Untitled - Rainier Flight Service

Untitled - Rainier Flight Service
CITABRIA
MODELS 7ECA, 7GCAA, 7GCBC
1994 MODELS AND NEWER
(Revised 01-01-01)
AMERICAN CHAMPION AIRCRAFT CORPORATION
32032 WASHINGTON AVE – HWY D
PO BOX 37 ROCHESTER, WI 53167
*
Model year is indicated by serial number suffix.
LOG OF REVISIONS
AMERICAN CHAMPION AIRCRAFT
CITABRIA (7 SERIES)
LOG OF REVISIONS
Revision
Pages Affected
Description Change
Date
i
FORWARD
AMERICAN CHAMPION AIRCRAFT
CITABRIA (7SERIES)
FOREWORD
This manual has been prepared to inform the pilot of the features and systems incorporated in
the V American Champion Citabria Models. Recommended operating procedures and
performance data are provided so that maximum utilization can be obtained with the utmost of
safety, economy and serviceability.
It is strongly recommended that the pilot be familiar with the aircraft and this manual prior to
flight.
This manual applies only to the aircraft as indicated on the cover page. Use of this manual with
other V aircraft is not recommended. However, the use of this manual with older Citabria
models, systems, descriptions and specific operating limitations may vary slightly (eg. fuel
quantity and inverted engine oil system). All placards and operating limitations in a specific
aircraft MUST be adhered to.
This manual does not replace the FAA Approved Airplane Flight Manual. If an inconsistency
exists between the manuals, the FAA Approved Airplane Flight Manual is to be the authority.
The words “WARNING”, “CAUTION”, and “NOTE” are used throughout the manual with the
following definitions.
WARNING
An operating procedure, practice or condition, etc. which may
result in injury or fatality, if not carefully observed or followed.
CAUTION
An operating procedure, practice or condition, etc. which if not
strictly observed, may damage the aircraft or equipment.
NOTE
An operating procedure, practice or condition, etc. which is essential
to emphasize.
TABLE OF CONTENTS
AMERICAN CHAMPION AIRCRAFT
CITABRIA (7 SERIES)
ii
TABLE OF CONTENTS
SECTION I
OPERATING LIMITATIONS ........................................... 1-1
SECTION II
EMERGENCY PROCEDURES ...................................... 2-1
SECTION III
NORMAL OPERATING PROCEDURES ........................ 3-1
SECTION IV
FLIGHT PERFORMANCE .............................................. 4-1
SECTION V
WEIGHT AND BALANCE ............................................... 5-1
SECTION VI
AIRCRAFT & SYSTEMS DESCRIPTION ........................ 6-1
SECTION VII
SERVICING .................................................................... 7-1
iii
SECTION I
OPERATING LIMITATIONS
INDEX
GENERAL ...............................................................................1-1
FLIGHT OPERATIONS ............................................................1-1
POWERPLANT LIMITATIONS ................................................1-2
AIRSPEED LIMITATIONS .......................................................1-3
WEIGHT AND BALANCE LIMITS ............................................ 1-3
FLIGHT LOAD FACTORS .......................................................1-4.
MANOEUVRES ....................................................................... 1-4
REQUIRED PLACARDS ..........................................................1-4
GENERAL
This section lists all power plant and airframe operating limitations. These limitations are also
indicated in the aircraft in the form of placards and instrument colour markings. The aircraft
placards and instrument markings are to be the authority if an inconsistency exists with this
manual.
Limitations pertaining to optional equipment such as floats or external spray units must be
obtained from the respective manufacturer.
WARNING
All operating limitations must be strictly adhered to for reasons of
safety and serviceability.
FLIGHT OPERATIONS
All Citabria models are approved in the Normal and Acrobatic Category.
Day or night flight in VFR conditions only is approved providing the aircraft is equipped with the
required equipment and is in operating condition as specified under Part 91 of the Federal Air
Regulations (F.A.R. ‘s).
Flight into known icing conditions is prohibited.
POWER PLANT LIMITATIONS
Aircraft Model
Engine, Lycoming
Rated Horsepower (hp/rpm)
Fuel, Aviation Grade, Mm. Octane
Citabria
7ECA
7GCA,7GCBC.
O-235-K2C
O-320-B2B
118
160-2700
100/130*
100/130
1-1
Approved For Continuous Use
*(low lead).
Tachometer
Normal Range (green arc) (rpm)
1800-2800
1800-2700
2800
2700
90-500
90-500
500
500
100-245
100-245
245
245
Normal Range (green arc) (psi)
60-100
60-100
Caution Range (yellow arc) (psi)
25-60
25-60
Maximum (red line) (psi)
100
100
Minimum (red line) (psi)
AIRSPEED LIMITATIONS
25
25
Maximum (red line) (rpm)
Cylinder Head Temperature
Normal Range (green arc) (°F)
Maximum (red line) (°F)
Oil Temperatures
Normal Range (green arc) (°F)
Maximum(redline)(°F)
Oil Pressure
AIRSPEED DESIGNATION
CAS (MPH)
Never Exceed (VNE - red line) ......................................................162
Caution Range (yellow arc) .........................................................120-162
Maximum Structural Cruise (VNO) ................................................120
Normal Operating Range (green arc)...........................................50-120
Flap Operating Range.(VFE - white arc)........................................45-90 (7GCBC)
Manoeuvring (VA - @ 1650 lbs.) ..................................................120
CAS lAS VNE VNO -
NOTE
Calibrated airspeed is indicated airspeed (LAS) corrected V for
installation and instrument error.
Indicated airspeed assumes zero instrument error only.
Maximum safe airspeed, not to be exceed Vat anytime.
Not to be exceeded except in smooth air only and then with caution.
Citabria
1-2
VFE Not to be exceeded with flaps extended.
VA - No full or abrupt control movements allowed above this airspeed.
WEIGHT AND BALANCE LIMITS
Aircraft Model and Weight Centre of Gravity Range
Normal Category
Acrobatic Category
7ECA
1650 lbs maximum
1325 lbs or less
14.2”-19.2”
10.5”-19.2”
14.2”-17.3”
10.5”-17.3”
7GCAA
1650 lbs maximum
1325 lbs or less
10.5”-18.2”
10.5”-18.2”
10.5”-16.0”
10.5”-16.0”
7GCBC
1800 lbs maximum
1325 lbs or less
14.2”-19.2”
10.5”-19.2”
14.2”-16.3”
10.5”-16.3”
NOTE
All measurements are aft of the datum line which is the wing
leading edge. Centre of gravity limits between weights are
straight line variations between these points. See Section V for
the flight envelope and loading instructions.
FLIGHT LOAD FACTORS (Normal and Acrobatic Category)
Positive Load
+5.0 G’s Maximum
Negative Load
-2.0 G’s Maximum
MANOEUVRES
The following aerobatic manoeuvres and entrance speeds are approved with no baggage and
the aft centre of gravity (C.G.) within the limits specified for the Acrobatic Category.
Chandelle, Lazy Eights ............................................................... 120 MPH CAS
Barrel or Slow Roll ..................................................................... 120 MPH CAS
Immelman .................................................................................. 145 MPH CAS
Loop or Clover Leaf..................................................................... 140 MPH CAS Split S
........................................................................................... 80 MPH CAS
Snap Roll ..................................................................................... 85 MPH CAS
Vertical Reverse............................................................................ 85 MPH CAS Cuban
Eight ............................................................................... 145 MPH CAS
REQUIRED PLACARDS
In Full View of Pilot
Operations Limitation Card
Citabria
1-3
(Includes all limitations listed in this Section in addition to weight and balance information)
Acrobatic Manoeuvres Limitation Card
In Baggage Compartment
“Maximum Baggage - 100 Lbs.” On
Forward Left Side Window
“Do Not Open Above 130 MPH”
“Do Not Open Above 90 MPH” - (For Full Opening Side Window)
Above Fuel Shutoff Valve
“Fuel 35 Gal. Usable - Down On”
On Emergency Door Release Handle
“Emergency Door Release - Pull Pin, Pull Handle”
PLACARDS (Continued)
Top Half Cabin Door - Forward (Split-type door only)
“Do Not Exceed 90 MPH With Door Open”
Right Window Sill (When folding rear seat is installed)
“Seat Back Restrainer Cable Must Be Connected Before Flight... Unless
Control Stick is Removed”
Adjacent To Strobe Light Switch
“Turn Off Strobe Lights When Taxiing In Vicinity Of Other Aircraft Or
During Flight Through Clouds, Fog, or Haze.
Standard Position Lights To Be On For All Night Operations.”
On Radio Panel (If radio installed)
“Compass Calibrated With Radio On”
On Fuel Caps
“Fuel 100LL Octane 18 Gals.”
On Instrument Panel
“Occupy Front Seat When Flying Solo”
On Battery Access Panel
“Service Battery Every 50 Hrs. of Normal Flight. Service Every 10 Hrs. of Acrobatic
Flight.”
Citabria
1-4
SECTION II
EMERGENCY PROCEDURES
INDEX
GENERAL ....................................................................................................2-1
FIRE
..........................................................................................................2-2
ENGINE FIRE DURING START....................................................................2-2
ENGINE FIRE IN FLIGHT ............................................................................2-2
ELECTRICAL FIRE ......................................................................................2-3
ALTERNATOR ELECTRICAL FAILURE ......................................................2-3
ENGINE MALFUNCTION .............................................................................2-4
ENGINE FAILURE ON TAKE-OFF ...............................................................2-4
ENGINE AIR RESTART ...............................................................................2-4
PARTIAL POWER LOS / ROUGH RUNNING ..............................................2-5
ABNORMAL OIL PRESSURE / TEMPERATURE INDICATIONS .................2-5
LANDING EMERGENCIES ..........................................................................2-5
PRECAUTIONARY LANDING APPROACH .................................................2-5
FORCED LANDING (COMPLETE POWER FAILURE) ................................2-6
DITCHING ....................................................................................................2-6
UNUSUAL FLIGHT CONDITIONS ...............................................................2-7
SEVERE TURBULENCE ..............................................................................2-7
STALLS ........................................................................................................2-7
SPINS ..........................................................................................................2-7
INFLIGHT OVERSTRESS ............................................................................2-8
EMERGENCY EXIT / BAILOUT ...................................................................2-8
GENERAL
This section covers the recommended procedures to follow during emergency and adverse
flight conditions. As it is not possible to define every type of emergency that may occur, it is the
pilot’s responsibility to use sound judgement based on personal experience and knowledge of
the aircraft to determine the best course of action.
It is considered mandatory that the pilot be familiar with this entire manual, in particular, the
“Emergency Procedures” section to flight.
NOTE
All air speeds in this section are indicated airspeeds (lAS) unless stated otherwise.
FIRE.
Citabria
2-1
ENGINE FIRE DURING START
If the fire is believed to be confined to the intake or exhaust system (result of flooding engine):
1) Continue cranking engine with starter
2) Mixture Control-IDLE CUT OFF
3) Throttle-FULL OPEN
4) Inspect aircraft thoroughly for damage and cause prior to restart
If fire persists or is not limited to intake or exhaust system:
1) Mixture Control-IDLE CUT OFF
2) Fuel Shut-Off Valve on OFF
3) Electrical and Magneto Switches-ALL OFF
4) Exit Aircraft
5) Direct fire extinguisher through the bottom of the nose cowl or through the cowl
inspection door
ENGINE FIRE IN FLIGHT
1)
2)
3)
4)
5)
6)
Mixture Control-IDLE CUT OFF
Fuel Shut-Off Valve on OFF
Electrical and Magneto Switches-ALL OFF
Cabin Heat-OFF front and rear
Use hand fire extinguisher if available
Land immediately using “Forced Landing Procedures”
WARNING
Do not attempt to restart engine.
ELECTRICAL FIRE
An electrical, fire is usually indicated by an odour of hot or burning insulation.
1)
2)
3)
4)
Electrical Switches’ - ALL OFF (leave magneto switches ON)
Air Vents/Windows — OPEN if necessary for smoke removal and ventilation
Use hand fire extinguisher if available
If fire continues, land immediately
If fire/smoke stops and electrical power is required for the remainder of the flight, turn the
master switch ON followed by the desired-circuit switch. Allow sufficient time between turning
on each switch order that the faulty circuit may be located and switched OFF.
ALTERNATOR/ELECTRICAL FAILURE
An alternator failure is indicated by a steady discharge on the ammeter.
1) Master Switch — CYCLE in attempt to reset the overvoltage relay.
2) If excessive battery discharge continues, turn OFF all nonessential electrical equipment
to conserve battery power.
Citabria
2-2
3) Land as soon as practical as the battery will furnish electrical power for a limited time
only.
If only one circuit (e.g. Radio) appears to be inoperative, remove and replace the suspected
fuse with a spare of the same amperage rating. The ‘spare fuses are located above the regular
fuses in use.
NOTE
Engine operation is unaffected by a complete electrical system failure with the exception of the
engine starter.
ENGINE MALFUNCTION
ENGINE FAILURE ON TAKE-OFF
If sufficient runway remains:
1) Throttle-CLOSED
2) Land using maximum braking after touchdown.
If airborne and insufficient runway remains for landing, attempt an engine restart if sufficient
altitude permits:
1)
2)
3)
4)
Fuel Shut-Off Valve - CHECK ON
Mixture Control - FULL RICH
Carburettor/Alternate Air - FULL HOT
Magneto Switches - BOTH ON (Up)
If no restart is possible:
1) Select most favourable landing area ahead
2) Flaps FULL DOWN (7GCBC)
WARNING
Maintain flying speed at all times and do not attempt to
turn back toward the runway unless sufficient altitude
has been achieved.
ENGINE AIR RESTART
1)
2)
3)
4)
5)
6)
7)
Maintain Airspeed -65 MPH minimum recommended
Magneto Switches - BOTH ON (Up)
Mixture - FULL RICH or as required at high altitude
Fuel Shut-Off Valve - CHECK ON
Carburettor/Alternate Air - FULL HOT
Engine Primer - CHECK OFF
If restart not possible, change throttle, mixture, primer, magneto, carburettor/alternate air
heat settings, in attempt to restart.
8) Follow “Forced Landing Procedure” if unable to restart.
Citabria
2-3
NOTE
The engine starter may be engaged in flight should the engine
stop wind milling.
PARTIAL POWER LOSS/ROUGH RUNNING
1) Follow the engine air restart procedures
2) Land as soon as practical using “Precautionary Landing Approach” procedures
Carburettor icing is indicated if a gradual RPM loss is noticed. The carburettor/alternate air
should be FULL HOT as long as suspected icing conditions exist.
ABNORMAL OIL PRESSURE/TEMPERATURE INDICATIONS
Oil pressure and temperature, problems are usually related with one affecting the other. Before
any drastic action is taken, cross check other engine instruments and control settings in an
attempt to determine the source of the problem.
High oil temperature is generally a result of loss of oil, overheating (note CHT if available) or a
malfunctioning oil cooler bypass valve. If the situation remains unchecked, oil pressure usually
drops resulting in possible engine damage. Power should be reduced while maintaining cruise
airspeed; place mixture in FULL RICH position and land as soon as practical.
Little or no oil pressure is usually caused by a failed pressure relief valve, pump, loss of oil,
clogged oil line, high oil temperature or a defective gauge. A landing should be made as soon
as practical using minimum RPM changes. Plan a “Precautionary Landing Approach” as
complete engine failure is possible at any time.
LANDING EMERGENCIES
PRECAUTIONARY LANDING APPROACH
A precautionary landing approach should be used whenever power is still available but a
complete power failure is considered imminent. Maintain a higher and closer pattern than
normal in attempt to remain in gliding distance of the intended touchdown point Use the normal
landing procedures in addition:
1) Airspeed — 65 MPH recommended (60 MPH minimum)
2) Throttle — CLOSED when in gliding distance of runway
3) Flaps — LOWER AS NEEDED for increase in approach descent angle (7GCBC)
NOTE
Slipping the aircraft by cross controlling the rudder and ailerons will increase the rate of
descent both with, or without flaps. If a crosswind exists, place the lower wing into the wind.
Citabria
2-4
FORCED LANDING (Complete Power Failure)
If the engine cannot be restarted in flight, trim the aircraft to the recommended glide speed.
Remain within gliding distance of the intended of point of landing. Maintain a higher and closer
pattern than normal making allowance for wind.
Excessive altitude can be lost by extending flaps or slipping the aircraft. Diving the aircraft in an
attempt to lose altitude when flying into a headwind will only increase the required landing
distance.
Airspeed — Maintain 60—65 MPH
Mixture — IDLE CUT-OFF
Fuel Shut-Off Valve — OFF
Master Switch — ON
Flaps — UP to increase glide range (7GCBC)
Radio — MAYDAY 121.5 MHz
Attempt to position the aircraft approximately 1000 feet above ground level (AGL) over
the intended point of landing or 500 feet when downwind and abeam the intended point
of landing.
8) All Electrical Switches - OFF
9) On Final Approach
a. Airspeed — 65 MPH (60 MPH minimum) –
b. Flaps — DOWN after intended point of landing assured (7GCBC)
10)Touchdown with minimum airspeed (three point full stall) if landing on rough terrain.
1)
2)
3)
4)
5)
6)
7)
NOTE
If necessary, after aircraft has come to a complete stop,
remove and activate the emergency locator transmitter from
the aircraft for increased transmitting range.
DITCHING
Should it become necessary to make a forced landing over water, follow the “Forced Landing
Procedures” in addition to the following:
1)
2)
3)
4)
5)
6)
Cabin Side Door — JETTISON
Land into wind if high winds are evident or parallel to swells with calm winds
Flaps — UP (allows higher nose attitude at touchdown)
Contact the water with nose high attitude
DO NOT STALL prior to touchdown
After corning to complete stop - EXIT AIRCRAFT
Citabria
2-5
NOTE
Aircraft cannot be depended on to provide floatation after
contacting the water.
UNUSUAL FLIGHT CONDITIONS
SEVERE TURBULENCE
To prevent overstressing the aircraft do not exceed 120 MPH. in rough air. To minimize
personal discomfort, decrease the lAS below 80MPH. Maintain a level flight attitude rather than
flying by reference to the altimeter and airspeed indicator as the pitot—static instruments may
become very erratic.
STALLS
The Citabria stall characteristics are conventional. The stall warning horn, if installed, will
proceed the actual stall by 5—10 MPH depending on the amount of power used. There is
sufficient aerodynamic buffeting preceding the stall to provide the pilot with an adequate
warning.
Aileron control response in a fully stalled condition is marginal. Large aileron deflections will
aggravate a near stalled condition and their use is not recommended to maintain lateral control.
The rudder is very effective and should be used for maintaining lateral control in a stalled
condition with the ailerons placed in a neutral position.
To recover from a stall, proceed as follows:
1) Nose Attitude – LOWER with forward movement of control stick
2) Throttle – FULL OPEN simultaneously with control stick movement
3) Use rudder to maintain lateral control
SPINS
If a spin is inadvertently entered initiated, immediate recovery should be is as follows:
1)
2)
3)
4)
Throttle – CLOSED
Rudder – FULL DEFLECTION opposite direction of rotation
Elevator – SLIGHTLY FORWARD OF NEUTRAL
Ailerons – NEUTRAL POSITION
When rotation stops (1/2 - 1 turn after recovery initiated)
5) Rudder – NEUTRALIZE
6) Nose Attitude – RAISE smoothly to level flight attitude
Citabria
2-6
WARNING
During the spin recovery, the airspeed will build very rapidly with a nose low attitude. Do not
use full or abrupt elevator control movements.
IN-FLIGHT OVERSTRESS
Should an overstress occur due to exceeding the airspeed or load factor limits, aerobatics
should be terminated immediately. Fly at a reduced airspeed, (60 – 70 MPH) to a suitable
landing point. Do NOT under any circumstances, make large control movements or subject the
aircraft to additional G loadings above that required for straight and level flight. After landing the
aircraft should be inspected by a mechanic prior to the next flight.
EMERGENCY EXIT/BAIL OUT
1)
2)
3)
4)
Throttle – CLOSED
Door – JETTISON using Emergency Jettison Handle
Use the cabin door frame for support. Dive straight out and slightly aft of wing struts.
Parachute – OPEN immediately when clear of aircraft
NOTE
Emergency ground exit is also possible through the
left window.
Citabria
2-7
SECTION III
NORMAL OPERATING PROCEDURES
INDEX
GENERAL......................................................................................3-1
PREFLIGHT INSPECTION ........................................................... 3-2
BEFORE STARTING .................................................................... 3-3
STARTING ....................................................................................3-3
TAXI .............................................................................................. 3-4
BEFORE TAKE-OFF ..................................................................... 3-5
TAKE-OFF (Normal) ...................................................................... 3-5
TAKE-OFF (Obstacle) ................................................................... 3-6
TAKE-OFF (Soft Field) .................................................................. 3-6
CLIMB ........................................................................................... 3-6
CRUISE ........................................................................................ 3-7
AEROBATICS ...............................................................................3-7
DESCENT .....................................................................................3-8
LANDING (Normal) ....................................................................... 3-8
LANDING (Obstacle) ..................................................................... 3-9
SHUTDOWN .................................................................................3-9
GENERAL
This section covers all recommended normal operating procedures using a checklist format
whenever possible with additional information if further explanation is required.
NOTE
All recommended airspeeds in this section are INDICATED
AIRSPEEDS (lAS) with the aircraft loaded to the maximum gross weight.
PREFLIGHT INSPECTION
1) Cabin
a. Cabin Door – CHECK condition, security
b. Flight Controls – CHECK freedom of movement
c. Magneto and Electrical Switches – OFF (check operation of lights if required and
stall warning system with respective switches ON).
d. Fuel. Quantity Gauges – CHECK quantity.
Citabria
3-1
e. Fuel Shut-Off Valve – ON
f. Seat Belts – CHECK CONDITION – SECURE rear belt and harness if not In use.
g. Emergency Locator Transmitter – ARMED
2) Right Wing
a.
b.
c.
d.
e.
f.
g.
h.
Wing Root Faring – CHECK secure
Flaps – CHECK condition, freedom of movement, security (7GCBC)
Aileron – CHECK condition, freedom of movement, security
Wing Tip and Light – CHECK condition
Wing and Struts – CHECK condition, security
Tie-Down – REMOVE
Pitot-Static Tube – CHECK unobstructed (visual check only)
Fuel – CHECK quantity, colour, cap secure
3) Right Main Gear
a. Chocks – REMOVE
b. Tires – CHECK condition, inflation
c. Brakes – CHECK condition, leakage
4) Nose Section
a.
b.
c.
d.
e.
f.
g.
h.
Windshield – CHECK condition, cleanliness
Oil – CHECK quantity, dip stick secure
Fuel – DRAIN gascolator – CHECK leakage
Engine Compartment – CHECK condition, leakage, etc.
Cowling and Inspection Door – CHECK condition, security
Propeller and Spinner – CHECK condition, security
Air Filter – CHECK condition
Landing Light – CHECK condition
5) Left Main Gear
a. Same as right main gear
PRE-FLIGHT INSPECTION (Continued)
6) Left Wing
a. Same as right wing, in addition
b. Fuel Vent CHECK unobstructed
c. Stall Warning Vane – CHECK freedom of movement (if installed)
7) Fuselage (Left Side)
a. Fabric – CHECK condition, oil, battery acid leakage, etc.
b. Windows – CHECK condition, cleanliness
c. Fuel Belly Drain – DRAIN, CHECK leakage
d. Radio Antenna(s) – CHECK secure
8) Ernpennage
Citabria
3-2
a. Horizontal Stabilizer and Brace Wires – CHECK condition, security
b. Vertical Stabilizer and Tail Light – CHECK condition
c. Elevator, Trim Tab and Rudder – CHECK condition, freedom of movement,
security
d. Tail Wheel – CHECK condition, inflation, .security.
e. Tie-Down – REMOVE
9) Fuselage (Right Side)
a. Same as fuselage left side (no fuel drain on right side)
BEFORE STARTING
1) Seat Belts/Shoulder Harness – FASTENED
2) Fuel Shut-Off Valve – ON
3) Brakes – SET
4) Electrical Switches – OFF
5) Cabin Door – CLOSED (windows as desired)
STARTING THE ENGINE
Engine cool
1)
2)
3)
4)
5)
6)
7)
8)
Mixture fill rich
Gas on
Prime about two strokes or as necessary
Master switch on
Ignition switches on
Throttle open slightly – 1/4 to 1/2 in
Brakes on
Engage starter (do not operate starter continuously for more than 15 seconds) 9)
no oil pressure 30 seconds after start, stop engine and determine cause.
If
Engine hot
For a hot engine, the procedure above should be followed except that priming is normally
unnecessary. A hot engine can be easily flooded. If this occurs, open the throttle completely and
turn the engine over until it fires. As engine starts, retard throttle to normal idle position.
To clear an engine that has been flooded due to excessive priming, proceed as follows:
1)
2)
3)
4)
Mixture – IDLE CUT-OFF
Throttle – FULL OPEN
Magneto Switches – OFF
Starter – ENGAGE for several propeller revolutions 5) Repeat normal starting procedure
using no prime
Citabria
3-3
CAUTION
Limit the use of the starter to 30 seconds duration maximum
with a two minute cooling off period between each starter
engagement.
During cold weather operation, (below 20 F) it is recommended that the engine be preheated
by directing warm air through the opening in the bottom or front of the engine cowl. This practice
will prolong the service life of the engine and starter.
During the ground operation, the mixture should be FULL RICH and the carburettor air COLD to
insure good engine cooling and filtered air. Prolonged idle below 1000 RPM is not
recommended due to plug fouling and insufficient cooling air when the aircraft is not in motion.
TAXI
Taxi operations during high winds requires the conventional use of the flight controls. With a
head wind or quartering head wind, place the control stick full aft and into the wind. With a tail
wind or quartering tail wind, use the opposite procedures. The use of the wheel brakes in
conjunction with the rudder will assist the pilot in maintaining directional control.
BEFORE TAKE-OFF
Brakes – SET
Flight Controls – CHECK freedom of movement, proper operation
Elevator Trim – SET take-off position
Flight Instruments/Radio(s) – CHECK and SET
Flaps – SET as desired (7GCBC only)
Fuel Shut-Off Valve – ON
Mixture – FULL RICH (lean as required for high altitude)
Engine Instruments – CHECK normal indications
Engine Run-Up – 1800 RPM (Elevator Control – FULLBACK)
a. Magnetos – CHECK (200 RPM maximum drop, 50 RPM maximum differential)
b. Carburettor/Alternate Air – CHECK operation then return to COLD position
c. Engine Instruments – CHECK normal indications
d. Throttle – 1000 RPM
10)Cabin Door and Windows – CLOSED and LATCHED
11)Seat Belts/Shoulder Harness – FASTENED
1)
2)
3)
4)
5)
6)
7)
8)
9)
High power operation (above 2200 RPM) and engine run-up should be made into the wind and
kept to a minimum especially during high temperature conditions. The stick should also be held
fill aft to prevent the possibility of the aircraft nosing over.
TAKE-OFF (Normal)
1)
2)
3)
4)
Flaps – UP (7GCBC)
Throttle – FULL OPEN applying smoothly
Engine Instruments – CHECK normal indications
Attitude – RAISE TAIL to level flight attitude
Citabria
3-4
5) Lift-Off – 55-60 MPH
6) Climb – 75-80 MPH
Take-off characteristics are conventional. It is recommended to raise the tail with the elevator as
soon as possible for better forward visibility and directional control.
CAUTION
In the level flight attitude, the wheel brakes are very sensitive. It is recommended that the
directional control be maintained with the use of the rudder only.
TAKE-OFF (Normal) (Continued)
During crosswind conditions, place the control stick into the wind (upwind aileron UP) and
assume a tail high attitude with the elevator to prevent drifting or premature lift-off.
High altitude take-off’s are accomplished by using the normal take-off procedures with the
addition of leaning the mixture control, for smooth engine operation.
TAKE-OFF (Obstacle)
During an obstacle take-off, use the normal take-off procedures with the following exceptions:
1) Flaps – SET 14° (2nd notch, 7GCBC only)
2) Lift-Off – 50-55 MPH
3) Climb – 58 MPH (best angle of climb) until clear of obstacle
TAKE-OFF (Soft Field)
For soft field take-off, use the normal take-off procedures with the following exceptions:
1)
2)
3)
4)
5)
Flaps – SET 14° (2nd notch 7GCBC only)
Attitude – TAIL LOW but clear of ground
Lift-off – ASSIST using elevator
After Lift-Off – LEVEL FLIGHT to obtain safe margin of airspeed prior to climb
Flaps – UP (7GCBC only)
WARNING
The aircraft will lift-off at very low lAS but continued climb-out below 58 MPH immediately after
take-off is not recommended.
CLIMB
1) Throttle – FULL OPEN
2) Mixture – FULL RICH below 5000 feet
3) Airspeed – 75-80 MPH
For maximum performance climbs, use full throttle and the following conditions:
Citabria
3-5
BEST RATE OF CLIMB
BEST ANGLE OF CLIMB
1) Flaps – UP
2) Airspeed – 69 MPH
CRUISE
1) Flaps – 14° (2nd notch 7GCBC only)
2) Airspeed – 58 MPH
1)
2)
3)
4)
Level-Off – TRIM
Airspeed – ACCELERATE to desired cruise airspeed
Throttle – SET RPM to cruise power
Mixture – LEAN when below 75% power
The fuel mixture should be leaned at any altitude when below-75% of maximum power. Lean to
peak EGT if equipped. If no EGT is installed, lean until engine roughness is noted then enrich
until smooth.
WARNING
Range and endurance information is based on a
properly leaned fuel mixture. Failure to lean the fuel
mixture will increase fuel consumption appreciably.
AEROBATICS
The Citabria is certified in the Acrobatic Category. However, this desirable capability also places
a much greater demand on the pilot’s ability, knowledge of the aircraft and current regulations.
The following information is provided to make aerobatic flying enjoyable, with the utmost
emphasis on safety.
Federal Aviation Regulations (FARs) Part 9171 specify the airspace and altitudes required for
aerobatic flight. The minimum altitude of 1500 FT AGL is the pilot’s greatest safety factor and
should not be compromised. The wearing of approved parachutes is specified in Part 91. It is
strongly recommended that parachutes always be worn during acrobatic flight.
The Citabria structure is designed to withstand a maximum load factor of +5G’s and -2G’s at
maximum gross weight of 1800 lbs. and below. A change in the gross weight also changes the
effective load factor limit. To fly at reduced weights increases the safety factor and improves
performance. To fly above gross weight is not only prohibitive, but also greatly increases the
changes of a serious overstress resulting in damage or possible structural failure.
The Citabria exhibits excellent control response and stability. However, to maintain this for
aerobatic flight, the rear center of gravity (CofG) limit is critical. The rear CofG is therefore
reduced when flying in the Acrobatic Category. This limit is specified in Section I. The flight
Citabria
3-6
envelope in Section V also reflects this change. For this reason, baggage is NOT allowed during
acrobatic flight.
AEROBATICS (Continued)
A person learning to fly must be taught how to do so safely. The same holds true for a pilot
learning aerobatics. To attempt an acrobatic manoeuvre with no prior instruction is extremely
dangerous and NOT recommended.
Aerobatic flight places a greater demand on both the pilot and the aircraft. A thorough preflight
inspection/evaluation for both is considered essential. The pilot must know and abide by the
limitations of the aircraft and his own personal limitations as well. At the completion of the flight,
a post flight inspection of the aircraft should also be conducted. If any discrepancies of doubts
exist that concern the airworthiness, consult a mechanic prior to the next flight.
DESCENT
1) Mixture – FULL RICH 2)
Throttle – REDUCE as desired
3) Airspeed – AS DESIRED
The descent should be made with enough power to maintain cylinder head and oil temperatures
in green arc. If possible, avoid wind milling the engine with the propeller by reducing airspeed or
increasing power.
LANDING (Normal)
1)
2)
3)
4)
5)
6)
7)
Seat and Shoulder Harness – FASTENED
Mixture – RICH
Brakes – CHECK FIRM (Park Brake – OFF)
Flaps – AS DESIRED (7GCBC)
Approach Airspeed – 60-70 MPH
Throttle – AS DESIRED to control rate of descent
After Touchdown – FLAPS UP (7GCBC) – Brake as required
Aircraft landing characteristics are conventional. Either wheel landings or fill stalls (3 point) are
permissible. During gusty wind conditions, increase airspeed approximately 5 MPH above
normal followed by a wheel landing.
Full stall (3 point) landings are recommended for soft or rough fields.
LANDING (Normal) (Continued)
Crosswind approaches can best be accomplished by using-the wing down top rudder method
followed by a wheel landing. Keep the lower wing into the wind after touchdown. Do not drop
the tail until airspeed is well below flying speed.
Citabria
3-7
CAUTION
The use of wheel brakes is not recommended until after the tail wheel is in contact with the
ground. For maximum braking, the control stick should be FULL AFT.
LANDING (Obstacle)
Use of normal landing procedures in addition:
1)
2)
3)
4)
Flaps – FULL DOWN (7GCBC)
Approach Airspeed – 60 MPH
Throttle – AS DESIRED to control rate of descent
Slip aircraft as necessary to increase rate of descent
WARNING
A relatively high rate of descent is possible in this configuration when at full gross weight and
the throttle closed. If airspeed is allowed to decrease below 60 MPH, level off can only be
assured with an application of power.
SHUTDOWN
1)
2)
3)
4)
5)
6)
7)
Brakes – SET
Electrical Equipment – OFF
Mixture – IDLE CUT-OFF
Magnetos/Master Switch – OFF after propeller stops
Controls – SECURE with lap belt around forward control stick only
Wheels – CHOCKED
Wing/Tail Tie Downs – SECURE
NOTE
If high winds are anticipated, the aircraft should be hangared. If the aircraft must be left out,
park into the wind and use additional tie-down ropes for security. Place the flaps in the FULL
DOWN position (7GCBC) and secure the forward control stick with the lap belt.
Citabria
3-8
SECTION IV
FLIGHT PERFORMANCE
INDEX
GENERAL .....................................................................................4-1
AIRSPEED CORRECTION ........................................................... 4-2
STALL SPEEDS............................................................................. 4-4
TAKE-OFF PERFORMANCE......................................................... 4-3
MAXIMUM RATE OF CLIMB ......................................................... 4-3
CRUISE PERFORMANCE ............................................................ 4-4 LANDING
PERFORMANCE........................................................... 4-4
GENERAL
This data is to inform the pilot what he can expect from the aircraft in the way of performance
and to assist in pre-flight planning.
Flight performance data is included for all Citabria models. The data has been compiled from
both estimated calculations and actual flight test using average piloting techniques, with an
aircraft and engine in good operating conditions All information is corrected for standard
atmospheric condition.
Performance may vary from .the given data due to the many possible variables present with a
specific aircraft and flight condition. The pilot Is therefore encouraged to maintain a personal
flight log for his aircraft. This will not only provide more accurate pre-flight planning information
for future flights, but also can be used as an indicator in. determining the general condition of a
particular aircraft.
Citabria
4-1
INDICATED AIRSPEED vs. CALIBRATED AIRSPEED
IAS, mph
TIAS, mph
50
54
60
62
70
70
80
79
90
88
100
97
110
106
120
116
130
124
140
133
150
142
160
150
170
159
TAKE-OFF DISTANCE AND RATE OF CLIMB VS. ALTITUDE AND TEMPERATURE
AMERICAN CHAMPION MODELS 7ECA. 7GCBC, 7GCAA
MODEL
7ECA
7GCBC-
7GCAA
POWER
118 HP.
160 HP.
160 HP.
PROP
72CKS8-O-52’ .
74DM6S8-1-56
.74DM6S8-1-56
Citabria
4-2
PRESSURE
ALTITUDE
FT.
S.L
T.O.
50FT.
T.O. 50FT.
T.O.
50FT.
DIST. OBST. R/C
DIST. OBST. R/C
DIST. OBST.
R/C
FT.
FT.
FT/MIN FT. FT.
FT/MIN FT.
FT. FT/MIN
0
340
716
800
231
457
1240
289
535
1210
20
372
763
775
254
491
1210
317
574
1180
40
415
832
750
279
530
1170
350
618
1150
60
455
895
725
305
567
1145
382
663
1120
80
496
961
700
340
616
1110
417
713
1090
100
544
1034 675
363
649
1090
453
763
1060
2000
0
407
860
695
272
536
1100
343
622
1080
20
444
929
660
294
573
1070
376
671
1050
40
492
1004 635
331
629
1030
414
727
1020
60
543
1086 610
374
684
1010
452
784
990
80
597
1174 585
397
733
980
497
846
960
100
655
1269 560
433
777
950
538
904
930
0
482
1043 575
324
635
980
401
738
950
20
538
1147 545
360
695
930
448
806
920
40
589
1239 520
393
746
900
479
857
890
4000
60
640
1329 495
458
834
870
527
925
860
80
690
1432 470
474
870
840
573
991
830
100
788
1580 450
522
935
820
643
1086 800
0
576
1301 465
385
763
840
479
886
820
20
640
1432 435
421
827
800
529
962
790
707
40
1562 410
472
905
770
582
1040 760
6000
789
60
1716 385
522
981
740
647
1133 730
858
80
1858 365
568
1043 720
706
1226 700
968
100
2058 340
626
1137 690
760
1304 680
0
350
700
690
20
325
670
660
40
300
640
630
8000
60
275
610
600
80
245
530
570
100
225
550
540
ALL FIGURES ARE MAXIMUM PERFORMANCE AT GROSS WEIGHT. TAKE-OFF IN
7GCBC MADE WITH 2 NOTCHES OF FLAP UNTIL AIRBORNE. TAKE-OFF DISTANCE ON
DRY PAVEMENT.
AIRCRAFT SPECIFICATIONS – ALL MODELS
TEMP
%F
MODEL
7ECA
Citabria
7GCAA
7GCBC
4-3
STALL SPEED (MPH)
51
51
STALL SPEED FLAPS (MPH)
51
47
TOP SPEED (MPH)
117
130
128
CRUISE SPEED 75% HP (MPH - ALT)
112-7500
125-3000
125-3000
RANGE 75% HP (GALS - MILES - HRS)
36-672-6
36-500-4
36-500-4
FUEL CONSUMPTION 75% HP (GPH)
6
9
9
BEST RATE OF CLIMB, (MPH - FPM)
69
69
78
12,000
17,000
17,000
TAKE-OFF RUN (FT)
450.
375
296
TAKE-OFF OVER 50 FT OBSTACLE (FT)
890
630
525
LANDING ROLL(FT)
400
400
310
LANDING DIST OVER 50 FT OBST (FT)
775
755
690
SERVICE CEILING (FT)
NOTE: PERFORMANCE IS FOR GROSS WEIGHT AT SEA LEVEL UNLESS NOTED.
*AVERAGE WITH STANDARD EQUIPMENT.
Citabria
4-4
SECTION V
WEIGHT AND BALANCE
INDEX
GENERAL ..............................................................................................5-1
LOADING PROCEDURES...................................................................... 5-2
SAMPLE LOADING PROBLEM .............................................................5-3
FLIGHT ENVELOPES.............................................................................5-4, 5, 6
GENERAL
It is the pilot’s responsibility to insure that the aircraft is loaded properly and within the weight
and balance limitations. All flight performance, procedures and characteristics are based on this
prerequisite.
If the aircraft is to be used for aerobatic flight, it must be loaded within the approved flight
envelope. The rear center of gravity limit is considered critical. In addition, no baggage is
allowed.
Although the gross weight limit is not affected by aerobatic flight,. the importance of this limit
cannot be overemphasized. -Subjecting the aircraft to the maximum approved load factor limits
in an overgross condition may result in damage or complete structural failure of the airframe.
The actual licensed empty weight and center of gravity (CofG.) of a specific aircraft can be
found on the Weight and Balance Form and the Operating Limitations Card, both of which are a
permanent part of. the aircraft’s file. All additional changes to the aircraft’s empty weight and
CofG after the time of manufacture must also be attached to or indicated on both forms. From
this information and the following instructions, the pilot can easily determine the “Useful Load”
and proper loading distribution for the aircraft.
NOTE
The rear center of gravity limits vary with each model Citabria.
A flight envelope is provided for each model.
LOADING PROCEDURES
1) Determine from the Weight and Balance Sheet, in the aircraft file, the “Licensed Empty
Weight and Moment” (in-lbs). Enter these figures under “Your Airplane” of the sample
Loading Problem, Figure 5-1.
Citabria
5-1
2) Full oil capacity can be assumed for all flights. For ease of future loading computations,
the new “Empty Weight and Moment with Oil” should be determined and entered in the
Sample Loading Problem under “Your Airplane”.
3) Using the Loading Graph, Figure 5-2, determine the weight and the moment of the
following items and enter these figures on the Sample Loading Problem.
a.
b.
c.
d.
Pilot
Rear Passenger
Wing Fuel - 35 Gals. Maximum Usable (6 Lbs/Gal)
Baggage - 100 Lbs. Maximum (Normal Category Only)
4) Add the “Aircraft Empty Weight and Moment with Oil” and all the items, in Step 3 to
determine the “Gross Take-Off Weight and Moment” .
5) Using the Flight Envelope, Figures 5-3 5-4, 5-5 for the model Citabria used, determine
that the gross take-off weight and moment are within limits.
WARNING
If the aircraft is not within the approved flight envelope
limits, it must be reloaded. Under no
circumstances should the aircraft be flown with
an out of limits condition particularly if aerobatic
flight is contemplated.
SAMPLE LOADING PROBLEM
SAMPLE LOADING PROBLEM
SAMPLE
AIRPLANE
ITEM
YOUR AIRPLANE
ARM
(in)
WEIGHT
(lbs)
MOMENT
(in-lbs)
Licensed Empty Weight
12.2
1153
14067
Oil-8 qts @7.5 lbs/gals
7ECA -6 qts
-360
+15
(+11*)
-540
(396*)
Citabria
WEIGHT
(lbs)
MOMENT
(in-Ibs)
+15
(+11*)
-540
(396*)
5-2
Licensed empty Weight & Moment
With Oil
1168
13527
Pilot
11.5
190
2185
Rear Passenger
42.0
190
7980
Wing Fuel - 35 Gals Max6lbs/gal
24.5
102
2499
Baggage—l00 lbs
Category Only)
69.0
-0-
-0-
1750
26191
Max
(Normal
Gross Take-Off
Weight & Moment
.
NOTE:
1) *7ECA only -6 qts oil.
2) To determine Take-Off Center of Gravity (inches aft of datum), divide the Gross TakeOff
Moment by the Gross Take-Off Weight. Center of Gravity Limits are Listed in section I.
3) The above sample problem is loaded for aerobatic flight conditions and assumes a 170
pound pilot and passenger with parachutes.
FIGURE 5-1 SAMPLE LOADING PROBLEM
Citabria
5-3
Citabria
5-4
Citabria
5-5
Citabria
5-6
SECTION VI
AIRCRAFT AND SYSTEMS DESCRIPTION
INDEX
GENERAL ...........................................................................................6-1
AIRCRAFT FILE...................................................................................6-4
AIRFRAME STRUCTURE.................................................................... 6-4
ENGINE
...........................................................................................6-5
FLIGHT CONTROLS............................................................................ 6-6
FLAPS (7GCBC ONLY) ....................................................................... 6-6
LANDING GEAR AND BRAKES ..........................................................6-7
ELECTRICAL SYSTEM ....................................................................... 6-7
FUEL SYSTEM ....................................................................................6-9
HEATING AND VENTILATION ............................................................6-12
AIRCRAFT LIGHTING ......................................................................... 6-12
FLIGHT INSTRUMENTS...................................................................... 6-12
AVIONICS ...........................................................................................6-13
CABIN FEATURES ..............................................................................6-14
UTILITY OPTIONS...............................................................................6-14
CORROSION PROOFING .................................................6-15
SEAPLANE KIT .................................................................6-15
GLIDER/BANNER TOW ....................................................6-15
GENERAL
This section describes the aircraft, systems and equipment. Because of the many optional items
available, this section may not be typical for all aircraft. However, the more popular options
available from the factory will be described. Consult the Aircraft Equipment list to determine
what equipment is installed on a specific aircraft.
MODEL NUMBER
7ECA
7GCAA
7GCBC
FAA TYPE CERTIFICATE
A-759
A-759
A-759
ENGINE, LYCOMING
HORSEPOWER (HP/RPM)
O235K2C
0320B2B
O320B2B
118/2800
160/2700
160/2700
72
73
73
GROSS WEIGHT (LBS)
1650
1650
1800
POWER LOADING(LB/HP)
14.3
‘10.3
11.25
PROPELLER DIAMETER (IN)
Citabria
6-1
BASIC EMPTY WEIGHT (LBS)
1060
1110
1200
USEFUL LOAD (LBS)
590
540
600
WING AIRFOIL (NACA)
4412
4412
4412
WINGSPAN (FT)
33.38
33.38
34.45
CHORD (IN)
60
60
60
WING AREA (SQ-FT)
165
165
170
WING LOADING (LBS/SQ-PT)
10.0
10.0
10.59
ASPECT RATIO
6.7
6.7
6.9
DIHEDRAL
2°
2°
2°
ANGLE OF INCIDENCE
1°
1°
1°
22.77
22.77
22.77
7.75
7.75
7.75
78
78
78
16.19
16.19
16.19
FUEL CAPACITY (USEABLE-GALS)
35
35
35
OIL CAPACITY (QTS)
6
8
8
LENGTH (FT)
HEIGHT (3 POINT) (FT)
WHEEL TREAD WIDTH (IN)
WHEELBASE (FT)
Citabria
6-2
FIGURE 6-1 AIRCRAFT SPECIFICATIONS
Citabria
6-3
Citabria
6-4
AIRCRAFT FILE
The aircraft file includes the required paperwork that must be in the aircraft or available upon
request. These items will reference the aircraft by serial number, model number and
registration number. The aircraft identification plate, which also contains this information, is
located on the cabin floor to the left and forward of the rear seat. The file consists of the
following items:
These items must be displayed inside the aircraft.
1)
2)
3)
4)
Airworthiness Certificate
Aircraft Registration
Aircraft Radio License (if radio installed)
Operating Limitations Placards and Markings
These items must be in the aircraft but need not be displayed.
1) Aircraft Equipment List
2) Weight and Balance Sheet
These items need not be carried in the aircraft but must be available upon request.
1) Engine Log Book
2) Aircraft Log Book
NOTE
The Pilot’s Operating Manual should always be carried in the aircraft readily available to the
pilot during flight but is not legally required.
AIRFRAME STRUCTURE
The Citabria is a two place, tandem seating, high wing aircraft with conventional landing gear.
See Figures 6-1 and 6-2 respectively for the principal dimensions and specifications and an
external three-view of the aircraft. All components are designed to meet or exceed the
requirements set forth by the Federal Aviation Administration.
The fuselage and empennage are constructed of welded tubular steel providing high strength
and pilot protection under all conditions. The entire assembly is protected by an epoxy primer
and c9vered with a heavy fire resistant dacron fabric. The lifetime dacron is finished with
several coats of pigmented dope which is durable, long lasting arid easy to care for. The
streamline fibreglass engine cowl is a two piece, split type for easy removal providing complete
access to the engine for servicing.
The wing structure includes two spruce spars, each supported by struts, providing a high
strength to weight ratio. The wing ribs and the leading edge are aluminium and covered with
dacron. The finish is identical to the fuselage.
Citabria
6-5
ENGINE
The Citabria is powered by a carburetted Lycoming four cylinder, horizontally opposed, direct
drive engine. The all metal, fixed pitch propeller is designed to give good take-off and cruise
performance.
The wet sump oil system is conventional with the pressure and temperature automatically.
controlled by an internal engine driven gear pump and external oil cooler. (7ECA has no cooler).
Oil temperature and pressure gauges are the direct reading type requiring no electric power. Oil
quantity is determined by a dip stick with access through the inspection door on the right side of
the engine cowl.
Ignition is provided by two engine magnetos which are independent of the aircraft electrical
system and each other. Separate magneto switches are located on the electrical panel mounted
on the upper left side of the cabin between the two seats.
Starting is accomplished by an electric geared cranking motor using the aircraft battery. The
starter button is located in the lower centre of the instrument panel.
Dual throttle controls are located on the left side of the cabin for both the front and rear struts.
The red (push-pull) mixture control is located on the left side of the instrument panel and is used
for fuel leaning and engine shutdown. Idle cut-off is accomplished by pulling the control full out.
The air induction system is equipped with a large heavy duty air filter mounted in front of the
engine cowl. Carburettor heat is available from the exhaust manifold if carburettor icing exists.
The carburettor heat control is located below the throttles. Maximum heat is applied with the
control in the aft position. The aft position also by-passes the air filter should it become
obstructed with ice or dirt.
NOTE
With the carburettor heat in the HOT position, the induction
air to the engine is unfiltered. To prevent
damage to the engine, it should not be used during
ground operations except for an operational check
of system prior to flight.
Engine RPM is indicated by a mechanical tachometer using a flexible drive cable. An hour
meter, based on cruise RPM, is incorporated in the tachometer. The electrical hour meter
(Hobbs meter) indicates the actual running time of the engine and is activated by engine oil
pressure.
FLIGHT CONTROLS
Dual controls are provided for the ailerons, elevator and rudder. The balanced control surfaces
re conventional in design and are mechanically connected to a control stick and rudder pedals
using cables and/or push-pull rods. Low friction bearings are used extensively throughout the
system to reduce control pressures.
Citabria
6-6
An elevator trim tab is mounted on the left elevator. The trim control is located on the left side of
the cabin between the two seats. Take-off position is indicated by a white dot on the control
quadrant.
Rudder trim is provided by ground adjustable tab located on the rudder control surface.
FLAPS (7GCBC ONLY)
Wing flaps are mechanically operated by cables and interconnected by a torque tube. The flap
handle is located to the left of the pilot. Flap settings of 0°, 7°, 14°, 21°, 27° and 35° are
available by pulling the handle for retraction. No UP lock is provided.
Citabria
6-7
LANDING GEAR AND BRAKES
The heavy duty spring steel conventional landing gear allows routine operations on rough
landing strips. The steerable Scott tail wheel allows excellent directional control during taxi
operations with the use of wheel springs which are attached to the rudder control surface. The
tail wheel also provides free swivelling of 360° allowing the aircraft to be turned within its own
wing span.
Hydraulic disc brakes are mounted to each main wheel. The brakes can be operated separately
from either seat by applying heel pressure on the brake pedals or toe pressure on the top of the
rudder pedals if toe brakes are installed.
The brake hydraulic reservoir is mounted to the aft side of the firewall for easy access. A clear
plastic line between the reservoir arid the master cylinders is visible from the pilot’s seat
indicating a low fluid condition.
The park brake control is located to the right and under the instrument panel. To set the brakes,
pull the park brake control out and apply brake pressure. To release the brakes, push the park
brake control in.
ELECTRICAL SYSTEM
The electrical system is 12 volts, direct current, using the airframe as a negative ground. See
Figure 6-4. All electrical circuits are protected by replaceable fuses.
A 60 ampere, self—exciting, engine driven alternator provides electrical power during normal
operations and is capable of operating all electrical components simultaneously. The voltage
regulator maintains a system voltage of 14± .5 volts.
The 7KCAB only has a gravity sensitive mercury switch which disconnects the alternator from
the battery during inverted or negative G flight manoeuvres. This prevents pressure build-up in
the battery which could result in damage to the battery or acid spillage.
A lead—acid battery supplies power for starting and stand-by use for a limited time only should
the alternator fail In flight.
An ammeter on the instrument panel indicates a charge or discharge condition of the battery.
With the alternator functioning normally, a slight charge condition should exist depending on the
condition of the battery. A discharge indicates that an alternator malfunction exists and the
battery is carrying the electrical load.
NOTE
A discharge is normal at low idle RPM during operation of high current items such as the
landing light.
Citabria
6-8
All electrical switches and fuses are located on the electrical panel which is installed on the
upper left side of the cabin. Additional spare fuses are also provided in the panel and can be
used for replacement during flight if necessary.
A red master switch controls all electrical power from the battery and alternator to the
distribution bus with the exception of the engine magnetos.
Citabria
6-9
NOTE
Failure to turn the master switch OFF after securing the
aircraft will result in a complete discharge of the
battery.
The alternator circuit includes an overvoltage relay which automatically removes it from the
circuit to prevent damage to the alternator or the radio equipment should an overvoltage
condition occur. Cycling the master switch will reset the overvoltage relay should it drop the
alternator off the circuit due to an overvoltage condition on the ammeter. After resetting, if the
overvoltage condition was temporary, the alternator will continue to operate normally.
FUEL SYSTEM
The Citabria fuel system is completely independent from the other aircraft systems and due to
its simplicity is virtually trouble free. See Figure 6-5.
Fuel is supplied from two interconnected wing tanks and is gravity fed to the engine carburettor.
Fuel quantity is registered by two direct reading float-type gauges, one for each tank. They are
located in each wing root area of the cabin.
NOTE
Correct fuel indication is only provided with the aircraft
in level flight attitude.
The fuel shutoff valve is located on the lower left side of the cabin forward of the pilot. Two
positions are available, ON or OFF. A gascolator is mounted to the firewall with a quick drain
feature provided. The quick drain control knob is located through the inspection door on the
engine cowl. An additional drain is located under the fuselage aft of the baggage compartment
and is easily accessible during the pre-flight inspection.
Citabria
6-10
The fuel tanks are vented together with the vent located on the left wing. An orificed one-way
check valve allows a minimum of fuel to be vented overboard during negative G aerobatic
manoeuvres. An ice defleccraft inadvertently encounter icing conditions.
Citabria
6-11
WARNING
The fuel caps are the non-vented type. Failure to properly secure the caps will result in fuel
leakage and unequal fuel feed between the two tanks during flight.
An engine fuel primer is located on the instrument panel to facilitate starting Turn the knob to
release the plunger then pump the desired amount.
WARNING
After using the primer, insure that the knob is locked in place to
prevent Additional fuel from entering the engine cylinders.
The 7KCAB only, is fuel injected and has additional provisions for limited inverted flight. See
Figure 6-5. This includes an engine driven fuel pump and Van electric boost pump, which is
used for starting and for emergency use should the engine driven pump fail. The switch is
located on the electrical panel. A direct reading fuel pressure gauge is, installed in the
instrument panel.
A 1.5 gallon header tank is mounted aft of the firewall. A standpipe in the tank allows .75
gallons to be used for inverted flight which is approximately 2-3 minutes depending on
power settings. During positive G conditions, the tank automatically refills by gravity from
the main wing tanks.
WARNING
Continuous inverted flight is limited to 2 minutes. Approximately 3.5 minutes of flight under
positive G conditions is required to completely refill the header tank. Temporary fuel starvation
may result during an extended series for aerobatic manoeuvres involving a majority of negative
G conditions.
NOTE
Should fuel starvation result during inverted flight, return to positive
G conditions. The engine will restart within 10 seconds.
HEATING AND VENTILATION
Heat is obtained from a heat muff attached to the engine exhaust manifold, Both the front and
rear seat control knobs are located on the lower left side of the instrument panel. The front seat
heat outlet is on the left side of the firewall and the rear seat outlet is mounted to the cabin floor
between the two seats.
Fresh air is obtained by two rotatable air scoops on both sides of the cabin forward of the pilot.
Adjust the scoop forward for fresh air intake and rearward for air exhaust.
Additional fresh air vents are located in the left and right wing roots. Air flow is adjusted by
rotating the valve as desired.
AIRCRAFT LIGHTING
All light switches are located on the electrical panel. The interior light is located on the upper left
side of the cabin. It is detachable and equipped with a long coiled chord for inability. The light
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6-12
has both a clear and a red lense with an adjustable beam. The intensity is controlled by a
rheostat which is located on the back ‘of the light fixture.
The exterior lights include the standard navigation lights on the wing tips and rudder, High
intensity wing tip strobe lights are optional.
NOTE
The strobe lights should not be used during ground operations due to the high intensity having
a blinding effect on other aircraft and personnel in the area.
This also holds true during flight in haze or fog due to possible distraction to the pilot.
The high intensity landing/taxi light is mounted in the engine cowl below the propeller.
FLIGHT INSTRUMENTS
The flight instruments are conventional in design and are mounted in either the low or the high
type panel. The high panel has ample space for a variety of gyro instruments and avionics.
The airspeed, sensitive altimeter and the vertical speed indicator are all pressure sensitive
instruments operating off the pitot-static system. The pitot-static openings are attached to the
right wing jury strut.
The artificial horizon and directional gyro are vacuum operated using an engine driven vacuum
pump with a vacuum gauge to indicate system pressure.
The turn coordinator is electrically driven with the ON-OFF switch located on the electrical
panel.
The magnetic compass, clock, outside air temperature gauge and accelerometer are all
independent units requiring no external power source.
A stall warning horn, if installed, activated by avane type switch on the leading edge of the wing
is provided to warn the pilot of an approaching stall. It is pre-set for 5 to 10 mph above the
actual stalling speed with engine power at Idle. The master switch must be on for operation.
AVIONICS
The Citabria is available with a variety of navigation and communication equipment. Each radio
is equipped with a separate switch on the electrical panel in addition to the switch that is an
integral part of the radio. A radio speaker is mounted in the right wing root of the cabin with
microphone and headset jacks on the left side of the instrument panel. Consult the respective
manufacturer for specific operating instructions.
An emergency locator transmitter (ELT) is located on the right side of the baggage
compartment. It is self contained and is automatically activated to transmit a homing signal on
121.5 MHz and 243.0 MHz should the aircraft be subjected to rapid or abrupt deceleration.
For automatic activation, the switch on top of the ELT must be in the “ARM” position. The radio
can be manually activated and checked by switching to the “ON” position and tuning the
communication receiver to 121.5 MHz. A variable pitch tone Indicates normal operation. To reCitabria
6-13
set or deactivate the ELT, place the switch in the “OFF” position then return to the “ARM”
position for automatic activation.
NOTE
Maximum range of the ELT is best achieved by removing the unit from the aircraft and placing
the antenna in the upright position and as high as possible.
CABIN FEATURES
The main door (two piece split-type optional) can be jettisoned in flight by removing the door
pivot pins. The jettison handle is located next to the forward edge of the door and has a safety
pin to prevent inadvertent jettison. To jettison the door, remove the safety pin and pull the
handle UP.
Both (if equipped with split-type door) the front side windows can be opened on the ground or in
flight for additional ventilation and/or aerial photography. Although a bracket is provided to
secure the window in the open position during ground operation, it is recommended to let the
window fly free to minimize flutter in flight.
CAUTION
Do not open the windows in flight above the approved airspeed limits as indicated on the
window placards.
An overhead tinted plexiglass window is provided for improved visibility of ground references by
both the pilot and passenger during aerobatic manoeuvres.
The seats are equipped with folding backs and thick foam cushions. The cushions are
removable to facilitate the wearing of a parachute if desired, Both seats are equipped with seat
belts and shoulder harnesses.
The baggage area is located behind the rear seat and is limited to 100 lbs.
WARNING
No baggage is allowed during aerobatic flight.
The fire extinguisher, if installed, is mounted to the floor under the pilot’s seat and is equipped
with a quick disconnect latch. It is a dry chemical type approved for electrical and fuel fires.
UTILITY OPTIONS
CORROSION PROOFING
For improved protection against salt-water spray and most agriculture chemicals, a special
corrosion proofing is available. This is in addition to the epoxy primer and external paint used on
the fuselage frame.
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6-14
Included in this corrosion proofing are additional primer coatings to all structural steel tubing
fittings with the inside tubing surfaces oil coated. All structural aluminium is also primed with
epoxy. All control cables are stainless steel.
CAUTION
If the aircraft is to be converted to floats or used for aerial chemical
applications, the corrosion proofing must be applied at the time of
manufacture if a normal airframe life is expected.
SEAPLANE KIT
The Citabria is certified for floats. Included in the kit is the special corrosion proofing and two
additional tail fins for improved stability.
GLIDER/BANNER TOW
A glider tow is mounted on the tail wheel assembly. The positive release handle is under the
front seat. To release the tow, pull the handle aft.
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6-15
SECTION VII
SERVICING
INDEX
GENERAL............................................................................................7-1
SERVICE SPECIFICATIONS............................................................... 7-2
GROUND HANDLING.......................................................................... 7-3
JACKING ............................................................................................. 7-3
MOORING ...........................................................................................7-3
INSPECTION/SERVICING ACCESS ...................................................7-4
FUEL SYSTEM ....................................................................................7-4
BATTERY ............................................................................................7-5
BRAKES .............................................................................................. 7-5
TIRES ..................................................................................................7-6
ENGINE LUBRICATION ...................................................................... 7-6
ENGINE AIR FILTER ........................................................................... 7-6
CLEANING...........................................................................................7-6
EXTERIOR SURFACE ........................................................................ 7-6
WINDSHIELD.......................................................................................7-7
ENGINE ............................................................................................... 7-7
INTERIOR............................................................................................7-7
STORAGE ..........................................................................................7-7
GENERAL
This section describes ground handling, routine servicing, cleaning and storage procedures. No
information is provided for making mechanical adjustments, repairs or replacement
components. Consult your nearest Service Centre for full maintenance and servicing as they
have the latest factory service recommendations, experience and qualified personnel. See
Figure 7-1 for all service specifications.
The FAA requires that the aircraft undergo an annual inspection performed by a properly
designated individual or repair station, lithe aircraft is flown for commercial reasons, as specified
by FAR’s, an additional inspection is required every 100 hours of operation. This must be
performed by an appropriately rated mechanic. Both inspections are identical in scope.
American Champion Aircraft Corporation recommends the 100 hour inspection interval to
provide the owners with the highest degree of utilization and safety.
NOTE
This is in addition to daily pre-flight inspections and routine servicing
(e.g. oil change, etc.)
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7-1
FUEL
Type - Aviation Grade 80/87 Minimum Octane, or 100/130 Octane
Quantity - 36 Gals. (18 gals, in each tank)
- 35 Gals. Usable (17.5 gals, in each tank)
OIL
Type - Aviation Grade (See engine manufacturer’s specifications)
Quantity - 8 Qts.
(6 qts. - 7ECA)
- 6 Qts. Aerobatic Minimum
Viscosity
AVERAGE AMBIENT AIR TEMPERATURE
Above 60° F
SAE 40 or 50 30°- 90°F
SAE 30 or 40 Below 10° F
SAE 30
GRADE
SAE 40 0 - 70° F
BRAKES
Type - Fluid MIL-H-5606 (red)
TIRES
Type - Mains - 6.00 x 6 (4 ply rating) Tail
- 2.80 x 2.50 (4 ply rating) .
Pressure - Mains - 24 ± 4 psi
Tail - 40 ± 10 psi
LUBRICATION
Type — General Purpose Grease (zerke fittings)
Machine Oil or Engine Oil (pulleys, hinges, etc.)
High Temperature Wheel Bearing Grease (wheel bearings)
FIGURE 7-1 SERVICE SPECIFICATIONS GROUND HANDLING
The Citabria can be easily manoeuvred by one man when on firm level ground. A hand hold is
provided on the right side of the fuselage forward of the tail. The tail can be lifted completely off
the ground or the tail wheel steering can be disengaged with a sufficient side load for free
castering. If additional manpower is required, use the forward wing strut applying force close to
the fuselage attach fitting.
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7-2
JACKING
The tail can be lifted by hand with a suitable support placed under the tailwheel spring at the
fuselage attach point.
The main wheels can be raised by lifting one wing at a time at the wing struts next to the wing
attach fittings. Place a suitable support under or just outboard of the U bolt on the upper gear
leg.
CAUTION
Do not lift on the rear spar alone or near the jury struts.
Avoid metal to metal contact on the gear leg and U bolt.
The aircraft may also be hoisted by a spreader bar type sling attached to the front spar attach
fittings. The wing root fairing must be removed for access to the fittings.
MOORING
In the event of high winds, the aircraft should be properly secured.
1) Head aircraft into the wind if possible.
2) Attach tie-down chains or ropes to the tail wheel assembly and tie down fittings at the
end of the wing struts.
3) Set parking brakes.
4) Secure the control stick aft with the forward seat belt. 5)
Install control surface
blocks for the rudder and flaps.
6) Install pitot tube cover.
INSPECTION AND SERVICING ACCESS
The Citabria is designed to keep maintenance and inspection time to a minimum.
The two piece engine cowl is easily removed for engine servicing. Remove the top half first.
When removing the lower half, disconnect the light wire using the quick disconnect below the
inspection door on the top cowl. The air induction hose connected to the air filter must also be
disconnected. Replace the cowl in the reverse order. Do not tighten fasteners until the cowl is
completely in place.
CAUTION
When installing lower cowl, insure that the air filter inlet hose is
properly mated to the carburettor heat box. It is recommended that
the air filter be removed for inspection of proper positioning of the
air filter inlet hose.
The flexible engine baffle seals should be facing up and forward prior to replacing the top cowl
for proper engine cooling.
Additional inspection plates are provided on the wings and fuselage to gain access to control
cables, fuel lines, wiring, etc. The cabin headliner also permits easy access to the overhead
control cables and fuel lines.
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7-3
FUEL SYSTEM
Use 100LL minimum octane or 100/130 (100/130 low lead for 7ECA) octane aviation fuel.
Observe all required precautions when fueling the aircraft. Fill each wing tank through the
respective filler neck on the top surface of the wings. The caps are non-vented type and must
be properly secured or fuel will siphon out and feed unevenly during flight.
NOTE
Because of cross feeding between the two tanks, they should be re-topped during refueling to
assure maximum capacity.
A quick drain is provided on the gascolator with access to the control knob through the
inspection cover on the engine cowl. This should be used during the pre-flight inspection to
check for fuel contamination.
The system low point drain is located externally on the fuselage belly aft of the rear seat and
should be used during unusually high moisture conditions or if water is present in the
gascolator. Each tank also has a drain plug to remove fuel from the tank if necessary.
WARNING
After using drains, insure that no leakage is evident.
BATTERY
The battery is located behind the baggage compartment (7ECA, battery located in engine
compartment) and sealed in a container. To gain access, remove the aft baggage compartment
panel. The battery should be checked every 50 hours (10 hours for aerobatic flight) or 30 days
for proper electrolyte level and evidence of spilled acid.
If the battery is to be removed, disconnect the ground cable (negative)first and. install last.
BRAKES
The brake fluid reservoir is mounted to the aft side of the firewall. A filling port is on top of the
reservoir and the overfill vent is located at the upper right main gear leg.
The reservoir can also be replenished under pressure by using the brake bleed fittings on the
bottom of the wheel brake assembly.
CAUTION
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7-4
Use only MIL-H-5606 hydraulic fluid (red).
TIRES
Tire condition should be checked during pre-flight. If the tire tread is no longer visible, it should
be replaced. Inflate tires with compressed air.
Main Wheels - 24 ± 2 psi
Tail Wheel - 40 ± 10 psi
ENGINE LUBRICATION
Access to the oil filler port and dip stick is through the inspection door on the engine cowl. The
oil level should be checked prior to flight and oil added if below six quarts (5 quarts — 7ECA).
Under normal operating conditions, the oil should be changed every 25 hours of operation (50
hours if a full flow oil filter is installed). A quick drain is provided on the engine sump with access
through the cooling duct below the engine cowl.
Use aviation grade oil with the proper viscosity as listed in Figure 7-1.
ENGINE AIR FILTER
The engine air filter should be inspected every 50 hours of normal operating or every 10 hours
under extremely dusty conditions. Clean with compressed air or replace as necessary.
CLEANING
EXTERIOR SURFACE
Wash with mild soap arid water. Avoid the use of harsh abrasives or detergents. Remove
grease and oil with solvent or non-leaded gas. The aircraft may be waxed if desired with a good
quality automotive wax.
Ice may be removed from the wings using a 50/50 solution of isopropyl alcohol and water. Do
not allow solution to come in contact with the plexiglass windows.
WINDSHIELD
The windshield and side windows should be cleaned with an aircraft windshield cleaner
following the manufacturer’s recommendations. If dust or dirt is present, rinse with water prior to
cleaning. The windshield can be waxed and polished with a soft cloth to fill minor scratches and
help protect against further scratching.
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7-5
CAUTION
Don not use gasoline, benzine, alcohol, octane. Carbon tetrachioride, lacquer
thinner or glass cleaner on the plexiglass as crazing will result. Never rub with a dry cloth as
the surface can be easily scratched
ENGINE
The engine can be washed down with a commercial engine solvent or kerosene base solvent.
Avoid excessive contact of solvents on the electrical components such as the magnetos,
starter, etc.
INTERIOR
The vinyl interior can be washed with mild soap and water. The carpet should be cleaned with
any commercial or household upholstery or carpet cleanser for nylon type material.
STORAGE
Aircraft placed in non-operational storage for long periods of time should be given a thorough
cleaning. Every ten days the propeller should be pulled through several revolutions to reactivate
the oil film and prevent corrosion.
WARNING
Check that all engine switches and controls are OFF prior to
rotating the propeller and stay clear of the propeller area.
To insure long engine life, the aircraft should be flown at least once a month to reduce
excessive moisture build-up. Excessive ground running to bring engine to operating
temperature is not recommended. Consult the engine manual for further recommendations if
this is not possible.
The fuel tank should be kept full to prevent moisture build-up due to condensation.
Insure that the battery is kept fully charged or the electrolyte will freeze and damage the battery
in cold weather.
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