind: PHAK
• quartering tailwind, Dive away.( the windy side aileron should be down. Elevator
• headwind quartering, Steer into ( the windy side aileron should be up. Elevator neutral
• A quartering tailwind is the most critical wind condition to a tricycle-gear, high-wing
- 17 -
Weather Minimums surface areas. 91.155
• 1,000 ft ceiling. and ground visibility at least 3 statue miles.
• VFR Cloud Clearance/ vis requirements §91.155
• 3miles 21/5 rule:
• 3miles vis 2,000 ft horizontal, 1,000 ft above, 500 ft below,
• 5 exceptions:
• Class B- 3miles vis COC;
• Class G day < 1,200 agl 1 mile Clear of Clouds,
• Class G day >1200 agl <10,000 msl-1mile vis 2000 1000/500 ;
• Anywhere (E&G)>10,000 ft msl- 5miles vis 1 mile horizontal 1000 ft above and
• Class G Night traffic pattern 1mile vis Clear of clouds
Special VFR Weather Minimums 91.157; operations may only be conducted—
• With an ATC Clearance; 1sm/ Clear or clouds
• Day only unless; pilot and aircraft is IFR
Special Use Airspace 3-4-1,2,3,4,5,6,7:
• Prohibited Areas; Restricted Areas; Warning Areas; Military Operations Areas; Alert Areas;
Controlled Firing Areas
Other Airspace Areas 3-5-1,2,3,4,5,6,7;
• Airport Advisory/Information; Military Training Routes; Temporary Flight Restrictions;
Parachute Jump Aircraft Operations; Published VFR Routes; Terminal Radar Service Area;
National Security Areas.
• Military Training Routes; when route is a three digit number, the route contains one or more
sections above 1500 ft AGL
• IR training routes aircraft may fly at speeds in excess of 250 knots.
Runway Markings 2-3-6:
• Runway numbers correspond to the magnetic direction and are rounded to the nearest
10 degrees, with the last zero dropped out.
• Displaced threshold may be used for taxi and takeoff.
• A closed runway is marked with X’s painted on its surface at each end.
• Taxiway hold lines.
Segmented Circles: traffic pattern indicators on the segmented circle show the base to final
to various runways on the airport.
• The wind cone or sock in the center gives current wind direction
• Tetrahedron, wind “T”
- 18 -
White and Green identifies a lighted land airport
Yellow and White identifies a sea base airport
Green, Yellow, and White identifies a heiloport
Green and dual-peaked white identifies a military airfield.
When an airports beacon is on during the daytime, it usually means that the weather is
below basic VFR minimums (ceiling less than 1000 ft and/or visibility is less than 3 miles.
Pilot-Controlled Lighting2- 1-7
• 7 clicks of the microphone in 5 seconds will set the lights on high intensity
• 5 is medium, 3 is low; lights will stay on for 15 minutes.
Taxiway lights2-1-9
• Are blue with green centerline lights.
Visual Glide-slope indicators2-1-2
• VASI provides safe obstruction clearance within plus or minus 10 degrees of the
extended runway centerline and to 4 NM from the runway threshold.
• PAPI Precision Approach Path Indicator (); Tri-color; Pulsating
• Pilot should fly at or above the glide path when approaching an airport with a VASI.
Transponder Operations: 91.215 4-1-19 5-6-1
• Tested and inspected within at least the preceding 24 calendar months. 91.413
• Transponder codes;
• VFR-1200,
• Emer- 7700, Lost
• Com-7600
• Hijack-7500
• Mode C Required when operating;
• Class B
• 30 nm from class B
• class C
• above class B,C and, 10,000 ft MSL
Emergency Locator Transmitter (ELT)
• 121.5 / testing only the first 5 minutes after the hour and for no longer than 3 audible
• Airborne tests are not allowed
• Must be tested and maintained every 12 months
• Replaced, or recharged if the battery is rechargeable after one-half of the battery’s
useful life, or when has been in use for more than one cumulative hour.
- 19 -
VFR Radar Services: traffic information is given with respect to ground track.
• To use VHF/DH facilities for assistance in locating an aircrafts position, the aircraft must
have a VHF transmitter and receiver. (DF Steer) 1-1-17
Terminal VFR Radar Services 4-1-17:
• Basic radar service for VFR aircraft provides traffic advisories and limited vectoring on a
workload permitting basis.
• Automatic Terminal Information Service (ATIS) 4-1-13
• A continuous broadcast of recorded information concerning data in selected high-activity
terminal areas.
• Flight Service Stations (FSS)4-1-3: on call up, refer to them as “Jonesboro radio”
• weather briefings,
• enroute communication,
• VFR search & rescue services, flight plans.
• VHF direction finder (VHF/DF) (DF Steer)1-1-17; FSS may be able to locate your
aircraft, the only equipment required in the aircraft is an operable VHF transmitter and
receiver. (as you key your mic the direction finding equipment homes in on your radio
signal). Towers and FSS with DF services are listed in the A/FD.
• Radio Procedures:
• Using numbers
• Phonetic Alphabet 4-2-7
• The range of VHF transmissions is limited to line of sight.
• Common Traffic Advisory 4-1-9(b Frequency (CTAF)
• Unicom 4-1-9(h
• Airport Advisory Areas 4-1-9(d
• Make your initial call when you are 10 miles from the airport.
• Clearance Delivery—when the ATIS message so indicates, you should contact
clearance delivery prior to taxiing.
• Ground—progressive taxi
• Control Tower—clearance and when to leave the frequency.
• Coordinated Universal Time (UTC): to convert the local departure or arrival time to UTC,
add the hours of difference from the number on the time conversion table.
• Eastern Standard Time to UTC = adding 5 hours
• Central Standard Time to UTC = adding 6 hours
• Mountain Standard Time to UTC = adding 7 hours
• Pacific Standard Time to UTC = adding 8 hours
• Lost Communication Procedures
• Remain outside or above the airspace until you have determined the direction & flow of
traffic, then join the pattern and look for light signals. Rock your wings or blink your
landing light for acknowledgement.
ATC light signals
Steady Green
Cleared for takeoff.
Cleared to land.
- 20 Flashing Green
Steady Red
Flashing Red
Flashing White
Red and Green
Cleared to taxi
Taxi clear of runway
Return to start
Extreme caution
Position for landing
Give way and circle.
Airport unsafe—do not land.
Extreme caution
Emergency Procedures:
• Frequency 121.5; Transponder Codes 7700; 7600; 7500
• 5 C’s : Climb; Communicate; Confess; Comply and Conserve
Advisory Circulars (AC’s)
• FAA has developed a systematic means of providing pilots with non-regulatory
guidance and information in a variety of subject areas.
Pilotage: navigating by visual landmarks.
Dead Reckoning: involves calculating distance, speed, time, and direction as a means of
navigation from your departure to your destination.
• Always use charts that are current.
1. To find your magnetic course, you must first find the true course, using a plotter. Then, find
the nearest isogonic line to the course. Next, add or subtract the variation. West is Best and
East is Least.
2. To find the magnetic heading, you must first determine the true heading by correcting the
true course for winds.
• Selecting Checkpoints, the best checkpoints are those that cannot be confused with
anything else.
• The number of checkpoints needed for a particular flight is up to you. The first check point
should be close enough to be easy to locate after takeoff, but far enough that you are clear
of the airport traffic pattern.
• Fold the chart so that only one or two panels are showing and align it with the direction of
VFR Flight Plan: is simply a request that the FSS initiate a search for you if they have not
heard from you by a certain time
• FAA does not require pilots of VFR aircraft to file flight plans
• You must close within 30 minutes after your stated ETA
• FSS will keep you flight plan on file for up to 1 hour after your departure time
Lost Procedures
• 5 C’s; Climb; Communicate; Confess; Comply; Conserve
• DF “steer”
• Radio & GPS Navigation
• VOR Navigation (Very High Frequency Omnidirectional Range)
• 1000-14,500 40 nm
- 21 •
14,500-18,000 100 nm
18,000-45,000 130 nm
45,000-60,000 100 nm
• Reception is strictly line of sight
• Basic VOR’s provide course guidance; VOR/DME and VORTAC also provide
distance information to aircraft equipped with distance measuring equipment
• VOR stations transmit radio beams, or Radials, outward in every direction.
Compass Rose.
• Victor Airways are class E starting at 1200 ft AGL, 8 miles wide.
• 3 classes of VOR according to their normal reception and altitude range.
1. Terminal VOR = is normally located on an airport
2. Low Altitude
3. High Altitude
Identifying A station
• VOR’s Morse code identifier or voice identification
• If the station is down for maintenance, it may transmit a T-E-S-T signal or no identifier.
VOR Indications
• TO and FROM (OBS and CDI)
• Each dot on the scale representing a course deviation of two degrees.
Reverse Sensing
• A VOR airborne system does not perceive your aircraft’s heading: it only senses your
direction from the station and gives the same instrument indications regardless of
which way the nose of the aircraft is pointing.
• For correct sensing, you must set the VOR indicator so it generally agrees with your
intended course.
Off Indications
• The area over the station at which the TO-FROM indicator changes is called the
Cone of Confusion, or no signal area.
• Area of ambiguity -When the aircraft is abeam the station on the selected course.
• You maintain the selected course by keeping the CDI centered
Intercepting a Course
• Flying a radial inbound or outbound
Cross checking your Position
• By using more than one VOR
Checking VOR Accuracy
• The FAA requires VOR equipment to meet certain criteria if the system is being used
for IFR navigation.
• VOR Checkpoints
• VOR Test Facilities (VOTs)
NDB (non-directional radio beacons)
• ADF Navigation (automatic direction finder)
• Night Effect: causes fluctuations
- 22 -
Thunderstorm effect: causes the needle to point to lighting flashes
Precipitation Static: causes the needle to wander
Terrain effect: mountains reflect the radio waves and cause erroneous bearing
• Shoreline effect: degrade the accuracy of the ADF
GPS Navigation (Global Positioning System)
• 24 satellites make up the GPS system, the minimum of 5 is always observable anywhere on
earth, and a minimum of 4 is required to yield a three dimensional position.
Aero Medical Principles
Vision In Flight:
• Retina—contains many photosensitive cells called cones and rods which are connected to
the optic nerve.
• Cones—function well in bright light and are sensitive to colors
• Rods—are 10,000 times more sensitive to light than the cones, and are much of your
peripheral vision.
Night Vision
• Most effective way to look for traffic during night flight is to scan slowly, to permit offcenter viewing. Look to the side of an object for the clearest focus.
• A steady red light and a flashing red light ahead and at the same altitude. The other
aircraft is crossing to the left.
• To adapt the eyes for night flying, avoid bright white lights for at least 30 minutes
before the flight
• Position light from SS to SR
Visual Illusions
• Autokinesis—if you stare at a single point more than a few seconds the light may
appear to move.
• False Horizon—occurs when the natural horizon is obscured or not readily
• Flicker Vertigo—can occur when looking through a slow-moving propeller toward
the sun or when the sun is behind you, reflecting off the propeller.
Landing Illusions
• Haze—can cause you to fly a low approach
• Featureless Terrain—can cause you to fly a lower-than-normal approach
• Fog—creates the illusion of pitching up which can cause you to steepen your
Disorientation: is an incorrect mental image of your position, attitude, or movement in relation
to what is actually happening to your aircraft.
• Input from three primary sources: Vision, Vestibular, and Kinesthetic Sense.
Spatial Disorientation: is a conflict between the information relayed by your central
vision scanning the instruments, and your peripheral vision.
• Pilots are more subject to spatial disorientation if body signals are used to interpret
flight attitude.
- 23 -
• The best way to overcome the effect is to rely on the aircraft instrument indications.
Hypoxia: occurs when the tissues in the body do not receive enough oxygen.
• Hypoxic Hypoxia—inadequate supply or pressure of oxygen (going to high
• Hypemic Hypoxia—inability of the blood to carry oxygen (Carbon Monoxide)
• Stagnant Hypoxia—inadequate circulation of oxygen (excessive G forces)
• Histotoxic Hypoxia—inability of the cells to effectively use oxygen (by alcohol or
Supplemental Oxygen: FAR requirements
• 12,500—14,000 ft MSL = Flight crew must use O2 after 30 minutes
• 14,000—15,000 ft MSL = Flight crew must use O2
• 15,000—Above = Flight crew must use O2 and all occupants must be provided with O2
Hyperventilation: occurs with excessive loss of carbon dioxide.
• You need to slow the breathing rate, breathing into a bag or talking aloud.
Aeronautical Decision Making
Decision-Making Process: involves an evaluation of each risk elements.
• Pilot—your fitness, currency, and flight experience.
• Aircraft—performance, limitations, equipment, and airworthiness
• Environment—Weather, airport conditions, services
• Operation—the purpose of the flight
• Situation—maintain awareness
• One of the most important decisions that you will make as pilot in command is the go/no-go
decision. Evaluating each of these risk elements can help you decide whether a flight
should be conducted or continued.
DECIDE: is used by the FAA to describe the basic steps in the decision-making process
• Detect the fact that a change has occurred
• Estimate the need to counter or react to the change
• Choose a desirable outcome for the success of the flight
• Identify actions which could successfully control the change
• Do the necessary action to adapt to the change
• Evaluate the effect of the action
Self Assessment: (I’m Safe, Checklist)
• Illness
• Medication
• Stress
• Alcohol
• Fatigue
• Eating
Hazardous Attitudes
Macho …………………………………………………. Taking Chances is foolish
Anti-Authority ………………………………………… Follow the rules, they are usually right
Invulnerability …………………………………………. It could happen to me
- 24 Impulsivity ……………………………………………... Not so fast. Think first
Resignation……………………………………………... I’m not helpless. I can make a difference
FLIGHT ENVIRONMENT and Rules of the Road
VFR Cruising Altitudes
• On an easterly course (0 to 179) above 3,000 ft AGL, VFR cruising altitude are odd
thousands plus 500 ft.
• On a westerly course (180 to 359), VFR cruising altitudes are even thousand plus 500 ft.
VFR Fuel Requirements
• At night, plan for enough fuel, considering wind and forecast weather conditions, to fly to
the first point of intended landing, and, assuming normal cruising speed, 45 min. beyond
that point.
• At day, plan for enough fuel, considering wind and forecast weather conditions, to fly to
the first point of intended landing, and, assuming normal cruising speed, 30 min. beyond
that point.
Visual Scanning AIM 8-1-6c. : the most effective method of scanning for other aircraft for
collision avoidance during daylight hours is to use a series of short, regularly spaced eye
movements to search each 10-degree section.
• An aircraft on a collision course with your aircraft will show little relative movement.
• Haze reduces visibility, making objects appear to be farther away than they really are.
• When climbing or descending VFR along an airway, execute gentle banks left and right
for continuous scanning of the airspace.
• Prior to beginning each maneuver, make clearing turns.
Right-Of-Way:FAR 91.113 an aircraft in distress has right-of-way over all other aircraft.
• When two aircraft are converging, the aircraft on the right has right-of-way.
• The least maneuverable aircraft has the right-of-way; a glider has right-of-way over an
airship, airplane or rotorcraft.
• An aircraft that is towing or refueling another has the right-of-way over other enginedriven aircraft.
• When aircraft are approaching head-on, each shall give way to the right.
• When two or more aircraft are approaching the airport with the intention of landing, the
one at the lower altitude has the right-of-way.
Minimum Safe Altitudes §91.119
• Anywhere:, altitude to allow for an emergency landing in the event of an engine failure,
without hazard to people or property on the surface. except for takeoff or landing
• Over congested areas; 1,000 ft above the highest obstacle within 2,000 ft horizontal of
the aircraft.
• Over other than congested areas; 500 ft above the surface, except over open water
or sparsely populated areas. In those cases, the aircraft may not be operated closer than
500 feet to any person, vessel, vehicle, or structure.
Federal Aviation Regulations
Pilot-In-Command Responsibility
- 25 1. Is directly responsible for, and is the final authority as to, the operation of that aircraft.
2. In an in-flight emergency requiring immediate action, the pilot in command may deviate from
any rule of this part to the extent required to meet that emergency.
Preflight Inspection:
• Each pilot in command shall, before beginning a flight, become familiar with all available
information concerning that flight.
• Preflight action, as required for all flight away from the vicinity of an airport, shall include an
alternate course of action if the flight cannot be completed as planned.
• In addition to the other preflight actions for a VFR flight away from the vicinity of the
departure airport, regulations specifically require the pilot in command to determine runway
lengths at airports of intended use and the aircraft’s takeoff and landing distance data.
• Remains valid as long as the aircraft is maintained and operated as required by FAR.
• The owner or operator of an aircraft is responsible for ensuring that an aircraft is maintained
in an airworthy condition.
• The definition of nighttime is the time between the end of evening civil twilight and the
beginning of morning civil twilight.
• VA, VSO (landing configuration), VS1 (clean configuration), VFE, VLE, VNO, VNE, VX, VY
Preventive Maintenance
• Includes such items as servicing landing gear wheel bearing and replenishing hydraulic
Pilot Documents
• While operating an aircraft as pilot in command,
• medical certificate
• pilot certificate
• Photo ID in your personal possession.
• Each person who holds a pilot certificate or a medical certificate shall present it for
inspection upon the request of the Administrator, the National Transportation Safety
Board, or any federal, state, or local law enforcement officer.
Medical Certificates
• 1st class = ATP = 6 months
• 2nd class = commercial = 12 months
• 3rd class = private = 12 months if over 40 hours; 36 months if under 40 hours.
Type Ratings
• The pilot in command is required to hold a type rating for the operation of aircraft having a
gross weight or more than 12,500 pounds.
High Performance Aircraft
• Is an airplane with more than 200 horsepower.
• Required to have a one time endorsement from a instructor.
Complex Aircraft
• Retractable landing gear, flaps and a controllable propeller
• Required to have a one time endorsement from a instructor.
Recency of Flight Experience
• Flight review every 24 months
- 26 To carry passengers, 3 takeoffs and landings in an aircraft of the same category and class,
and if a type is required, of the same type, within the preceding 90 days.
At night, landing to full stops and 1 hour after sunset and 1 hour before sunrise.
In a tailwheel airplane, landings must be to a full stop.
Pilots Log books 61-51
FAR Part 61 Eligibility Requirements & Limitations
Private Pilot Eligibility Requirements: 61.103
Be at least 17 years of age
Be able to read, speak, write, and understand the English Language.
Receive the required ground and flight training and log book endorsements
Pass the required knowledge test on aeronautical areas in 61.105
Meet the aeronautical experience requirements in 61.109
Pass a practical test on the areas of operation listed in 61.107
Must hold at least a current 3rd class medical 61.23(a)(3)(i)
Endorsements Needed
Aeronautical knowledge areas 61.35(a)(1), 61.103(b), 61.105
Flight proficiency and test preparation 61.103(f) 61.107
Private Pilot Limitations 61.113
No person who holds a private pilot certificate may act as pilot in command of an aircraft that
is carrying passengers or property for compensation or hire.
A private pilot may, for compensation or hire, act as pilot in command of an aircraft in
connection with any business or employment if:
1. The flight is only incidental to that business or employment; and
2. The aircraft does not carry passengers or property for compensation or hire.
A private pilot may not pay less than the pro rata share of the operating expenses of a flight
with passengers, provided the expenses involve only fuel, oil, airport expenditures, or rental
Flight Review 61.56
A flight review consists of a minimum of 1 hour of flight training and 1 hour of ground training
No person may act as pilot in command of an aircraft unless, since the beginning of the 24th
calendar month before the month in which that pilot acts as pilot in command has
accomplished a flight review and received the proper logbook endorsements.
To fly passengers, the pilot in command must have made 3 takeoffs and landing within 90
- 27 day in the same make and model aircraft. To fly passengers at night, the landings must be
to full stop beginning 1 hour after sunset and ending 1 hour before sunset.
Medical 61.23 8-1-1
• First Class—good for 6 months and needed for ATP
• Second Class—good for 1 year
• Third Class—good for 2 year if over 40 years of age and 3 years if under.
Change of Address
• The pilot is entitled to exercise the privileges of the pilot certificate for a period of only 30
days after the date of the move.
Glider Towing
• A certificated pilot may not act as pilot in command of an aircraft towing a glider unless there
is entered in the pilot’s logbook a minimum of 100 hours of pilot flight time in powered
• To act as pilot in command of an aircraft towing a glider, a person is required to have made
within the preceding 12 months at least three actual or simulated glider tows while
accompanied by a qualified pilot.
Private Pilot Limitations
• May share the pro rata share of the operating expenses of the flight with a passenger.
• May act as pilot in command of an aircraft used in a passenger-carrying airlift sponsored by
a charitable organization, and for which the passengers make a donation to the
• Inspected every 12 months; replace or recharged if has been in use more than 1 cumulative
hour, or if 50% of the useful life of the battery expires.
• Can listen on 121.5 @ 5 minutes past the hour.
Acrobatic Flight
• Acrobatic flight is prohibited over congested area of a city, town or settlement.
• Must be 1500 ft AGL and Visibility at least 3 miles
• Must be packed by a certificated and appropriately rated parachute rigger within the
preceding 120 days.
• With certain exceptions, each occupant must wear an approved parachute when
intentionally pitching the nose up or down more than 30 degrees or exceeding 60 degrees of
• Annual; 100 hour (may be flown beyond 100 hours if it is being transported to a place where
service can be completed); Airworthiness Directives; MEL’s; and Special Flight Permits.
• Inspected every 24 months
• Need one, within 4 nm of class C and D, over class C, over 10,000 ft; mode C veil; in class
B and above; and ADIZ.
NTSB 830
• If an aircraft is involved in an accident which results in substantial damage to the aircraft, the
nearest NTSB field office should be notified immediately
• Aircraft wreckage may be moved prior to the time the NTSB takes custody, but only to
- 28 protect the wreckage from further damage.
• The owner of an aircraft has been involved in an accident is required to file an accident
report within 10 days.
• A flight control system malfunction or failure, and an in flight fire are two incidents that
require immediate notification to the nearest NTSB field office.
• An overdue aircraft that is believed to be involved in an accident must be immediately
reported to the nearest NTSB field office.
• The operator of an aircraft that has been involved in an incident is required to submit a
report to the nearest NTSB field office when requested.
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