VLT® Decentral Drive FCD 302

VLT® Decentral Drive FCD 302
MAKING MODERN LIVING POSSIBLE
Design Guide
VLT® Decentral Drive FCD 302
VLT® Decentral Drive FCD 302
Contents
Contents
1 Introduction
5
1.1 How to Read the Design Guide
5
1.1.1 Definitions
5
1.1.2 Symbols
8
1.2 Safety Precautions
8
1.3 Software Version
9
1.4 CE Labelling
9
1.4.1 Conformity
9
1.4.2 What Is Covered ?
9
1.4.3 CE Labelling
9
1.4.4 Compliance with EMC Directive 2004/108/EC
10
1.4.5 Conformity
10
1.5 Disposal
10
2 Product Overview
11
2.1 Control
11
2.1.1 Control Principle
11
2.1.2 Internal Current Control in VVCplus Mode
12
2.2 EMC
14
2.2.1 General Aspects of EMC Emissions
14
2.2.2 EMC Test Results
14
2.2.3 Emission Requirements
15
2.2.4 Immunity Requirements
15
2.3 Reference Handling
17
2.3.1 Reference Limits
18
2.3.2 Scaling of Preset References and Bus References
19
2.3.3 Scaling of Analog and Pulse References and Feedback
19
2.3.4 Dead Band Around Zero
20
2.5 Galvanic Isolation (PELV)
24
2.5.1 PELV - Protective Extra Low Voltage
24
2.6 Mechanical Brake
25
2.6.1 Hoist Mechanical Brake
25
2.6.2 Brake Resistor Cabling
25
2.7 Brake Functions
25
2.7.1 Mechanical Holding Brake
25
2.7.2 Dynamic Braking
26
2.7.3 Selection of Brake Resistor
26
2.7.4 Control with Brake Function
27
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1
VLT® Decentral Drive FCD 302
Contents
3 System Integration
2
28
3.1 Introduction
28
3.1.1 Mounting
28
3.1.1.1 Hygienic Installation
28
3.2 Input: Mains-side Dynamics
29
3.2.1 Connections
29
3.2.1.1 Cables General
29
3.2.1.2 Connection to Mains and Earthing
29
3.2.1.3 Relay Connection
30
3.2.2 Fuses and Circuit Breakers
30
3.2.2.1 Fuses
30
3.2.2.2 Recommendations
30
3.2.2.3 CE Compliance
31
3.2.2.4 UL Compliance
31
3.3 Output: Motor-side Dynamics
31
3.3.1 Motor Connection
31
3.3.2 Mains Disconnectors
32
3.3.3 Additional Motor Information
33
3.3.3.1 Motor Cable
33
3.3.3.2 Motor Thermal Protection
33
3.3.3.3 Parallel Connection of Motors
33
3.3.3.4 Motor Insulation
33
3.3.3.5 Motor Bearing Currents
34
3.3.4 Extreme Running Conditions
34
3.3.4.1 Motor Thermal Protection
35
3.4 Drive/Options Selections
35
3.4.1 Control Cables and Terminals
35
3.4.1.1 Control Cable Routing
35
3.4.1.2 DIP Switches
36
3.4.1.3 Basic Wiring Example
36
3.4.1.4 Electrical Installation, Control Cables
36
3.4.1.5 Relay Output
38
3.4.2 Brake Resistors
38
3.4.2.1 Brake Resistors 10%
39
3.4.2.2 Brake Resistor 40%
39
3.4.3 Special Conditions
39
3.4.3.1 Manual Derating
39
3.4.3.2 Automatic Derating
39
3.4.3.3 Derating for Running at Low Speed
39
3.4.4 EMC
40
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VLT® Decentral Drive FCD 302
Contents
3.4.4.1 EMC-correct Cables
40
3.4.4.2 Earthing of Screened Control Cables
42
3.4.4.3 RFI Switch
42
3.4.5 Mains Supply Interference/Harmonics
43
3.4.5.1 Mains Supply Interference/Harmonics
43
3.4.5.2 Effect of Harmonics in a Power Distribution System
43
3.4.5.3 Harmonic Limitation Standards and Requirements
44
3.4.5.4 Harmonic Mitigation
44
3.4.5.5 Harmonic Calculation
44
3.4.6 Final Test and Setup
44
3.4.6.1 High Voltage Test
44
3.4.6.2 Earthing
44
3.4.6.3 Safety Earth Connection
45
3.4.6.4 Final Setup Check
45
3.5 Ambient Conditions
45
3.5.1 Air Humidity
45
3.5.2 Aggressive Environments
46
3.5.3 Vibration and Shock
46
3.5.4 Acoustic Noise
46
4 Application Examples
47
4.1 Encoder Connection
51
4.2 Encoder Direction
52
4.3 Closed Loop Drive System
52
4.4 PID Control
52
4.4.1 Speed PID Control
53
4.4.2 The Following Parameters are relevant for the Speed Control
53
4.4.3 Tuning PID Speed Control
55
4.4.4 Process PID Control
55
4.4.6 Example of Process PID Control
57
4.4.8 Ziegler Nichols Tuning Method
60
4.4.9 Example of Process PID Control
61
4.5 Control Structures
62
4.5.1 Control Structure in VVCplus Advanced Vector Control
62
4.5.2 Control Structure in Flux Sensorless
62
4.5.3 Control Structure in Flux with Motor Feedback
63
4.6 Local (Hand On) and Remote (Auto) Control
64
4.7 Programming of Torque Limit and Stop
65
4.8 Mechanical Brake
66
4.9 Safe Stop
67
4.9.1.1 Terminal 37 Safe Stop Function
68
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VLT® Decentral Drive FCD 302
Contents
4.9.1.2 Safe Stop Commissioning Test
5 Type Code and Selection Guide
74
5.1 Type Code Description
74
5.1.1 Drive Configurator
75
5.2 Ordering Numbers
76
5.2.1 Ordering Numbers: Accessories
76
5.2.2 Ordering Numbers: Spare Parts
76
5.3 Options and Accessories
77
5.3.1 Fieldbus Options
77
5.3.2 Encoder Option MCB 102
77
5.3.3 Resolver Option MCB 103
78
6 Specifications
81
6.1 Mechanical Dimensions
81
6.2 Electrical Data and Wire Sizes
82
6.3 General Specifications
84
6.4 Efficiency
88
6.5.1 Acoustic Noise
88
6.6.1 dU/dt Conditions
88
Index
4
72
89
MG04H102 - VLT® is a registered Danfoss trademark
Introduction
VLT® Decentral Drive FCD 302
1 1
1 Introduction
1.1 How to Read the Design Guide
The Design Guide provides information required for
integration of the frequency converter in a diversity of
applications.
Additional resources available
Operating Instructions MG04F, for information
required to install and commission the frequency
converter.
-
Programming Guide, MG04G, for how to program
the unit, including complete parameter
descriptions.
-
Modbus RTU Operating Instructions, MG92B, for the
information required for controlling, monitoring
and programming the drive via the built-in
Modbus fieldbus
-
Profibus Operating Instructions, MG34N, Ethernet
Operating Instructions, MG90J, and ProfiNet
Operating Instructions, MG90U, for information
required for controlling, monitoring and
programming the drive via a fieldbus.
Start and stop the connected motor using the LCP and the
digital inputs.
Functions are divided into two groups.
Functions in group 1 have higher priority than functions in
group 2.
Group 1 Reset, Coasting stop, Reset and Coasting stop, Quickstop, DC braking, Stop and the "Off" key.
Group 2 Start, Pulse start, Reversing, Start reversing, Jog and
Freeze output
Table 1.1 Control Command Functions
Motor:
fJOG
The motor frequency when the jog function is activated
(via digital terminals).
fM
Motor frequency. Output from the frequency converter.
Output frequency is related to the shaft speed on motor
depending on number of poles and slip frequency.
fMAX
The maximum output frequency the frequency converter
applies on its output. The maximum output frequency is
set in limit par. 4-12, 4-13 and 4-19.
-
MCB 102 manual.
-
VLT Automation Drive FC 300 Resolver Option MCB
103, MI33I.
fMIN
The minimum motor frequency from frequency converter.
Default 0 Hz.
-
Safe PLC Interface Option MCB 108 instruction,
MI33J.
fM,N
The rated motor frequency (nameplate data).
-
Brake Resistor Design Guide, MG90O.
-
Approvals.
IM
The motor current.
Technical literature and approvals are available online at
www.danfoss.com/BusinessAreas/DrivesSolutions/Documentations/Technical+Documentation.
1.1.1 Definitions
IM,N
The rated motor current (nameplate data).
nM,N
The rated motor speed (nameplate data).
ns
Synchronous motor speed
Frequency converter:
Coast
The motor shaft is in free mode. No torque on motor.
IMAX
The maximum output current.
ns =
2 × par . 1 − 23 × 60 s
par . 1 − 39
PM,N
The rated motor power (nameplate data).
IN
The rated output current supplied by the frequency
converter.
TM,N
The rated torque (motor).
UMAX
The maximum output voltage.
UM
The instantaneous motor voltage.
Input:
Control command
UM,N
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5
The rated motor voltage (nameplate data).
Determines the relationship between the reference input
at 0% value (typically 0 V, 0 mA, 4 mA) and the resulting
reference. Set the minimum reference value in
3-02 Minimum Reference.
Break-away torque
Torque
175ZA078.10
1 1
VLT® Decentral Drive FCD 302
Introduction
Pull-out
Miscellaneous:
Analog Inputs
The analog inputs are used for controlling various
functions of the frequency converter.
There are two types of analog inputs:
Current input, 0-20 mA and 4-20 mA
Voltage input, 0-10 V DC
Voltage input, -10 to +10 V DC.
Analog Outputs
The analog outputs can supply a signal of 0-20 mA, or
4-20 mA.
rpm
Illustration 1.1 Break-away Torque
η
The efficiency of the frequency converter is defined as the
ratio between the power output and the power input.
Automatic Motor Adaptation, AMA
The AMA algorithm determines the electrical parameters
for the connected motor at standstill.
Brake Resistor
The brake resistor is a module capable of absorbing the
brake power generated in regenerative braking. This
regenerative braking power increases the intermediate
circuit voltage and a brake chopper ensures that the
power is transmitted to the brake resistor.
Start-disable command
A stop command belonging to the group 1 control
commands - see this group.
CT Characteristics
Constant torque characteristics used for all applications
such as conveyor belts, displacement pumps and cranes.
Stop command
See Control commands.
Digital Inputs
The digital inputs can be used for controlling various
functions of the frequency converter.
References:
Analog Reference
An analog signal applied to input 53 or 54. The signal can
be either voltage 0-10 V or -10 -+10 V. Current signal is
0-20 mA or 4-20 mA.
Binary Reference
A signal applied to the serial communication port (RS-485
term 68–69).
Preset Reference
A defined preset reference, set between -100% and +100%
of the reference range. Select eight preset references via
the digital terminals.
Pulse Reference
A pulse reference applied to term 29 or 33, selected by
par. 5-13 or 5-15 [32]. Scaling in par. group 5-5*.
RefMAX
Shows the relationship between the reference input at
100% full scale value (typically 10 V, 20 mA) and the
resulting reference. Set the maximum reference value in
3-03 Maximum Reference.
RefMIN
6
Digital Outputs
The frequency converter features two Solid State outputs
that can supply a 24 V DC (max. 40 mA) signal.
DSP
Digital Signal Processor.
ETR
Electronic Thermal Relay is a thermal load calculation
based on present load and time. Its purpose is to estimate
the motor temperature.
Hiperface®
Hiperface® is a registered trademark by Stegmann.
Initialising
If initialising is carried out (14-22 Operation Mode), the
frequency converter returns to the default setting.
Intermittent Duty Cycle
An intermittent duty rating refers to a sequence of duty
cycles. Each cycle consists of an on-load and an off-load
period. The operation can be either periodic duty or nonperiodic duty.
LCP
The local control panel (LCP) comprises a complete
interface for control and programming of the frequency
converter. The LCP is detachable and can be installed up
MG04H102 - VLT® is a registered Danfoss trademark
Introduction
VLT® Decentral Drive FCD 302
to 3 metres from the frequency converter, i.e. in a front
panel, using the installation kit option.
lsb
Least significant bit.
THD
Total Harmonic Distortion state the total contribution of
harmonic.
msb
Most significant bit.
MCM
Short for Mille Circular Mil, an American unit for measuring
cable cross-section. 1 MCM=0.5067 mm2.
On-line/Off-line Parameters
Changes to on-line parameters are activated immediately
after the data value is changed. Changes to off-line
parameters are activated upon entering [Ok] on the LCP.
Process PID
The PID regulator maintains the desired speed, pressure,
temperature, and so on, by adjusting the output frequency
to match the varying load.
PCD
Process Data
Pulse Input/Incremental Encoder
An external digital sensor used for feedback information of
motor speed and direction. Encoders are used for high
speed accuracy feedback and in high dynamic applications.
The encoder connection is either via term 32 and 32 or
encoder option MCB 102.
RCD
Residual Current Device.
Set-up
It is possible to save parameter settings in four set-ups.
Switch between the four parameter set-ups and edit one
set-up, while another set-up is active.
SFAVM
Switching pattern called Stator Flux oriented Asynchronous
Vector Modulation (14-00 Switching Pattern).
Slip Compensation
The frequency converter compensates for the motor slip
by giving the frequency a supplement that follows the
measured motor load keeping the motor speed almost
constant.
Smart Logic Control (SLC)
The SLC is a sequence of user-defined actions executed
when the associated user-defined events are evaluated as
true by the Smart Logic Controller. (Par. group 13-** Smart
Logic Control (SLC).
STW
Status Word
FC Standard Bus
Includes RS-485 bus with FC protocol or MC protocol. See
8-30 Protocol.
Thermistor:
1 1
A temperature-dependent resistor placed where the
temperature is to be monitored (frequency converter or
motor).
Trip
A state entered in fault situations, e.g. if the frequency
converter is subject to an over-temperature or when the
frequency converter is protecting the motor, process or
mechanism. Restart is prevented until the cause of the
fault has disappeared and the trip state is cancelled by
activating reset or, in some cases, by being programmed
to reset automatically. Trip may not be used for personal
safety.
Trip Locked
A state entered in fault situations when the frequency
converter is protecting itself and requiring physical
intervention, e.g. if the frequency converter is subject to a
short circuit on the output. A locked trip can only be
cancelled by cutting off mains, removing the cause of the
fault, and reconnecting the frequency converter. Restart is
prevented until the trip state is cancelled by activating
reset or, in some cases, by being programmed to reset
automatically. Trip may not be used for personal safety.
VT Characteristics
Variable torque characteristics used for pumps and fans.
VVCplus
If compared with standard voltage/frequency ratio control,
Voltage Vector Control (VVCplus) improves the dynamics
and the stability, both when the speed reference is
changed and in relation to the load torque.
60° AVM
Switching pattern called 60° Asynchronous Vector
Modulation (14-00 Switching Pattern).
Power Factor
The power factor is the relation between I1 and IRMS.
Power factor =
3 x U x I 1 cos ϕ
3 x U x I RMS
The power factor for 3-phase control:
=
I1
I 1 x cos ϕ1
=
since cos ϕ1 = 1
I RMS
I RMS
The power factor indicates to which extent the frequency
converter imposes a load on the mains supply.
The lower the power factor, the higher the IRMS for the
same kW performance.
I RMS =
I 12 + I 52 + I 72 + .. + I n2
In addition, a high power factor indicates that the different
harmonic currents are low.
MG04H102 - VLT® is a registered Danfoss trademark
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1 1
Introduction
VLT® Decentral Drive FCD 302
Built-in DC coils in the DC link ensure a high power factor
and reduce the THD on the main supply.
1.1.2 Symbols
The following symbols are used in this manual.
WARNING
Indicates a potentially hazardous situation which, if not
avoided, could result in death or serious injury.
CAUTION
Indicates a potentially hazardous situation which, if not
avoided, may result in minor or moderate injury. It may
also be used to alert against unsafe practices.
High Voltage
Touching the electrical parts may be fatal - even after the
equipment has been disconnected from mains.
In planning, ensure that other voltage inputs can be
disconnected, such as external 24 V DC, load sharing
(linkage of DC intermediate circuit), as well as the motor
connection for kinetic back up.
Systems where frequency converters are installed must, if
necessary, be equipped with additional monitoring and
protective devices according to the valid safety regulations,
e.g law on mechanical tools, regulations for the prevention
of accidents etc. Modifications on the frequency converters
by means of the operating software are allowed.
Failure to follow design recommendations, could result in
death or serious injury once the equipment is operation.
NOTE
CAUTION
Indicates a situation that may result in equipment or
property-damage-only accidents.
NOTE
Indicates highlighted information that should be regarded
with attention to avoid mistakes or operate equipment at
less than optimal performance.
* Indicates default setting
1.2 Safety Precautions
WARNING
The voltage of the frequency converter is dangerous
whenever connected to mains. Correct planning of the
installation of the motor, frequency converter and fieldbus
is necessary. Follow the instructions in this manual, as well
as national and local rules and safety regulations. Failure to
follow design recommendations could result in death,
serious personal injury or damage to the equipment once
in operation.
8
WARNING
Hazardous situations shall be identified by the machine
builder/integrator who is responsible for taking necessary
preventive means into consideration. Additional
monitoring and protective devices may be included, always
according to valid national safety regulations, e.g. law on
mechanical tools, regulations for the prevention of
accidents.
NOTE
Crane, Lifts and Hoists:
The controlling of external brakes must always be
designed with a redundant system. The frequency
converter can in no circumstances be the primary safety
circuit. Comply with relevant standards, e.g.
Hoists and cranes: IEC 60204-32
Lifts: EN 81
Protection Mode
Once a hardware limit on motor current or DC link voltage
is exceeded the frequency converter enters “Protection
mode”. “Protection mode” means a change of the PWM
modulation strategy and a low switching frequency to
minimize losses. This continues 10 s after the last fault and
increases the reliability and the robustness of the
frequency converter while re-establishing full control of the
motor.
In hoist applications “Protection mode” is not usable
because the frequency converter will usually not be able to
leave this mode again and therefore it will extend the time
before activating the brake – which is not recommendable.
The “Protection mode” can be disabled by setting
14-26 Trip Delay at Inverter Fault to zero which means that
the frequency converter will trip immediately if one of the
hardware limits is exceeded.
MG04H102 - VLT® is a registered Danfoss trademark
Introduction
VLT® Decentral Drive FCD 302
NOTE
1 1
1.4.2 What Is Covered ?
It is recommended to disable protection mode in hoisting
applications (14-26 Trip Delay at Inverter Fault=0)
1.3 Software Version
Check the software version in 15-43 Software Version.
The EU "Guidelines on the Application of Council Directive
2004/108/EC" outline three typical situations of using a
frequency converter. See below for EMC coverage and CE
labelling.
1.
The frequency converter is sold directly to the
end-user. The frequency converter is for example
sold to a do-it-yourself market. The end-user is a
layman, installing the frequency converter for use
with a hobby machine, a kitchen appliance, etc.
For such applications, the frequency converter
must be CE labelled in accordance with the EMC
directive.
2.
The frequency converter is sold for installation in
a plant. The plant is built up by professionals of
the trade. It could be a production plant or a
heating/ventilation plant designed and installed
by professionals of the trade. Neither the
frequency converter nor the finished plant has to
be CE labelled under the EMC directive. However,
the unit must comply with the basic EMC
requirements of the directive. This is ensured by
using components, appliances, and systems that
are CE labelled under the EMC directive.
3.
The frequency converter is sold as part of a
complete system. The system is marketed as
complete, for example an air-conditioning system.
The complete system must be CE labelled in
accordance with the EMC directive. The
manufacturer can ensure CE labelling under the
EMC directive either by using CE labelled
components or by testing the EMC of the system.
If only CE labelled components are used, it is
unnecessary to test the entire system.
1.4 CE Labelling
1.4.1 Conformity
The machinery directive (2006/42/EC)
Frequency converters do not fall under the machinery
directive. However, if a frequency converter is supplied for
use in a machine, Danfoss provide information on safety
aspects relating to the frequency converter.
What is CE Conformity and Labelling?
The purpose of CE labelling is to avoid technical trade
obstacles within EFTA and the EU. The EU has introduced
the CE label as a simple way of showing whether a
product complies with the relevant EU directives. The CE
label says nothing about the specifications or quality of
the product. Frequency converters are regulated by two EU
directives:
The low-voltage directive (2006/95/EC)
Frequency converters must be CE labelled in accordance
with the low-voltage directive of January 1, 1997. The
directive applies to all electrical equipment and appliances
used in the 50-1000 V AC and the 75-1500 V DC voltage
ranges. Danfoss CE-labels in accordance with the directive
and issues a declaration of conformity upon request.
The EMC directive (2004/108/EC)
EMC is short for electromagnetic compatibility. The
presence of electromagnetic compatibility means that the
mutual interference between different components/
appliances does not affect the way the appliances work.
The EMC directive came into effect January 1, 1996.
Danfoss CE-labels in accordance with the directive and
issues a declaration of conformity upon request. To carry
out EMC-correct installation, see the instructions in this
Design Guide. In addition, Danfoss specify which standards
our products comply with. Danfoss offers the filters
presented in the specifications and provides other types of
assistance to ensure the optimum EMC result.
The frequency converter is most often used by professionals of the trade as a complex component forming part
of a larger appliance, system or installation.
1.4.3 CE Labelling
CE labelling is a positive feature when used for its original
purpose, i.e. to facilitate trade within the EU and EFTA.
However, CE labelling may cover many different specifications. Check what a given CE label specifically covers.
The specifications can vary greatly. A CE label may
therefore give the installer a false sense of security when
using a frequency converter as a component in a system
or an appliance.
Danfoss CE labels the frequency converters in accordance
with the low-voltage directive. This means that if the
frequency converter is installed correctly, compliance with
the low-voltage directive is achieved. Danfoss issues a
MG04H102 - VLT® is a registered Danfoss trademark
9
1 1
VLT® Decentral Drive FCD 302
Introduction
declaration of conformity that confirms CE labelling in
accordance with the low-voltage directive.
The CE label also applies to the EMC directive, provided
that the instructions for EMC-correct installation and
filtering are followed. On this basis, a declaration of
conformity in accordance with the EMC directive is issued.
The Design Guide offers detailed instructions for installation to ensure EMC-correct installation.
1.4.4 Compliance with EMC Directive
2004/108/EC
The frequency converter is mostly used by professionals of
the trade as a complex component forming part of a larger
appliance, system, or installation.
NOTE
The responsibility for the final EMC properties of the
appliance, system or installation rests with the installer.
As an aid to the installer, Danfoss has prepared EMC installation guidelines for the Power Drive system. The standards
and test levels stated for Power Drive systems are
complied with, provided that the EMC-correct instructions
for installation are followed, see 3.4.4 EMC.
1.4.5 Conformity
Table 1.2 FCD 302 Approvals
1.5 Disposal
Equipment containing electrical
components may not be disposed of
together with domestic waste.
It must be separately collected with
electrical and electronic waste according
to local and currently valid legislation.
Table 1.3 Disposal Instruction
10
MG04H102 - VLT® is a registered Danfoss trademark
Product Overview
VLT® Decentral Drive FCD 302
130BC963.10
2 Product Overview
costs alone outweigh the cost of the individual drives and
it makes sense to get the control closer to the motors.
The frequency converter can control either the speed or
the torque on the motor shaft.
Speed control
There are two types of speed control:
• Speed open loop control which does not require
any feedback from motor (sensorless).
•
Illustration 2.1 Small Unit
Speed closed loop PID control, which requires a
speed feedback to an input. A properly optimised
speed closed loop control is more accurate than
a speed open loop control.
Torque control
The torque control function is used in applications where
the torque on motor output shaft is controlling the
application as tension control.
Illustration 2.2 Large Unit
2.1 Control
A frequency converter rectifies AC voltage from mains into
DC voltage. This DC voltage is converted into an AC
current with a variable amplitude and frequency.
The motor is supplied with variable voltage, current and
frequency, which enables infinitely variable speed control
of three-phased, standard AC motors and permanent
magnet synchronous motors.
The FCD 302 frequency converter is designed for installations of multiple smaller drives, especially on conveyor
applications, for example, in the food and beverage
industries and materials handling. In installations where
multiple motors are spread around a facility such as
bottling plants, food preparation and packaging plants and
airport baggage handling installations, there may be
dozens, perhaps hundreds, of drives, working together but
spread over a large physical area. In these cases cabling
•
Closed loop in Flux mode with encoder feedback
comprises motor control based on feedback
signals from the system. It improves performance
in all four quadrants and at all motor speeds.
•
Open loop in VVCplus mode. The function is used
in mechanical robust applications, but the
accuracy is limited. Open loop torque function
works only in one speed direction. The torque is
calculated on basic of current measurement
internal in the frequency converter. See
application example 4.5.1 Control Structure in
VVCplus Advanced Vector Control.
Speed/torque reference
The reference to these controls can either be a single
reference or be the sum of various references including
relatively scaled references. The handling of references is
explained in detail in 2.3 Reference Handling.
2.1.1 Control Principle
The frequency converter is compatible with various motor
control principles such as U/f special motor mode, VVCplus
or Flux Vector motor control.
In addition, the frequency converter is operable with
Permanent Magnet Synchronous Motors (Brushless servo
motors) as well as normal squirrel cage asynchronous
motors.
MG04H102 - VLT® is a registered Danfoss trademark
11
2 2
The short circuit behaviour depends on the 3 current
transducers in the motor phases and the desaturation
protection with feedback from the brake.
L1 91
R+
82
L2 92
R81
Brake
Resistor
130BC965.10
U 96
L3 93
V 97
R inr
Inrush
W 98
M
P 14-50
Illustration 2.3 Control Principle
2.1.2 Internal Current Control in VVCplus
Mode
The frequency converter features an integral current limit
control which is activated when the motor current, and
thus the torque, is higher than the torque limits set in
4-16 Torque Limit Motor Mode, 4-17 Torque Limit Generator
Mode and 4-18 Current Limit.
When the frequency converter is at the current limit during
motor operation or regenerative operation, it reduces
torque to below the preset torque limits as quickly as
possible, without losing control of the motor.
Smart Logic Control (SLC) is essentially a sequence of userdefined actions (see 13-52 SL Controller Action [x]) executed
by the SLC when the associated user-defined event (see
13-51 SL Controller Event [x]) is evaluated as TRUE by the
SLC.
The condition for an event can be a particular status or
that the output from a Logic Rule or a Comparator
Operand becomes TRUE. That leads to an associated
Action as illustrated in Illustration 2.4.
Par. 13-51
SL Controller Event
Running
Warning
Torque limit
Digital inpute X 30/2
...
Par. 13-51
SL Controller Action
Coast
Start timer
Set Do X low
Select set-up 2
...
130BB671.10
2 2
VLT® Decentral Drive FCD 302
Product Overview
Par. 13-43
Logic Rule Operator 2
...
...
Par. 13-43
Comparator Operator
=
TRUE longer than..
...
...
Illustration 2.4 Current Control Status/Event and Action
Events and actions are each numbered and linked together
in pairs (states). This means that when [0] event is fulfilled
(attains the value TRUE), [0] action is executed. After this,
the conditions of [1] event will be evaluated and if
evaluated TRUE, [1] action will be executed and so on. Only
one event will be evaluated at any time. If an event is
evaluated as FALSE, nothing happens (in the SLC) during
the current scan interval and no other events will be
evaluated. This means that when the SLC starts, it
evaluates event [0] (and only [0] event ) each scan interval.
Only when [0] event is evaluated TRUE, will the SLC
12
MG04H102 - VLT® is a registered Danfoss trademark
VLT® Decentral Drive FCD 302
State 1
Event 1/
Action 1
130BA062.13
Start
event P13-01
State 2
Event 2/
Action 2
Stop
event P13-02
Stop
event P13-02
State 4
Event 4/
Action 4
State 3
Event 3/
Action 3
Stop
event P13-02
Illustration 2.5 Example - Internal Current Control
Comparators
Comparators are used for comparing continuous variables
(that is, output frequency, output current, analog input
etc.) to fixed preset values.
130BB672.10
Par. 13-11
Comparator Operator
Par. 13-10
Comparator Operand
=
Application Example
FC
Function
2 2
Setting
+24 V
12
+24 V
13
D IN
18
D IN
19
COM
20
D IN
27
D IN
29
D IN
32
D IN
33
D IN
37
+10 V
A IN
50
A IN
54
COM
55
A OUT
42
COM
39
13-00 SL
[1] On
Controller Mode
13-01 Start
Event
[19] Warning
01
13-02 Stop
Event
[44] Reset
key
13-10 Comparat
or Operand
[21] Warning
no.
13-11 Comparat
or Operator
[1] ≈*
13-12 Comparat
or Value
90
13-51 SL
Controller Event
[22]
Comparator 0
53
02
03
04
05
06
TRUE longer than.
Par. 13-12
Comparator Value
130BB839.10
Parameters
R1
execute [0] action and start evaluating event. It is possible
to programme from 1 to 20 events and [1] actions.
When the last event/action has been executed, the
sequence starts over again from [0] event/[0] action.
Illustration 2.5 shows an example with three event/actions.
R2
Product Overview
...
...
4-30 Motor
Feedback Loss
Function
[1] Warning
4-31 Motor
100 RPM
Feedback Speed
Error
4-32 Motor
Feedback Loss
Timeout
5s
7-00 Speed PID [2] MCB 102
Feedback Source
17-11 Resolution 1024*
(PPR)
13-52 SL
[32] Set
Controller Action digital out A
Illustration 2.6 Comparators
low
5-40 Function
Relay
Logic Rules
Combine up to three boolean inputs (TRUE/FALSE inputs)
from timers, comparators, digital inputs, status bits and
events using the logical operators AND, OR, and NOT.
Par. 13-42
Logic Rule Boolean 2
Par. 13-41
Logic Rule Operator 1
...
...
Par. 13-43
Logic Rule Operator 2
*=Default Value
Notes/comments:
If the limit in the feedback
monitor is exceeded, Warning
90 is issued. The SLC monitors
Warning 90 and in the case
that Warning 90 becomes TRUE
then Relay 1 is triggered.
External equipment can
indicate that service is required.
If the feedback error goes
below the limit again within 5 s
then the drive continues and
the warning disappears. Relay 1
remains triggered until pressing
[Reset] on the LCP.
130BB673.10
Par. 13-40
Logic Rule Boolean 1
[80] SL digital
output A
...
...
Par. 13-44
Logic Rule Boolean 3
Illustration 2.7 Logic Rules
Table 2.1 Using SLC to Set a Relay
MG04H102 - VLT® is a registered Danfoss trademark
13
below approximately 5 MHz. Since the leakage current (I1)
is carried back to the unit through the screen (I 3), there
will in principle only be a small electro-magnetic field (I4)
from the screened motor cable according to the below
figure.
2.2 EMC
2.2.1 General Aspects of EMC Emissions
Electrical interference is usually conducted at frequencies
in the range 150 kHz to 30 MHz. Airborne interference
from the frequency converter system in the range 30 MHz
to 1 GHz is generated from the inverter, motor cable, and
the motor.
As shown in Illustration 2.8, capacitive currents in the
motor cable coupled with a high dU/dt from the motor
voltage generate leakage currents.
The use of a screened motor cable increases the leakage
current (see Illustration 2.8) because screened cables have
higher capacitance to earth than unscreened cables. If the
leakage current is not filtered, it will cause greater
interference on the mains in the radio frequency range
FREQUENCY
LINE
The screen reduces the radiated interference but increases
the low-frequency interference on the mains. Connect the
motor cable screen to the frequency converter and motor
enclosures. Use integrated screen clamps to avoid twisted
screen ends (pigtails). Twisted screen ends will increase the
screen impedance at higher frequencies, which reduces the
screen effect and increases the leakage current (I4).
When a screened cable is used for fieldbus relay, control
cable, signal interface or brake, ensure the screen is
mounted on the enclosure at both ends. In some
situations, however, it will be necessary to break the
screen to avoid current loops.
MOTOR CABLE SCREENED
MOTOR
CONVERTER
CS
z
L1
z
L2
V
z
L3
W
z PE
PE
CS
U
I1
I2
PE
CS
I3
Earth wire
Screen
CS
CS
I4
CS
I4
Earth Plane
Illustration 2.8 Example - Leakage Current
Mounting plates, when used, must be constructed of
metal, to ensure the screen currents are conveyed back to
the unit. Ensure good electrical contact from the mounting
plate through the mounting screws to the chassis of the
frequency converter.
signal level alongside motor and brake cables. Radio
interference frequency above 50 MHz (airborne) is
generated by the control electronics in particular.
When unscreened cables are used, some emission
requirements are not fulfilled. However the immunity
requirements are observed.
The following test results have been obtained using a
system with a frequency converter (with options if
relevant), a screened control cable, a control box with
potentiometer, as well as a motor and motor screened
cable.
In order to reduce the interference level from the entire
system (unit+installation), make motor and brake cables as
short as possible. Avoid placing cables with a sensitive
14
2.2.2 EMC Test Results
MG04H102 - VLT® is a registered Danfoss trademark
175ZA062.11
2 2
VLT® Decentral Drive FCD 302
Product Overview
VLT® Decentral Drive FCD 302
Product Overview
RFI filter type
Standards and
requirements
Conducted emission
EN 55011
Class B
Class A Group 1
Housing, trades Industrial
and light
environment
industries
EN/IEC 61800-3
Category C1
First
environment
Home and
office
Category C2
First environment
Home and office
Radiated emission
Class A Group 2
Class B
Class A Group 1
Industrial
environment
Housing, trades
and light
industries
Industrial
environment
Category C3
Category C1
Category C2
2 2
Second environment First environment First
Industrial
Home and office environment
Home and office
H1
FCD302
0.37-3 kW
No
10 m
10 m
No
Yes
Table 2.2 EMC Test Results (Emission, Immunity)
2.2.3 Emission Requirements
According to the EMC product standard for adjustable
speed frequency converters EN/IEC 61800-3:2004 the EMC
requirements depend on the intended use of the
frequency converter. Four categories are defined in the
EMC product standard. The definitions of the 4 categories
together with the requirements for mains supply voltage
conducted emissions are given in Table 2.3.
Conducted emission requirement
according to the limits given in EN
55011
Category
Definition
C1
Frequency converters installed in the first environment (home and office) with a
supply voltage less than 1000 V.
Class B
C2
Frequency converters installed in the first environment (home and office) with a
supply voltage less than 1000 V, which are neither plug-in nor movable and are
intended to be installed and commissioned by a professional.
Class A Group 1
C3
Frequency converters installed in the second environment (industrial) with a supply
voltage lower than 1000 V.
Class A Group 2
C4
Frequency converters installed in the second environment with a supply voltage
equal to or above 1000 V or rated current equal to or above 400 A or intended for
use in complex systems.
No limit line.
An EMC plan should be made.
Table 2.3 Emission Requirements
When the generic emission standards are used the
frequency converters are required to comply with the
limits in Table 2.4
Conducted emission requirement
according to the limits given in EN 55011
Environment
Generic standard
First environment
(home and office)
EN/IEC 61000-6-3 Emission standard for residential, commercial
and light industrial environments.
Class B
Second environment
(industrial environment)
EN/IEC 61000-6-4 Emission standard for industrial environments.
Class A Group 1
Table 2.4 Emission Limit Classes
2.2.4 Immunity Requirements
The immunity requirements for frequency converters
depend on the environment where they are installed. The
requirements for the industrial environment are higher
than the requirements for the home and office
environment. All Danfoss frequency converters comply
with the requirements for the industrial environment and
consequently comply also with the lower requirements for
home and office environment with a large safety margin.
MG04H102 - VLT® is a registered Danfoss trademark
15
2 2
VLT® Decentral Drive FCD 302
Product Overview
In order to document immunity against electrical
interference from electrical phenomena, the following
immunity tests have been made on a system consisting of
a frequency converter (with options if relevant), a screened
control cable and a control box with potentiometer, motor
cable and motor.
The tests were performed in accordance with the following
basic standards:
•
EN 61000-4-2 (IEC 61000-4-2): Electrostatic
discharges (ESD): Simulation of electrostatic
discharges from human beings.
•
EN 61000-4-3 (IEC 61000-4-3): Incoming electromagnetic field radiation, amplitude modulated
simulation of the effects of radar and radio
communication equipment as well as mobile
communications equipment.
•
EN 61000-4-4 (IEC 61000-4-4): Burst transients:
Simulation of interference brought about by
switching a contactor, relay or similar devices.
•
EN 61000-4-5 (IEC 61000-4-5): Surge transients:
Simulation of transients brought about e.g. by
lightning that strikes near installations.
•
EN 61000-4-6 (IEC 61000-4-6): RF Common mode:
Simulation of the effect from radio-transmission
equipment joined by connection cables.
See Table 2.5.
Voltage range: 200-240 V, 380-480 V
Basic standard
Acceptance criterion
Line
Burst
IEC 61000-4-4
Surge
IEC 61000-4-5
ESD
IEC
61000-4-2
Radiated electromagnetic
field
IEC 61000-4-3
RF common
mode voltage
IEC 61000-4-6
B
B
B
A
A
—
—
10 VRMS
4 kV CM
2 kV/2 Ω DM
4kV/12 Ω CM
Motor
4 kV CM
4 kV/2 Ω1)
—
—
10 VRMS
Brake
4 kV CM
4 kV/2 Ω1)
—
—
10 VRMS
Load sharing
4 kV CM
4 kV/2 Ω1)
—
—
10 VRMS
Control wires
2 kV CM
2 kV/2 Ω1)
—
—
10 VRMS
Standard bus
2 kV CM
2 kV/2 Ω1)
—
—
10 VRMS
Ω1)
—
—
10 VRMS
2 kV/2 Ω1)
—
—
10 VRMS
Relay wires
2 kV CM
Application and Fieldbus
options
2 kV CM
LCP cable
2 kV CM
2 kV/2 Ω1)
—
—
10 VRMS
2 V CM
0.5 kV/2 Ω DM
1 kV/12 Ω CM
—
—
10 VRMS
—
—
8 kV AD
6 kV CD
10 V/m
—
External 24 V DC
Enclosure
2 kV/2
Table 2.5 EMC Immunity
1) Injection on cable shield
AD: Air Discharge
CD: Contact Discharge
CM: Common Mode
DM: Differential Mode
16
MG04H102 - VLT® is a registered Danfoss trademark
VLT® Decentral Drive FCD 302
Product Overview
2.3 Reference Handling
Remote Reference
The reference handling system for calculating the remote
reference is shown in Illustration 2.9.
2 2
130BA244.11
Relative scaling ref.
P 3-18
Local Reference
The local reference is active when the frequency converter
is operated with ‘Hand On’ button active. Adjust the
reference by [▲]/[▼] and [◄]/[►] arrows respectively.
No function
Analog ref.
Pulse ref.
Local bus ref.
DigiPot
P 3-14
Preset relative ref.
P 3-00
Ref./feedback range
(0)
P 1-00
Configuration mode
(1)
(2)
P 5-1x(19)/P 5-1x(20)
P 3-10
Preset ref.
(3)
Speed
open/closed loop
Freeze ref./Freeze output
(4)
(5)
(6)
(7)
Scale to
RPM or
Hz
-max ref./
+max ref.
100%
P 5-1x(28)/P 5-1x(29)
Input command:
Catch up/ slow down
-100%
Y
P 3-04
(0)
Ref.resource 1
P 3-15
No function
Analog ref.
Pulse ref.
D1
P 5-1x(15)
Preset '1'
External '0'
Local bus ref.
Ref. resource 2
P 3-12
Catchup Slowdown
value
Scale to
Nm
P 16-01
Remote
ref.
max ref.
%
Process
%
min ref.
Scale to
process
unit
Freeze ref.
&
increase/
decrease
ref.
P 5-1x(21)/P 5-1x(22)
Speed up/ speed down
No function
P 3-16
Torque
Catch up/
slow
down
±100%
DigiPot
Analog ref.
(1)
X
Relative
X+X*Y
/100
200%
P 16-02
Ref. in %
Pulse ref.
Local bus ref.
-200%
DigiPot
Ref. resource 3
P 3-17
No function
Analog ref.
Pulse ref.
Local bus ref.
DigiPot
Illustration 2.9 Remote Reference
MG04H102 - VLT® is a registered Danfoss trademark
17
VLT® Decentral Drive FCD 302
2.
Y- (the relative reference): A sum of one fixed
preset reference (3-14 Preset Relative Reference)
and one variable analog reference (3-18 Relative
Scaling Reference Resource) in [%].
The two types of reference inputs are combined in the
following formula: Remote reference=X+X*Y/100%. If
relative reference is not used 3-18 Relative Scaling Reference
Resource must be set to No function and to 0%. The catch
up/slow down function and the freeze reference function
can both be activated by digital inputs on the frequency
converter. The functions and parameters are described in
the Programming Guide.
The scaling of analog references are described in
parameter groups 6-1* and 6-2*, and the scaling of digital
pulse references are described in parameter group 5-5*.
Reference limits and ranges are set in parameter group
3-0*.
130BA184.10
P 3-00 Reference Range= [0] Min-Max
Resulting reference
P 3-03
Forward
P 3-02
Sum of all
references
-P 3-02
Reverse
-P 3-03
Illustration 2.10 Reference Range=[0] Min-Max
130BA185.10
The remote reference is calculated once every scan
interval and initially consists of two types of reference
inputs:
1.
X (the external reference): A sum (see
3-04 Reference Function) of up to four externally
selected references, comprising any combination
(determined by the setting of 3-15 Reference
Resource 1, 3-16 Reference Resource 2 and
3-17 Reference Resource 3) of a fixed preset
reference (3-10 Preset Reference), variable analog
references, variable digital pulse references, and
various serial bus references in whatever unit the
frequency converter is controlled ([Hz], [RPM],
[Nm] etc.).
P 3-00 Reference Range =[1]-Max-Max
Resulting reference
P 3-03
Sum of all
references
-P 3-03
Illustration 2.11 Reference Range=[1] -Max-Max
2.3.1 Reference Limits
3-00 Reference Range, 3-02 Minimum Reference and
3-03 Maximum Reference together define the allowed range
of the sum of all references. The sum of all references are
clamped when necessary. The relation between the
resulting reference (after clamping) is shown in
Illustration 2.10/Illustration 2.11 and the sum of all
references is shown in Illustration 2.12.
The value of 3-02 Minimum Reference can not be set to less
than 0, unless1-00 Configuration Mode is set to [3] Process.
In that case the following relations between the resulting
reference (after clamping) and the sum of all references is
as shown in Illustration 2.12.
130BA186.11
2 2
Product Overview
P 3-00 Reference Range= [0] Min to Max
Resulting reference
P 3-03
P 3-02
Illustration 2.12 Sum of all References
18
MG04H102 - VLT® is a registered Danfoss trademark
Sum of all
references
2.3.2 Scaling of Preset References and Bus
References
Preset references are scaled according to the following
rules:
• When 3-00 Reference Range: [0] Min to Max 0%
reference equals 0 [unit] where unit can be any
unit e.g. rpm, m/s, bar etc. 100% reference equals
the Max (abs (3-03 Maximum Reference ), abs
(3-02 Minimum Reference)).
•
When 3-00 Reference Range: [1] -Max to +Max 0%
reference equals 0 [unit] -100% reference equals Max Reference 100% reference equals Max
Reference.
Bus references are scaled according to the following rules:
• When 3-00 Reference Range: [0] Min to Max. To
obtain max resolution on the bus reference the
scaling on the bus is: 0% reference equals Min
Reference and 100% reference equals Max
reference.
•
When 3-00 Reference Range: [1] -Max to +Max
-100% reference equals -Max Reference 100%
reference equals Max Reference.
130BA182.10
VLT® Decentral Drive FCD 302
Product Overview
Resource output
(RPM)
High reference/feedback
value
P2
1500
Terminal X low
Resource
input
0
-10
-6
P1
8
10
Terminal X
high
-600
2 2
(V)
Low reference/feedback value
-1500
Illustration 2.14 Scaling of Reference Output
The endpoints P1 and P2 are defined by the following
parameters depending on which analog or pulse input is
used.
2.3.3 Scaling of Analog and Pulse
References and Feedback
References and feedback are scaled from analog and pulse
inputs in the same way. The only difference is that a
reference above or below the specified minimum and
maximum “endpoints”
(P1 and P2 in Illustration 2.13) are
clamped whereas a feedback above or below is not.
High reference/feedback
value
-10
0
-6
P1
P2
1500
Terminal X low
130BA181.10
Resource output
(RPM)
Resource
input
8
10
Terminal X
high
-600
(V)
Low reference/feedback value
-1500
Illustration 2.13 Scaling of Analog and Pulse References and
Feedback
MG04H102 - VLT® is a registered Danfoss trademark
19
Analog 53
S201=OFF
Analog 53
S201=ON
Analog 54
S202=OFF
Analog 54
S202=ON
Pulse Input 29 Pulse Input 33
P1=(Minimum input value, Minimum reference value)
Minimum reference value
6-14 Terminal
53 Low Ref./
Feedb. Value
6-14 Terminal 53 6-24 Terminal
Low Ref./Feedb.
54 Low Ref./
Value
Feedb. Value
6-24 Terminal 54 5-52 Term. 29
Low Ref./Feedb. Low Ref./Feedb.
Value
Value
5-57 Term. 33 Low
Ref./Feedb. Value
Minimum input value
6-10 Terminal 6-12 Terminal 53 6-20 Terminal 6-22 Terminal 54 5-50 Term. 29
53 Low Voltage Low Current
54 Low Voltage Low Current
Low Frequency
[V]
[mA]
[V]
[mA]
[Hz]
5-55 Term. 33 Low
Frequency [Hz]
P2=(Maximum input value, Maximum reference value)
Maximum reference value
6-15 Terminal
53 High Ref./
Feedb. Value
6-15 Terminal 53 6-25 Terminal
High Ref./Feedb. 54 High Ref./
Value
Feedb. Value
6-25 Terminal 54 5-53 Term. 29
5-58 Term. 33 High
High Ref./Feedb. High Ref./Feedb. Ref./Feedb. Value
Value
Value
Maximum input value
6-11 Terminal
53 High
Voltage [V]
6-13 Terminal 53 6-21 Terminal
High Current
54 High
[mA]
Voltage[V]
6-23 Terminal 54 5-51 Term. 29
High Current[mA] High Frequency
[Hz]
5-56 Term. 33 High
Frequency [Hz]
2.3.4 Dead Band Around Zero
Quadrant 2
In some cases the reference (in rare cases also the
feedback) should have a dead band around zero (i.e. to
make sure the machine is stopped when the reference is
“near zero”).
To make the dead band active and to set the amount of
dead band, the following settings must be done:
• Either Minimum Reference Value (see Table 2.6 for
relevant parameter) or Maximum Reference Value
must be zero. In other words; Either P1 or P2
must be on the X-axis in the graph below.
•
And both points defining the scaling graph are in
the same quadrant.
The size of the Dead Band is defined by either P1 or P2 as
shown in Illustration 2.15.
Quadrant 2
Resource output
Quadrant 1
(RPM)
High reference/feedback
value
Low reference/feedback
value
-10
-6
P2
1500
0
-1
P1
1
Terminal X
low
Resource output
(RPM)
1500
Low reference/feedback
value
P1
High reference/feedback
value
-10
-6
Terminal X
low
1
6
10
(V)
-1500
Quadrant 3
Quadrant 4
Illustration 2.16 Reverse Dead Band
Thus a reference endpoint of P1=(0 V, 0 RPM) will not
result in any dead band, but a reference endpoint of e.g.
P1=(1 V, 0 RPM) will result in a -1V to +1V dead band in
this case provided that the end point P2 is placed in either
Quadrant 1 or Quadrant 4.
Resource
input
6
10 (V)
Terminal X
high
Quadrant 4
Illustration 2.15 Dead Band
20
Resource
input
P2 0
-1
Terminal X
high
-1500
Quadrant 3
Quadrant 1
130BA180.10
Table 2.6 Input and Reference Endpoint Values
130BA179.10
2 2
VLT® Decentral Drive FCD 302
Product Overview
MG04H102 - VLT® is a registered Danfoss trademark
VLT® Decentral Drive FCD 302
Case 1: Positive Reference with Dead band, Digital input to
trigger reverse
General Reference
parameters:
Reference Range: Min - Max
Minimum Reference: 0 RPM (0,0%)
Maximum Reference: 500 RPM (100,0%)
Ext. Reference
Absolute
0 RPM 1V
500 RPM 10V
Analog input 53
Low reference 0 RPM
High reference 500 RPM
Low voltage 1V
High voltage 10V
+
This case shows how reference input with limits inside Min
to Max limits clamps.
Limited to: -200%- +200%
(-1000 RPM- +1000 RPM)
Ext. reference
Range:
0,0% (0 RPM)
100,0% (500 RPM)
Ext. source 1
Range:
0,0% (0 RPM)
100,0% (500 RPM)
500
General Motor
parameters:
Motor speed direction:Both directions
Motor speed Low limit: 0 RPM
Motor speed high limit: 200 RPM
Reference is scaled
according to min
max reference giving a
speed.!!!
Reference
algorithm
Limited to:
0%- +100%
(0 RPM- +500 RPM)
Reference
Range:
0,0% (0 RPM)
100,0% (500 RPM)
Dead band
RPM
Scale to
speed
1
Digital input
130BA187.11
Product Overview
10
500
RPM
V
Speed
setpoint
Range:
-500 RPM
+500 RPM
Digital input 19
Low No reversing
High Reversing
1
10
V
-500
Limits Speed Setpoint
according to min max speed.!!!
Motor PID
Motor
control
Range:
-200 RPM
+200 RPM
Motor
Illustration 2.17 Example 1 - Positive Reference
MG04H102 - VLT® is a registered Danfoss trademark
21
2 2
Case 2: Positive Reference with Dead band, Digital input to
trigger reverse. Clamping rules.
This case shows how reference input with limits outside Max to +Max limits clamps to the inputs low and high
General Reference
parameters:
Reference Range: -Max - Max
Minimum Reference: Don't care
Maximum Reference: 500 RPM (100,0%)
Ext. Reference
Absolute
0 RPM 1V
750 RPM 10V
Analog input 53
Low reference 0 RPM
High reference 500 RPM
Low voltage 1V
High voltage 10V
+
Ext. source 1
Range:
0,0% (0 RPM)
150,0% (750 RPM)
limits before addition to external reference. And how the
external reference is clamped to -Max to +Max by the
reference algorithm.
General Motor
parameters:
Motor speed direction:Both directions
Motor speed Low limit: 0 RPM
Motor speed high limit: 200 RPM
Limited to: -200%- +200%
(-1000 RPM- +1000 RPM)
Ext. reference
Range:
0,0% (0 RPM)
150,0% (750 RPM)
Reference is scaled
according to
max reference giving a
speed.!!!
Reference
algorithm
Limited to:
-100%- +100%
(-500 RPM- +500 RPM)
Reference
Range:
0,0% (0 RPM)
100,0% (500 RPM)
Dead band
750
Scale to
speed
1
Digital input
10
500
V
1
Speed
setpoint
Range:
-500 RPM
+500 RPM
Digital input 19
Low No reversing
High Reversing
10
-500
Limits Speed Setpoint
according to min max speed.!!!
Motor PID
Motor
control
Range:
-200 RPM
+200 RPM
Illustration 2.18 Example 2 - Positive Reference
22
MG04H102 - VLT® is a registered Danfoss trademark
Motor
V
130BA188.13
2 2
VLT® Decentral Drive FCD 302
Product Overview
VLT® Decentral Drive FCD 302
Product Overview
General Reference
parameters:
Reference Range: -Max - +Max
Minimum Reference: Don't care
Maximum Reference: 1000 RPM (100,0%)
Ext. Reference
Absolute
-500 RPM -10V
+500 RPM 10V
Dead band
-1V to 1V
Analog input 53
Low reference 0 RPM
High reference +500 RPM
Low voltage 1V
High voltage 10V
+
500
Ext. source 1
Range:
-50,0% (-500 RPM)
+50,0% (+500 RPM)
-10
RPM
-1
1
Ext. Reference
Absolute
-500 RPM -10V
+500 RPM 10V
Ext. source 2
Range:
-50,0% (-500 RPM)
+50,0% (+500 RPM)
500
Ext. reference
Range:
-100,0% (-1000 RPM)
+100,0% (+1000 RPM)
V
10
Reference
algorithm
Reference
Range:
-100,0% (-1000 RPM)
+100,0% (+1000 RPM)
Limited to:
-200%- +200%
(-2000 RPM+2000 RPM)
-500
Analog input 54
Low reference -500 RPM
High reference +500 RPM
Low voltage -10V
High voltage +10V
General Motor
parameters:
Motor speed direction:Both directions
Motor speed Low limit: 0 RPM
Motor speed high limit: 1500 RPM
Limited to:
-100%- +100%
(-1000 RPM+1000 RPM)
RPM
-10
Scale to
RPM
Reference is scaled
according to max
reference.!!!
10
130BA189.12
Case 3: Negative to positive reference with dead band,
Sign determines the direction, -Max to +Max
Speed
setpoint
Range:
-1000 RPM
+1000 RPM
V
Limits Speed to min max
motor speed.!!!
-500
No Dead
band
Motor PID
Motor
control
Motor
Illustration 2.19 Example 3 - Positive to Negative Reference
MG04H102 - VLT® is a registered Danfoss trademark
23
2 2
2.4.1 Earth Leakage Current
•
Earth ground wire (terminal 95) of at least 10
mm2
Follow national and local codes regarding protective
earthing of equipment with a leakage current >3.5 mA.
Frequency converter technology implies high frequency
switching at high power. This will generate a leakage
current in the earth connection. A fault current in the
frequency converter at the output power terminals might
contain a DC component which can charge the filter
capacitors and cause a transient earth current.
The earth leakage current is made up of several contributions and depends on various system configurations
including RFI filtering, screened motor cables, and
frequency converter power.
•
Two separate earth ground wires both complying
with the dimensioning rules
a
See EN/IEC61800-5-1 and EN50178 for further information.
Using RCDs
Where residual current devices (RCDs), also known as earth
leakage circuit breakers (ELCBs), are used, comply with the
following:
• Use RCDs of type B only which are capable of
detecting AC and DC currents
•
Use RCDs with an inrush delay to prevent faults
due to transient earth currents
•
Dimension RCDs according to the system configuration and environmental considerations
Lleakage[mA]
RCD with low fcut-off
130BB958.10
130BB955.10
Leakage current [mA]
RCD with high fcut-off
b
Cable length [m]
Illustration 2.20 Influence of Cable Length and Power Size on
Leakage Current for Pa>Pb
150 Hz
50 Hz
Mains 3rd harmonics
fsw f [Hz]
Cable
fs
Illustration 2.22 Main Contributions to Leakage Current
Leakage current [mA]
THVD=0%
Leakage current [mA]
100 Hz
2 kHz
100 kHz
THVD=5%
Illustration 2.21 Influence of Line Distortion on Leakage Current
Illustration 2.23 Influence of Cut-off Frequency of the RCD
See also RCD Application Note, MN90G.
NOTE
When a filter is used, turn off 14-50 RFI Filter when
charging the filter, to avoid that a high leakage current
makes the RCD switch.
EN/IEC61800-5-1 (Power Drive System Product Standard)
requires special care if the leakage current exceeds 3.5 mA.
Earth grounding must be reinforced in one of the
following ways:
24
130BB957.10
The leakage current also depends on the line distortion
130BB956.10
2 2
VLT® Decentral Drive FCD 302
Product Overview
2.5 Galvanic Isolation (PELV)
2.5.1 PELV - Protective Extra Low Voltage
PELV offers protection by way of extra low voltage.
Protection against electric shock is ensured when the
electrical supply is of the PELV type and the installation is
made as described in local/national regulations on PELV
supplies.
MG04H102 - VLT® is a registered Danfoss trademark
Product Overview
VLT® Decentral Drive FCD 302
All control terminals and relay terminals 01-03/04-06
comply with PELV (Protective Extra Low Voltage), with the
exception of grounded Delta leg above 400 V.
Galvanic (ensured) isolation is obtained by fulfilling
requirements for higher isolation and by providing the
relevant creepage/clearance distances. These requirements
are described in the EN 61800-5-1 standard.
The components that make up the electrical isolation, as
described below, also comply with the requirements for
higher isolation and the relevant test as described in EN
61800-5-1.
The PELV galvanic isolation can be shown in six locations
(see Illustration 2.24):
In order to maintain PELV all connections made to the
control terminals must be PELV, e.g. thermistor must be
reinforced/double insulated.
1.
Power supply (SMPS) incl. signal isolation of UDC,
indicating the voltage of intermediate DC Link
circuit.
WARNING
Installation at high altitude:
380-500 V: At altitudes above 2 km, contact Danfoss
regarding PELV.
380-500 V: At altitudes above 3 km, contact Danfoss
regarding PELV.
2 2
WARNING
Touching the electrical parts could be fatal - even after the
equipment has been disconnected from mains.
Also make sure that other voltage inputs have been
disconnected, such as load sharing (linkage of DC
intermediate circuit), as well as the motor connection for
kinetic back-up.
Before touching any electrical parts, wait at least the
amount of time indicated in Introduction, in FCD 302,
Operating Instructions, MG04F.
Shorter time is allowed only if indicated on the nameplate
for the specific unit.
2.6 Mechanical Brake
2.6.1 Hoist Mechanical Brake
2.
Gate drive that runs the IGBTs (trigger
transformers/opto-couplers).
3.
Current transducers.
4.
Opto-coupler, brake module.
5.
Internal inrush, RFI, and temperature
measurement circuits.
2.6.2 Brake Resistor Cabling
6.
Custom relays.
7.
Mechanical brake.
EMC (twisted cables/shielding)
To reduce the electrical noise from the wires between the
brake resistor and the frequency converter, the wires must
be twisted.
For an example of advanced mechanical brake control for
hoisting applications, see 4 Application Examples.
For enhanced EMC performance, use a metal screen.
2.7 Brake Functions
Braking function is applied for braking the load on the
motor shaft, either as dynamic braking or static braking.
2.7.1 Mechanical Holding Brake
Illustration 2.24 Galvanic Isolation
The functional galvanic isolation (a and b on drawing) is
for the 24 V back-up option and for the RS-485 standard
bus interface.
A mechanical holding brake mounted directly on the
motor shaft normally performs static braking. In some
applications the static holding torque is working as static
holding of the motor shaft (usually synchronous
permanent motors). A holding brake is either controlled by
a PLC or directly by a digital output from the frequency
converter (relay or solid state).
MG04H102 - VLT® is a registered Danfoss trademark
25
NOTE
When the holding brake is included in a safety chain:
A frequency converter cannot provide a safe control of a
mechanical brake. A redundancy circuitry for the brake
control must be included in the total installation.
NOTE
2.7.2 Dynamic Braking
Dynamic Brake established by:
• Resistor brake: A brake IGBT keep the overvoltage
under a certain threshold by directing the brake
energy from the motor to the connected brake
resistor (2-10 Brake Function=[1]).
•
•
can be calculated based on the cycle time and braking
time also called intermittent duty cycle. The resistor
intermittent duty cycle is an indication of the duty cycle at
which the resistor is active. Illustration 2.25 shows a typical
braking cycle.
AC brake: The brake energy is distributed in the
motor by changing the loss conditions in the
motor. The AC brake function cannot be used in
applications with high cycling frequency since
this will overheat the motor (par. 2-10 Brake
Function=[2]).
Motor suppliers often use S5 when stating the permissible
load which is an expression of intermittent duty cycle.
The intermittent duty cycle for the resistor is calculated as
follows:
Duty cycle=tb/T
T=cycle time in s
tb is the braking time in s (of the cycle time)
130BA167.10
2 2
VLT® Decentral Drive FCD 302
Product Overview
Load
DC brake: An over-modulated DC current added
to the AC current works as an eddy current brake
(≠0 s ).
Speed
2.7.3 Selection of Brake Resistor
To handle higher demands by generatoric braking, a brake
resistor is necessary. Using a brake resistor ensures that the
energy is absorbed in the brake resistor and not in the
frequency converter. For more information see the Brake
Resistor Design Guide, MG90O.
ta
tc
tb
to
ta
tc
tb
to
ta
Time
Illustration 2.25 Dynamic Braking Cycle Time
If the amount of kinetic energy transferred to the resistor
in each braking period is not known, the average power
Cycle time [s]
Braking duty cycle at 100%
torque
Braking duty cycle at over torque
(150/160%)
PK37-P75K
120
Continuous
40%
P90K-P160
600
Continuous
10%
P200-P800
600
40%
10%
3x380-480 V
Table 2.7 Braking at High overload torque level
Brake resistors have a duty cycle of 5%, 10% and 40%. If a
10% duty cycle is applied, the brake resistors are able to
absorb brake power for 10% of the cycle time. The
remaining 90% of the cycle time will be used on
dissipating excess heat.
The maximum permissible load on the brake resistor is
stated as a peak power at a given intermittent duty cycle
and can be calculated as:
NOTE
where
Ensure the resistor is designed to handle the required
braking time.
Ppeak=Pmotor x Mbr [%]xηmotorxηVLT[W]
26
2
U dc
Rbr Ω =
Ppeak
MG04H102 - VLT® is a registered Danfoss trademark
VLT® Decentral Drive FCD 302
Product Overview
The brake resistance depends on the intermediate circuit
voltage (Udc).
The brake function is settled in four areas of mains.
Size
FCD 302
3x380-480 V
Brake active
778 V
Warning
before cut
out
Cut out (trip)
810 V
820 V
NOTE
Check that the brake resistor can cope with a voltage of
410 V, 820 V, 850 V, 975 V or 1130 V - unless brake
resistors are used.
Danfoss recommends the brake resistance Rrec, i.e. one that
guarantees that the frequency converter is able to brake at
the highest braking torque (Mbr(%)) of 160%. The formula
can be written as:
2 x 100
U dc
Rrec Ω =
Pmotor x M br (%) x ηVLT x ηmotor
ηmotor is typically at 0.90
ηVLT is typically at 0.98
For 200 V and 480 V frequency converters, Rrec at 160%
braking torque is written as:
107780
Ω
Pmotor
375300
480V : Rrec =
Ω 1)
Pmotor
480V : Rrec =
428914
Pmotor
D-F size frequency converters contain more than one brake
chopper. Consequently, use one brake resistor per brake
chopper for those frame sizes.
2.7.4 Control with Brake Function
Table 2.8 Brake Limit Values
200V : Rrec =
NOTE
Do not touch the brake resistor as it can get very hot
while/after braking. The brake resistor must be placed in a
secure environment to avoid fire risk
Ω 2)
1) For frequency converters ≤7.5 kW shaft output
2) For frequency converters 11-75 kW shaft output
NOTE
The resistor brake circuit resistance selected should not be
higher than that recommended by Danfoss. If a brake
resistor with a higher ohmic value is selected, the 160%
braking torque may not be achieved because there is a risk
that the frequency converter cuts out for safety reasons.
The brake is protected against short-circuiting of the brake
resistor, and the brake transistor is monitored to ensure
that short-circuiting of the transistor is detected. A relay/
digital output can be used for protecting the brake resistor
against overloading in connection with a fault in the
frequency converter.
In addition, the brake makes it possible to read out the
momentary power and the mean power for the latest 120
seconds. The brake can also monitor the power energizing
and make sure it does not exceed a limit selected in
2-12 Brake Power Limit (kW). In 2-13 Brake Power Monitoring,
select the function to carry out when the power
transmitted to the brake resistor exceeds the limit set in
2-12 Brake Power Limit (kW).
NOTE
Monitoring the brake power is not a safety function; a
thermal switch is required for that purpose. The brake
resistor circuit is not earth leakage protected.
Over voltage control (OVC) (exclusive brake resistor) can be
selected as an alternative brake function in 2-17 Overvoltage Control. This function is active for all units. The
function ensures that a trip can be avoided if the DC link
voltage increases. This is done by increasing the output
frequency to limit the voltage from the DC link. It is a very
useful function to avoid unnecessary tripping of the
frequency converter, for example when the ramp-down
time is too short. In this situation the ramp-down time is
extended.
OVC can not be activated when running a PM motor
(when 1-10 Motor Construction is set to [1] PM non salient
SPM).
NOTE
If a short circuit in the brake transistor occurs, power
dissipation in the brake resistor is only prevented by using
a mains switch or contactor to disconnect the mains for
the frequency converter. (The contactor can be controlled
by the frequency converter).
MG04H102 - VLT® is a registered Danfoss trademark
27
2 2
VLT® Decentral Drive FCD 302
3 System Integration
Permitted mounting positions
130BC382.10
3.1 Introduction
3.1.1 Mounting
The FCD 302 consists of two parts: The installation box and
the electronic part.
Stand alone mounting
•
The holes on the rear of the installation box are
used to fix mounting brackets
•
Ensure that the strength of the mounting location
can support the unit weight
•
Make sure that the proper mounting screws or
bolts are used
130BB701.10
3 3
System Integration
Illustration 3.2 Permitted Mounting Positions - Standard
Applications
3.1.1.1 Hygienic Installation
The FCD 302 is designed according to the EHEDG
guidelines, suitable for installation in environments with
high focus on ease of cleaning.
Illustration 3.1 FCD 302 Stand Alone Mounted with Mounting
Brackets
Mount the FCD 302 vertically on a wall or machine frame,
to ensure liquids drain off the enclosure. Orient the unit so
the cable glands are located at the base.
Use cable glands designed to meet hygienic application
requirements, for example Rittal HD 2410.110/120/130.
Hygienic-purpose cable glands ensure optimal ease of
cleaningin the installation.
NOTE
Only frequency converters configured as hygienic
enclosure designation, FCD 302 P XXX T4 W69, have the
EHEDG certification.
28
MG04H102 - VLT® is a registered Danfoss trademark
VLT® Decentral Drive FCD 302
Mains connection
130BC286.10
130BC383.10
System Integration
2
1
L1
1 L1
T1 2
L2
3 L2
T2 4
L3
5 L3
T3 6
PE
33 NO
NO 34
L1
91
L2
92
L3
93
12
41 NC
NC 42
27
3 3
U
96
V
97
W
98
Illustration 3.4 Large Unit only: Circuit Breaker and Mains
Disconnect
1 Looping terminals
2 Circuit breaker
Illustration 3.3 Permitted Mounting Positions - Hygienic
Applications
1
L1
3.2 Input: Mains-side Dynamics
3.2.1 Connections
130BC287.10
Table 3.1 Legend
L2
L3
PE
1
2
3
4
5
6
7
8
L1
91
L2
92
L3
93
12
U
96
V
97
W
98
U
V
W
27
3.2.1.1 Cables General
NOTE
Cables General
All cabling must comply with national and local
regulations on cable cross-sections and ambient
temperature. Copper (75 °C) conductors are recommended.
3.2.1.2 Connection to Mains and Earthing
Illustration 3.5 Large Unit only: Service Switch at Mains with
Looping Terminals
1 Looping terminals
Table 3.2 Legend
For installation instructions and location of terminals refer
to FCD 302 Operating Instructions, MG04F.
MG04H102 - VLT® is a registered Danfoss trademark
29
VLT® Decentral Drive FCD 302
System Integration
3.2.2 Fuses and Circuit Breakers
3.2.2.1 Fuses
Fuses and/or circuit breakers are recommended protection
on the supply side, in the event of component break-down
inside the frequency converter (first fault).
3 3
NOTE
This is mandatory in order to ensure compliance with IEC
60364 for CE or NEC 2009 for UL.
WARNING
Personnel and property must be protected against the
consequence of component break-down internally in the
frequency converter.
Illustration 3.6 Motor and Mains Connection with Service Switch
Branch Circuit Protection
In order to protect the installation against electrical and
fire hazard, all branch circuits in an installation, switch
gear, machines etc., must be protected against short-circuit
and over-current according to national/international
regulations.
NOTE
For both small and large unit, the service switch is
optional. The switch is shown mounted on the motor side.
Alternatively, the switch can be located on the mains side,
or omitted.
For the large unit, the circuit breaker is optional. The large
unit can be configured with either service switch or circuit
breaker, not both. Illustration 3.6 is not configurable in
practice, but is displayed to show the respective positions
of components only.
Usually the power cables for mains are unscreened cables.
To set relay output, see parameter group 5-4* Relays.
01-02
make (normally open)
01-03
break (normally closed)
04-05
make (normally open)
04-06
break (normally closed)
Short-circuit protection
Danfoss recommends using the fuses/circuit breakers
mentioned below to protect service personnel and
property in case of component break-down in the
frequency converter.
3.2.2.2 Recommendations
WARNING
3.2.1.3 Relay Connection
No.
The recommendations given do not cover Branch circuit
protection for UL.
Table 3.3 Relay Settings
For location of relay terminals, refer to FCD 302 Operating
Instructions, MG04F.
In the event of malfunction, failure to follow the
recommendation may result in personnel risk and damage
to the frequency converter and other equipment.
The following sections list the recommended rated current.
Danfoss recommends fuse type gG and Danfoss CB
(Danfoss - CTI-25) circuit breakers. Other types of circuit
breaker may be used provide they limit the energy into
the frequency converter to a level equal to or lower than
the Danfoss CB types.
Follow the recommendations for fuses and circuit breakers
to ensure any damage to the frequency converter is
internal only.
For further information see Application Note Fuses and
Circuit Breakers, MN90T.
30
MG04H102 - VLT® is a registered Danfoss trademark
VLT® Decentral Drive FCD 302
System Integration
3.2.2.3 CE Compliance
Use of fuses or circuit breakers is mandatory to comply
with IEC 60364.
Danfoss recommends fuse size up to gG-25. This fuse size
is suitable for use on a circuit capable of delivering
100,000 Arms (symmetrical), 480 V. With the proper fusing
the frequency converter short circuit current rating (SCCR)
is 100,000 Arms.
3.2.2.4 UL Compliance
Fuses or Circuit Breakers are mandatory to comply with
NEC 2009. To meet UL/cUL requirements, use the pre-fuses
in Table 6.3, and comply with the conditions listed in
6.2 Electrical Data and Wire Sizes.
3.3 Output: Motor-side Dynamics
3.3.1 Motor Connection
NOTE
To comply with EMC emission specifications, screened/
armoured cables are recommended.
See 6.3 General Specifications for correct dimensioning of
motor cable cross-section and length.
Screening of cables
Avoid installation with twisted screen ends (pigtails). They
spoil the screening effect at higher frequencies. If it is
Term. no.
96
97
98
99
U
V
W
PE1)
U1
V1
W1
W2
U2
V2
U1
V1
W1
PE1)
PE1)
necessary to break the screen to install a motor isolator or
motor contactor, the screen must be continued at the
lowest possible HF impedance.
Connect the motor cable screen to both the decoupling
plate of the frequency converter and to the metal housing
of the motor.
Make the screen connections with the largest possible
surface area (cable clamp). This is done by using the
supplied installation devices in the frequency converter.
If it is necessary to split the screen to install a motor
isolator or motor relay, the screen must be continued with
the lowest possible HF impedance.
Cable-length and cross-section
The frequency converter has been tested with a given
length of cable and a given cross-section of that cable. If
the cross-section is increased, the cable capacitance - and
thus the leakage current - may increase, and the cable
length must be reduced correspondingly. Keep the motor
cable as short as possible to reduce the noise level and
leakage currents.
All types of three-phase asynchronous standard motors can
be connected to the frequency converter. Normally, small
motors are star-connected (230/400 V, Y). Large motors are
normally delta-connected (400/690 V, Δ). Refer to the
motor name plate for correct connection mode and
voltage.
For installation of mains and motor cables refer to FCD 302
Operating Instructions, MG04F.
Motor voltage 0-100% of mains voltage.
3 wires out of motor
Delta-connected
6 wires out of motor
Star-connected U2, V2, W2
U2, V2 and W2 to be interconnected separately.
Earth Connection
U
V
W
96
97
98
U
V
W
96
97
98
175ZA114.10
Table 3.4 Motor Connection Terminals
1)Protected
Illustration 3.7 Star - Delta Earth Connections
MG04H102 - VLT® is a registered Danfoss trademark
31
3 3
VLT® Decentral Drive FCD 302
System Integration
NOTE
3 3
2
1
7
2
6
6
2
2
3
2
2
2
2
3
4
4
130BC981.10
In motors without phase insulation paper or other
insulation reinforcement suitable for operation with
voltage supply (such as a frequency converter), fit a Sinewave filter on the output of the frequency converter.
5
Illustration 3.8 Cable Entry Holes - Large Unit
1
Brake M20
2
8xM16
3
2xM20
4
Mains cables M25
5
M20
6
24 V M20
7
Motor M25
Table 3.5 Legend
3.3.2 Mains Disconnectors
•
•
130BC986.10
The frequency converter is available with optional
service switch on mains side or motor side
built-in circuit breaker on the mains side (large
unit only)
Specify the requirement when ordering.
Illustration 3.9 and Illustration 3.10 show examples of
configuration for the large unit.
Illustration 3.9 Location of Service Switch, Mains Side, Large Unit,
(IP66/Type 4X indoor)
32
MG04H102 - VLT® is a registered Danfoss trademark
VLT® Decentral Drive FCD 302
130BC983.10
System Integration
1-24 Motor Current is set to the rated motor current (see
motor name plate).
3.3.3.3 Parallel Connection of Motors
The frequency converter can control several parallelconnected motors. When using parallel motor connection
following must be observed:
Illustration 3.10 Location of Circuit Breaker, Mains Side, Large
•
Recommended to run applications with parallel
motors in U/F mode 1-01 Motor Control Principle
[0]. Set the U/F graph in 1-55 U/f Characteristic - U
and 1-56 U/f Characteristic - F.
•
•
VCC+ mode may be used in some applications.
Unit
3.3.3 Additional Motor Information
3.3.3.1 Motor Cable
The motor must be connected to terminals U/T1/96, V/
T2/97, W/T3/98. Earth (Ground) to terminal 99. All types of
three-phase asynchronous standard motors can be used
with a frequency converter unit. The factory setting is for
clockwise rotation with the frequency converter output
connected as shown in Table 3.6:
Terminal No.
Function
96, 97, 98, 99
Mains U/T1, V/T2, W/T3
Earth (Ground)
•
Terminal U/T1/96 connected
to U-phase
•
Terminal V/T2/97 connected
to V-phase
•
Terminal W/T3/98
connected to W-phase
U
V
W
96
97
98
130HA036.10
Table 3.6 Motor Connection - Factory Setting
The total current consumption of the motors
must not exceed the rated output current IINV for
the frequency converter.
•
If motor sizes are widely different in winding
resistance, starting problems may arise due to too
low motor voltage at low speed.
•
The electronic thermal relay (ETR) of the
frequency inverter cannot be used as motor
protection for the individual motor. Provide
further motor protection by e.g. thermistors in
each motor winding or individual thermal relays.
(Circuit breakers are not suitable as protection
device).
NOTE
Installations with cables connected in a common joint as
shown in the first example in the picture is only
recommended for short cable lengths.
NOTE
When motors are connected in parallel, 1-02 Flux Motor
Feedback Source cannot be used, and 1-01 Motor Control
Principle must be set to Special motor characteristics (U/f).
U
96
V
97
W
98
Table 3.7 Motor Connection - Direction of Rotation
The direction of rotation can be changed by switching two phases in
the motor cable or by changing the setting of 4-10 Motor Speed
Direction.
Motor rotation check can be performed using 1-28 Motor
Rotation Check and following the steps shown in the
display.
The total motor cable length specified in 6 Specifications, is
valid as long as the parallel cables are kept short (less than
10 m each).
3.3.3.4 Motor Insulation
For motor cable lengths ≤ the maximum cable length
listed in the 6.3 General Specifications, the following motor
insulation ratings are recommended because the peak
voltage can be up to twice the DC link voltage, 2.8 times
the mains voltage, due to transmission line effects in the
motor cable. If a motor has lower insulation rating it
recommended to use a du/dt or sine wave filter.
3.3.3.2 Motor Thermal Protection
The electronic thermal relay in the frequency converter has
received UL-approval for single motor protection, when
1-90 Motor Thermal Protectionis set for ETR Trip and
MG04H102 - VLT® is a registered Danfoss trademark
33
3 3
3 3
VLT® Decentral Drive FCD 302
System Integration
Nominal Mains Voltage
Motor Insulation
UN≤420 V
Standard ULL=1300 V
420 V<UN≤500 V
Reinforced ULL=1600 V
Table 3.8 Mains Voltage and Motor Insulation
3.3.3.5 Motor Bearing Currents
All motors installed with FC 302 90 kW or higher power
drives should have NDE (Non-Drive End) insulated bearings
installed to eliminate circulating bearing currents. To
minimize DE (Drive End) bearing and shaft currents proper
grounding of the drive, motor, driven machine, and motor
to the driven machine is required.
Standard Mitigation Strategies
1.
Use an insulated bearing
2.
Apply rigorous installation procedures
-
Strictly follow the EMC Installation
guideline
-
Reinforce the PE so the high frequency
impedance is lower in the PE than the
input power leads
-
Provide a good high frequency
connection between the motor and the
frequency converter for instance by
screened cable which has a 360°
connection in the motor and the
frequency converter
-
Make sure that the impedance from
frequency converter to building ground
is lower that the grounding impedance
of the machine. This can be difficult for
pumps
-
34
Ensure the motor and load motor are
aligned
3.3.4 Extreme Running Conditions
Short Circuit (Motor Phase – Phase)
The frequency converter is protected against short circuits
with current measurement in each of the three motor
phases or in the DC link. A short circuit between two
output phases causes an overcurrent in the inverter. The
inverter is turned off individually when the short circuit
current exceeds the permitted value (Alarm 16 Trip Lock).
To protect the frequency converter against a short circuit
at the load sharing and brake outputs, see the design
guidelines.
Switching on the Output
Switching on the output between the motor and the
frequency converter is fully permitted. No damage to the
frequency converter can occur by switching on the output.
However, fault messages can appear.
Motor-generated Over-voltage
The voltage in the intermediate circuit is increased when
the motor acts as a generator, in the following cases:
1.
The load drives the motor (at constant output
frequency from the frequency converter), that is,
the load generates energy.
2.
During deceleration, ("ramp-down") if the
moment of inertia is high, the friction is low, and
the ramp-down time is too short for the energy
to be dissipated as a loss in the frequency
converter, the motor, and the installation.
3.
Incorrect slip compensation setting can cause
higher DC link voltage.
4.
Back-EMF from PM motor operation. When
coasted at high rpm, the PM motor back-EMF can
potentially exceed the maximum voltage
tolerance of the frequency converter and cause
damage. The frequency converter is designed to
prevent the occurrence of back EMF: the value of
4-19 Max Output Frequency is automatically
limited based on an internal calculation based on
the value of 1-40 Back EMF at 1000 RPM,
1-25 Motor Nominal Speed and 1-39 Motor Poles.
When motor overspeed is possible (for example,
due to excessive windmilling effects), then a
brake resistor is recommended.
Make a direct earth connection between
the motor and load motor
3.
Lower the IGBT switching frequency
4.
Modify the inverter waveform, 60° AVM vs.
SFAVM
5.
Install a shaft grounding system or use an
isolating coupling
6.
Apply conductive lubrication
7.
Use minimum speed settings if possible
NOTE
8.
Try to ensure the line voltage is balanced to
ground. This can be difficult for IT, TT, TN-CS or
Grounded leg systems
The frequency converter must be equipped with a break
chopper.
9.
Use a dU/dt or sinus filter
When possible, the control unit may attempt to correct the
ramp (2-17 Over-voltage Control.
The inverter turns off to protect the transistors and the
intermediate circuit capacitors when a certain voltage level
is reached.
MG04H102 - VLT® is a registered Danfoss trademark
VLT® Decentral Drive FCD 302
See 2-10 Brake Function and 2-17 Over-voltage Control to
select the method used for controlling the intermediate
circuit voltage level.
NOTE
OVC cannot be activated when running a PM motor, that
is, for parameter1-10 Motor Construction set to [1] PM non
salient SPM.
Mains Drop-out
During mains drop-out, the frequency converter keeps
running until the intermediate circuit voltage drops below
the minimum stop level. The minimum stop level is
typically 15% below the lowest rated supply voltage of the
frequency converter. The mains voltage prior to the dropout, combined with the motor load, determines how long
it takes for the inverter to coast.
Static Overload in VVCplus mode
When the frequency converter is overloaded, the controls
reduce the output frequency to reduce the load. Overload
is defined as reaching the torque limit set in 4-16 Torque
Limit Motor Mode/4-17 Torque Limit Generator Mode.
For extreme overload, a current acts to ensure the
frequency converter cuts out after approximately 5-10 s.
Operation within the torque limit is limited in time (0-60 s)
in 14-25 Trip Delay at Torque Limit.
3.3.4.1 Motor Thermal Protection
To protect the application from serious damage, the
frequency converter offers several dedicated features
Torque Limit
The torque limit feature the motor is protected for being
overloaded independent of the speed. Select torque limit
settings 4-16 Torque Limit Motor Mode and or 4-17 Torque
Limit Generator Mode. Set the time to trip for the torque
limit warning in 14-25 Trip Delay at Torque Limit.
Current Limit
Set the current limit in 4-18 Current Limit. Set the time
before the current limit warning trips in 14-24 Trip Delay at
Current Limit.
Min Speed Limit
(4-11 Motor Speed Low Limit [RPM] or 4-12 Motor Speed Low
Limit [Hz]) limit the operating speed range to for instance
between 30 and 50/60 Hz. Max Speed Limit: (4-13 Motor
Speed High Limit [RPM] or 4-19 Max Output Frequency) limit
the max output speed the drive can provide.
ETR (Electronic Thermal relay)
The ETR function measures actual current, speed and time
to calculate motor temperature and protect the motor
from being overheated (Warning or trip). An external
thermistor input is also available. ETR is an electronic
feature that simulates a bimetal relay based on internal
measurements. The characteristic is shown in
Illustration 3.11:
175ZA052.12
System Integration
t [s]
2000
1000
600
500
400
300
200
100
60
50
40
30
20
10
fOUT = 1 x f M,N(par. 1-23)
fOUT = 2 x f M,N
fOUT = 0.2 x f M,N
1.0 1.2 1.4 1.6 1.8 2.0
IM
IMN(par. 1-24)
Illustration 3.11 ETR Functions
Illustration 3.11: The X-axis shows the ratio between Imotor
and Imotor nominal. The Y-axis shows the time in seconds
before the ETR cut of and trips the drive. The curves show
the characteristic nominal speed, at twice the nominal
speed and at 0.2 x the nominal speed.
At lower speed the ETR cuts off at lower heat due to less
cooling of the motor. In that way the motor is protected
from overheating even at low speed. The ETR feature
calculates the motor temperature based on actual current
and speed. The calculated temperature is visible as a read
out parameter in 16-18 Motor Thermal in the frequency
converter.
3.4 Drive/Options Selections
3.4.1 Control Cables and Terminals
3.4.1.1 Control Cable Routing
24 V DC external supply can be used as low-voltage supply
to the control card and any option cards installed. This
enables full operation of the LCP (including parameter
setting) without connection to mains.
MG04H102 - VLT® is a registered Danfoss trademark
35
3 3
NOTE
NOTE
A warning of low voltage will be given when 24 V DC has
been connected; however, there will be no tripping.
Switches 4 and 5 are only valid for units fitted with
fieldbus options.
WARNING
3.4.1.3 Basic Wiring Example
Connect terminals 27 and 37 to +24 V terminals 12 and 13,
as shown in Illustration 3.13.
3.4.1.2 DIP Switches
Default settings:
27=Coast inverse 5-10 Terminal 18 Digital Input [2]
37=Safe torque off inverse
B05
B06
B12
37
20
B09
B10
B11
37
20
13
130BB708.10
B07
B08
20
20
20
20
20
12
2
1
20
G
Terminal 54 default is for a feedback signal in
closed loop
B01
•
B02
Terminal 53 default is for a speed reference in
open loop
B03
•
B04
Set switches S201 (terminal 53) and S202
(terminal 54) to select the signal type. ON is for
current, OFF for voltage
P
•
Safe
torque off
N
Analog input terminals 53 and 54 can select for
either voltage (0-10 V) or current (0-20 mA) input
signals
V
•
130BC985.10
Use 24 V DC supply of type PELV to ensure correct
galvanic isolation (type PELV) on the control terminals of
the frequency converter.
R
3 3
VLT® Decentral Drive FCD 302
System Integration
20
55
42
18
19
27
29
32
33
50
54
12
12
12
12
12
12
55
53
3
Coast inverse
Speed
4
5
Illustration 3.12 Location of DIP Switches
Coast inverse (27)
1
S201 - terminal 53
2
S202 - terminal 54
3
S801 - standard bus termination
4
Profibus termination
5
Fieldbus address
Illustration 3.13 Basic Wiring Example
3.4.1.4 Electrical Installation, Control Cables
Table 3.9 Legend
36
MG04H102 - VLT® is a registered Danfoss trademark
3 phase
power
input
Mechanical
brake
+10Vdc
Switch Mode
Power Supply
24Vdc
10Vdc
600mA
15mA
122(MBR+)
123(MBR-)
50 (+10 V OUT)
(R+) 82
Motor
3 3
Brake
resistor
(R-) 81
S201
53 (A IN)
ON
S202
54 (A IN)
relay1
ON/I=0-20mA
OFF/U=0-10V
03
ON
1 2
-10Vdc+10Vdc
0/4-20 mA
(U) 96
(U) 97
(W) 98
(PE) 99
1 2
-10Vdc+10Vdc
0/4-20 mA
91 (L1)
92 (L2)
93 (L3)
95 (PE)
130BC384.10
VLT® Decentral Drive FCD 302
System Integration
02
55 (COM A IN)
relay2
12 (+24 V OUT)
01
06
13 (+24 V OUT)
P 5-00
05
18 (D IN)
24V (NPN)
OV (PNP)
19 (D IN)
24V (NPN)
OV (PNP)
(COM A OUT) 39
(A OT) 42
0V
S801
ON
1 2
24V (NPN)
OV (PNP)
240Vac, 2A
400Vac, 2A
04
20 (COM D IN)
27 (D IN/OUT)
240Vac, 2A
Analog Output
0/4-20 mA
ON=Terminated
OFF=Open
5V
29 (D IN/OUT)
24V
24V (NPN)
OV (PNP)
GX
S801
OV
32 (D IN)
24V (NPN)
OV (PNP)
33 (D IN)
24V (NPN)
OV (PNP)
RS-485
Interface
(N RS-485) 69
RS-485
(P RS-485) 68
(COM RS-485) 61
GX
(PNP) = Source
(NPN) = Sink
37 (D IN)
VCXA
67
GND1
62
Profibus
interface
63
RS485
66
GND1
Illustration 3.14 Electrical Terminals without Options
A=analog, D=digital
Terminal 37 is used for Safe Stop.
Relay 2 has no function when the frequency converter has
mechanical brake output.
Very long control cables and analogue signals may in rare
cases result in 50/60 Hz earth loops due to noise from
mains supply cables. If this occurs, it may be necessary to
break the screen or insert a 100 nF capacitor between
screen and chassis. Connect the digital and analogue
inputs and outputs separately to the common inputs
(terminal 20, 55, 39) to avoid ground currents from both
groups affecting other groups. For example, switching on
the digital input may disturb the analog input signal.
MG04H102 - VLT® is a registered Danfoss trademark
37
VLT® Decentral Drive FCD 302
System Integration
130BC987.10
Safe
torque off
Relay 1
•
•
•
Terminal 01: common
Terminal 02: normal open 240 V AC
Terminal 03: normal closed 240 V AC
R
V
N
P
B04
B03
B02
B01
Relay 2
B05
B06
B07
B08
20
B09
B10
B11
B12
37
37
20
20
20
20
20
20
20
13
55
42
18
19
27
29
32
33
50
54
12
12
12
12
12
12
55
53
•
•
•
Terminal 04: common
Terminal 05: normal open 240 V AC
Terminal 06: normal closed 240 V AC
Relay 1 and relay 2 are programmed in 5-40 Function Relay,
5-41 On Delay, Relay, and 5-42 Off Delay, Relay.
130BC998.10
20
12
G
3 3
PNP (Source)
Digital input wiring
B
GND
A
+24V
Safe
torque off
R
V
N
20
12
G
13
20
37
37
B12
G
12
20
20
B08 B07 B06
B05
R
V
N
P
B04 B03
B01
P
B04
B03
B02
B01
B05
B06
B07
B08
20
B09
B10
B11
B12
37
37
20
20
20
20
20
20
20
13
55
42
18
19
27
29
32
33
50
54
12
12
12
12
12
12
55
53
NPN (Sink)
Digital input wiring
B11
B10 B09
B02
/Z
/A
B
+5V
/B
GND
Z
A
Illustration 3.16 Relay Connection
Illustration 3.15 Input Polarity of Control Terminals
3.4.2 Brake Resistors
NOTE
To comply with EMC emission specifications, screened/
armoured cables are recommended. If an unscreened/
unarmoured cable is used. For more information, see
2.2.2 EMC Test Results.
3.4.1.5 Relay Output
The relay output with the terminals 01, 02, 03 and 04, 05,
06 has a capacity of maximum 240 V AC, 2 A. Minimum 24
V DC, 10 mA or 24 V AC, 100 mA. can be used for
indicating status and warnings. The two relays are
physically located on the installation card. These are
programmable through parameter group 5-4*. The relays
are Form C, meaning each has one normally open contact
and one normally closed contact on a single throw. The
contacts of each relay are rated for a maximum load of
240 V AC at 2 amps.
38
In certain applications, break down of kinetic energy is
required. In this frequency converter the energy is not fed
back to the grid. Instead the kinetic energy must be
transformed to heat, and this is achieved by braking using
a brake resistor.
In applications where the motor is used as a brake, energy
is generated in the motor and send back into the
frequency converter. If the energy can not be transported
back to the motor it will increase the voltage in the
converter DC-line. In applications with frequent braking
and/or high inertia loads this increase may lead to an over
voltage trip in the converter and finally a shut down. Brake
resistors are used to dissipate the excess energy resulting
from the regenerative braking. The resistor is selected in
respect to its ohmic value, its power dissipation rate and
its physical size. Danfoss Brake resistors are available in
several types, for internal or external installation to the
MG04H102 - VLT® is a registered Danfoss trademark
VLT® Decentral Drive FCD 302
System Integration
frequency converter. Code numbers can be found in
5.2.1 Ordering Numbers: Accessories.
For frequency converters equipped with the dynamic brake
option, one brake IGBT along with terminals 81 (R-) and 82
(R+) is included in each inverter module for connecting a
brake resistor(s).
For internal brake resistor use:
For mounting inside installation box
below motor terminals
Brake resistor 350 Ω 10 W/ For mounting inside installation box
100%
below motor terminals
Table 3.10 Brake Resistors 10%
3.4.2.2 Brake Resistor 40%
Placing the brake resistor externally has the advantages of
selecting the resistor based on application need,
dissipating the energy outside of the control panel, and
protecting the frequency converter from overheating if the
brake resistor is overloaded.
No. 81 (optional
function)
R-
82 (optional
function)
Brake resistor
terminals
R+
Table 3.11 Brake Resistors 40%
•
•
Ambient temperature – relevant for ambient
temperatures above 50 °C
Contact Danfoss for the application note for tables and
elaboration. Only the case of running at low motor speeds
is elaborated here.
3.4.2.1 Brake Resistors 10%
Brake resistor 1750 Ω 10
W/100%
•
The connection cable to the brake resistor must
be screened/armoured. Connect the screen to the
metal cabinet of the frequency converter and to
the metal cabinet of the brake resistor with cable
clamps.
Dimension the cross-section of the brake cable to
match the brake torque.
3.4.3 Special Conditions
Under some special conditions, where the operation of the
drive is challenged, derating must be taken into account.
In some conditions, derating must be done manually.
In other conditions, the drive automatically performs a
degree of derating when necessary. This is done in order
to ensure the performance at critical stages where the
alternative could be a trip.
3.4.3.1 Manual Derating
Manual derating must be considered for:
•
Air pressure – relevant for installation at altitudes
above 1 km
•
Motor speed – at continuous operation at low
RPM in constant torque applications
3.4.3.2 Automatic Derating
The drive constantly checks for critical levels:
•
Critical high temperature on the control card or
heatsink
•
•
•
High motor load
High DC link voltage
Low motor speed
As a response to a critical level, the frequency converter
adjusts the switching frequency. For critical high internal
temperatures and low motor speed, the drive can also
force the PWM pattern to SFAVM.
NOTE
The automatic derating is different when 14-55 Output
Filter is set to [2] Sine-Wave Filter Fixed.
3.4.3.3 Derating for Running at Low Speed
When a motor is connected to a frequency converter, it is
necessary to check that the cooling of the motor is
adequate.
The level of heating depends on the load on the motor, as
well as the operating speed and time.
Constant torque applications (CT mode)
A problem may occur at low RPM values in constant
torque applications. In a constant torque applications a
motor may over-heat at low speeds due to less cooling air
from the motor integral fan. Therefore, if the motor is to
be run continuously at an RPM value lower than half of
the rated value, the motor must be supplied with
additional air-cooling (or a motor designed for this type of
operation may be used). An alternative is to reduce the
load level of the motor by choosing a larger motor.
However, the design of the frequency converter puts a
limit to the motor size.
Variable (Quadratic) torque applications (VT)
In VT applications such as centrifugal pumps and fans, the
torque is proportional to the square of the speed and the
power is proportional to the cube of the speed. In these
applications there is no need for additional cooling or derating of the motor. In Illustration 3.17, the typical VT curve
is below the maximum torque with de-rating and
maximum torque with forced cooling at all speeds.
MG04H102 - VLT® is a registered Danfoss trademark
39
3 3
100
1)
cables. The screen should provide a minimum
coverage of 80%. The screen material must be
metal, not limited to but typically copper,
aluminium, steel or lead. There are no special
requirements for the mains cable.
130BA893.10
120
80
T%
3 3
VLT® Decentral Drive FCD 302
System Integration
60
•
Installations using rigid metal conduits are not
required to use screened cable, but the motor
cable must be installed in conduit separate from
the control and mains cables. Full connection of
the conduit from the drive to the motor is
required. The EMC performance of flexible
conduits varies a lot and information from the
manufacturer must be obtained.
•
Connect the screen/armour/conduit to earth at
both ends for motor cables as well as for control
cables. In some cases, it is not possible to
connect the screen in both ends. If so, connect
the screen at the frequency converter.
•
Avoid terminating the screen/armour with twisted
ends (pigtails). It increases the high frequency
impedance of the screen, which reduces its
effectiveness at high frequencies. Use low
impedance cable clamps or EMC cable glands
instead.
•
Avoid using unscreened/unarmoured motor or
control cables inside cabinets housing the
drive(s), whenever this can be avoided.
40
20
0
0
10
20
30
40
50
v%
60
70
80
90
100 110
Illustration 3.17 VT Applications - Maximum Load for a Standard
Motor at 40 °C
Item
Description
‒‒‒‒‒‒‒‒
Maximum torque
────
Typical torque at VT load
Table 3.12 Legend - VT Applications
NOTE
Over-synchronous speed operation will result in decrease
of the available motor torque, inversely proportional to the
increase in speed. This must be considered during the
design phase to avoid over-loading of the motor.
3.4.4 EMC
Leave the screen as close to the connectors as possible.
3.4.4.1 EMC-correct Cables
The following is a guideline to good engineering practice
when installing frequency converters. Follow these
guidelines to comply with EN 61800-3 First environment. If
the installation is in EN 61800-3 Second environment, i.e.
industrial networks, or in an installation with its own
transformer, deviation from these guidelines is allowed but
not recommended. See also 1.4.3 CE Labelling,2.2.1 General
Aspects of EMC Emissions and 2.2.2 EMC Test Results.
Good engineering practice to ensure EMC-correct
electrical installation:
• Use only braided screened/armoured motor
cables and braided screened/armoured control
40
Illustration 3.18 shows an example of an EMC-correct
electrical installation of an IP20 frequency converter. The
frequency converter is connected to a PLC, which is
installed in a separate cabinet. Other ways of doing the
installation may have just as good an EMC performance,
provided the above guidelines are followed.
If the installation is not carried out according to the
guidelines, and if unscreened cables and control wires are
used, then certain emission requirements will not be
fulfilled, although the immunity requirements are fulfilled.
See the section 2.2.2 EMC Test Results.
MG04H102 - VLT® is a registered Danfoss trademark
VLT® Decentral Drive FCD 302
130BC989.10
System Integration
PLC etc.
3 3
Output contactor etc.
PLC
Earthing rail
Cable insulation stripped
Min. 16 mm2
Equalizing cable
Control cables
Mains-supply
L1
Min. 200mm
between control cables,
motor cable and
mains cable
Motor cable
L2
L3
PE
Motor, 3 phases and
Reinforced protective earth
Protective earth
Illustration 3.18 EMC-correct Electrical Installation of a Frequency Converter
MG04H102 - VLT® is a registered Danfoss trademark
41
130BA175.12
L1
L2
L3
N
PE
PLC
PE
130BB609.11
VLT® Decentral Drive FCD 302
System Integration
FC
PE
100nF
Illustration 3.21 Screening for 50/60 Hz Ground Loops
F1
12
91 92 93 95
37
L1 L2 L3 PE
U
18
50
53
55
V W PE
5 kΩ
Avoid EMC noise on serial communication
This terminal is connected to earth via an internal RC link.
Use twisted-pair cables to reduce interference between
conductors. The recommended method is shown in
Illustration 3.22.
54
96 97 98 99
FC
FC
69
68
61
69
68
61
Transmitter
PE
PE
PE
PE
130BB923.11
3 3
1
2
Illustration 3.22 Screening for EMC Noise Reduction, Serial
Communication
M
3
3.4.4.2 Earthing of Screened Control Cables
FC
PLC
PE
PE
PE
PE
130BB922.11
Correct screening
The preferred method in most cases is to secure control
and cables with screening clamps provided at both ends
to ensure best possible high frequency cable contact.
If the earth potential between the frequency converter and
the PLC is different, electric noise may occur that will
disturb the entire system. Solve this problem by fitting an
equalizing cable next to the control cable. Minimum cable
cross section: 16 mm2.
1
Min. 16 mm2
2
Equalizing cable
Table 3.14 Legend
Alternatively, the connection to terminal 61 can be
omitted:
FC
FC
69
68
68
69
PE
PE
PE
PE
130BB924.11
Illustration 3.19 Electrical Connection Diagram
1
2
Illustration 3.23 Screening for EMC Noise Reduction, Serial
Communication, without Terminal 61
1
Min. 16 mm2
2
Equalizing cable
1
2
Table 3.15 Legend
Illustration 3.20 Screening of Control Cables
3.4.4.3 RFI Switch
1
Min. 16 mm2
2
Equalizing cable
Table 3.13 Legend
50/60 Hz ground loops
With very long control cables, ground loops may occur. To
eliminate ground loops, connect one end of the screen-toground with a 100 nF capacitor (keeping leads short).
42
Mains supply isolated from earth
When the frequency converter is supplied from an isolated
mains source (IT mains, floating delta and grounded delta)
or TT/TN-S mains with grounded leg, set the RFI switch to
[Off] via 14-50 RFI Filter on the drive.
Otherwise, set 14-50 RFI Filter to [On].
For further information, refer to:
MG04H102 - VLT® is a registered Danfoss trademark
VLT® Decentral Drive FCD 302
System Integration
•
•
3.4.5.2 Effect of Harmonics in a Power
Distribution System
IEC 364-3
Application note VLT on IT mains, MN90C. It is
important to use isolation monitors that are
capable for use together with power electronics
(IEC 61557-8).
In Illustration 3.25 a transformer is connected on the
primary side to a point of common coupling PCC1, on the
medium voltage supply. The transformer has an
impedance Zxfr and feeds a number of loads. The point of
common coupling where all loads are connected together
is PCC2. Each load is connected through cables that have
an impedance Z1, Z2, Z3.
3.4.5 Mains Supply Interference/Harmonics
3.4.5.1 Mains Supply Interference/
Harmonics
A frequency converter takes up a non-sinusoidal current
from mains, which increases the input current IRMS. A nonsinusoidal current is transformed by means of a Fourier
analysis and split up into sine-wave currents with different
frequencies, i.e. different harmonic currents I N with 50 Hz
as the basic frequency:
Harmonic currents
Hz
I1
I5
I7
50 Hz
250 Hz
350 Hz
Table 3.16 Harmonic Currents
175HA034.10
The harmonics do not affect the power consumption
directly but increase the heat losses in the installation
(transformer, cables). Consequently, in plants with a high
percentage of rectifier load, maintain harmonic currents at
a low level to avoid overload of the transformer and high
temperature in the cables.
Illustration 3.24 Intermediate Circuit Coils
NOTE
Some of the harmonic currents might disturb communication equipment connected to the same transformer or
cause resonance in connection with power-factor
correction batteries.
Input current
IRMS
1.0
I1
0.9
I5
0.4
I7
0.2
I11-49
<0.1
Table 3.17 Harmonic Currents Compared to the RMS Input Current
To ensure low harmonic currents, the frequency converter
is equipped with intermediate circuit coils as standard. DCcoils reduce the total harmonic distortion (THD) to 40%.
Illustration 3.25 Small Distribution System
Harmonic currents drawn by non-linear loads cause
distortion of the voltage because of the voltage drop on
the impedances of the distribution system. Higher
impedances result in higher levels of voltage distortion.
Current distortion relates to apparatus performance and it
relates to the individual load. Voltage distortion relates to
system performance. It is not possible to determine the
voltage distortion in the PCC knowing only the load’s
harmonic performance. In order to predict the distortion in
the PCC the configuration of the distribution system and
relevant impedances must be known.
A commonly used term for describing the impedance of a
grid is the short circuit ratio Rsce, defined as the ratio
between the short circuit apparent power of the supply at
the PCC (Ssc) and the rated apparent power of the load
(Sequ).
Sce
Rsce =
Sequ
where
Ssc =
U2
Z supply
and
Sequ = U × I equ
The negative effect of harmonics is twofold
• Harmonic currents contribute to system losses (in
cabling, transformer)
•
Harmonic voltage distortion causes disturbance
to other loads and increase losses in other loads
MG04H102 - VLT® is a registered Danfoss trademark
43
3 3
VLT® Decentral Drive FCD 302
130BB541.10
System Integration
Non-linear
Current
System
Impedance
Voltage
3 3
Contribution to
system losses
Disturbance to
other users
Illustration 3.26 Negative Effects of Harmonics
3.4.5.3 Harmonic Limitation Standards and
Requirements
The requirements for harmonic limitation can be:
• Application specific requirements
•
Standards that must be observed
The application specific requirements are related to a
specific installation where there are technical reasons for
limiting the harmonics.
The choice of the right solution depends on several
factors:
• The grid (background distortion, mains
unbalance, resonance and type of supply
(transformer/generator)
•
Application (load profile, number of loads and
load size)
•
Local/national requirements/regulations (IEEE519,
IEC, G5/4, etc.)
•
Total cost of ownership (initial cost, efficiency,
maintenance, etc.)
3.4.5.5 Harmonic Calculation
Determining the degree of voltage pollution on the grid
and needed precaution is done with the Danfoss MCT31
calculation software. From www.danfoss.com the free tool
VLT® Harmonic Calculation MCT 31 can be downloaded.
The software is built with a focus on user-friendliness and
limited to involve only system parameters that are
normally accessible.
Example: a 250 kVA transformer with two 110 kW motors
connected is sufficient if one of the motors is connected
directly on-line and the other is supplied through a
frequency converter. However, the transformer will be
undersized if both motors are frequency converter
supplied. Using additional means of harmonic reduction
within the installation or choosing low harmonic drive
variants makes it possible for both motors to run with
frequency converters.
Use RCD relays, multiple protective earthing or earthing as
extra protection, provided that local safety regulations are
complied with.
If an earth fault appears, a DC content may develop in the
faulty current.
If RCD relays are used, local regulations must be observed.
Relays must be suitable for protection of 3-phase
equipment with a bridge rectifier and for a brief discharge
on power-up using RCDs see 2.4 Earth Leakage Current for
further information.
There are various harmonic mitigation standards,
regulations and recommendations. Different standards
apply in different geographical areas and industries. The
following standards are the most common:
3.4.6 Final Test and Setup
•
•
•
•
•
IEC61000-3-2
Carry out a high voltage test by short-circuiting terminals
U, V, W, L1, L2 and L3. Energize maximum 2.15 kV DC for
380-500 V frequency converters, for one second between
this short-circuit and the chassis.
IEC61000-3-12
IEC61000-3-4
IEEE 519
G5/4
See the Advanced Harmonic Filter Design Guide 005/010,
MG80C for specific details on each standard.
3.4.5.4 Harmonic Mitigation
In cases where additional harmonic suppression is required
Danfoss offers a wide range of mitigation equipment.
These are:
•
•
•
•
44
VLT 12-pulse drives
VLT AHF filters
VLT Low Harmonic Drives
3.4.6.1 High Voltage Test
WARNING
When running high voltage tests of the entire installation,
interrupt the mains and motor connection if the leakage
currents are too high.
3.4.6.2 Earthing
The following basic issues need to be considered when
installing a frequency converter, so as to obtain electromagnetic compatibility (EMC).
• Safety earthing: note that the frequency converter
has a high leakage current and must be earthed
VLT Active Filters
MG04H102 - VLT® is a registered Danfoss trademark
VLT® Decentral Drive FCD 302
System Integration
•
High-frequency earthing: Keep the earth wire
connections as short as possible.
Connect the different earth systems at the lowest possible
conductor impedance. The lowest possible conductor
impedance is obtained by keeping the conductor as short
as possible and by using the greatest possible surface area.
The metal cabinets of the different devices are mounted
on the cabinet rear plate using the lowest possible HF
impedance. This avoids having different HF voltages for
the individual devices and avoids the risk of radio
interference currents running in connection cables that
may be used between the devices. The radio interference
will have been reduced.
In order to obtain a low HF impedance, use the fastening
bolts of the devices as HF connection to the rear plate. It is
necessary to remove insulating paint or similar from the
fastening points.
3.4.6.3 Safety Earth Connection
The frequency converter has a high leakage current and
must be earthed appropriately for safety reasons according
to IEC 61800-5-1.
WARNING
The earth leakage current from the frequency converter
exceeds 3.5 mA. To ensure a good mechanical connection
from the earth cable to the earth connection (terminal 95),
the cable cross-section must be at least 10 mm2 or 2 rated
earth wires terminated separately.
130BB851.12
appropriately for safety reasons. Apply local
safety regulations.
Barcode
178uxxxxxxxxxxb011
Type OGDHK231K131402L09R1S11P1A9010H1Bxx
M LT 140-65 Nm
I Nmax 7,2 A
n LT 0..370 rpm
tamb 40 °C
i 8,12
KTY 84-130
2,9 L Optileb GT220
P3
f max 250 Hz
155 °C (F)
IP 69K
28 kg
Made in Germany
Illustration 3.28 Name Plate
Step 2. Check the motor name plate data in this parameter
list.
To access this list first press the [Quick Menu] key on the
LCP then select “Q2 Quick Setup”.
1.
1-20 Motor Power [kW]
1-21 Motor Power [HP]
2.
1-22 Motor Voltage
3.
1-23 Motor Frequency
4.
1-24 Motor Current
5.
1-25 Motor Nominal Speed
Step 3. Select OGD motor data
1.
Set 1-11 Motor Model to 'Danfoss OGD LA10'.
Step 4. Set speed limit and ramp times
Set up the desired limits for speed and ramp time:
3-02 Minimum Reference
3.4.6.4 Final Setup Check
To check the setup and ensure that the frequency
converter is running, follow these steps.
3-03 Maximum Reference
Step 1. Locate the motor name plate
4-11 Motor Speed Low Limit [RPM] or 4-12 Motor
Speed Low Limit [Hz]
NOTE
4-13 Motor Speed High Limit [RPM] or 4-14 Motor
Speed High Limit [Hz]
The motor is either star- (Y) or delta- connected (Δ). This
information is located on the motor name plate data.
3-41 Ramp 1 Ramp up Time
Barcode
178uxxxxxxxxxxb011
Type OGDHK231K131402L09R1S11P1A9010H1Bxx
MLT 140-65 Nm nLT 0..370 rpm
INmax 7,2 A t amb 40 °C
2,9 L Optileb GT220
i 8,12
KTY 84-130
P3
fmax 250 Hz
155 °C (F)
IP 69K
130BD002.10
3-42 Ramp 1 Ramp Down Time
3.5 Ambient Conditions
3.5.1 Air Humidity
28 kg
Made in Germany
The frequency converter has been designed to meet the
IEC/EN 60068-2-3 standard, EN 50178 pkt. 9.4.2.2 at 50 °C.
Illustration 3.27 Location of Motor Name Plate
MG04H102 - VLT® is a registered Danfoss trademark
45
3 3
System Integration
VLT® Decentral Drive FCD 302
3.5.2 Aggressive Environments
A frequency converter contains a large number of
mechanical and electronic components. All are to some
extent vulnerable to environmental effects.
3 3
CAUTION
The frequency converter should not be installed in
environments with airborne liquids, particles, or gases
capable of affecting and damaging the electronic
components. Failure to take the necessary protective
measures increases the risk of stoppages, thus reducing
the life of the frequency converter.
Degree of protection as per IEC 60529
The Safe Stop function may only be installed and operated
in a control cabinet with degree of protection IP54 or
higher (or equivalent environment). This is required to
avoid cross faults and short circuits between terminals,
connectors, tracks and safety-related circuitry caused by
foreign objects.
Liquids can be carried through the air and condense in the
frequency converter and may cause corrosion of
components and metal parts. Steam, oil, and salt water
may cause corrosion of components and metal parts. In
such environments, use equipment with enclosure rating
IP54/55. As an extra protection, coated printed circuit
boards can be ordered as an option.
Airborne Particles such as dust may cause mechanical,
electrical, or thermal failure in the frequency converter. A
typical indicator of excessive levels of airborne particles is
dust particles around the frequency converter fan. In very
dusty environments, use equipment with enclosure rating
IP54/55 or a cabinet for IP00/IP20/TYPE 1 equipment.
In environments with high temperatures and humidity,
corrosive gases such as sulphur, nitrogen, and chlorine
compounds cause chemical processes on the frequency
converter components.
Before installing the frequency converter, check the
ambient air for liquids, particles, and gases. This is done by
observing existing installations in this environment. Typical
indicators of harmful airborne liquids are water or oil on
metal parts, or corrosion of metal parts.
Excessive dust particle levels are often found on installation cabinets and existing electrical installations. One
indicator of aggressive airborne gases is blackening of
copper rails and cable ends on existing installations.
D and E enclosures have a stainless steel back-channel
option to provide additional protection in aggressive
environments. Proper ventilation is still required for the
internal components of the frequency converter. Contact
Danfoss for additional information.
3.5.3 Vibration and Shock
The frequency converter has been tested according to the
procedure based on the shown standards:
The frequency converter complies with requirements that
exist for units mounted on the walls and floors of
production premises, as well as in panels bolted to walls or
floors.
•
•
IEC/EN 60068-2-6: Vibration (sinusoidal) - 1970
IEC/EN 60068-2-64: Vibration, broad-band random
3.5.4 Acoustic Noise
The acoustic noise from the frequency converter comes
from three sources:
1.
DC intermediate circuit coils.
2.
Integral fan.
3.
RFI filter choke.
Refer to 6 Specifications for acoustic noise data.
Such chemical reactions rapidly affect and damage the
electronic components. In such environments, mount the
equipment in a cabinet with fresh air ventilation, keeping
aggressive gases away from the frequency converter.
An extra protection in such areas is a coating of the
printed circuit boards, which can be ordered as an option.
NOTE
Mounting frequency converters in aggressive environments
increases the risk of stoppages and considerably reduces
the life of the converter.
46
MG04H102 - VLT® is a registered Danfoss trademark
VLT® Decentral Drive FCD 302
Application Examples
4 Application Examples
The examples in this section are intended as a quick
reference for common applications.
•
Parameters associated with the terminals and
their settings are shown next to the drawings
•
Where switch settings for analog terminals A53 or
A54 are required, these are also shown
A jumper wire may be required between terminal 12 (or
13) and terminal 27 for the frequency converter to operate
when using factory default programming values. See
4.9.1.1 Terminal 37 Safe Stop Function for details.
FC
+24 V
12
+24 V
13
D IN
18
D IN
19
COM
20
D IN
27
D IN
29
D IN
32
D IN
33
D IN
37
+10 V
A IN
50
A IN
54
COM
55
A OUT
42
COM
39
130BB929.10
Parameters
Function
1-29 Automatic
Motor
Adaptation
(AMA)
12
+24 V
13
D IN
18
D IN
19
COM
20
D IN
27
D IN
29
D IN
32
D IN
33
D IN
37
+10 V
A IN
50
A IN
54
COM
55
A OUT
42
COM
39
1-29 Automatic
Motor
Adaptation
(AMA)
Setting
[1] Enable
complete
AMA
4 4
5-12 Terminal 27 [0] No
operation
Digital Input
*=Default Value
Notes/comments: Parameter
group 1-2* must be set
according to motor
53
[1] Enable
complete
AMA
Table 4.2 AMA without T27 Connected
Parameters
FC
*=Default Value
+24 V
12
Notes/comments: Parameter
group 1-2* must be set
according to motor
+24 V
13
D IN
18
D IN
19
COM
20
D IN
27
D IN
29
D IN
32
Table 4.1 AMA with T27 Connected
Function
Setting
5-12 Terminal 27 [2]* Coast
inverse
Digital Input
53
130BB930.10
FC
+24 V
130BB926.10
•
Parameter settings are the regional default values
unless otherwise indicated (selected in
0-03 Regional Settings)
Parameters
D IN
33
D IN
37
+10 V
A IN
50
A IN
54
COM
55
A OUT
42
COM
39
53
Function
Setting
6-10 Terminal 53
0.07 V*
Low Voltage
6-11 Terminal 53 10 V*
High Voltage
6-14 Terminal 53 0 RPM
Low Ref./Feedb.
Value
6-15 Terminal 53 1500 RPM
High Ref./Feedb.
Value
+
*=Default Value
Notes/comments:
-10 - +10V
U-I
A53
Table 4.3 Analog Speed Reference (Voltage)
MG04H102 - VLT® is a registered Danfoss trademark
47
12
+24 V
13
D IN
18
D IN
19
COM
20
D IN
27
D IN
29
D IN
32
D IN
33
D IN
37
+10 V
A IN
50
A IN
54
COM
55
A OUT
42
53
COM
39
6-12 Terminal 53 4 mA*
Low Current
6-14 Terminal 53 0 RPM
Low Ref./Feedb.
Value
13
D IN
18
D IN
19
COM
20
D IN
27
D IN
29
D IN
32
D IN
33
D IN
37
+10
50
A IN
53
A IN
54
COM
55
A OUT
42
COM
39
FC
12
Notes/comments:
+24 V
13
D IN
18
D IN
19
COM
20
D IN
27
D IN
29
D IN
32
D IN
33
D IN
37
+10 V
50
A IN
53
A IN
54
COM
55
A OUT
42
COM
39
4 - 20mA
Parameters
+24 V
Parameters
+24 V
Table 4.4 Analog Speed Reference (Current)
12
Illustration 4.1 Start/Stop Command with Safe Stop
*=Default Value
A53
FC
Start [18]
6-15 Terminal 53 1500 RPM
High Ref./Feedb.
Value
U-I
+24 V
Speed
6-13 Terminal 53 20 mA*
High Current
+
130BB805.10
+24 V
Setting
Function
Setting
5-10 Terminal 18 [8] Start*
Digital Input
Setting
5-10 Terminal 18 [9] Latched
Start
Digital Input
5-12 Terminal 27 [6] Stop
Inverse
Digital Input
*=Default Value
Notes/comments:
If 5-12 Terminal 27 Digital Input
is set to [0] No operation, a
jumper wire to terminal 27 is
not needed.
5-12 Terminal 27 [0] No
operation
Digital Input
5-19 Terminal 37 [1] Safe Stop
Alarm
Safe Stop
*=Default Value
Table 4.6 Pulse Start/Stop
Speed
Notes/comments:
If 5-12 Terminal 27 Digital Input
is set to [0] No operation, a
jumper wire to terminal 27 is
not needed.
Latched Start (18)
Stop Inverse (27)
Illustration 4.2 Pulse Start/Stop
Table 4.5 Start/Stop Command with Safe Stop
48
Function
MG04H102 - VLT® is a registered Danfoss trademark
130BB806.10
FC
Function
130BB803.10
130BB927.10
Parameters
130BB802.10
4 4
VLT® Decentral Drive FCD 302
Application Examples
VLT® Decentral Drive FCD 302
Application Examples
+24 V
12
+24 V
13
D IN
18
D IN
19
COM
20
D IN
D IN
D IN
32
D IN
33
D IN
37
+10 V
A IN
50
A IN
54
COM
55
A OUT
42
COM
39
Parameters
Setting
FC
+24 V
12
+24 V
13
D IN
18
D IN
19
COM
20
27
D IN
27
29
D IN
29
5-10 Terminal 18
Digital Input
5-11 Terminal 19
Digital Input
53
[8] Start
[10]
Reversing*
5-12 Terminal 27
Digital Input
[0] No
operation
D IN
32
D IN
33
5-14 Terminal 32
Digital Input
[16] Preset
ref bit 0
D IN
37
5-15 Terminal 33
Digital Input
[17] Preset
ref bit 1
+10 V
A IN
50
A IN
54
COM
55
A OUT
42
COM
39
3-10 Preset
Reference
Preset ref. 0
Preset ref. 1
Preset ref. 2
Preset ref. 3
25%
50%
75%
100%
130BB683.10
FC
130BB934.10
Parameters
Function
53
Function
Setting
6-10 Terminal 53
0.07 V*
Low Voltage
6-11 Terminal 53 10 V*
High Voltage
6-14 Terminal 53 0 RPM
Low Ref./Feedb.
Value
4 4
6-15 Terminal 53 1500 RPM
High Ref./Feedb.
Value
≈ 5kΩ *=Default Value
Notes/comments:
U-I
*=Default Value
Notes/comments:
A53
Table 4.9 Speed Reference (using a manual potentiometer)
FC
130BB928.10
Parameters
Function
+24 V
12
+24 V
13
D IN
18
D IN
19
*=Default Value
COM
20
Notes/comments:
D IN
27
D IN
29
D IN
32
D IN
33
D IN
37
+10 V
A IN
50
A IN
54
COM
55
A OUT
42
COM
39
53
Setting
5-11 Terminal 19 [1] Reset
Digital Input
FC
+24 V
12
+24 V
13
D IN
18
D IN
19
COM
20
D IN
27
D IN
29
D IN
32
D IN
33
D IN
37
+10 V
A IN
50
A IN
54
COM
55
A OUT
42
COM
39
130BB804.10
Parameters
Table 4.7 Start/Stop with Reversing and 4 Preset Speeds
Function
Setting
5-10 Terminal 18 [8] Start*
Digital Input
5-12 Terminal 27 [19] Freeze
Reference
Digital Input
5-13 Terminal 29 [21] Speed
Up
Digital Input
5-14 Terminal 32 [22] Speed
Down
Digital Input
*=Default Value
Notes/comments:
53
Table 4.8 External Alarm Reset
Table 4.10 Speed Up/Down
MG04H102 - VLT® is a registered Danfoss trademark
49
R efe rence
S tart ( 18 )
Freez e ref ( 27 )
S peed up ( 29 )
S peed down ( 32 )
Illustration 4.3 Speed Up/Down
130BB685.10
Parameters
FC
Function
+24 V
12
+24 V
13
D IN
18
D IN
19
COM
20
*=Default Value
D IN
27
D IN
29
D IN
32
D IN
33
D IN
37
+10 V
A IN
50
A IN
54
COM
55
A OUT
42
COM
39
Setting
8-30 Protocol
FC*
8-31 Address
1*
8-32 Baud Rate
9600*
Notes/comments:
Select protocol, address and
baud rate in the above
mentioned parameters.
Parameters
FC
+24 V
12
+24 V
13
D IN
18
D IN
19
COM
20
D IN
27
D IN
29
D IN
32
R1
1-90 Motor
Thermal
Protection
[2]
Thermistor
trip
1-93 Thermistor
Source
[1] Analog
input 53
*=Default Value
33
37
Notes/comments:
If only a warning is desired,
+10 V
A IN
50
53
1-90 Motor Thermal Protection
should be set to [1] Thermistor
A IN
54
warning.
COM
55
A OUT
42
COM
39
U-I
A53
Table 4.12 Motor Thermistor
02
03
04
05
RS-485
+
-
Table 4.11 RS-485 Network Connection
CAUTION
Thermistors must use reinforced or double insulation to
meet PELV insulation requirements.
50
Setting
D IN
01
61
68
69
Function
D IN
53
06
130BB686.11
130BB840.10
S peed
R2
4 4
VLT® Decentral Drive FCD 302
Application Examples
MG04H102 - VLT® is a registered Danfoss trademark
VLT® Decentral Drive FCD 302
Application Examples
18
D IN
19
COM
20
D IN
27
D IN
29
D IN
32
D IN
33
D IN
37
+10 V
A IN
50
A IN
54
COM
55
A OUT
42
COM
53
39
4-31 Motor
Feedback Speed
Error
R1
02
03
R2
04
05
06
Setting
5-40 Function
Relay
[32] Mech.
brake ctrl.
12
+24 V
13
[1] Warning
D IN
18
100RPM
D IN
19
COM
20
D IN
27
D IN
29
5-11 Terminal 19 [11] Start
reversing
Digital Input
D IN
32
1-71 Start Delay
0.2
D IN
33
D IN
37
1-72 Start
Function
[5] VVCplus/
FLUX
+10 V
A IN
50
A IN
54
COM
55
A OUT
42
COM
39
4-32 Motor
Feedback Loss
Timeout
5s
7-00 Speed PID
Feedback Source
[2] MCB 102
17-11 Resolution
(PPR)
1024*
13-00 SL
Controller Mode
[1] On
13-01 Start Event [19] Warning
01
Function
+24 V
13-02 Stop Event [44] Reset
key
13-10 Comparato [21] Warning
no.
r Operand
13-11 Comparato [1] ≈*
r Operator
5-10 Terminal 18 [8] Start*
Digital Input
4 4
Clockwise
1-76 Start
Current
Im,n
2-20 Release
Brake Current
App.
dependent
01
2-21 Activate
Brake Speed
[RPM]
Half of
nominal slip
of the motor
02
*=Default Value
03
Notes/comments:
53
04
05
13-12 Comparato 90
r Value
06
13-51 SL
Controller Event
[22]
Comparator 0
13-52 SL
Controller Action
[32] Set
digital out A
low
5-40 Function
Relay
[80] SL digital
output A
Speed
Notes/comments:
If the limit in the feedback
monitor is exceeded, Warning
90 will be issued. The SLC
monitors Warning 90 and in the
case that Warning 90 becomes
TRUE then Relay 1 is triggered.
External equipment may then
indicate that service may be
required. If the feedback error
goes below the limit again
within 5 then the drive
continues and the warning
disappears. But Relay 1 will still
be triggered until [Reset] on
the LCP.
Start (18)
Table 4.14 Mechanical Brake Control
130BB842.10
13
D IN
FC
130BB841.10
+24 V
4-30 Motor
Feedback Loss
Function
R1
12
Parameters
Setting
R2
FC
+24 V
130BB839.10
Parameters
Function
1-76
Current
1-71
Time
2-21 1-71
*=Default Value
2-21
Start
reversing (19)
Relay output
Open
Closed
Illustration 4.4 Mechanical Brake Control
4.1 Encoder Connection
The purpose of this guideline is to ease the set-up of
encoder connection to the frequency converter. Before
setting up the encoder the basic settings for a closed loop
speed control system will be shown.
Table 4.13 Using SLC to Set a Relay
MG04H102 - VLT® is a registered Danfoss trademark
51
VLT® Decentral Drive FCD 302
Application Examples
4.3 Closed Loop Drive System
A closed loop drive system usually comprises elements
such as:
4 4
•
•
Motor
•
•
•
•
•
Frequency converter
Add
(Gearbox)
(Mechanical Brake)
Encoder as feed-back system
Brake resistor for dynamic braking
Transmission
Load
ON
Bus MS
WARNING
ALARM
NS1
NS2
130BC996.10
Applications demanding mechanical brake control will
usually need a brake resistor.
Illustration 4.5 Encoder Connection to the Frequency Converter
6
130BA646.10
CW
A
B
5
CCW
A
1
2
3
4
7
Illustration 4.7 Basic Set-up for Closed Loop Speed Control
B
Illustration 4.6 24 V Incremental Encoder with Maximum Cable
Length 5 m
4.2 Encoder Direction
The direction of encoder is determined by which order the
pulses are entering the drive.
Clockwise direction means channel A is 90 electrical
degrees before channel B.
Counter Clockwise direction means channel B is 90
electrical degrees before A.
The direction determined by looking into the shaft end.
Item
Description
1
Encoder
2
Mechanical brake
3
Motor
4
Gearbox
5
Transmission
6
Brake resistor
7
Load
Table 4.15 Legend
4.4 PID Control
52
MG04H102 - VLT® is a registered Danfoss trademark
VLT® Decentral Drive FCD 302
Application Examples
4.4.1 Speed PID Control
1-00 Configuration Mode
1-01 Motor Control Principle
U/f
VVCplus
Flux Sensorless
Flux w/ enc. feedb
[0] Speed open loop
Not Active
Not Active
ACTIVE
N.A.
[1] Speed closed loop
N.A.
ACTIVE
N.A.
ACTIVE
[2] Torque
N.A.
N.A.
N.A.
Not Active
Not Active
ACTIVE
ACTIVE
[3] Process
4 4
Table 4.16 Control configurations where the Speed Control is active
“N.A.” means that the specific mode is not available at all.
“Not Active” means that the specific mode is available but the Speed
Control is not active in that mode.
NOTE
The Speed Control PID will work under the default
parameter setting, but tuning the parameters is highly
recommended to optimize the motor control performance.
The two Flux motor control principles are particularly
dependant on proper tuning to yield their full potential.
4.4.2 The Following Parameters are relevant for the Speed Control
Parameter
Description of function
7-00 Speed PID Feedback Source
Select from which input the Speed PID should get its feedback.
30-83 Speed PID Proportional Gain
The higher the value - the quicker the control. However, too high value may lead to
oscillations.
7-03 Speed PID Integral Time
Eliminates steady state speed error. Lower value means quick reaction. However, too low
value may lead to oscillations.
7-04 Speed PID Differentiation Time
Provides a gain proportional to the rate of change of the feedback. A setting of zero
disables the differentiator.
7-05 Speed PID Diff. Gain Limit
If there are quick changes in reference or feedback in a given application - which means
that the error changes swiftly - the differentiator may soon become too dominant. This is
because it reacts to changes in the error. The quicker the error changes, the stronger the
differentiator gain is. The differentiator gain can thus be limited to allow setting of the
reasonable differentiation time for slow changes and a suitably quick gain for quick
changes.
7-06 Speed PID Lowpass Filter Time
A low-pass filter that dampens oscillations on the feedback signal and improves steady
state performance. However, too large filter time will deteriorate the dynamic performance
of the Speed PID control.
Practical settings of parameter 7-06 taken from the number of pulses per revolution on
from encoder (PPR):
Encoder PPR
7-06 Speed PID Lowpass Filter Time
512
10 ms
1024
5 ms
2048
2 ms
4096
1 ms
Table 4.17 Parameters Relevant for the Speed Control
Example of how to Programme the Speed Control
In this case the Speed PID Control is used to maintain a
constant motor speed regardless of the changing load on
the motor. The required motor speed is set via a potentiometer connected to terminal 53. The speed range is
0-1500 RPM corresponding to 0-10 V over the potentiometer. Starting and stopping is controlled by a switch
connected to terminal 18. The Speed PID monitors the
actual RPM of the motor by using a 24 V (HTL) incremental
encoder as feedback. The feedback sensor is an encoder
(1024 pulses per revolution) connected to terminals 32 and
33.
MG04H102 - VLT® is a registered Danfoss trademark
53
VLT® Decentral Drive FCD 302
Application Examples
130BA174.10
L1
L2
L3
N
PE
F1
The following must be programmed in order shown (see
explanation of settings in the FCD 302 Programming Guide,
MG04G)
In the list it is assumed that all other parameters and
switches remain at their default setting.
12
91 92 93 95
37
L1 L2 L3 PE
4 4
U
18
50
53
55
39
20
32
33
V W PE
96 97 98 99
M
3
24 Vdc
Illustration 4.8 Example - Speed Control Connections
Function
Parameter no.
Setting
Set the motor parameters using name plate data
1-2*
As specified by motor name plate
Have the frequency converter makes an Automatic
Motor Adaptation
1-29 Automatic
Motor Adaptation
(AMA)
[1] Enable complete AMA
1) Make sure the motor runs properly. Do the following:
2) Check the motor is running and the encoder is attached properly. Do the following:
Press the “Hand On” LCP key. Check that the motor is
running and note in which direction it is turning
(henceforth referred to as the “positive direction”).
Go to 16-20 Motor Angle. Turn the motor slowly in the
positive direction. It must be turned so slowly (only a
few RPM) that it can be determined if the value in
Set a positive reference.
16-20 Motor Angle
N.A. (read-only parameter) Note: An increasing value
overflows at 65535 and starts again at 0.
5-71 Term 32/33
Encoder Direction
[1] Counter clockwise (if 16-20 Motor Angle is decreasing)
3-02 Minimum
Reference
3-03 Maximum
Reference
0 RPM (default)
1500 RPM (default)
16-20 Motor Angle is increasing or decreasing.
If 16-20 Motor Angle is decreasing then change the
encoder direction in 5-71 Term 32/33 Encoder Direction.
3) Make sure the drive limits are set to safe values
Set acceptable limits for the references.
Check that the ramp settings are within drive capabilities 3-41 Ramp 1 Ramp default setting
and allowed application operating specifications.
up Time
default setting
3-42 Ramp 1 Ramp
Down Time
Set acceptable limits for the motor speed and frequency. 4-11 Motor Speed
Low Limit [RPM]
4-13 Motor Speed
High Limit [RPM]
4-19 Max Output
Frequency
0 RPM (default)
1500 RPM (default)
60 Hz (default 132 Hz)
4) Configure the Speed Control and select the Motor Control principle
Activation of Speed Control
54
1-00 Configuration [1] Speed closed loop
Mode
MG04H102 - VLT® is a registered Danfoss trademark
VLT® Decentral Drive FCD 302
Application Examples
Function
Parameter no.
Selection of Motor Control Principle
1-01 Motor Control [3] Flux w motor feedb
Principle
Setting
5) Configure and scale the reference to the Speed Control
Set up Analog Input 53 as a reference Source
3-15 Reference
Resource 1
Not necessary (default)
Scale Analog Input 53 0 RPM (0 V) to 1500 RPM (10 V)
6-1*
Not necessary (default)
6) Configure the 24V HTL encoder signal as feedback for the Motor Control and the Speed Control
Set up digital input 32 and 33 as encoder inputs
5-14 Terminal 32
Digital Input
5-15 Terminal 33
Digital Input
[0] No operation (default)
Choose terminal 32/33 as motor feedback
1-02 Flux Motor
Feedback Source
Not necessary (default)
Choose terminal 32/33 as Speed PID feedback
7-00 Speed PID
Feedback Source
Not necessary (default)
7-0*
See the guidelines below
0-50 LCP Copy
[1] All to LCP
4 4
7) Tune the Speed Control PID parameters
Use the tuning guidelines when relevant or tune
manually
8) Finished!
Save the parameter setting to the LCP for safe keeping
Table 4.18 Speed Control Settings
4.4.3 Tuning PID Speed Control
standard drive) or 17-11 Resolution (PPR) (5V TTL on
MCB102 Option).
The following tuning guidelines are relevant when using
one of the Flux motor control principles in applications
where the load is mainly inertial (with a low amount of
friction).
The value of 30-83 Speed PID Proportional Gain is
dependent on the combined inertia of the motor and load,
and the selected bandwidth can be calculated using the
following formula:
Par . 7 − 02 =
NOTE
Total inertia k gm 2 x par . 1 − 25
x Bandwidth rad / s
Par . 1 − 20 x 9550
1-20 Motor Power [kW] is the motor power in [kW] (i.e.
enter ‘4’ kW instead of ‘4000’ W in the formula).
A practical value for the Bandwith is 20 rad/s. Check the
result of the 30-83 Speed PID Proportional Gain calculation
against the following formula (not required if you are
using a high resolution feedback such as a SinCos
feedback):
Par . 7 − 02MAX =
0.01 x 4 x Encoder Resolution x Par . 7 − 06
x Max torque ripple
2xπ
%
A good start value for 7-06 Speed PID Lowpass Filter Time is
5 ms (lower encoder resolution calls for a higher filter
value). Typically a Max Torque Ripple of 3 % is acceptable.
For incremental encoders the Encoder Resolution is found
in either 5-70 Term 32/33 Pulses per Revolution (24V HTL on
Generally the practical maximum limit of 30-83 Speed PID
Proportional Gain is determined by the encoder resolution
and the feedback filter time but other factors in the
application might limit the 30-83 Speed PID Proportional
Gain to a lower value.
To minimize the overshoot, 7-03 Speed PID Integral Time
could be set to approx. 2.5 s (varies with the application).
7-04 Speed PID Differentiation Time should be set to 0 until
everything else is tuned. If necessary finish the tuning by
experimenting with small increments of this setting.
4.4.4 Process PID Control
The Process PID Control can be used to control application
parameters that can be measured by a sensor (i.e.
pressure, temperature, flow) and be affected by the
connected motor through a pump, fan or otherwise.
Table 4.19 shows the control configurations where the
Process Control is possible. When a Flux Vector motor
control principle is used, take care also to tune the Speed
Control PID parameters. Refer to the section about the
Control Structure to see where the Speed Control is active.
MG04H102 - VLT® is a registered Danfoss trademark
55
VLT® Decentral Drive FCD 302
Application Examples
1-00 Configuration Mode
1-01 Motor Control Principle
U/f
VVCplus
Flux
Flux w/
Sensorle enc. feedb
ss
[3] Process
N.A.
Process
Process Process &
& Speed Speed
NOTE
The Process Control PID will work under the default
parameter setting, but tuning the parameters is highly
recommended to optimise the application control
performance. The two Flux motor control principles are
specially dependant on proper Speed Control PID tuning
(prior to tuning the Process Control PID) to yield their full
potential.
Table 4.19 Process PID Control Settings
4 4
130BA178.10
Process PID
P 7-38
Feed forward
Ref.
Handling
Feedback
Handling
100%
+
% [unit]
0%
%
[unit]
_
PID
%
[speed]
0%
Scale to
speed
-100%
*(-1)
100%
% [unit]
P 7-30
normal/inverse
-100%
Illustration 4.9 Process PID Control Diagram
56
MG04H102 - VLT® is a registered Danfoss trademark
P 4-10
Motor speed
direction
To motor
control
VLT® Decentral Drive FCD 302
Application Examples
4.4.5 Process Control Relevant Parameters
Parameter
Description of function
7-20 Process CL Feedback 1 Resource
Select from which Source (i.e. analog or pulse input) the Process PID should get its
feedback
7-22 Process CL Feedback 2 Resource
Optional: Determine if (and from where) the Process PID should get an additional
feedback signal. If an additional feedback source is selected the two feedback signals will
be added together before being used in the Process PID Control.
7-30 Process PID Normal/ Inverse Control
Under [0] Normal operation the Process Control will respond with an increase of the
motor speed if the feedback is getting lower than the reference. In the same situation, but
under [1] Inverse operation, the Process Control will respond with a decreasing motor
speed instead.
7-31 Process PID Anti Windup
The anti windup function ensures that when either a frequency limit or a torque limit is
reached, the integrator will be set to a gain that corresponds to the actual frequency. This
avoids integrating on an error that cannot in any case be compensated for by means of a
speed change. This function can be disabled by selecting [0] “Off”.
7-32 Process PID Start Speed
In some applications, reaching the required speed/set point can take a very long time. In
such applications it might be an advantage to set a fixed motor speed from the frequency
converter before the process control is activated. This is done by setting a Process PID
Start Value (speed) in 7-32 Process PID Start Speed.
7-33 Process PID Proportional Gain
The higher the value - the quicker the control. However, too large value may lead to
oscillations.
7-34 Process PID Integral Time
Eliminates steady state speed error. Lower value means quick reaction. However, too small
value may lead to oscillations.
7-35 Process PID Differentiation Time
Provides a gain proportional to the rate of change of the feedback. A setting of zero
disables the differentiator.
7-36 Process PID Diff. Gain Limit
If there are quick changes in reference or feedback in a given application - which means
that the error changes swiftly - the differentiator may soon become too dominant. This is
because it reacts to changes in the error. The quicker the error changes, the stronger the
differentiator gain is. The differentiator gain can thus be limited to allow setting of the
reasonable differentiation time for slow changes.
7-38 Process PID Feed Forward Factor
In application where there is a good (and approximately linear) correlation between the
process reference and the motor speed necessary for obtaining that reference, the Feed
Forward Factor can be used to achieve better dynamic performance of the Process PID
Control.
5-54 Pulse Filter Time Constant #29 (Pulse
term. 29), 5-59 Pulse Filter Time Constant #33
(Pulse term. 33), 6-16 Terminal 53 Filter Time
Constant (Analog term 53), 6-26 Terminal 54
Filter Time Constant (Analog term. 54)
If there are oscillations of the current/voltage feedback signal, these can be dampened by
means of a low-pass filter. This time constant represents the speed limit of the ripples
occurring on the feedback signal.
Example: If the low-pass filter has been set to 0.1 s, the limit speed will be 10 RAD/s (the
reciprocal of 0.1 s), corresponding to (10/(2 x π))=1.6 Hz. This means that all currents/
voltages that vary by more than 1.6 oscillations per second will be damped by the filter.
The control will only be carried out on a feedback signal that varies by a frequency
(speed) of less than 1.6 Hz.
The low-pass filter improves steady state performance but selecting a too large filter time
will deteriorate the dynamic performance of the Process PID Control.
Table 4.20 Parameters are Relevant for the Process Control
4.4.6 Example of Process PID Control
Illustration 4.10 is an example of a Process PID Control
used in a ventilation system.
MG04H102 - VLT® is a registered Danfoss trademark
57
4 4
1
100kW
ON
Bus MS
WARNING
ALARM
NS1
NS2
2
used is a temperature sensor with a working range of -10
to 40 °C, 4-20 mA. Min./Max. speed 300/1500 RPM.
L1
L2
130BA175.12
130BC966.10
VLT® Decentral Drive FCD 302
Application Examples
L3
N
PE
6
4 4
F1
3
91 92 93 95
5
4
W n °C
12
37
L1 L2 L3 PE
Illustration 4.10 Process PID Control in Ventilation System
Item
Description
1
Cold air
2
Heat generating process
3
Temperature transmitter
4
Temperature
5
Fan speed
6
Heat
U
5 kΩ
54
96 97 98 99
Transmitter
M
3
Table 4.21 Legend
Illustration 4.11 Two-wire Transmitter
In a ventilation system, the temperature is to be settable
from -5 to 35 °C with a potentiometer of 0 to 10 V. The
task of the process control is to maintain temperature at a
constant preset level.
The control is of the inverse type, which means that when
the temperature increases, the ventilation speed is
increased as well, so as to generate more air. When the
temperature drops, the speed is reduced. The transmitter
58
V W PE
18
50
53
55
1.
Start/Stop via switch connected to terminal 18.
2.
Temperature reference via potentiometer (-5 to
35 °C, 0 to 10 V DC) connected to terminal 53.
3.
Temperature feedback via transmitter (-10 to 40
°C, 4 to 20 mA) connected to terminal 54. Switch
S202 set to ON (current input).
MG04H102 - VLT® is a registered Danfoss trademark
VLT® Decentral Drive FCD 302
Application Examples
Function
Par. no.
Setting
Initialize the frequency converter
14-22
[2] Initialization - make a power cycling - press reset
1) Set motor parameters:
Set the motor parameters according to name plate 1-2*
data
As stated on motor name plate
Perform a full Automation Motor Adaptation
[1] Enable complete AMA
1-29
2) Check that motor is running in the right direction.
When motor is connected to frequency converter with straight forward phase order as U - U; V- V; W - W motor shaft usually turns
clockwise seen into shaft end.
4 4
Press “Hand On” LCP key. Check shaft direction by
applying a manual reference.
If motor turns opposite of required direction:
1. Change motor direction in 4-10 Motor Speed
4-10
Select correct motor shaft direction
Set configuration mode
1-00
[3] Process
Set Local Mode Configuration
1-05
[0] Speed Open Loop
Direction
2. Turn off mains - wait for DC link to discharge switch two of the motor phases
3) Set reference configuration, ie. the range for reference handling. Set scaling of analog input in par. 6-xx
Set reference/feedback units
Set min. reference (10° C)
Set max. reference (80° C)
If set value is determined from a preset value
(array parameter), set other reference sources to
No Function
3-01
3-02
3-03
3-10
[60] °C Unit shown on display
-5 °C
35 °C
[0] 35%
Ref =
Par. 3 − 10(0)
100
× (( Par. 3 − 03) − ( par. 3 − 02)) = 24, 5° C
3-14 Preset Relative Reference to 3-18 Relative Scaling Reference Resource
[0] = No Function
4) Adjust limits for the frequency converter:
Set ramp times to an appropriate value as 20 s
3-41
3-42
20 s
20 s
Set min. speed limits
Set motor speed max. limit
Set max. output frequency
4-11
4-13
4-19
300 RPM
1500 RPM
60 Hz
Set S201 or S202 to wanted analog input function (Voltage (V) or milli-Amps (I))
NOTE
Switches are sensitive - Make a power cycling keeping default setting of V
5) Scale analog inputs used for reference and feedback
Set
Set
Set
Set
Set
terminal 53 low voltage
terminal 53 high voltage
terminal 54 low feedback value
terminal 54 high feedback value
feedback source
6-10
6-11
6-24
6-25
7-20
0V
10 V
Process PID Normal/Inverse
7-30
[0] Normal
Process PID Anti Wind-up
7-31
[1] On
Process PID start speed
7-32
300 rpm
Save parameters to LCP
0-50
[1] All to LCP
-5 °C
35 °C
[2] Analog input 54
6) Basic PID settings
Table 4.22 Example of Process PID Control Set-up
MG04H102 - VLT® is a registered Danfoss trademark
59
VLT® Decentral Drive FCD 302
4.4.7 Optimisation of the Process Regulator
(called the ultimate period) is determined as shown in
Illustration 4.12.
The basic settings have now been made; all that needs to
be done is to optimise the proportional gain, the
integration time and the differentiation time (7-33 Process
PID Proportional Gain, 7-34 Process PID Integral Time,
7-35 Process PID Differentiation Time). In most processes,
this can be done by following these guidelines:
4 4
1.
Start the motor
2.
Set 7-33 Process PID Proportional Gain to 0.3 and
increase it until the feedback signal again begins
to vary continuously. Then reduce the value until
the feedback signal has stabilised. Now lower the
proportional gain by 40-60%.
3.
4.
Set 7-34 Process PID Integral Time to 20 s and
reduce the value until the feedback signal again
begins to vary continuously. Increase the
integration time until the feedback signal
stabilises, followed by an increase of 15-50%.
Only use 7-35 Process PID Differentiation Time for
very fast-acting systems only (differentiation
time). The typical value is four times the set
integration time. The differentiator should only be
used when the setting of the proportional gain
and the integration time has been fully
optimised. Make sure that oscillations on the
feedback signal is sufficiently dampened by the
lowpass filter on the feedback signal.
NOTE
If necessary, start/stop can be activated a number of times
in order to provoke a variation of the feedback signal.
4.4.8 Ziegler Nichols Tuning Method
In order to tune the PID controls of the frequency
converter, several tuning methods can be used. One
approach is to use a technique which was developed in
the 1950s but which has stood the test of time and is still
used today. This method is known as the Ziegler Nichols
tuning method.
y(t)
130BA183.10
Application Examples
t
Pu
Illustration 4.12 Marginally Stable System
Measure Pu when the amplitude of oscillation is quite
small. Then “back off” from this gain again, as shown in
Table 4.23.
Ku is the gain at which the oscillation is obtained.
Type of
Control
Proportional
Gain
Integral Time
Differentiation
Time
PI-control
0.45 * Ku
0.833 * Pu
-
PID tight
control
0.6 * Ku
0.5 * Pu
0.125 * Pu
PID some
overshoot
0.33 * Ku
0.5 * Pu
0.33 * Pu
Table 4.23 Ziegler Nichols Tuning for Regulator, based on a
Stability Boundary.
Experience has shown that the control setting according to
Ziegler Nichols rule provides a good closed loop response
for many systems. The process operator can do the final
tuning of the control iteratively to yield satisfactory
control.
Step-by-step Description
NOTE
The method described must not be used on applications
that could be damaged by the oscillations created by
marginally stable control settings.
Step 1: Select only proportional control, meaning that the
Integral time is selected to the maximum value, while the
differentiation time is selected to zero.
The criteria for adjusting the parameters are based on
evaluating the system at the limit of stability rather than
on taking a step response. The proportional gain is
increased until continuous oscillations are observed (as
measured on the feedback), that is, until the system
becomes marginally stable. The corresponding gain (Ku) is
called the ultimate gain. The period of the oscillation (Pu)
Step 2: Increase the value of the proportional gain until
the point of instability is reached (sustained oscillations)
and the critical value of gain, Ku, is reached.
60
Step 3: Measure the period of oscillation to obtain the
critical time constant, Pu.
MG04H102 - VLT® is a registered Danfoss trademark
VLT® Decentral Drive FCD 302
Application Examples
Step 4: Use Table 4.23 to calculate the necessary PID
control parameters.
The control is of the inverse type, which means that when
the temperature increases, the ventilation speed is
increased as well, so as to generate more air. When the
temperature drops, the speed is reduced. The transmitter
used is a temperature sensor with a working range of -10
to 40 °C, 4-20 mA. Min./Max. speed 300/1500 RPM.
4.4.9 Example of Process PID Control
Illustration 4.10 is an example of a Process PID Control
used in a ventilation system.
1
100kW
ON
Bus MS
WARNING
ALARM
NS1
NS2
130BA175.12
130BC966.10
L1
L2
L3
N
PE
F1
2
91 92 93 95
12
37
3
L1 L2 L3 PE
18
50
53
55
5 kΩ
5
4
6
W n °C
U
Description
1
Cold air
2
Heat generating process
3
Temperature transmitter
4
Temperature
5
Fan speed
6
Heat
54
96 97 98 99
Illustration 4.13 Process PID Control in Ventilation System
Item
V W PE
Transmitter
M
3
Illustration 4.14 Two-wire Transmitter
Table 4.24 Legend
In a ventilation system, the temperature is to be settable
from -5 to 35 °C with a potentiometer of 0 to 10 V. The
task of the process control is to maintain temperature at a
constant preset level.
1.
Start/Stop via switch connected to terminal 18.
2.
Temperature reference via potentiometer (-5 to
35 °C, 0 to 10 V DC) connected to terminal 53.
3.
Temperature feedback via transmitter (-10 to 40
°C, 4 to 20 mA) connected to terminal 54. Switch
S202 set to ON (current input).
MG04H102 - VLT® is a registered Danfoss trademark
61
4 4
Application Examples
VLT® Decentral Drive FCD 302
4.5 Control Structures
P 1-00
Config. mode
4 4
P 4-13
Motor speed
high limit (RPM)
High
Ref.
P 4-19
Max. output freq.
P 1-00
Config. mode
P 4-14
Motor speed
high limit (Hz)
+f max.
Motor
controller
P 3-**
Ramp
+

Process
_
P 7-20 Process feedback
1 source
P 7-22 Process feedback
2 source
Low
P 4-11
Motor speed
low limit (RPM)
P 4-12
Motor speed
low limit (Hz)
130BA055.10
4.5.1 Control Structure in VVCplus Advanced Vector Control
-f max.
P 4-19
Max. output freq.
P 7-0*
+
Speed
PID

_
+f max.
Motor
controller
-f max.
P 7-00 Speed PID
feedback source
Illustration 4.15 Control Structure in VVCplus Open Loop and Closed Loop Configurations
In the configuration shown in Illustration 4.15, 1-01 Motor
Control Principle is set to [1] VVCplus and 1-00 Configuration
Mode is set to [0] Speed open loop. The resulting reference
from the reference handling system is received and fed
through the ramp limitation and speed limitation before
being sent to the motor control. The output of the motor
control is then limited by the maximum frequency limit.
Select [3] Process in 1-00 Configuration Mode to use the
process PID control for closed loop control of for example,
speed or pressure in the controlled application. The
Process PID parameters are located in parameter group
7-2* and 7-3*.
If 1-00 Configuration Mode is set to [1] Speed closed loop
the resulting reference passes from the ramp limitation
and speed limitation into a speed PID control. The Speed
PID control parameters are located in the parameter group
7-0*. The resulting reference from the Speed PID control is
sent to the motor control limited by the frequency limit.
Control structure in Flux sensorless open loop and closed
loop configurations.
62
4.5.2 Control Structure in Flux Sensorless
MG04H102 - VLT® is a registered Danfoss trademark
VLT® Decentral Drive FCD 302
Application Examples
P 4-13 Motor speed
high limit [RPM]
P 4-19
Max. output
freq.
P 4-14 Motor speed
high limit [Hz]
High
P 7-0*
P 3-**
Ref.
+
Ramp

_
Speed
PID
+f max.
Motor
controller
P 4-11 Motor speed
low limit [RPM]
Process
PID

_
4 4
-f max.
Low
+
130BA053.11
P 1-00
Config. mode
P 4-12 Motor speed
low limit [Hz]
P 7-20 Process feedback
1 source
P 7-22 Process feedback
2 source
Illustration 4.16 Control Structure in Flux Sensorless
In the configuration shown, 1-01 Motor Control Principle is
set to [2] Flux sensorless and 1-00 Configuration Mode is set
to [0] Speed open loop. The resulting reference from the
reference handling system is fed through the ramp and
speed limitations as determined by the parameter settings
indicated.
The Speed PID must be set with its P,I, and D parameters
(parameter group 7-0*).
Select [3] Process in 1-00 Configuration Mode to use the
process PID control for closed loop control of speed or
pressure in the controlled application. The Process PID
parameters are found in parameter group 7-2* and 7-3*.
An estimated speed feedback is generated to the Speed
PID to control the output frequency.
4.5.3 Control Structure in Flux with Motor Feedback
130BA054.11
P 1-00
Config. mode
P 1-00
Config. mode
Torque
P 4-13 Motor speed
high limit (RPM)
P 4-14 Motor speed
high limit (Hz)
P 7-2*
Ref.
+
_
High
Process
PID
P 4-19
Max. output
freq.
P 3-**
Ramp
P 7-0*
+
_
Speed
PID
Low
P 7-20 Process feedback
1 source
P 7-22 Process feedback
2 source
P 4-11 Motor speed
low limit (RPM)
P 4-12 Motor speed
low limit (Hz)
+f max.
Motor
controller
-f max.
P 7-00
PID source
Illustration 4.17 Control Structure in Flux with Motor Feedback
In the configuration shown, 1-01 Motor Control Principle is
set to [3] Flux w motor feedb and 1-00 Configuration Mode
is set to [1] Speed closed loop.
The motor control in this configuration relies on a
feedback signal from an encoder mounted directly on the
motor (set in 1-02 Flux Motor Feedback Source).
Select [1] Speed closed loop in 1-00 Configuration Mode to
use the resulting reference as an input for the Speed PID
control. The Speed PID control parameters are located in
parameter group 7-0*.
Select [2] Torque in 1-00 Configuration Mode to use the
resulting reference directly as a torque reference. Torque
MG04H102 - VLT® is a registered Danfoss trademark
63
Remote
Auto mode
Off
Auto
on
Reset
P 3-13
Reference site
LCP Hand on,
off and auto
on keys
Illustration 4.19 Local Reference Handling
P 1-00
Configuration
mode
P 1-05
Local
configuration
mode
Speed open/
closed loop
Scale to
RPM or
Hz
After pressing the [Auto On] key, the frequency converter
goes into Auto mode and follows (as default) the remote
reference. In this mode, it is possible to control the
frequency converter via the digital inputs and various serial
interfaces (RS-485, USB, or an optional fieldbus). See more
about starting, stopping, changing ramps and parameter
set-ups and so on, in parameter group 5-1* (digital inputs)
or parameter group 8-5* (serial communication).
Hand
on
Local
Local
reference
4.6 Local (Hand On) and Remote (Auto)
Control
The frequency converter can be operated manually via the
local control panel (LCP) or remotely via analog and digital
inputs and serial bus. If allowed in 0-40 [Hand on] Key on
LCP, 0-41 [Off] Key on LCP, 0-42 [Auto on] Key on LCP, and
0-43 [Reset] Key on LCP, it is possible to start and stop the
frequency converter via the LCP using the [Hand On] and
[Off] keys. Alarms can be reset via the [Reset] key. After
pressing the [Hand On] key, the frequency converter goes
into Hand mode and follows (as default) the Local
reference that can be set using arrow key on the LCP.
Reference
Linked to hand/auto
Hand mode
Select [3] Process in 1-00 Configuration Mode to use the
process PID control for closed loop control of a process
variable (for example, speed) in the controlled application.
130BA245.11
Remote
reference
130BA246.10
control can only be selected in the Flux with motor
feedback (1-01 Motor Control Principle) configuration. When
this mode has been selected, the reference uses the Nm
unit. It requires no torque feedback, since the actual
torque is calculated based on the current measurement of
the frequency converter.
Local
reference
Torque
Local
ref.
Scale to
Nm
Scale to
process
unit
130BP046.10
4 4
VLT® Decentral Drive FCD 302
Application Examples
Process
closed loop
Illustration 4.20 Remote Reference Handling
Illustration 4.18 LCP Keys
Active Reference and Configuration Mode
The active reference can be either the local reference or
the remote reference.
In 3-13 Reference Site the local reference can be
permanently selected by selecting [2] Local.
For permanent setting of the remote reference, select [1]
Remote. By selecting [0] Linked to Hand/Auto (default) the
reference site links to the active mode. (Hand Mode or
Auto Mode).
LCP Keys
3-13 Reference
Site
Active Reference
Hand
Linked to Hand/
Auto
Local
Hand⇒Off
Linked to Hand/
Auto
Local
Auto
Linked to Hand/
Auto
Remote
Auto⇒Off
Linked to Hand/
Auto
Remote
All keys
Local
Local
All keys
Remote
Remote
Table 4.25 Conditions for Local/Remote Reference Handling
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MG04H102 - VLT® is a registered Danfoss trademark
VLT® Decentral Drive FCD 302
1-00 Configuration Mode determines what type of
application control principle (that is, Speed, Torque or
Process Control) is used when the remote reference is
active. 1-05 Local Mode Configuration determines the type
of application control principle that is used when the local
reference is active. One of them is always active, but both
cannot be active at the same time.
1
I max 0.1 Amp
-
24 VDC
+
P 5-40 [0] [32]
01 02
03
2
4.7 Programming of Torque Limit and Stop
In applications with an external electro-mechanical brake,
such as hoisting applications, it is possible to stop the
frequency converter via a 'standard' stop command and
simultaneously activate the external electro-mechanical
brake.
The example given below, illustrates the programming of
frequency converter connections.
The external brake can be connected to relay 1 or 2.
Program terminal 27 to [2] Coast, inverse or [3] Coast and
Reset, inverse , and program terminal 29 to Terminal mode
29 [1] Output and [27] Torque limit & stop.
130BC997.10
Application Examples
3
4 4
Illustration 4.21 Mechanical Brake Control
Item
Description
1
External 24 V DC
2
Mechanical brake connection
3
Relay 1
Table 4.26 Legend
Description
If a stop command is active via terminal 18 and the
frequency converter is not at the torque limit, the motor
ramps down to 0 Hz.
If the frequency converter is at the torque limit and a stop
command is activated, terminal 29 Output (programmed to
Torque limit and stop [27]) is activated. The signal to
terminal 27 changes from 'logic 1' to 'logic 0', and the
motor starts to coast, thereby ensuring that the hoist stops
even if the frequency converter itself cannot handle the
required torque (i.e. due to excessive overload).
-
Start/stop via terminal 18
5-10 Terminal 18 Digital Input [8] Start
-
Quickstop via terminal 27
5-12 Terminal 27 Digital Input [2] Coasting Stop,
Inverse
-
Terminal 29 Output
5-02 Terminal 29 Mode [1] Terminal 29 Mode
Output
5-31 Terminal 29 Digital Output [27] Torque Limit &
Stop
-
[0] Relay output (Relay 1)
5-40 Function Relay [32] Mechanical Brake Control
MG04H102 - VLT® is a registered Danfoss trademark
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VLT® Decentral Drive FCD 302
Application Examples
4.8 Mechanical Brake
5-31 Terminal 29 Digital Output
For hoisting applications, it is necessary to be able to
control an electro-magnetic brake. For controlling the
brake, a relay output (relay1 or relay2) or a programmed
digital output (terminal 27 or 29) is required. Normally, this
output must be closed for as long as the frequency
converter is unable to ’hold’ the motor, for example,
because of excess load. For applications with an electromagnetic brake, select [32] mechanical brake control in one
of the following parameters:
When [32] mechanical brake control is selected, the
mechanical brake relay stays closed during start until the
output current is above a preset level. Select the preset
level in 2-20 Release Brake Current. During stop, the
mechanical brake closes when the speed is below the level
selected in 2-21 Activate Brake Speed [RPM]. When the
frequency converter is brought into an alarm condition
(that is, an over-voltage situation), or during safe stop, the
mechanical brake immediately cuts in.
5-40 Function Relay (Array parameter),
5-30 Terminal 27 Digital Output, or
Illustration 4.22 Mechanical Brake Control for Hoisting Applications
In hoisting/lowering applications, it must be possible to
control an electromechanical brake.
Step-by-step Description
• To control the mechanical brake, use any relay
output, digital output (terminal 27 or 29) or solidstate brake voltage output (terminals 122 - 123).
Use a suitable contactor when required.
•
66
Ensure that the output is switched off as long as
the frequency converter is unable to drive the
motor. For example, due to the load being too
heavy, or when the motor is not yet mounted.
•
Select [32] mechanical brake control in parameter
group5-4* (or in parameter group 5-3*) before
connecting the mechanical brake.
•
The brake is released when the motor current
exceeds the preset value in 2-20 Release Brake
Current.
•
The brake is engaged when the output frequency
is lower than a preset limit. Set the limit in
2-21 Activate Brake Speed [RPM] or 2-22 Activate
Brake Speed [Hz] and only if the frequency
converter carries out a stop command.
MG04H102 - VLT® is a registered Danfoss trademark
Application Examples
VLT® Decentral Drive FCD 302
NOTE
Recommendation: For vertical lifting or hoisting
applications ensure that the load can be stopped in an
emergency or a malfunction of a single part such as a
contactor.
When the frequency converter enters alarm mode or an
over voltage situation, the mechanical brake cuts in.
NOTE
For hoisting applications, make sure that the torque limit
settings do not exceed the current limit. Set torque limits
in 4-16 Torque Limit Motor Mode and 4-17 Torque Limit
Generator Mode. Set current limit in4-18 Current Limit.
Recommendation: Set14-25 Trip Delay at Torque Limit to [0],
14-26 Trip Delay at Inverter Fault to [0] and 14-10 Mains
Failure to [3] Coasting.
Reaction time for T37
Typical reaction time: 10 ms
Reaction time=delay between de-energizing the STO input
and switching off the frequency converter output bridge.
Data for EN ISO 13849-1
Performance Level "d"
4 4
-
MTTFd (Mean Time To Dangerous Failure): 24816
years
-
DC (Diagnostic Coverage): 99%
-
Category 3
-
Lifetime 20 years
Data for EN IEC 62061, EN IEC 61508, EN IEC 61800-5-2
SIL 2 Capability, SILCL 2
4.9 Safe Stop
The frequency converter can perform the safety function
Safe Torque Off (STO, as defined by EN IEC 61800-5-21) and
Stop Category 0 (as defined in EN 60204-12).
Danfoss has named this functionality Safe Stop. Before
integration and use of Safe Stop in an installation, perform
a thorough risk analysis to determine whether the Safe
Stop functionality and safety levels are appropriate and
sufficient. Safe Stop is designed and approved suitable for
the requirements of:
-
Safe Stop Technical Data
The following values are associated to the different types
of safety levels:
Performance Level "d" in EN ISO 13849-1:2008
-
SIL 2 Capability in IEC 61508 and EN 61800-5-2
-
SILCL 2 in EN 62061
1) Refer to EN IEC 61800-5-2 for details of Safe torque off
(STO) function.
2) Refer to EN IEC 60204-1 for details of stop category 0
and 1.
Activation and Termination of Safe Stop
The Safe Stop (STO) function is activated by removing the
voltage at Terminal 37 of the Safe Inverter. By connecting
the Safe Inverter to external safety devices providing a safe
delay, an installation for a safe Stop Category 1 can be
obtained. The Safe Stop function can be used for
asynchronous, synchronous, and permanent magnet
motors.
PFH (Probability of Dangerous failure per
Hour)=7e-10FIT=7e-19/h
-
SFF (Safe Failure Fraction) >99%
-
HFT (Hardware Fault Tolerance)=0 (1oo1
architecture)
-
Lifetime 20 years
Data for EN IEC 61508 low demand
PFDavg for one year proof test: 3, 07E-14
Safety Category 3 in EN 954-1 (and EN ISO
13849-1)
-
-
-
PFDavg for three year proof test: 9, 20E-14
-
PFDavg for five year proof test: 1, 53E-13
SISTEMA Data
Functional safety data is available via a data library for use
with the SISTEMA calculation tool from the IFA (Institute
for Occupational Safety and Health of the German Social
Accident Insurance), and data for manual calculation. The
library is permanently completed and extended.
Abbrev. Ref.
Description
Cat.
Category, level “B, 1-4”
EN 954-1
FIT
Failure In Time: 1E-9 hours
HFT
IEC 61508
Hardware Fault Tolerance: HFT=n means,
that n+1 faults could cause a loss of the
safety function
MTTFd
EN ISO
13849-1
Mean Time To Failure - dangerous. Unit:
years
PFH
IEC 61508
Probability of Dangerous Failures per
Hour. Consider the PFH value when the
safety device is operated in high
demand (more often than once per
year); or operated in continuous mode,
where the frequency of demands for
operation made on a safety-related
system is greater than one per year.
WARNING
After installation of Safe Stop (STO), a commissioning test
must be performed. A passed commissioning test is
mandatory after first installation and after each change to
the safety installation.
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VLT® Decentral Drive FCD 302
Application Examples
Abbrev. Ref.
Description
PL
EN ISO
13849-1
Discrete level used to specify the ability
of safety-related parts of control systems
to perform a safety function under
foreseeable conditions. Levels a-e.
IEC 61508
Safe Failure Fraction [%]; Percentage
part of safe failures and dangerous
detected failures of a safety function or
a subsystem related to all failures.
SFF
SIL
IEC 61508
Safety Integrity Level
STO
EN
61800-5-2
Safe Torque Off
SS1
EN 61800
-5-2
Safe Stop 1
Table 4.27 Abbreviations Related to Functional Safety
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
EN 954-1: 1996 Category 3
IEC 60204-1: 2005 category 0 – uncontrolled stop
IEC 61508: 1998 SIL2
IEC 61800-5-2: 2007 – safe torque off (STO)
function
IEC 62061: 2005 SIL CL2
ISO 13849-1: 2006 Category 3 PL d
ISO 14118: 2000 (EN 1037) – prevention of
unexpected startup
The information and instructions of the instruction manual
are not sufficient for a proper and safe use of the safe stop
functionality. The related information and instructions of
the relevant Design Guide must be followed.
Protective Measures
The PFDavg value (Probability of Failure on Demand)
Failure probability in the event of a request of the safety
function.
4.9.1.1 Terminal 37 Safe Stop Function
The frequency converter is available with safe stop
functionality via control terminal 37. Safe stop disables the
control voltage of the power semiconductors of the
frequency converter output stage. This in turn prevents
generating the voltage required to rotate the motor. When
the Safe Stop (T37) is activated, the frequency converter
issues an alarm, trips the unit, and coasts the motor to a
stop. Manual restart is required. The safe stop function can
be used as an emergency stop for the frequency converter.
In the normal operating mode when safe stop is not
required, use the regular stop function instead. When
automatic restart is used, ensure the requirements of ISO
12100-2 paragraph 5.3.2.5 are fulfilled.
Liability Conditions
It is the responsibility of the user to ensure personnel
installing and operating the safe stop function:
•
Read and understand the safety regulations
concerning health and safety/accident prevention
•
Understand the generic and safety guidelines
given in this description and the extended
description in this manual
•
Have a good knowledge of the generic and safety
standards applicable to the specific application
•
Qualified and skilled personnel are required for
installation and commissioning of safety
engineering systems
•
The unit must be installed in an IP54 cabinet or
in an equivalent environment. In special
applications a higher IP degree is required
•
The cable between terminal 37 and the external
safety device must be short circuit protected
according to ISO 13849-2 table D.4
•
When external forces influence the motor axis (for
example, suspended loads), to eliminate potential
hazards additional measures are required (for
example, a safety holding brake)
Safe Stop Installation and Set-Up
WARNING
SAFE STOP FUNCTION!
The safe stop function does NOT isolate mains voltage to
the frequency converter or auxiliary circuits. Perform work
on electrical parts of the frequency converter or the motor
only after isolating the mains voltage supply and waiting
the length of time specified under Safety in this manual.
Failure to isolate the mains voltage supply from the unit
and waiting the time specified could result in death or
serious injury.
•
It is not recommended to stop the frequency
converter by using the Safe Torque Off function.
If a running frequency converter is stopped by
using the function, the unit trips and stops by
coasting. If unacceptable or dangerous, use
another stopping mode to stop the frequency
converter and machinery, before using this
function. Depending on the application a
mechanical brake can be required.
•
For synchronous and permanent magnet motor
frequency converters, in a multiple IGBT power
semiconductor failure: In spite of the activation of
User is defined as: integrator, operator, service technician,
maintenance technician.
Standards
Use of safe stop on terminal 37 requires that the user
satisfies all provisions for safety including relevant laws,
regulations and guidelines. The optional safe stop function
complies with the following standards.
68
MG04H102 - VLT® is a registered Danfoss trademark
VLT® Decentral Drive FCD 302
the Safe torque off function, the system can
produce an alignment torque which maximally
rotates the motor shaft by 180/p degrees. p
denotes the pole pair number.
•
1
130BC971.10
Application Examples
2
This function is suitable for performing
mechanical work on the system or affected area
of a machine only. It does not provide electrical
safety. Do not use this function as a control for
starting and/or stopping the frequency converter.
12
3
4 4
Follow these steps to perform a safe installation of the
frequency converter:
1.
2.
Remove the jumper wire between control
terminals 37 and 12 or 13. Cutting or breaking
the jumper is not sufficient to avoid shortcircuiting (see jumper on Illustration 4.23).
Connect an external Safety monitoring relay via a
NO safety function to terminal 37 (safe stop) and
either terminal 12 or 13 (24 V DC). Follow the
instruction for the safety device. The Safety
monitoring relay must comply with Category 3
(EN 954-1)/PL “d”
(ISO 13849-1) or SIL 2 (EN
62061).
37
5
4
Illustration 4.24 Installation to Achieve a Stopping Category 0
(EN 60204-1) with Safety Cat. 3 (EN 954-1)/PL “d” (ISO 13849-1)
or SIL 2 (EN 62061).
1
Frequency converter
2
Reset button
3
Safety relay (cat. 3, PL d or SIL2
4
Emergency stop button
5
Short-circuit protected cable (if not inside installation IP54
cabinet)
Table 4.28 Legend
Safe Stop Commissioning Test
After installation and before first operation, perform a
commissioning test of the installation using safe stop.
Moreover, perform the test after each modification of the
installation.
Illustration 4.23 Jumper between Terminal 12/13 (24 V) and 37
Example with STO
A safety relay evaluates the E-Stop button signals and
triggers an STO function on the frequency converter in the
event of an activation of the E-Stop button (See
Illustration 4.25). This safety function corresponds to a
category 0 stop (uncontrolled stop) in accordance with IEC
60204-1. If the function is triggered during operation, the
motor runs down in an uncontrolled manner. The power
to the motor is safely removed, so that no further
movement is possible. It is not necessary to monitor plant
at a standstill. If an external force effect can occur, provide
additional measures to prevent any potential movement
(for example, mechanical brakes).
MG04H102 - VLT® is a registered Danfoss trademark
69
Application Examples
VLT® Decentral Drive FCD 302
NOTE
2
For all applications with Safe Stop it is important that short
circuit in the wiring to T37 can be excluded. Exclude the
short circuit as described in EN ISO 13849-2 D4 by the use
of protected wiring, (shielded or segregated).
2
4 4
12
130BC972.10
1
130BC973.10
1
3
12
18
3
37
4
Illustration 4.26 SS1 Example
37
4
Illustration 4.25 STO Example
1
Frequency converter
2
[Reset] key
3
Safety relay
4
Emergency stop
Table 4.30 Legend
1
Frequency converter
2
[Reset] key
3
Safety relay
4
Emergency stop
Table 4.29 Legend
Example with SS1
SS1 correspond to a controlled stop, stop category 1
according to IEC 60204-1 (see Illustration 4.26). When
activating the safety function the frequency converter
performs a normal controlled stop. This can be activated
through terminal 27. After the safe delay time has expired
on the external safety module, the STO will be triggered
and terminal 37 will be set low. Ramping down as
configured in the frequency converter. If the frequency
converter is not stopped after the safe delay time, the
activation of STO will coast the frequency converter.
Example with Category 4/PL e application
Where the safety control system design requires two
channels for the STO function to achieve Category 4/PL e,
implement one channel via Safe Stop T37 (STO) and the
other by a contactor. Connect the contactor in either the
frequency converter input or output power circuits and
controlled by the Safety relay (see Illustration 4.27). The
contactor must be monitored through an auxiliary guided
contact, and connected to the reset input of the Safety
Relay.
NOTE
When using the SS1 function, the brake ramp of the
frequency converter is not monitored with respect to
safety.
70
MG04H102 - VLT® is a registered Danfoss trademark
VLT® Decentral Drive FCD 302
K1
12
130BC975.10
2
1
1
130BC974.10
Application Examples
3
2
12
3
4 4
4
37
20
K1
37
K1
4
5
1
20
37
Illustration 4.27 STO Category 4 Example
1
Frequency converter
2
[Reset] key
3
Safety relay
4
Emergency stop
1
20
37
Table 4.31 Legend
Paralleling of Safe Stop input the one Safety Relay
Safe Stop inputs T37 (STO) may be connected directly
together if it is required to control multiple frequency
converters from the same control line via one Safety Relay
(see Illustration 4.28). Connecting inputs together increases
the probability of a fault in the unsafe direction. A fault in
one frequency converter can result in all frequency
converters becoming enabled. The probability of a fault for
T37 is so low, that the resulting probability still meets the
requirements for SIL2.
Illustration 4.28 Paralleling of Multiple Drives Example
1
Frequency converter
2
24 V DC
3
[Reset] key
4
Safety relay
5
Emergency stop
Table 4.32 Legend
WARNING
Safe Stop activation (that is, removal of 24 V DC voltage
supply to terminal 37) does not provide electrical safety.
The Safe Stop function itself is therefore not sufficient to
implement the Emergency-Off function as defined by EN
60204-1. Emergency-Off requires measures of electrical
isolation, for example, by switching off mains via an
additional contactor.
1.
Activate the Safe Stop function by removing the
24 V DC voltage supply to the terminal 37.
2.
After activation of Safe Stop (that is, after the
response time), the frequency converter coasts
(stops creating a rotational field in the motor).
The response time is typically less than 10ms.
MG04H102 - VLT® is a registered Danfoss trademark
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Application Examples
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The frequency converter is guaranteed not to restart
creation of a rotational field by an internal fault (in
accordance with Cat. 3 of EN 954-1, PL d acc. EN ISO
13849-1 and SIL 2 acc. EN 62061). After activation of Safe
Stop, the display will show the text ”Safe Stop activated”.
The associated help text says, "Safe Stop has been
activated. This means that the Safe Stop has been
activated, or that normal operation has not been resumed
yet after Safe Stop activation”.
NOTE
The requirements of Cat. 3 (EN 954-1)/PL “d” (ISO 13849-1)
are only fulfilled while 24 V DC supply to terminal 37 is
kept removed or low by a safety device which itself fulfills
Cat. 3 (EN 954-1) PL “d” (ISO 13849-1). If external forces act
on the motor, it must not operate without additional
measures for fall protection. External forces can arise for
example, in the event of vertical axis (suspended loads)
where an unwanted movement, for example caused by
gravity, could cause a hazard. Fall protection measures can
be additional mechanical brakes.
By default the Safe Stop function is set to an Unintended
Restart Prevention behaviour. Therefore, to resume
operation after activation of Safe Stop,
1.
reapply 24 V DC voltage to terminal 37 (text Safe
Stop activated is still displayed)
2.
create a reset signal (via bus, Digital I/O, or
[Reset] key.
The Safe Stop function can be set to an Automatic Restart
behaviour. Set the value of 5-19 Terminal 37 Safe Stop from
default value [1] to value [3].
Automatic Restart means that Safe Stop is terminated, and
normal operation is resumed, as soon as the 24 V DC are
applied to Terminal 37. No Reset signal is required.
WARNING
Automatic Restart Behaviour is permitted in one of the two
situations:
1.
The Unintended Restart Prevention is
implemented by other parts of the Safe Stop
installation.
2.
A presence in the dangerous zone can be
physically excluded when Safe Stop is not
activated. In particular, paragraph 5.3.2.5 of ISO
12100-2 2003 must be observed
4.9.1.2 Safe Stop Commissioning Test
After installation and before first operation, perform a
commissioning test of an installation or application, using
Safe Stop.
Perform the test again after each modification of the
installation or application involving the Safe Stop.
72
NOTE
A passed commissioning test is mandatory after first installation and after each change to the safety installation.
The commissioning test (select one of cases 1 or 2 as
applicable):
Case 1: Restart prevention for Safe Stop is required (that
is, Safe Stop only where 5-19 Terminal 37 Safe Stop is set
to default value [1], or combined Safe Stop and MCB112
where 5-19 Terminal 37 Safe Stop is set to [6] or [9]):
1.1 Remove the 24 V DC voltage supply to
terminal 37 using the interrupt device while the
frequency converter drives the motor (that is,
mains supply is not interrupted). The test step is
passed when
•
•
•
the motor reacts with a coast, and
the mechanical brake is activated (if
connected)
the alarm “Safe Stop [A68]” is displayed
in the LCP, if mounted
1.2 Send Reset signal (via Bus, Digital I/O, or
[Reset] key). The test step is passed if the motor
remains in the Safe Stop state, and the
mechanical brake (if connected) remains
activated.
1.3 Reapply 24 V DC to terminal 37. The test step
is passed if the motor remains in the coasted
state, and the mechanical brake (if connected)
remains activated.
1.4 Send Reset signal (via Bus, Digital I/O, or
[Reset] key). The test step is passed when the
motor becomes operational again.
The commissioning test is passed if all four test steps 1.1,
1.2, 1.3 and 1.4 are passed.
Case 2: Automatic Restart of Safe Stop is wanted and
allowed (that is, Safe Stop only where 5-19 Terminal 37
Safe Stop is set to [3], or combined Safe Stop and MCB112
where 5-19 Terminal 37 Safe Stop is set to [7] or [8]):
2.1 Remove the 24 V DC voltage supply to
terminal 37 by the interrupt device while the
frequency converter drives the motor (that is,
mains supply is not interrupted). The test step is
passed when
•
•
•
the motor reacts with a coast, and
the mechanical brake is activated (if
connected)
the alarm “Safe Stop [A68]” is displayed
in the LCP, if mounted
2.2 Reapply 24 V DC to terminal 37.
The test step is passed if the motor becomes operational
again. The commissioning test is passed if both test steps
2.1 and 2.2 are passed.
MG04H102 - VLT® is a registered Danfoss trademark
Application Examples
VLT® Decentral Drive FCD 302
NOTE
See warning on the restart behaviour in Terminal 37 Safe
Stop Function.
NOTE
The Safe Stop function can be used for asynchronous,
synchronous and permanent magnet motors. Two faults
can occur in the power semiconductor of the frequency
converter . When using synchronous or permanent magnet
motors a residual rotation can result from the faults. The
rotation can be calculated to Angle=360/(Number of
Poles). The application using synchronous or permanent
magnet motors must take this residual rotation into
consideration and ensure that it does not pose a safety
risk. This situation is not relevant for asynchronous motors.
MG04H102 - VLT® is a registered Danfoss trademark
4 4
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5 5
VLT® Decentral Drive FCD 302
Type Code and Selection Gui...
5 Type Code and Selection Guide
Position
1 2 3 4 5 6 7
F C D 3 0 2 P
8
9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 20 21 22 23 24 25 26 27 28 29 30 31 32 33 34 35 36 37 39 39
T 4
H 1
X A
B
X X X X X D
Illustration 5.1 Type Code Description
Position Description
Choices/options
01-03
Product group
FCD
04-06
Frequency
302
converter series
07-10
11-12
13-15
16-17
18
19
20
74
Power size
Phases, Mains
voltage
Enclosure
RFI filter
Brake
Hardware
configuration
Brackets
Position Description
Decentral Drive
21
Threads
Advanced performance
PK37
0.37 kW/0.5 HP
PK55
0.55 kW/0.75 HP
PK75
0.75 kW/1.0 HP
P1K1
1.1 kW/1.5 HP
P1K5
1.5 kW/2.0 HP
P2K2
2.2 kW/3.0 HP
P3K0
3.0 kW/4.0 HP (large unit
only)
PXXX
Installation box only
(without power section)
T
Three phase
4
380-480 V AC
B66
Standard Black IP66/Type 4X
W66
Standard White IP66/Type 4X
W69
Hygienic White IP66K/Type 4X
22
23
24
Switch option
Display
Choices/options
X
No installation box
M
Metric threads
X
No switch option
E
Service switch on mains
input
F
Service switch on motor
output
H
Circuit breaker & mains
disconnect, looping
terminals (large unit only)
K
Service switch on mains
input with additional
looping terminals (large
unit only)
X
No display connector (No
installation box)
C
With Display Connector
X
No sensor plugs
E
Direct mount 4xM12: 4
digital inputs
F
Direct mount 6xM12: 4
digital inputs, 2 relay
outputs
Sensor plugs
H1
RFI filter class A1/C2
X
No brake
Brake chopper +
mechanical brake Supply
25
Motor plug
X
No motor plug
S
26
Mains plug
X
No mains plug
1
Complete product, small
unit, stand alone mount
X
No fieldbus plug
27
Fieldbus plug
E
M12 Ethernet
P
M12 Profibus
X
For future use
AX
No A option
3
Complete product, large
unit, stand alone mount
X
Drive part, small unit (No
installation box)
Y
Drive part, large unit (No
installation box)
R
Installation box, small unit,
stand alone mount (No
drive part)
T
Installation box, large unit,
stand alone mount (No
drive part)
X
No brackets
E
Flat brackets
F
40 mm brackets
28
29-30
31-32
Reserved
A option
B option
33-37
Reserved
38-39
D option
A0
Profibus DP
AN
Ethernet IP
AL
ProfiNet
BX
No B option
BR
Encoder option
BU
Resolver option
BZ
Safety PLC Interface
XXXXX
For future use
DX
No D option
D0
24 V DC back-up input
Table 5.1 Type Code Description
MG04H102 - VLT® is a registered Danfoss trademark
130BB797.10
5.1 Type Code Description
Type Code and Selection Gui...
VLT® Decentral Drive FCD 302
Not all choices/options are available for each FCD 302
variant. To verify if the appropriate version is available,
consult the Drive Configurator on the Internet:
http://driveconfig.danfoss.com.
NOTE
A and D options for FCD 302 are integrated into the
control card. Therefore pluggable options for frequency
converters cannot be used here. Future retrofit will require
exchange of the entire control card. B options are
pluggable, using the same concept as for frequency
converters.
5 5
5.1.1 Drive Configurator
Design the frequency converter according to the
application requirements by using the ordering number
system.
Order standard drives and drives with integral options by
sending a type code string describing the product to the
local Danfoss sales office, for example:
FCD302P2K2T4B66H1X1XMXCXXXXXA0BXXXXXXDX
The meaning of the characters in the string can be located
in the pages containing the ordering numbers in this
chapter. In the example above, a Profibus DP V1 and a 24
V back-up option is included in the drive.
From the Internet based Drive Configurator, configure the
right drive for the right application and generate the type
code string. The Drive Configurator will automatically
generate an eight-digit sales number to be delivered to
the local sales office.
Furthermore, establish a project list with several products
and send it to a Danfoss sales representative.
The Drive Configurator can be found on the global
Internet site: www.danfoss.com/drives.
The frequency converter will automatically be delivered
with a language package relevant to the region from
which it is ordered.
To order a different language package, contact the local
Danfoss sales office.
MG04H102 - VLT® is a registered Danfoss trademark
75
5 5
VLT® Decentral Drive FCD 302
Type Code and Selection Gui...
5.2 Ordering Numbers
5.2.1 Ordering Numbers: Accessories
Accessories
Description
Ordering No.
130B5771
Mounting brackets extended
40 mm brackets
Mounting brackets
Flat brackets
130B5772
LCP cable
Preconfectioned cable to be used between inverter and LCP
130B5776
Brake resistor 1750 Ω 10 W/100%
For mounting inside installation box below motor terminals
130B5778
Brake resistor 350 Ω 10 W/100%
For mounting inside installation box below motor terminals
130B5780
VLT Control Panel LCP 102
Graphical display for programming and read out
130B1078
Venting membrane, goretex
Preventing condensation inside enclosure
175N2116
PE termination, M20
Stainless Steel
175N2703
PE termination, M16
Stainless Steel
130B5833
Table 5.2 Ordering Numbers: Accessories
5.2.2 Ordering Numbers: Spare Parts
Spare parts
Description
Ordering No.
Protection cover
Plastic protection cover for inverter part
130B5770
Gasket
Gasket between installation box and inverter part
130B5773
Accessory bag
Spare cable clamps and screws for shield termination
130B5774
Service switch
Spare switch for mains or motor disconnect
130B5775
LCP plug
Spare plug for mounting in installation box
130B5777
Main termination board
For mounting in installation box
130B5779
M12 sensor plugs
Set of two M12 sensor plugs for mounting in cable gland hole
130B5411
Control card
Control card with 24 V backup
130b5783
Control card Profibus
Control card Profibus with 24 V backup
130b5781
Control card EtherNet
Control card EtherNet with 24 V backup
130b5788
Control card Profinet
Control card Profinet with 24 V backup
130b5794
Table 5.3 Ordering Numbers: Spare Parts
The packaging contains:
•
•
Accessories bag, supplied only with order of
installation box. Contents:
-
2 cable clamps
-
bracket for motor/loads cables
-
elevation bracket for cable clamp
-
screw 4 mm 20 mm
-
thread forming 3.5 mm 8 mm
Documentation
Depending on options fitted, the box will contain one or
two bags and one or more booklets.
76
MG04H102 - VLT® is a registered Danfoss trademark
VLT® Decentral Drive FCD 302
Type Code and Selection Gui...
•
•
•
•
5.3 Options and Accessories
Danfoss offers a wide range of options and accessories for
the frequency converter.
5.3.1 Fieldbus Options
Select the fieldbus option when ordering the frequency
converter. All fieldbus options are included on the control
card. No separate A option is available.
To change the fieldbus option later, change out the
control card. The following control cards with different
fieldbus options are available. All control cards have 24 V
backup as standard.
Item
Ordering number
Control card PROFIBUS
130B5781
Control card EtherNet
130B5788
Control card PROFINET
130B5794
Table 5.4 Control Cards with Fieldbus Options
The encoder module can be used as feedback source for
closed loop Flux control (1-02 Flux Motor Feedback Source)
as well as closed loop speed control (7-00 Speed PID
Feedback Source). Configure encoder option in parameter
group 17-**
Flux Vector Torque control
Permanent magnet motor
Supported encoder types:
Incremental encoder: 5 V TTL type, RS422, max. frequency:
410 kHz
Incremental encoder: 1Vpp, sine-cosine
Hiperface® Encoder: Absolute and Sine-Cosine (Stegmann/
SICK)
EnDat encoder: Absolute and Sine-Cosine (Heidenhain)
Supports version 2.1
SSI encoder: Absolute
Encoder monitor:
The 4 encoder channels (A, B, Z, and D) are monitored,
open and short circuit can be detected. There is a green
LED for each channel which lights up when the channel is
OK.
The LEDS are not visible when mounted in an FCD302
frequency converter. Reaction in case of an encoder error
can be selected in 17-61 Feedback Signal Monitoring: None,
Warning or Trip.
The encoder option kit contains
•
•
The encoder option MCB 102 is used for:
Incremental
SinCos Encoder
Encoder (refer Hiperface® (refer
to Graphic A) to Graphic B)
Flux Vector Speed control
NOTE
5.3.2 Encoder Option MCB 102
Connector
Designation
X31
VVCplus closed loop
EnDat Encoder
SSI Encoder
24 V*
Encoder Option MCB 102
Cable to connect customer terminals to control
card
Description
1
NC
2
NC
3
5 VCC
4
GND
5
A input
+COS
+COS
A input
6
A inv input
REFCOS
REFCOS
A inv input
7
B input
+SIN
+SIN
B input
8
B inv input
REFSIN
REFSIN
B inv input
9
Z input
+Data RS-485
Clock out
Clock out
Z input OR +Data RS-485
10
Z inv input
-Data RS-485
Clock out inv.
Clock out inv.
Z input OR -Data RS-485
11
NC
NC
Data in
Data in
Future use
12
NC
NC
Data in inv.
Data in inv.
Future use
8 VCC
24 V Output (21-25 V, Imax:125 mA)
8 V Output (7-12 V, Imax: 200 mA)
5 VCC
5 V*
5 V Output (5 V ±5%, Imax: 200 mA)
GND
GND
GND
Max. 5 V on X31.5-12
Table 5.5 Encoder Option MCB 102 Connection Terminals
* Supply for encoder: see data on encoder
MG04H102 - VLT® is a registered Danfoss trademark
77
5 5
130BC998.10
B
GND
A
+24V
5 5
20
37
37
B12
B10
B09
G
12
20
20
B08 B07 B06
B05
R
V
N
P
B04
B02
B01
B11
B03
-RS485
7-12V
-cos
+sin
-sin
GND
13
20
37
37
B12
G
12
20
20
B08 B07 B06
B05
R
V
N
P
B04 B03
B01
B11
13
B10 B09
B02
130BC999.10
VLT® Decentral Drive FCD 302
Type Code and Selection Gui...
1
+RS485
+cos
Illustration 5.4 Connections for Hiperface Encoder - 2
/Z
/A
B
+5V
/B
GND
Z
A
Item
Description
1
Hiperface encoder
Table 5.6 Legend
5.3.3 Resolver Option MCB 103
Illustration 5.2 Connections for 5 V Incremental Encoder
The MCB 103 Resolver Option is used for interfacing
resolver motor feedback to the frequency converter.
Resolvers are used basically as motor feedback device for
permanent magnet brushless synchronous motors.
Data +RS 485 (gray)
Data -RS 485 (green)
5
6
7
8
9
10
130BA164.10
REFSIN (brown)
4
+SIN (white)
3
REFCOS (black)
2
+COS (pink)
1
GND (blue)
Us 7-12V (red)
Max. cable length 10 m.
11
The resolver option kit comprises:
•
•
MCB 103 Resolver Option
Cable to connect customer terminals to control
card
12
Selection of parameters: 17-5x resolver Interface.
MCB 103 Resolver Option supports a various number of
resolver types.
Resolver Poles
17-50 Poles: 2 *2
Resolver Input
Voltage
17-51 Input Voltage: 2.0–8.0 Vrms *7.0Vrms
Resolver Input
Frequency
17-52 Input Frequency: 2–15 kHz
*10.0 kHz
Transformation ratio 17-53 Transformation Ratio: 0.1–1.1 *0.5
Hiperface® encoder
Illustration 5.3 Connections for Hiperface Encoder - 1
78
Secondary input
voltage
Max 4 Vrms
Secondary load
App. 10 kΩ
Table 5.7 Resolver Option MCB 103 Specifications
MG04H102 - VLT® is a registered Danfoss trademark
20
37
37
B12
B10
B09
G
12
20
20
B08 B07 B06
B05
R
V
N
P
B04
B02
B01
B11
B03
130BD001.10
13
130BT102.10
VLT® Decentral Drive FCD 302
Type Code and Selection Gui...
B01 REF+
B02 REFB03 Cos+
B04 CosB05 Sin+
B06 Sin-
LED 1 REF OK
LED 2 COS OK
LED 3 SIN OK
LED NA
R1
Rotor
S1
R2
5 5
REF+
REFCOS+
COSSIN+
SIN-
R1
R2
S1
S3
S2
S4
S3
Resolver
stator
S4
S2
Motor
Illustration 5.5 Connections for MCB 103 Resolver Option
NOTE
The Resolver Option MCB 103 can only be used with rotorsupplied resolver types. Stator-supplied resolvers cannot be
used.
NOTE
LED indicators are not visible at the resolver option.
LED
LED
LED
LED
Illustration 5.6 Resolver Signals
indicators
1 is on when the reference signal is OK to resolver
2 is on when Cosinus signal is OK from resolver
3 is on when Sinus signal is OK from resolver
The LEDs are active when 17-61 Feedback Signal Monitoring
is set to Warning or Trip.
Set-up example
In this example a Permanent Magnet (PM) Motor is used
with resolver as speed feedback. A PM motor must usually
operate in flux mode.
Wiring
The max cable length is 150 m when a twisted pair type of
cable is used.
NOTE
Resolver cables must be screened and separated from the
motor cables.
NOTE
The screen of the resolver cable must be correctly
connected to the de-coupling plate and connected to
chassis (earth) on the motor side.
NOTE
Always use screened motor cables and brake chopper
cables.
MG04H102 - VLT® is a registered Danfoss trademark
79
5 5
Type Code and Selection Gui...
VLT® Decentral Drive FCD 302
1-00 Configuration Mode
[1] Speed closed loop
1-01 Motor Control Principle
[3] Flux with feedback
1-10 Motor Construction
[1] PM, non salient SPM
1-24 Motor Current
Nameplate
1-25 Motor Nominal Speed
Nameplate
1-26 Motor Cont. Rated Torque
Nameplate
AMA is not possible on PM motors
1-30 Stator Resistance (Rs)
Motor data sheet
30-80 d-axis Inductance (Ld)
Motor data sheet (mH)
1-39 Motor Poles
Motor data sheet
1-40 Back EMF at 1000 RPM
Motor data sheet
1-41 Motor Angle Offset
Motor data sheet (Usually zero)
17-50 Poles
Resolver data sheet
17-51 Input Voltage
Resolver data sheet
17-52 Input Frequency
Resolver data sheet
17-53 Transformation Ratio
Resolver data sheet
17-59 Resolver Interface
[1] Enabled
Table 5.8 Adjust following Parameters
5.3.4 24 V Back-Up Option MCB 107
External 24 V DC Supply
An external 24 V DC supply can be installed for lowvoltage supply to the control card and any option card
installed. This enables full operation of the LCP (including
the parameter setting) without connection to mains.
External 24 V DC supply specification
Input voltage range
Max. input current
Average input current
Max cable length
Input capacitance load
Power-up delay
The inputs are protected.
24 V DC ±15% (max. 37 V in 10 s)
2.2 A
0.9 A
75 m
<10 uF
<0.6 s
Terminal numbers
Terminal 35: - external 24 V DC supply.
Terminal 36: + external 24 V DC supply.
80
MG04H102 - VLT® is a registered Danfoss trademark
VLT® Decentral Drive FCD 302
Specifications
6 Specifications
6.1 Mechanical Dimensions
130BB712.10
331.5
280
80
6.5
41
6 6
80
25
190
178
Ø13
4
1
3
2
175
315
349.5
ON
WARNING
ALARM
NS1
NS2
200
Bus MS
Illustration 6.2 Large Unit
Motor side
Illustration 6.1 Small Unit
1xM20, 1xM25
Control side
2xM20, 9xM161)
Mains side
2xM25
Table 6.1 Legend
1)
Also used for 4xM12/6xM12 sensor/actuator sockets.
MG04H102 - VLT® is a registered Danfoss trademark
81
VLT® Decentral Drive FCD 302
Specifications
6.2 Electrical Data and Wire Sizes
Mains Supply 3x380-480 V AC
Frequency Converter
PK37
PK55
PK75
P1K1
P1K5
P2K2
P3K0
Rated Shaft Output [kW]
0.37
0.55
0.75
1.1
1.5
2.2
3.0
Rated Shaft Output [hp]
0.5
0.75
1.0
1.5
2.0
3.0
4.0
Continuous (3x380-440 V) [A]
1.2
1.6
2.2
2.7
3.7
5.0
6.5
Intermittent (3x380-440 V) [A]
1.9
2.6
3.5
4.3
5.9
8.0
10.4
Continuous (3x441-480 V) [A]
1.0
1.4
1.9
2.7
3.1
4.3
5.7
Intermittent (3x441-480 V) [A]
1.6
2.2
3.0
4.3
5.0
6.9
9.1
ON
Bus MS
WARNING
ALARM
NS1
NS2
130BB800.10
Max. input current
Recommended max. fuse size*
gG-25
Built-in circuit breaker (large unit)
CTI-25M Danfoss part no.: 047B3151
Recommended circuit breaker (small
unit)
6 6
Power loss at max. load [W]
Efficiency
CTI-45MB Danfoss part no.: 047B3164
35
42
46
58
62
88
116
0.93
0.95
0.96
0.96
0.97
0.97
0.97
Weight, small unit [kg]
9.8
Weight, large unit [kg]
N/A
13.9
ON
Bus MS
WARNING
ALARM
NS1
NS2
130BB799.10
Output current
Continuous (3x380-440 V) [A]
1.3
1.8
2.4
3.0
4.1
5.2
7.2
Intermittent (3x380-440 V) [A]
2.1
2.9
3.8
4.8
6.6
8.3
11.5
Continuous (3x441-480 V) [A]
1.2
1.6
2.1
3.0
3.4
4.8
6.3
Intermittent (3x441-480 V) [A]
1.9
2.6
3.4
4.8
5.4
7.7
10.1
Continuous kVA (400 V AC) [kVA]
0.9
1.3
1.7
2.1
2.8
3.9
5.0
Continuous kVA (460 V AC) [kVA]
0.9
1.3
1.7
2.4
2.7
3.8
5.0
Max. cable size: (mains, motor,
solid cable 6/10
flexible cable 4/12
brake) [mm2/ AWG]
Table 6.2 FCD 302 Shaft Output, Output Current and Input Current
*To meet UL/cULrequirements, use the following pre-fuses.
1.
2.
3.
Brand
Fuse Type
UL File no.
UL Category
(CCN code)
Bussmann
FWH-25
E91958
JFHR2
Bussmann
KTS-R25
E52273
RK1/JDDZ
Bussmann
JKS-25
E4273
J/JDDZ
Type gG pre-fuses must be used. To maintain UL/
cUL, use pre-fuses of these type (see Table 6.3).
Bussmann
JJS-25
E4273
T/JDDZ
Bussmann
FNW-R-25
E4273
CC/JDDZ
Bussmann
KTK-R-25
E4273
CC/JDDZ
Measured using a 10 m screened/armoured
motor cable with a rated load and rated
frequency.
Bussmann
LP-CC-25
E4273
SIBA
5017906-025 E180276
RK1/JDDZ
LITTLE FUSE
KLS-R25
E81895
RK1/JDDZ
FERRAZSHAWMUT
ATM-R25
E163267/
E2137
CC/JDDZ
FERRAZSHAWMUT
A6K-25R
E163267/
E2137
RK1/JDDZ
FERRAZSHAWMUT
HSJ25
E2137
J/HSJ
American Wire Gauge. Max. Cable cross section is
the largest cable cross section that can be
attached to the terminals. Always observe
national and local regulations.
Recommended maximum pre-fuse size 25 A
CC/JDDZ
Table 6.3 FCD 302 Pre-fuses Meeting UL/cUL Requirements
82
MG04H102 - VLT® is a registered Danfoss trademark
Specifications
DC voltage level
VLT® Decentral Drive FCD 302
380-480 V units (V DC)
Inverter undervoltage disable
373
Undervoltage warning
410
Inverter undervoltage re-enable
(warning reset)
398
Overvoltage warning (without
brake)
778
Dynamic brake turn on
778
Inverter overvoltage re-enable
(warning reset)
795
Overvoltage warning (with brake)
810
Overvoltage trip
820
Table 6.4 FCD 302 DC Voltage Level
6 6
Fuses
The unit is suitable for use on a circuit capable of
delivering not more than 100,000 RMS symmetrical
Amperes, 500 V maximum.
Circuit breaker
The unit is suitable for use on a circuit capable of
delivering not more than 10,000 RMS symmetrical
Amperes, 500 V maximum.
MG04H102 - VLT® is a registered Danfoss trademark
83
6 6
VLT® Decentral Drive FCD 302
Specifications
6.3 General Specifications
Mains supply (L1, L2, L3)
Supply voltage
380-480 V ±10%
Mains voltage low / mains drop-out:
During low mains voltage or a mains drop-out, the frequency converter continues until the intermediate circuit voltage drops
below the minimum stop level, which corresponds typically to 15% below the FC's lowest rated supply voltage. Power-up and full
torque cannot be expected at mains voltage lower than 10% below the frequency converter's lowest rated supply voltage.
Supply frequency
Max. imbalance temporary between mains phases
True Power Factor (λ)
Displacement Power Factor (cos ϕ)
Switching on input supply L1, L2, L3 (power-ups)
50/60 Hz ± 5%
3.0% of rated supply voltage
≥ 0.9 nominal at rated load
near unity (> 0.98)
maximum 2 times/min.
The unit is suitable for use on a circuit capable of delivering not more than 100,000 RMS symmetrical Amperes, 480 V maximum.
Motor output (U, V, W)
Output voltage
Output frequency
Output frequency in Flux Mode
Switching on output
Ramp times
0-100% of supply voltage
0-1000 Hz
0-300 Hz
Unlimited
0.01-3600 s
Torque Characteristics
Starting torque (Constant torque)
Starting torque
Overload torque (Constant torque)
Starting torque (Variable torque)
Overload torque (Variable torque)
1)
maximum 160% for 60
maximum 180% up to 0.5
maximum 160% for 60
maximum 110% for 60
maximum 110% for 60
s1)
s1)
s1)
s1)
s1)
Percentage relates to the nominal torque.
Cable lengths and cross sections for control cables1)
Max. motor cable length, screened
Max. motor cable length, unscreened, without fulfilling emission specification.
Maximum cross section to control terminals, flexible/ rigid wire without cable end sleeves
Maximum cross section to control terminals, flexible wire with cable end sleeves
Maximum cross section to control terminals, flexible wire with cable end sleeves with collar
Minimum cross section to control terminals
1)Power
10 m
10 m
1.5 mm2/16 AWG
1.5 mm2/16 AWG
1.5 mm2/16 AWG
0.25 mm2/ 24 AWG
cables, see tables in 6.2 Electrical Data and Wire Sizes of the FCD 302 Design Guide, MG04H
Protection and Features
•
•
•
•
•
•
84
Electronic thermal motor protection against overload.
Temperature monitoring of the heatsink ensures that the frequency converter trips if the temperature reaches a
predefined level.
The frequency converter is protected against short-circuits on motor terminals U, V, W.
If a mains phase is missing, the frequency converter trips or issues a warning (depending on the load).
Monitoring of the intermediate circuit voltage ensures that the frequency converter trips if the intermediate circuit
voltage is too low or too high.
The frequency converter constantly checks for critical levels of internal temperature, load current, high voltage on
the intermediate circuit and low motor speeds. As a response to a critical level, the frequency converter can adjust
the switching frequency and/ or change the switching pattern in order to ensure the performance of the drive.
MG04H102 - VLT® is a registered Danfoss trademark
Specifications
VLT® Decentral Drive FCD 302
Digital inputs
Programmable digital inputs
Terminal number
Logic
Voltage level
Voltage level, logic'0' PNP
Voltage level, logic'1' PNP
Voltage level, logic '0' NPN2)
Voltage level, logic '1' NPN2)
Maximum voltage on input
Pulse frequency range
(Duty cycle) Min. pulse width
Input resistance, Ri
18, 19,
4 (6)1)
32, 33,
PNP or NPN
0-24 V DC
<5 V DC
>10 V DC
>19 V DC
<14 V DC
28 V DC
0-110 kHz
4.5 ms
approx. 4 kΩ
271),
291),
All digital inputs are galvanically isolated from the supply voltage (PELV) and other high-voltage terminals.
1) Terminals 27 and 29 can also be programmed as output.
Safe stop Terminal 37 (Terminal 37 is fixed PNP logic)
Voltage level
Voltage level, logic'0' PNP
Voltage level, logic'1' PNP
Nominal input current at 24 V
Nominal input current at 20 V
Input capacitance
Analog inputs
Number of analog inputs
Terminal number
Modes
Mode select
Voltage mode
Voltage level
Input resistance, Ri
Max. voltage
Current mode
Current level
Input resistance, Ri
Max. current
Resolution for analog inputs
Accuracy of analog inputs
Bandwidth
6 6
0-24 V DC
<4 V DC
20 V DC
50 mA rms
60 mA rms
400 nF
2
53, 54
Voltage or current
Switch S201 and switch S202
Switch S201/switch S202=OFF (U)
-10 to +10 V (scaleable)
approx. 10 kΩ
±20 V
Switch S201/switch S202=ON (I)
0/4 to 20 mA (scaleable)
approx. 200Ω
30 mA
10 bit (+ sign)
Max. error 0.5% of full scale
100 Hz
The analog inputs are galvanically isolated from the supply voltage (PELV) and other high-voltage terminals.
MG04H102 - VLT® is a registered Danfoss trademark
85
6 6
2
3
4
+24V
18
5
6
37
130BD007.10
VLT® Decentral Drive FCD 302
Specifications
Item
Description
1
Functional isolation
2
Control
3
PELV isolation
4
Mains
5
High voltage
6
Motor
Table 6.5 Legend
1
RS485
Illustration 6.3 Analog Inputs
Pulse/encoder inputs
Programmable pulse/encoder inputs
Terminal number pulse/encoder
Max. frequency at terminal 29, 32, 33
Max. frequency at terminal 29, 32, 33
Min. frequency at terminal 29, 32, 33
Voltage level
Maximum voltage on input
Input resistance, Ri
Pulse input accuracy (0.1 to 1 kHz)
Encoder input accuracy (1 to 110 kHz)
2/1
29, 331)/322), 332)
110 kHz (Push-pull driven)
5 kHz (open collector)
4 Hz
see 6.3.1 Digital Inputs
28 V DC
approx. 4 kΩ
Max. error: 0.1% of full scale
Max. error: 0.05% of full scale
The pulse and encoder inputs (terminals 29, 32, 33) are galvanically isolated from the supply voltage (PELV) and other highvoltage terminals.
1) Pulse inputs are 29 and 33
2) Encoder inputs: 32=A, and 33=B
Analog output
Number of programmable analog outputs
Terminal number
Current range at analog output
Max. load GND - analog output less than
Accuracy on analog output
Resolution on analog output
1
42
0/4 to 20 mA
500 Ω
Max. error: 0.5% of full scale
12 bit
The analogue output is galvanically isolated from the supply voltage (PELV) and other high-voltage terminals.
Control card, RS-485 serial communication
Terminal number
Terminal number 61
68 (P,TX+, RX+), 69 (N,TX-, RX-)
Common for terminals 68 and 69
The RS-485 serial communication circuit is functionally separated from other central circuits and galvanically isolated from the
supply voltage (PELV).
Digital output
Programmable digital/pulse outputs
Terminal number
Voltage level at digital/frequency output
Max. output current (sink or source)
Max. load at frequency output
Max. capacitive load at frequency output
Minimum output frequency at frequency output
Maximum output frequency at frequency output
Accuracy of frequency output
86
MG04H102 - VLT® is a registered Danfoss trademark
2
1)
27, 29
0-24 V
40 mA
1 kΩ
10 nF
0 Hz
32 kHz
Max. error: 0.1% of full scale
Specifications
VLT® Decentral Drive FCD 302
Resolution of frequency outputs
12 bit
1) Terminal 27 and 29 can also be programmed as input.
The digital output is galvanically isolated from the supply voltage (PELV) and other high-voltage terminals.
Control card, 24 V DC output
Terminal number
Output voltage
Max. load
12, 13
24 V +1, -3 V
600 mA
The 24 V DC supply is galvanically isolated from the supply voltage (PELV), but has the same ground potential as the analog and
digital inputs and outputs.
Relay outputs
Programmable relay outputs
Relay 01 Terminal number
Max. terminal load (AC-1)1) on 1-3 (NC), 1-2 (NO) (Resistive load)
Max. terminal load (AC-15)1) (Inductive load @ cosφ 0.4)
Max. terminal load (DC-1)1) on 1-2 (NO), 1-3 (NC) (Resistive load)
Max. terminal load (DC-13)1) (Inductive load)
Relay 02 Terminal number
Max. terminal load (AC-1)1) on 4-5 (NO) (Resistive load)2)3) Overvoltage cat. II
Max. terminal load (AC-15)1) on 4-5 (NO) (Inductive load @ cosφ 0.4)
Max. terminal load (DC-1)1) on 4-5 (NO) (Resistive load)
Max. terminal load (DC-13)1) on 4-5 (NO) (Inductive load)
Max. terminal load (AC-1)1) on 4-6 (NC) (Resistive load)
Max. terminal load (AC-15)1) (Inductive load @ cosφ 0.4)
Max. terminal load (DC-1)1) on 4-6 (NO), 4-5 (NC) (Resistive load)
Max. terminal load (DC-13)1) (Inductive load)
Min. terminal load on 1-3 (NC), 1-2 (NO), 4-6 (NC), 4-5 (NO)
2
1-3 (break), 1-2 (make)
240 V AC, 2A
240 V AC, 0.2 A
48 V DC, 1A
24 V DC, 0.1A
4-6 (break), 4-5 (make)
240 V AC, 2 A
240 V AC, 0.2A
80 V DC, 2 A
24 V DC, 0.1A
240 V AC, 2 A
240 V AC, 0.2A
48 V DC, 1A
24 V DC, 0.1 A
24 V DC 10 mA, 24 V AC 20 mA
1) IEC 60947 part 4 and 5
The relay contacts are galvanically isolated from the rest of the circuit by reinforced isolation (PELV).
2) Overvoltage Category II
3) UL applications 300 V AC 2A
Control card, 10 V DC output
Terminal number
Output voltage
Max. load
±50
10.5 V ±0.5 V
15 mA
The 10 V DC supply is galvanically isolated from the supply voltage (PELV) and other high-voltage terminals.
Control characteristics
Resolution of output frequency at 0-1000 Hz
Repeat accuracy of Precise start/stop (terminals 18, 19)
System response time (terminals 18, 19, 27, 29, 32, 33)
Speed control range (open loop)
Speed control range (closed loop)
Speed accuracy (open loop)
Speed accuracy (closed loop), depending on resolution of feedback device
Torque control accuracy (speed feedback)
±0.003 Hz
≤±0.1 ms
≤ 2 ms
1:100 of synchronous speed
1:1000 of synchronous speed
30-4000 rpm: error ±8 rpm
0-6000 rpm: error ±0.15 rpm
max error ±5% of rated torque
All control characteristics are based on a 4-pole asynchronous motor
Control card performance
Scan interval
1 ms
Surroundings
Enclosure rating
IP66/Type 4X (indoor)
Vibration test for units with no circuit breaker
1.7 g RMS
Mounts unit with integrated circuit breaker om a level, vibration-proof and torsionally rigid support structure
Max. relative humidity
5%-95% (IEC 60 721-3-3; Class 3K3 (non-condensing) during operation
MG04H102 - VLT® is a registered Danfoss trademark
87
6 6
6 6
VLT® Decentral Drive FCD 302
Specifications
Max. 40 °C (24-hour average maximum 35 °C)
-25 to +65/70 °C
Ambient temperature
Temperature during storage/transport
Derating for high ambient temperature
0 °C
-10 °C
1000 m
Minimum ambient temperature during full-scale operation
Minimum ambient temperature at reduced performance
Maximum altitude above sea level
Derating for high altitude
Control card, USB serial communication:
USB standard
USB plug
1.1 (Full speed)
USB type B plug
Connection to PC is carried out via a standard host/device USB cable.
The USB connection is galvanically isolated from the supply voltage (PELV) and other high-voltage terminals.
The USB ground connection is not galvanically isolated from protection earth. Use only an isolated laptop as PC connection to
the USB connector on the frequency converter.
6.4 Efficiency
Contact Danfoss Hotline for efficiency data.
6.5.1 Acoustic Noise
designed to be controlled by frequency converters. The
frequency converter also complies with IEC 60034-17
regarding Norm motors controlled by frequency converters
Contact Danfoss Hotline for measured values from
laboratory tests.
Contact Danfoss Hotline for acoustic noise data.
6.6.1 dU/dt Conditions
NOTE
380-690 V
To avoid premature ageing of motors (without phase
insulation paper or other insulation reinforcement) not
designed for frequency converter operation, Danfoss
strongly recommend to fit a dU/dt filter or a Sine-Wave
filter on the output of the frequency converter. For further
information about du/dt and Sine-Wave filters see the
Output Filters Design Guide.
When a transistor in the inverter bridge switches, the
voltage across the motor increases by a du/dt ratio
depending on:
the motor cable (type, cross-section, length
screened or unscreened)
-
inductance
The natural induction causes an overshoot UPEAK in the
motor voltage before it stabilises itself at a level
depending on the voltage in the intermediate circuit. The
rise time and the peak voltage UPEAK affect the service life
of the motor. If the peak voltage is too high, especially
motors without phase coil insulation are affected. When
the motor cable is short (a few metres), the rise time and
peak voltage are lower.
Peak voltage on the motor terminals is caused by the
switching of the IGBTs. The frequency converter complies
with the demands of IEC 60034-25 regarding motors
88
MG04H102 - VLT® is a registered Danfoss trademark
Index
VLT® Decentral Drive FCD 302
Index
E
A
Earth Leakage Current........................................................................ 24
Acoustic Noise................................................................................ 46, 88
Efficiency.................................................................................................. 88
Aggressive Environments.................................................................. 46
Electro-..................................................................................................... 65
Air Humidity........................................................................................... 45
EMC
Directive (2004/108/EC)................................................................... 9
Directive 2004/108/EC................................................................... 10
Test Results......................................................................................... 15
AMA
With T27 Connected....................................................................... 47
Without T27 Connected................................................................ 47
Analog
Inputs................................................................................................... 85
Output.................................................................................................. 86
Emission Requirements...................................................................... 15
External 24 V DC Supply..................................................................... 80
F
B
Flux..................................................................................................... 62, 63
Brake
Function.............................................................................................. 27
Power............................................................................................... 5, 27
Resistor................................................................................................ 26
Resistor Cabling................................................................................ 25
Resistors.............................................................................................. 38
Branch Circuit Protection................................................................... 30
Freeze
Output.................................................................................................... 5
Reference............................................................................................ 17
G
General Aspects Of EMC Emissions................................................ 14
Break-away Torque................................................................................. 5
H
C
Hoist Mechanical Brake...................................................................... 25
Catch Up/slow Down.......................................................................... 17
I
CE
Conformity And Labelling............................................................... 9
Conformity And Labelling?............................................................. 9
Intermediate Circuit............................................................... 34, 46, 88
Coasting..................................................................................................... 5
IT Mains.................................................................................................... 42
Cable Lengths And Cross Sections................................................. 84
Immunity Requirements.................................................................... 15
Internal Current Control In VVCplus Mode................................. 12
Conducted Emission........................................................................... 14
Control
Card....................................................................................................... 75
Card Performance............................................................................ 87
Card, +10 V DC Output................................................................... 87
Card, 24 V DC Output..................................................................... 87
Card, RS-485 Serial Communication......................................... 86
Card, USB Serial Communication............................................... 88
Characteristics................................................................................... 87
J
Jog................................................................................................................ 5
L
LCP......................................................................................................... 5, 64
Leakage Current.................................................................................... 24
Local (Hand On) And Remote (Auto On) Control...................... 64
D
Low-voltage Directive (2006/95/EC)................................................ 9
Dead
Band...................................................................................................... 20
Band Around Zero........................................................................... 20
Definitions................................................................................................. 5
DeviceNet.................................................................................................. 5
Digital
Inputs................................................................................................... 85
Output.................................................................................................. 86
Disposal Instruction............................................................................. 10
Drive Configurator............................................................................... 75
M
Machinery Directive (2006/42/EC).................................................... 9
Mains
Disconnectors................................................................................... 32
Drop-out.............................................................................................. 34
Supply..................................................................................................... 5
Supply (L1, L2, L3)............................................................................ 84
Supply Interference......................................................................... 43
Mechanical
Dimensions........................................................................................ 81
Holding Brake.................................................................................... 25
MG04H102 - VLT® is a registered Danfoss trademark
89
Index
VLT® Decentral Drive FCD 302
Modbus....................................................................................................... 5
Moment Of Inertia................................................................................ 34
Motor
Feedback............................................................................................. 63
Name Plate......................................................................................... 45
Output.................................................................................................. 84
Phases.................................................................................................. 34
Voltage................................................................................................. 88
Motor-generated Over-voltage....................................................... 34
N
Name Plate Data................................................................................... 45
O
Ordering Numbers............................................................................... 75
Speed
PID.................................................................................................. 11, 62
PID Control......................................................................................... 53
Reference............................................................................................ 47
Static Overload In VVCplus Mode................................................... 34
Surroundings......................................................................................... 87
Switching On The Output.................................................................. 34
Symbols...................................................................................................... 8
Synchronous Motor Speed.................................................................. 5
T
Thermistor.......................................................................................... 5, 50
Torque
Characteristics................................................................................... 84
Control................................................................................................. 11
Output Performance (U, V, W).......................................................... 84
V
P
Vibration And Shock............................................................................ 46
PELV
PELV...................................................................................................... 50
- Protective Extra Low Voltage.................................................... 24
Voltage Level.......................................................................................... 85
VVCplus................................................................................................ 7, 62
Point Of Common Coupling............................................................. 43
Process PID Control............................................................................. 55
Profibus....................................................................................................... 5
Programming Of Torque Limit And Stop..................................... 65
Protection
Protection.................................................................................... 24, 46
And Features...................................................................................... 84
Mode....................................................................................................... 8
Pulse/Encoder Inputs.......................................................................... 86
R
Radiated Emission................................................................................ 14
Rated Motor Speed................................................................................ 5
RCD............................................................................................................... 5
Reference Limits.................................................................................... 18
Relay Outputs........................................................................................ 87
Residual Current Device..................................................................... 44
Rise Time.................................................................................................. 88
S
Safety Precautions.................................................................................. 8
Scaling
Of Analog And Pulse References And Feedback.................. 19
Of Preset References And Bus References.............................. 19
Screened/armoured............................................................................ 31
Serial Communication........................................................................ 88
Short
Circuit (Motor Phase – Phase)...................................................... 34
Circuit Ratio........................................................................................ 43
90
MG04H102 - VLT® is a registered Danfoss trademark
www.danfoss.com/drives
130R0320
MG04H102
*MG04H102*
Rev. 2012-05-08
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