The Word Writing CAFÉ: Assessing student writing for complexity

The Word Writing CAFÉ: Assessing student writing for complexity
D O R OT H Y J. L E A L
The Word Writing CAFÉ:
Assessing student writing for complexity,
accuracy, and fluency
The Word Writing CAFÉ is a new assessment
tool designed for teachers to objectively
evaluate students’ word-writing ability for
fluency, accuracy, and complexity.
E
ffective teachers want to make a difference in
students’ reading, writing, and learning.
Teachers who use assessments to provide
feedback give their students opportunities to
demonstrate learning improvement (Guskey, 2003).
There are many types of writing assessments that
are subjective and individual oriented. However, objective, group-oriented writing tests for today’s
classrooms are lacking. Rubrics for writing, an example of a subjective evaluation, typically assess
ideas, content, vocabulary, word choice, organization, and other features of writing. There are grouporiented tests that evaluate writing mechanics for
spelling, punctuation, and grammar usage.
However, assessing student growth in writing fluency, accuracy, and complexity is difficult for teachers to do in a whole-class setting. The Word Writing
CAFÉ (Complexity, Accuracy, and Fluency
Evaluation) demonstrates one way teachers can use
assessment feedback to understand and improve
student word writing through scoring and tracking
student progress throughout the school year.
Fluency and accuracy are tied to comprehension of text and successful reading, as well as to the
motivation to write. Rasinski noted that “Reading
fluency is the ability to read quickly and accurately, with appropriate and meaningful expression”
(2003, p. 19). It follows that one aspect of writing
fluency is characterized by the ability to write ac-
340
curately as well as quickly. In addition, evaluating
the complexity of student writing provides a view
of the level of difficult words that students feel
comfortable writing.
Teachers can benefit from being able to examine their students’ fluency, accuracy, and complexity in word writing. While there is one well-used
assessment of vocabulary knowledge (Clay, 1993),
it is only suitable for young children and is only administered to one student at a time. Currently there
is no objective assessment of students’ word-writing
skills for all grade levels that can be given to a
whole class at one time, nor any assessment tool
that examines the number of words written along
with their accuracy and complexity. Lacking such a
tool, the Word Writing CAFÉ was created.
The Word Writing CAFÉ is an objective, grouporiented tool that is easy to administer. It assesses
three important areas: (1) student fluency in writing
words, (2) student accuracy in writing words, and (3)
student written production of complex words. For
the CAFÉ, the term word writing differs from writing in that word writing occurs when letters are put
together to create a word, while writing in general
occurs when words are used to express thoughts
and ideas in sentences and paragraphs. Hence the
CAFÉ is not designed to assess students’ sentence-,
paragraph-, or text-writing ability.
There are many benefits to teachers who examine samples of a student’s word encoding with
the CAFÉ. First, when national benchmarks are
complete, it will provide teachers the ability to see
how their students compare to national averages.
Second, teachers can presently use the CAFÉ to assess student progress. One teacher helping to pilot
the CAFÉ told me that it was helpful to give the
© 2005 International Reading Association (pp. 340–350) doi:10.1598/RT.59.4.4
CAFÉ at the beginning and end of the year because
it allowed her to see what words students felt safe
writing coming into her classroom and how that
changed over the year. It also revealed the students’
interests, strengths, and weaknesses. Many of the
teachers mentioned how they used the information
from the CAFÉ as a gauge for measuring student
growth over the course of the year, making assessments in both fall and spring. They also reported
that it helped them plan instruction on specific areas of difficulty, such as consonant blends, digraphs, vowel sounds, and word endings. One
first-grade teacher commented, “I could see from
what my students wrote that they needed more
practice in writing sight words and more work with
vowel sounds. I’m now using my reading time in
the morning to do that.” The following discussion
describes the development of the tool and then explains its current use.
Creating the recipe for the Word
Writing CAFÉ
The first task in designing the CAFÉ was to
create a measure for students’ word-writing fluency in order to show what words have become automatic in the students’ writing vocabulary. Fountas
and Pinnell (1996) explained why word-writing fluency is so important:
An inventory of words that children know how to write
is an indication of what the child controls. A word that
the child can write easily represents a “program of action” that can be performed again and again and becomes part of a network of information. These
networks form the basis for noticing more and more
features of words.... Every word the child can write has
a potential for later use. (p. 77)
The tool that seemed best able to address the
fluency aspect was Clay’s Writing Vocabulary
Observation Assessment (1993). It was designed
for first graders and is administered individually,
which makes it unsuitable for whole-class assessments. However, it does measure the number of
words students write, so, in developing the CAFÉ,
we decided to include the total number of words attempted as one measure of fluency.
Developing a suitable assessment of accuracy
became the second area of focus. As Rasinski
(2003) noted, fluency includes both speed and accuracy. To measure accuracy, we decided to count
the number of different words a student could accurately write. Words repeated or spelled unconventionally were disqualified and not included in
the counts.
The third area of assessment addresses the production of increasingly complex words. Because
readability levels and leveled books based on readabilities are important considerations in today’s
classrooms (Fry, 2002), and because the number
of syllables is typically a factor in determining
readability levels (Fry, 1977), we decided to count
the number of syllables in the words students wrote
as the measure for complexity.
Appetizers for the Word
Writing CAFÉ
The first trial run for the CAFÉ was conducted in a second-grade rural Appalachian elementary classroom in the United States. Students were
given 10 minutes and asked to write words or sentences on a blank paper. After analyzing the procedure and results, we made several important
changes. The most significant change was to eliminate sentence writing because this produced an
overwhelming number of repeated words (e.g., I,
is, the, of, and) and was too time-consuming for
teachers to score. Recognizing that fluency and
speed of writing are different, we decided to focus
on just asking students to write words.
This focus on words influenced the next
change. We decided to use boxes for individual
words instead of a blank paper. (See Figure 1 for an
example of a completed first-grade CAFÉ form.)
This change was made only after careful deliberation and discussion with teachers. The grade-level
forms vary by increased numbers of boxes included on each form. For instance, first- and secondgrade forms have 30 boxes per page, and 9th- to
12th-grade forms have 91 boxes per page.
While the boxes remove the contextualization
that is associated with “authentic” writing, the primary goal was to develop a time-efficient tool to
measure complexity, accuracy, and fluency encoding, not to develop a tool for analysis of student
compositions in general. For instance, if a student
wrote, “I like cats, I like dogs,” there would be
The Word Writing CAFÉ: Assessing student writing for complexity, accuracy, and fluency 341
FIGURE 1
Completed CAFÉ form
many repetitions but little insight on that student’s
range of vocabulary or its complexity. We wanted
to see the variety of different words that students
could write and the complexity that they controlled.
However, no mention was made of complex words
in the instructions given because we did not want to
intimidate students if they could only think of
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Vol. 59, No. 4
smaller words. Rather, we wanted to see what
words students were comfortable writing.
The following year another pilot was conducted in the same school. This time it was in grades 1
through 6 and was administered in both October
and April. Because the second-grade students
wanted more than 10 minutes to write, we
December 2005/January 2006
FIGURE 2
Mean total words by grade and gender
160
140
120
100
80
60
Girls
40
Boys
20
0
Grade 1
Grade 2
Grade 3
increased the length of writing time to 15 minutes.
When we did this, we added more prompts that
teachers could use. Teachers were enthusiastic
about the test and reported that the CAFÉ provided interesting and useful information about individual student strengths and limitations with word
writing. This provided face validity for teachers because they were able to examine students’ word
writing in relation to the instructional teaching
methods being used in their classrooms. It will take
more time and a wider sampling for its statistical
validity to be secured.
Feature findings for the Word
Writing CAFÉ
Following the first two trials with one school,
two additional schools were invited to participate in
a third pilot to broaden the study. Each of the three
schools was in a different part of the same state in
the north central United States. During the year, the
CAFÉ test was given in October and April. Two of
Grade 4
Grade 5
Grade 6
the schools included grades 1 through 6, and one
school included only first and second grade. The
socioeconomic status of the schools, measured in
terms of free and reduced-cost lunches, ranged
from 28% to 85%, where higher percentages correspond to lower socioeconomic levels.
For issues of reliability, we decided to look at
raw scores for attempted word fluency, word accuracy, and word complexity, and averaged them for
grade level, gender, and grade by gender (see
Tables 1–3). Medians were also run, with no statistical differences from the averages. The graph
in Figure 2 shows the mean total words by grade
and gender for this group of students. You can see
the increases over the grades for both genders.
However, these findings were limited to three
schools within one state and cannot yet be generalized to a larger population.
Another interesting observation focused on
gender. We expected there would be increases over
the grade levels in each of the three areas of assessment. What we didn’t expect was how much
better the girls would do than the boys at all grade
The Word Writing CAFÉ: Assessing student writing for complexity, accuracy, and fluency 343
TABLE 1
Means by grade level
Means
Grade
Number
of
students
Total
words
Words
correct
Number
of
onesyllable
words
Number
of
twosyllable
words
Number
of
threesyllable
words
Number
of
foursyllable
words
Number
of
fivesyllable
words
Number
of
sixsyllable
(or more)
words
First grade
60
44.13
37.25
34.25
2.90
0.1
0.02
0.0
0.0
Second grade
69
86.38
77.59
64.39
11.55
1.32
0.36
0.04
0.0
Third grade
44
93.45
78.93
59.93
15.70
2.52
0.50
0.05
0.0
Fourth grade
42
120.76
108.24
82.79
21.17
3.64
0.50
0.17
0.0
Fifth grade
49
128.45
118.63
87.29
26.71
4.90
0.55
0.14
0.0
Sixth grade
49
151.47
139.33
97.47
33.65
5.76
1.06
0.35
0.02
Total
313
TABLE 2
Means by gender
Means
Number
of
twosyllable
words
Number
of
threesyllable
words
Number
of
foursyllable
words
Number
of
fivesyllable
words
Number
of
sixsyllable
(or more)
words
Number
of
students
Total
words
Words
correct
Number
of
onesyllable
words
Male
147
90.53
79.33
61.86
15.08
2.27
0.39
0.06
0.0
Female
166
109.64
99.92
75.73
19.83
3.31
0.54
0.16
0.01
Gender
levels within this population—a difference that
broadened with grade level. At fourth grade, the
girls’ scores were over 25% higher than the boys’.
An unexpected menu item
After the results were collated, we decided to
enter all of the words that students wrote and run
tallies in order to see what were the most common
words by grade level. You can view these results in
Table 4. While there are many lists of high-frequency
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words based on written texts, there are no lists of the
most commonly written words by students. When
we tallied the CAFÉ words most frequently written,
the selected words appeared to be influenced by
three things: (1) Three of the original prompts given
to students during the instructions asked students
to write animals, pets, and colors. In future studies
fewer and more generalized prompts will be given
to students. (2) Another influencing factor may have
been the instructional focus of the teacher. For instance, you can see the word rectangle was the 11th
most frequently written word for fourth graders.
December 2005/January 2006
TABLE 3
Means for grade by gender
Means
Number
of
twosyllable
words
Number
of
threesyllable
words
Number
of
foursyllable
words
Number
of
fivesyllable
words
Number
of
sixsyllable
(or more)
words
Number
of
students
Total
words
Words
correct
Number
of
onesyllable
words
Firstgrade girls
34
46.62
40.41
37.12
3.15
0.12
0.03
0.0
0.0
Firstgrade boys
26
40.88
33.12
30.50
2.58
0.08
0.0
0.0
0.0
Secondgrade girls
37
96.81
89.73
74.08
13.73
1.51
0.43
0.05
0.0
Secondgrade boys
32
74.31
63.56
53.19
9.03
1.09
0.28
0.03
0.0
Thirdgrade girls
26
94.77
77.88
59.04
16.35
2.77
0.62
0.04
0.0
Thirdgrade boys
18
91.56
79.00
61.22
14.78
2.17
0.33
0.06
0.0
Fourthgrade girls
16
149.00
140.31
104.75
30.38
4.56
0.56
0.13
0.0
Fourthgrade boys
26
103.38
88.5
69.27
15.5
3.08
0.46
0.19
0.0
Fifthgrade girls
26
139.81
131.00
96.92
27.35
5.77
0.54
0.23
0.0
Fifthgrade boys
23
115.61
104.65
76.39
26.00
3.91
0.57
0.04
0.0
Sixthgrade girls
27
168.52
155.22
105.07
39.07
7.19
1.26
0.59
0.04
Sixthgrade boys
22
130.55
119.82
88.14
27.00
4.00
0.82
0.05
0.0
Grade
and
gender
(3) The last influencing factor occurred when, despite directions given to teachers, all words in the
classroom were not covered. For instance, there
may have been Word Wall words still displayed, or
even an exit sign still visible. Revised directions include administering the CAFÉ in a place with few
or no words, such as the cafeteria or gym.
Discussion of CAFÉ findings
Teachers administering the CAFÉ in their
classrooms for the pilot study were asked to fill
out a brief questionnaire about their experience
with the instrument. Some teachers found that it
helped them to understand their students better because it provided insight on what the students were
thinking about while writing words. For example,
one young boy chose to concentrate on words such
as bass, fish, hunt, beer, boat, and so on. One
fourth-grade teacher wrote, “I find it very interesting to see the students’ choice of words, and I see
a strong correlation between prolific writers and
an ability to come up with many words.” Another
teacher reported that the instrument helped her assess which students were using digraphs and
The Word Writing CAFÉ: Assessing student writing for complexity, accuracy, and fluency 345
TABLE 4
Most frequently occurring words
All
1. Dog
2. Cat
3. The
4. One
5. Red
6. To
7. Blue
8. Mom
9. Bed
10. Two
11. Dad
12.
Is
13.
I
14. My
15. Ten
16. Three
17. Green
18. You
19. Me
20. Can
First grade
Second grade
Third grade
Fourth grade
Fifth grade
Sixth grade
Cat
Dog
The
No
Is
Mom
To
Can
Red
My
In
It
At
Dad
Me
See
Ten
Blue
Go
Yes
Cat
Dog
Mom
Dad
One
Me
Ten
Bed
Blue
Red
To
You
In
Is
Me
The
I
Can
It
Play
Dog
One
Cat
Red
Two
Bed
The
Dad
Exit
Three
To
Blue
Mom
My
Can
Flag
No
Bat
Day
Fish
Dog
Cat
To
Is
Red
Ball
Two
I
Blue
Car
Rectangle
The
Green
Happy
One
Black
My
Bed
For
Me
Bed
The
Blue
Dog
Two
One
I
Good
Green
Mom
Red
To
Yellow
Is
Nail
TV
People
Bad
Cats
Dad
Cat
Dog
One
Blue
Bed
Six
Two
Fish
Red
Cow
The
Three
Five
Food
To
Football
Paper
A
Car
Green
blends in words they chose to write. Many of the
teachers noted that students already identified as
less proficient spellers tended to write only “safe”
words that they were confident writing. Overall, the
teachers indicated that the CAFÉ is a quick and
useful way to document student progress in word
writing. To see how to do this with your own class,
just follow the steps in administering and scoring
the Word Writing CAFÉ found in Tables 5 and 6.
Limitations and future menu items
Based on the most recent study, there are several limitations to consider. First, because the studies here were based on a small sampling, it is not
yet generalized to other populations. Therefore,
this tool should be used to track student progress,
not to assign student grade-level abilities. The limitation most noted by teachers was the location for
administering the CAFÉ, pointing out that the test
should be given in a nonprint environment. Another
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limitation is that the study was only conducted in
grades 1–6. Because a gender spread was noticed
as the grades increased, we do not yet know if this
gap continues to get bigger, eventually levels out,
or even shrinks. Finally, the validity of the assessment depends on the CAFÉ being administered
consistently and according to the directions.
Failure to follow the procedures would compromise validity.
To address these issues and further refine the
Word Writing CAFÉ, the following plans have
been made. (1) Conduct a nationwide sampling
among diverse populations and create national averages in grades 1–12 for both fall and spring. The
CAFÉ is currently being piloted in grades 7–12.
(2) Require that the CAFÉ be given in the gym or
cafeteria or some other place with few or no
words. (3) Reduce the number of prompts to only
four suggestions. (4) Tally the most commonly
written words by grade level and gender. (5)
Standardize the time limit for all grade levels to 10
minutes. (6) Invite students to use the CAFÉ
December 2005/January 2006
TABLE 5
Steps in administering the Word Writing CAFÉ
The CAFÉ is structured to invite students to write as many words as they can think of within a 10-minute time period.
The CAFÉ is given to the whole class at the same time and can be done in fall and spring to provide an overview of
students’ increases in word-writing skills. Students write words on paper that is provided. The following steps describe
how you can administer the CAFÉ to your own class.
1. Make enough copies of the CAFÉ forms for your grade level so that you will have extra copies available for students who may require multiple sheets of paper.
2. Give the assessment in a room with no or few words displayed on walls. If possible, cover any visible words.
Use rooms such as the gym, cafeteria, library, or computer lab. Make sure writing surfaces are cleared of all
books and materials.
3. Give each student two copies of the form and two sharp pencils with erasers.
4. Explain the following instructions to the students. Say to the students what is written in the quotes.
• “Today you will be taking a test to show how many words you know how to write in 10 minutes. You will not
be graded on this test, but please do your best. First, write your name, date, grade, and teacher at the top.”
(You may choose to do some or all of this for your students and eliminate the last sentence.)
• “Now listen carefully to the following directions: I want to see how many different words you can write in 10
minutes. Only write words in English and not words from other languages.”
• “Look at your paper and notice that there are many boxes. Write only one word in each box and write as
neatly as possible.”
• “Do not use the same word more than one time.”
• “Do not use names or a list of names of people. For example, do not write down your classmates’ names.”
• “Do not write numbers unless you spell them out.”
• “Do not use any abbreviations.”
• “Do not write the words on the top of your paper: name, date, grade, and teacher. Please keep your eyes on
your own paper only.”
• “You may write any word you want, but if you need some ideas, listen as I tell you some topics for words to
write.” Do not use prompts that are not listed here. Do not use examples of the prompts before the test
begins. Say the following,
“Write words that tell what you like to do and where you like to go.”
“Write words that describe what you can see, hear, smell, taste, or feel.”
“Write words that describe what is in your house or school.”
“Write any word that you know how to read or write.”
• Tell students, “If you run out of boxes, please raise your hand quietly and I will bring you another piece of
paper.”
5. Ask students, “Are there any questions?” Answer any questions before beginning to time the 10 minutes. If
students ask if spelling counts, ask them to spell words the best they can.
6. Say to the students, “I will tell you when there are only three minutes left. Please begin now.” Write the time
begun on the board. During the assessment, do not talk except to answer individual questions.
7. Give the students a three-minute notice to complete all writing. Tell them, “There are three minutes left.
Remember, write any word that you know how to read or write; write words that tell what you like to do and
where you like to go; write words that describe what you can see, hear, smell, taste, or feel; and write words
that describe what is in your house or school.”
8. When there is only half a minute left, say to the students, “Finish writing your last word and then put your
pencils down.” Collect all papers after 10 minutes.
throughout the year to track their own scores in
each of the three areas as well as to use rubrics to
evaluate various characteristics of their wordwriting skills; this student self-evaluation is currently being piloted in classrooms at all grade
levels. The directions for administering and scoring the CAFÉ in Tables 5 and 6 include these
changes related to administering the test.
An invitation to dine
We know that writing goes hand in hand with
reading because writing always includes some reading during production, and reading always involves
interpretation of written forms. We know that
through writing a child develops strategies to hear
sounds in words and to use visual information to
The Word Writing CAFÉ: Assessing student writing for complexity, accuracy, and fluency 347
TABLE 6
Steps in scoring the Word Writing CAFÉ
1. Fluency: First, count the total number of boxes with writing in them. Every box that has an attempt at a word,
whether correct or incorrect, counts as one point. Count everything except pictures or scribbles.
2. Accuracy: Next, cross out words that are not spelled correctly or are duplicate words. Use the dictionary when in
doubt. Follow these rules:
What to count
What to cross out and not count
All words spelled correctly.
If more than one word is written in a box, count only
the first word if spelled correctly.
Compound words such as baseball or lunchbox
count as one word if spelled correctly.
Hyphenated words in one box count as one word
if spelled correctly.
Count capitalized proper nouns other than people’s
names; count capitalized common nouns if spelled
correctly.
When a singular and plural noun are both written,
count both correct: Cat and cats each count as one
word if written in different boxes.
Abbreviations: Count abbreviations used as words in
everyday speech correct, such as P.E. (PE) or T.V. (TV).
Misspelled words.
Duplicate words.
Words at the top of the page such as name,
date, and teacher.
Names of people, including students
in the class.
Numbers such as 1, 2, 3 that are not spelled out
as one, two, three.
Noncapitalized proper nouns such as october.
All proper nouns must be capitalized.
Abbreviations: Do not count abbreviations
such as Dec. for December.
3. Complexity: Mark the number of syllables above each correctly spelled word. Check the dictionary when in doubt,
especially with a word such as orange that has two syllables.
• Compound words written in one box count as one word with two or more syllables.
• Words with two parts with one meaning such as ice cream or hot dog count as one word with two or more
syllables each.
• Hyphenated words in one box count as one word with two or more syllables.
4. Enter the number of words, number of correct words, and number of syllables in the appropriate columns on the
following coding sheet.
(continued)
monitor and check his or her reading (Wasik, 1998).
The CAFÉ provides the setting to do just that. It
provides a closer look at students’ word-writing fluency, accuracy, and complexity of their word usage. For now, teachers can use the CAFÉ to identify
word-writing skills and help reinforce areas of
weakness.
The findings not only inform the teacher but
can also show students an inside look at the complexity of the vocabulary words they use and write.
We suggest making students a part of the evaluation process to track the number of correct words
along with the number of words with one, two, or
three or more syllables. This provides a platform
for giving them ownership of their own improvement in word writing and vocabulary use. If we
want students who love words and are able to play
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with and explore them, then student engagement
with the CAFÉ is an invitation for students to recognize and think about word-writing fluency, accuracy, and complexity.
The Word Writing CAFÉ offers a way for
teachers to see strengths and weaknesses in student word writing and to evaluate how their teaching is affecting student growth in writing
complexity, accuracy, and fluency. Word writing is
not the end goal; real writing is. It is hoped that
teachers who help their students develop their
word-writing skills will also see growth in their
everyday writing assignments. Experience to date
indicates that the CAFÉ has the potential to fill a
gap as an objective writing assessment of a whole
class at one time. We invite you to try it out.
December 2005/January 2006
TABLE 6
Steps in scoring the Word Writing CAFÉ (continued)
Coding sheet for recording number of words and syllables written
Teacher’s name:
Name
Grade:
Gender
Total
words
Words
correct
Number
of
onesyllable
words
Number
of
twosyllable
words
Date:
Number
of
threesyllable
words
Number
of
foursyllable
words
Number
of
fivesyllable
words
Number
of
sixsyllable
(or more)
words
Coder’s name: _______________________________________________________________
The Word Writing CAFÉ: Assessing student writing for complexity, accuracy, and fluency 349
To date, national benchmarks for the CAFÉ
have not been determined at all grade levels and in
diverse settings. If you are interested in participating in a nationwide study using the CAFÉ, please
contact author Dorothy Leal at leal@ohio.edu. In
addition, the grade-level forms to try this strategy in
your classroom can be found at the following Web
address: http://oak.cats.ohiou.edu/~leal/cafe.htm.
Leal teaches at Ohio University (321 McCracklin
Hall, Athens, OH 45701, USA). She would like to
acknowledge teachers Michelle Chapman, Nancy
Johnson, and Annette Roth for working with
teachers in their schools to collect data. She
also wants to thank her graduate and
undergraduate students who have administered
and scored the CAFÉ to first through sixth
graders and helped refine the instrument.
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Vol. 59, No. 4
References
Clay, M.M. (1993). An observation survey of early literacy
achievement. Portsmouth, NH: Heinemann.
Fountas, I., & Pinnell, G.S. (1996). Guided reading: Good
first teaching for all children. Portsmouth, NH:
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