Three-Terminal Adjustable Output Negative Voltage Regulator LM337

Three-Terminal Adjustable Output Negative Voltage Regulator LM337
ON Semiconductor
Three-Terminal Adjustable
Output Negative Voltage
Regulator
The LM337 is an adjustable 3–terminal negative voltage regulator
capable of supplying in excess of 1.5 A over an output voltage range of
–1.2 V to –37 V. This voltage regulator is exceptionally easy to use
and requires only two external resistors to set the output voltage.
Further, it employs internal current limiting, thermal shutdown and
safe area compensation, making it essentially blow–out proof.
The LM337 serves a wide variety of applications including local, on
card regulation. This device can also be used to make a programmable
output regulator, or by connecting a fixed resistor between the
adjustment and output, the LM337 can be used as a precision current
regulator.
• Output Current in Excess of 1.5 A
• Output Adjustable between –1.2 V and –37 V
• Internal Thermal Overload Protection
• Internal Short Circuit Current Limiting Constant with Temperature
• Output Transistor Safe–Area Compensation
• Floating Operation for High Voltage Applications
• Eliminates Stocking many Fixed Voltages
• Available in Surface Mount D2PAK and Standard 3–Lead Transistor
Package
LM337
THREE–TERMINAL
ADJUSTABLE NEGATIVE
VOLTAGE REGULATOR
SEMICONDUCTOR
TECHNICAL DATA
T SUFFIX
PLASTIC PACKAGE
CASE 221A
Heatsink surface
connected to Pin 2.
1
2
3
Pin 1. Adjust
2. Vin
3. Vout
Standard Application
D2T SUFFIX
PLASTIC PACKAGE
CASE 936
(D2PAK)
IPROG
Cin*
1.0 µF
R2
+
CO**
1.0 µF
R1
120
Vin
LM337
2
3
+
Heatsink surface (shown as terminal 4 in
case outline drawing) is connected to Pin 2.
IAdj
-Vin
1
Vout
-Vout
ORDERING INFORMATION
*Cin is required if regulator is located more than 4 inches from power supply filter.
*A 1.0 µF solid tantalum or 10 µF aluminum electrolytic is recommended.
**CO is necessary for stability. A 1.0 µF solid tantalum or 10 µF aluminum electrolytic
**is recommended.
March, 2001 – Rev. 2
LM337BT
LM337T
1
Operating
Temperature Range
LM337BD2T
LM337D2T
R
V out 1.25V 1 2
R1
 Semiconductor Components Industries, LLC, 2001
Device
Package
Surface Mount
TJ = –40° to +125°C
TJ = 0° to +125°C
Insertion Mount
Surface Mount
Insertion Mount
Publication Order Number:
LM337/D
LM337
MAXIMUM RATINGS
Rating
Symbol
Value
Unit
VI–VO
40
Vdc
PD
θJA
θJC
Internally Limited
65
5.0
W
°C/W
°C/W
PD
θJA
θJC
Internally Limited
70
5.0
W
°C/W
°C/W
Operating Junction Temperature Range
TJ
–40 to +125
°C
Storage Temperature Range
Tstg
–65 to +150
°C
Input–Output Voltage Differential
Power Dissipation
Case 221A
TA = +25°C
Thermal Resistance, Junction–to–Ambient
Thermal Resistance, Junction–to–Case
Case 936 (D2PAK)
TA = +25°C
Thermal Resistance, Junction–to–Ambient
Thermal Resistance, Junction–to–Case
ELECTRICAL CHARACTERISTICS (|VI–VO| = 5.0 V; IO = 0.5 A for T package; TJ = Tlow to Thigh [Note 1]; Imax and Pmax [Note 2].)
Characteristics
Figure
Symbol
Min
Typ
Max
Unit
–
0.01
0.04
%/V
–
–
15
0.3
50
1.0
mV
% VO
Regtherm
–
0.003
0.04
% VO/W
Line Regulation (Note 3), TA = +25°C, 3.0 V ≤ |VI–VO| ≤ 40 V
1
Regline
Load Regulation (Note 3), TA = +25°C, 10 mA ≤ IO ≤ Imax
|VO| ≤ 5.0 V
|VO| ≥ 5.0 V
2
Regload
Thermal Regulation, TA = +25°C (Note 6), 10 ms Pulse
3
IAdj
–
65
100
µA
Adjustment Pin Current Change, 2.5 V ≤ |VI–VO| ≤ 40 V,
10 mA ≤ IL ≤ Imax, PD ≤ Pmax, TA = +25°C
1, 2
∆IAdj
–
2.0
5.0
µA
Reference Voltage, TA = +25°C, 3.0 V ≤ |VI–VO| ≤ 40 V,
10 mA ≤ IO ≤ Imax, PD ≤ Pmax, TJ = Tlow to Thigh
3
Vref
–1.213
–1.20
–1.250
–1.25
–1.287
–1.30
V
Line Regulation (Note 3), 3.0 V ≤ |VI–VO| ≤ 40 V
1
Regline
–
0.02
0.07
%/V
Load Regulation (Note 3), 10 mA ≤ IO ≤ Imax
|VO| ≤ 5.0 V
|VO| ≥ 5.0 V
2
Regload
–
–
20
0.3
70
1.5
mV
% VO
Temperature Stability (Tlow ≤ TJ ≤ Thigh)
3
TS
–
0.6
–
% VO
Minimum Load Current to Maintain Regulation
(|VI–VO| ≤ 10 V)
(|VI–VO| ≤ 40 V)
3
ILmin
–
–
1.5
2.5
6.0
10
Maximum Output Current
|VI–VO| ≤ 15 V, PD ≤ Pmax, T Package
|VI–VO| ≤ 40 V, PD ≤ Pmax, TJ = +25°C, T Package
3
–
–
1.5
0.15
2.2
0.4
–
0.003
–
–
66
60
77
–
–
S
–
0.3
1.0
%/1.0 k
Hrs.
RθJC
–
4.0
–
°C/W
Adjustment Pin Current
RMS Noise, % of VO, TA = +25°C, 10 Hz ≤ f ≤ 10 kHz
Imax
N
Ripple Rejection, VO = –10 V, f = 120 Hz (Note 4)
Without CAdj
CAdj = 10 µF
4
Long–Term Stability, TJ = Thigh (Note 5), TA = +25°C for
Endpoint Measurements
3
Thermal Resistance Junction–to–Case, T Package
mA
A
RR
% VO
dB
NOTES: 1. Tlow to Thigh = 0° to +125°C, for LM337T, D2T. Tlow to Thigh = –40° to +125°C, for LM337BT, BD2T.
2. Imax = 1.5 A, Pmax = 20 W
3. Load and line regulation are specified at constant junction temperature. Change in VO because of heating effects is covered under the Thermal
Regulation specification. Pulse testing with a low duty cycle is used.
4. CAdj, when used, is connected between the adjustment pin and ground.
5. Since Long Term Stability cannot be measured on each device before shipment, this specification is an engineering estimate of average stability
from lot to lot.
6. Power dissipation within an IC voltage regulator produces a temperature gradient on the die, affecting individual IC components on the die. These
effects can be minimized by proper integrated circuit design and layout techniques. Thermal Regulation is the effect of these temperature gradients
on the output voltage and is expressed in percentage of output change per watt of power change in a specified time.
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LM337
Representative Schematic Diagram
Adjust
60
100
2.0k
2.5k
810
21k
Vout
10k
800
15pF
25pF
220
5.0k
75
0
60k
100k
2.0k
15pF
800
18k
4.0k
6.0k
100
1.0k
2.2k
3.0k
9.6k
270
240
5.0pF
100pF
20k
18k
30k
2.0
pF 250
5.0k
8.0k
0.2
100k
600
2.9k
4.0k
15
2.4k
500
15
500
155
0.05
Vin
This device contains 39 active transistors.
1%
R2
Cin
1.0 µF
CO
IAdj
Vin
LM337
1.0 µF
120
1%
R1
Adjust
*Pulse testing required.
1% Duty Cycle
is suggested.
+
Vout
VIH
VIL
*
VEE
RL
VOH
VOL
LineRegulation(%V) |V
V |
OL OH
x100
|V |
OH
Figure 1. Line Regulation and ∆IAdj/Line Test Circuit
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LM337
R2
Cin
*Pulse testing required.
1% Duty Cycle is suggested.
1%
CO +
1.0 µF
IAdj
R1
1.0 µF
120
*
Adjust
-VI
Vin
Vout
LM337
RL
(max
Load)
IL
Load Regulation (mV) = VO (min Load) - VO (max Load)
-VO (min Load)
-VO (max Load)
Load Regulation (% VO) =
VO (min Load) - VO (max Load)
VO (min Load)
x 100
Figure 2. Load Regulation and ∆IAdj/Load Test Circuit
1%
R2
Cin
VI
CO
1.0 µF
Vref
R1
Adjust
Vin
R2 =
VO
RL
IAdj
To Calculate R2:
+
1.0 µF
VO
Vref
This assumes IAdj is negligible.
LM337
Vout
120
IL
R1
-1
* Pulse testing required.
* 1% Duty Cycle is suggested.
Figure 3. Standard Test Circuit
R2
Cin
CAdj
1%
10µF
CO
1.0 µF
Adjust
Vin
+
LM337
120
R1
D1*
+
1.0 µF
RL
1N4002
Vout
Vout = -1.25 V
14.3 V
4.3 V
VO
* D1 Discharges CAdj if output is shorted to Ground.
f = 120 Hz
Figure 4. Ripple Rejection Test Circuit
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0.2
4.0
0
IL = 0.5 A
-0.2
I out , OUTPUT CURRENT (A)
∆V out , OUTPUT VOLTAGE CHANGE (%)
LM337
-0.4
-0.6
-0.8
Vin = -15 V
Vout = -10 V
-1.0
IL = 1.5 A
-1.2
-1.4
-50
-25
0
25
50
75
100 125
TJ, JUNCTION TEMPERATURE (°C)
3.0
2.0
TJ = 25°C
1.0
0
150
0
10
20
30
Vin-Vout , INPUT-OUTPUT VOLTAGE DIFFERENTIAL (Vdc)
Figure 5. Load Regulation
Figure 6. Current Limit
3.0
V in - Vout , INPUT-OUTPUT VOLTAGE
DIFFERENTIAL (Vdc)
IAdj, ADJUSTMENT CURRENT (µA)
80
75
70
65
60
55
50
45
40
-50
-25
0
25
50 75
100 125
TJ, JUNCTION TEMPERATURE (°C)
Vout = -5.0 V
∆VO = 100 mV
2.5
IL = 1.5 A
2.0
1.0 A
500 mA
1.5
200 mA
20 mA
1.0
150
-50
Figure 7. Adjustment Pin Current
-25
0
25
50 75
100 125
TJ, JUNCTION TEMPERATURE (°C)
150
Figure 8. Dropout Voltage
I B , QUIESCENT CURRENT (mA)
V ref , REFERENCE VOLTAGE (V)
1.27
1.26
1.25
1.24
1.23
40
-50
-25
0
25
50 75
100 125
TJ, JUNCTION TEMPERATURE (°C)
1.8
1.6
1.4
1.2
1.0
0.6
0.4
0.2
0
150
TJ = 25°C
0.8
Figure 9. Temperature Stability
0
10
20
30
40
Vin-Vout , INPUT-OUTPUT VOLTAGE DIFFERENTIAL (Vdc)
Figure 10. Minimum Operating Current
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LM337
100
CAdj = 10 µF
80
60
RR, RIPPLE REJECTION (dB)
RR, RIPPLE REJECTION (dB)
100
Without CAdj
40
Vin - Vout = 5.0 V
IL = 500 mA
f = 120 Hz
TJ = 25°C
20
0
0
-5.0
-10
-15
-20
-25
Vout, OUTPUT VOLTAGE (V)
-30
-35
40
0
0.01
10
Figure 12. Ripple Rejection versus Output Current
CAdj =10 µF
60
Z O , OUTPUT IMPEDANCE ()
Ω
Vin = -15 V
Vout = -10 V
IL = 500 mA
TJ = 25°C
Without CAdj
20
100
1.0 k
10 k
100 k
1.0 M
Vin = -15 V
Vout = -10 V
IL = 500 mA
CL = 1.0 µF
TJ = 25°C
100
10-1
Without CAdj
CAdj = 10 µF
10-2
10-3
10
10 M
f, FREQUENCY (Hz)
1.0 k
10 k
f, FREQUENCY (Hz)
Figure 13. Ripple Rejection versus Frequency
Figure 14. Output Impedance
∆V out , OUTPUT
VOLTAGE DEVIATION (V)
RR, RIPPLE REJECTION (dB)
0.8
0.6
0.4
0.2
0
Without CAdj
CAdj = 10 µF
-0.2
-0.4
I L , LOAD
CURRENT (A)
∆V in, INPUT
∆V out , OUTPUT
VOLTAGE CHANGE (V) VOLTAGE DEVIATION (V)
0.1
1.0
IO, OUTPUT CURRENT (A)
101
80
Vout = -10 V
IL = 50 mA
TJ = 25°C
CL = 1.0 µF
0
-0.5
-1.0
Vin = -15 V
Vout = -10 V
f = 120 Hz
TJ = 25°C
20
-40
100
0
10
Without CAdj
60
Figure 11. Ripple Rejection versus Output Voltage
40
CAdj = 10 µF
80
0
10
20
30
40
100
100 k
0.6
0.4
Without CAdj
0.2
0
-0.2
CAdj = 10 µF
-0.4
-0.6
Vin = -15 V
Vout = -10 V
IL = 50 mA
TJ = 25°C
CL = 1.0 µF
0
-0.5
-1.0
-1.5
0
10
20
30
t, TIME (µs)
t, TIME (µs)
Figure 15. Line Transient Response
Figure 16. Load Transient Response
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1.0 M
40
LM337
APPLICATIONS INFORMATION
Basic Circuit Operation
The LM337 is a 3–terminal floating regulator. In
operation, the LM337 develops and maintains a nominal
–1.25 V reference (Vref) between its output and adjustment
terminals. This reference voltage is converted to a
programming current (IPROG) by R1 (see Figure 17), and this
constant current flows through R2 from ground.
The regulated output voltage is given by:
near the load ground to provide remote ground sensing and
improve load regulation.
External Capacitors
A 1.0 µF tantalum input bypass capacitor (Cin) is
recommended to reduce the sensitivity to input line
impedance.
The adjustment terminal may be bypassed to ground to
improve ripple rejection. This capacitor (CAdj) prevents
ripple from being amplified as the output voltage is
increased. A 10 µF capacitor should improve ripple
rejection about 15 dB at 120 Hz in a 10 V application.
An output capacitance (CO) in the form of a 1.0 µF
tantalum or 10 µF aluminum electrolytic capacitor is
required for stability.
R
V out V 1 2 I R 2
ref
Adj
R1
Since the current into the adjustment terminal (IAdj)
represents an error term in the equation, the LM337 was
designed to control IAdj to less than 100 µA and keep it
constant. To do this, all quiescent operating current is
returned to the output terminal. This imposes the
requirement for a minimum load current. If the load current
is less than this minimum, the output voltage will rise.
Since the LM337 is a floating regulator, it is only the
voltage differential across the circuit which is important to
performance, and operation at high voltages with respect to
ground is possible.
Protection Diodes
When external capacitors are used with any IC regulator
it is sometimes necessary to add protection diodes to prevent
the capacitors from discharging through low current points
into the regulator.
Figure 18 shows the LM337 with the recommended
protection diodes for output voltages in excess of –25 V or
high capacitance values (CO > 25 µF, CAdj > 10 µF). Diode
D1 prevents CO from discharging thru the IC during an input
short circuit. Diode D2 protects against capacitor CAdj
discharging through the IC during an output short circuit.
The combination of diodes D1 and D2 prevents CAdj from
the discharging through the IC during an input short circuit.
+ Vout
R2
IPROG
IAdj
Vin
LM337
CO
R1
Vref
- Vout
Vout
R2
Vref = -1.25 V Typical
Cin
Figure 17. Basic Circuit Configuration
Load Regulation
JUNCTIONTOAIR (° C/W)
Vin
LM337
3.0
2.0 oz. Copper
L
Minimum
Size Pad
50
ÎÎÎÎ
ÎÎÎÎ
ÎÎÎÎ
2.5
2.0
L
40
1.5
RθJA
0
5.0
CO
D2
1N4002
+
- Vout
Figure 18. Voltage Regulator with Protection Diodes
Free Air
Mounted
Vertically
60
Vout
+ Vout
+
D1
1N4002
PD(max) for TA = +50°C
70
30
R1
3.5
80
R θ JA, THERMAL RESISTANCE
Adjust
-Vin
The LM337 is capable of providing extremely good load
regulation, but a few precautions are needed to obtain
maximum performance. For best performance, the
programming resistor (R1) should be connected as close to
the regulator as possible to minimize line drops which
effectively appear in series with the reference, thereby
degrading regulation. The ground end of R2 can be returned
CAdj
+
10
15
20
L, LENGTH OF COPPER (mm)
25
30
1.0
Figure 19. D2PAK Thermal Resistance and Maximum
Power Dissipation versus P.C.B. Copper Length
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PD, MAXIMUM POWER DISSIPATION (W)
Adjust
+
LM337
PACKAGE DIMENSIONS
T SUFFIX
PLASTIC PACKAGE
CASE 221A–09
ISSUE AA
SEATING
PLANE
–T–
B
C
F
T
S
4
DIM
A
B
C
D
F
G
H
J
K
L
N
Q
R
S
T
U
V
Z
A
Q
1 2 3
U
H
K
Z
L
R
V
NOTES:
1. DIMENSIONING AND TOLERANCING PER ANSI
Y14.5M, 1982.
2. CONTROLLING DIMENSION: INCH.
3. DIMENSION Z DEFINES A ZONE WHERE ALL
BODY AND LEAD IRREGULARITIES ARE
ALLOWED.
J
G
D
N
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INCHES
MIN
MAX
0.570
0.620
0.380
0.405
0.160
0.190
0.025
0.035
0.142
0.147
0.095
0.105
0.110
0.155
0.018
0.025
0.500
0.562
0.045
0.060
0.190
0.210
0.100
0.120
0.080
0.110
0.045
0.055
0.235
0.255
0.000
0.050
0.045
----0.080
MILLIMETERS
MIN
MAX
14.48
15.75
9.66
10.28
4.07
4.82
0.64
0.88
3.61
3.73
2.42
2.66
2.80
3.93
0.46
0.64
12.70
14.27
1.15
1.52
4.83
5.33
2.54
3.04
2.04
2.79
1.15
1.39
5.97
6.47
0.00
1.27
1.15
----2.04
LM337
PACKAGE DIMENSIONS
D2T SUFFIX
PLASTIC PACKAGE
CASE 936–03
(D2PAK)
ISSUE B
OPTIONAL
CHAMFER
A
E
TERMINAL 4
–T
–
U
S
K
V
B
H
F
1
2
3
M
L
P
J
N
D
0.010 (0.254) M
R
T
G
C
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NOTES:
1. DIMENSIONING AND TOLERANCING PER ANSI
Y14.5M, 1982.
2. CONTROLLING DIMENSION: INCH.
3. TAB CONTOUR OPTIONAL WITHIN DIMENSIONS
A AND K.
4. DIMENSIONS U AND V ESTABLISH A MINIMUM
MOUNTING SURFACE FOR TERMINAL 4.
5. DIMENSIONS A AND B DO NOT INCLUDE MOLD
FLASH OR GATE PROTRUSIONS. MOLD FLASH
AND GATE PROTRUSIONS NOT TO EXCEED
0.025 (0.635) MAXIMUM.
DIM
A
B
C
D
E
F
G
H
J
K
L
M
N
P
R
S
U
V
INCHES
MIN
MAX
0.386
0.403
0.356
0.368
0.170
0.180
0.026
0.036
0.045
0.055
0.051 REF
0.100 BSC
0.539
0.579
0.125 MAX
0.050 REF
0.000
0.010
0.088
0.102
0.018
0.026
0.058
0.078
5 REF
0.116 REF
0.200 MIN
0.250 MIN
MILLIMETERS
MIN
MAX
9.804 10.236
9.042
9.347
4.318
4.572
0.660
0.914
1.143
1.397
1.295 REF
2.540 BSC
13.691 14.707
3.175 MAX
1.270 REF
0.000
0.254
2.235
2.591
0.457
0.660
1.473
1.981
5 REF
2.946 REF
5.080 MIN
6.350 MIN
LM337
Notes
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LM337
Notes
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LM337
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