O-320 Series
Operator’s Manual
Lycoming
O-320 Series
Approved by FAA
3rd Edition
Part No. 60297-30
October 2006
652 Oliver Street
Williamsport, PA. 17701 U.S.A.
570/323-6181
O-320 Series Operator’s Manual
Lycoming Part Number: 60297-30
©2006 by Lycoming. All rights reserved.
Lycoming and “Powered by Lycoming” are trademarks or registered trademarks of
Lycoming.
All brand and product names referenced in this publication are trademarks or registered
trademarks of their respective companies.
For additional information:
Mailing address:
Lycoming Engines
652 Oliver Street
Williamsport, PA 17701 U.S.A.
Phone:
Factory:
Sales Department:
Fax:
570-323-6181
570-327-7268
570-327-7101
Lycoming’s regular business hours are Monday through Friday from 8:00 AM
through 5:00 PM Eastern Time (-5 GMT)
Visit us on the World Wide Web at:
http://www.lycoming.textron.com
LYCOMING OPERATOR’S MANUAL
ATTENTION
OWNERS, OPERATORS, AND MAINTENANCE PERSONNEL
This operator’s manual contains a description of the engine, its specifications, and detailed information on
how to operate and maintain it. Such maintenance procedures that may be required in conjunction with
periodic inspections are also included. This manual is intended for use by owners, pilots and maintenance
personnel responsible for care of Lycoming powered aircraft. Modifications and repair procedures are
contained in Lycoming overhaul manuals; maintenance personnel should refer to these for such procedures.
SAFETY WARNING
Neglecting to follow the operating instructions and to carry out periodic maintenance procedures can result
in poor engine performance and power loss. Also, if power and speed limitations specified in this manual
are exceeded, for any reason, damage to the engine and personal injury can happen. Consult your local
FAA approved maintenance facility.
SERVICE BULLETINS, INSTRUCTIONS, AND LETTERS
Although the information contained in this manual is up-to-date at time of publication, users are urged to
keep abreast of later information through Lycoming Service Bulletins, Instructions and Service Letters
which are available from all Lycoming distributors or from the factory by subscription. Consult the latest
revision of Service Letter No. L114 for subscription information.
NOTE
The illustrations, pictures and drawings shown in this publication are typical of the subject matter they
portray; in no instance are they to be interpreted as examples of any specific engine, equipment or part
thereof.
iii
LYCOMING OPERATOR’S MANUAL
IMPORTANT SAFETY NOTICE
Proper service and repair is essential to increase the safe, reliable operation of all aircraft engines. The
service procedures recommended by Lycoming are effective methods for performing service operations.
Some of these operations require the use of tools specially designed for the task. These special tools must be
used when and as recommended.
It is important to note that most Lycoming publications contain various Warnings and Cautions which
must be carefully read in order to minimize the risk of personal injury or the use of improper service
methods that may damage the engine or render it unsafe.
It is also important to understand that these Warnings and Cautions are not all inclusive. Lycoming could
not possibly know, evaluate or advise the service trade of all conceivable ways in which service might be
done or of the possible hazardous consequences that may be involved. Accordingly, anyone who uses a
service procedure must first satisfy themselves thoroughly that neither their safety nor aircraft safety will be
jeopardized by the service procedure they select.
iv
LYCOMING OPERATOR’S MANUAL
TABLE OF CONTENTS
Page
SECTION 1
DESCRIPTION
1-1
SECTION 2
SPECIFICATIONS
2-1
SECTION 3
OPERATING INSTRUCTIONS
3-1
SECTION 4
PERIODIC INSPECTIONS
4-1
SECTION 5
MAINTENANCE PROCEDURES
5-1
SECTION 6
TROUBLE-SHOOTING
6-1
SECTION 7
INSTALLATION AND STORAGE
7-1
SECTION 8
TABLES
8-1
v
LYCOMING OPERATOR’S MANUAL
¾ Right Front View – Typical O-320 Series
¾ Left Rear View – Typical O-320 Series
vi
LYCOMING OPERATOR’S MANUAL
SECTION 1
DESCRIPTION
Page
General.......................................................................................................................................................... 1-1
Cylinders....................................................................................................................................................... 1-1
Valve Operating Mechanism ...................................................................................................................... 1-1
Crankcase ..................................................................................................................................................... 1-1
Crankshaft .................................................................................................................................................... 1-1
Connecting Rods .......................................................................................................................................... 1-1
Pistons ........................................................................................................................................................... 1-1
Accessory Housing ....................................................................................................................................... 1-1
Oil Sump ....................................................................................................................................................... 1-1
Cooling System ............................................................................................................................................. 1-2
Induction System.......................................................................................................................................... 1-2
Lubrication System...................................................................................................................................... 1-2
Priming System ............................................................................................................................................ 1-2
Ignition System............................................................................................................................................. 1-2
Model Application Table............................................................................................................................. 1-3
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LYCOMING OPERATOR’S MANUAL
O-320 SERIES
SECTION 1
DESCRIPTION
SECTION 1
DESCRIPTION
The O-320 series are four cylinder, direct drive and, horizontally opposed, air cooled engines.
In referring to the location of the various engine components, the parts are described in their relationship
to the engine as installed in the airframe. Thus, the power take-off end is considered the front and the
accessory drive end the rear. The sump section is considered the bottom and the opposite side of the engine
where the shroud tubes are located the top. Reference to the left and right side is made with the observer
facing the rear of the engine. The cylinders are numbered from front to rear, odd numbers on the right, even
numbers on the left. The direction of rotation for accessory drives is determined with the observer facing the
drive pad. The direction of rotation of the crankshaft, viewed from the rear, is clockwise.
Cylinders – The cylinders are of conventional air cooled construction with the two major parts, head and
barrel, screwed and shrunk together. The heads are made from an aluminum alloy casting with a fully
machined combustion chamber. Rocker shaft bearing supports are cast integral with the head along with
housings to form the rocker boxes for both valve rockers. The cylinder barrels, which are machined from
chrome nickel molybdenum steel forgings, have deep integral cooling fins and the inside of the barrels are
ground and honed to a specified finish.
Valve Operating Mechanism – A conventional type camshaft is located above and parallel to the crankshaft.
The camshaft actuates hydraulic tappets which operate the valves through push rods and valve rockers. The
valve rockers are supported on full floating steel shafts. The valve springs bear against hardened steel seats
and are retained on the valve stems by means of split keys.
Crankcase – The crankcase assembly consists of two reinforced aluminum alloy castings, fastened together
by means of studs, bolts and nuts. The mating surfaces of the two castings are joined without the use of a
gasket, and the main bearing bores are machined for use of precision type main bearing inserts.
Crankshaft – The crankshaft is made from a chrome nickel molybdenum steel forging. All bearing journal
surfaces are nitrided.
Connecting Rods – The connecting rods are made in the form of “H” sections from alloy steel forgings.
They have replaceable bearing inserts in the crankshaft ends and bronze bushings in the piston ends. The
bearing caps on the crankshaft ends are retained by two bolts and nuts through each cap.
Pistons – The pistons are machined from an aluminum alloy. The piston pin is of a full floating type with a
plug located in each end of the pin. Depending on the cylinder assembly, pistons may employ either half
wedge or full wedge rings. Consult the latest revision of Service Instruction No. 1037 for proper piston and
ring combinations.
Accessory Housing – The accessory housing is made from an aluminum casting and is fastened to the rear of
the crankcase and the top rear of the sump. It forms a housing for the oil pump and the various accessory
drives.
Oil Sump – The sump incorporates an oil drain plug, oil suction screen, mounting pad for carburetor, the
intake riser and intake pipe connections.
1-1
SECTION 1
DESCRIPTION
LYCOMING OPERATOR’S MANUAL
O-320 SERIES
Cooling System – These engines are designed to be cooled by air pressure. Baffles are provided to build up
a pressure and force the air through the cylinder fins. The air is then exhausted to the atmosphere through
gills or augmentor tubes usually located at the rear of the cowling.
Induction System - Lycoming O-320 series engines are equipped with a float type carburetor. Particularly
good distribution of the fuel-air mixture to each cylinder is obtained through the center zone induction
system, which is integral with the oil sump and is submerged in oil, insuring a more uniform vaporization of
fuel and aiding in cooling the oil in the sump. From the riser the fuel-air mixture is distributed to each
cylinder by individual intake pipes.
A brief description of the carburetors follows:
The Precision Airmotive MA-4SPA and HA-6 carburetors are of the single barrel float type equipped with
a manual mixture control and an idle-cut-off.
Lubrication System – The lubrication system is of the pressure wet sump type. The main bearings,
connecting rod bearings, camshaft bearings, valve tappets, push rods and crankshaft idler gears are
lubricated by means of oil collectors and spray. The oil pump, which is located in the accessory housing,
draws oil through a drilled passage leading from the oil suction screen located in the sump. The oil from the
pump then enters a drilled passage in the accessory housing, where a flexible line leads the oil to the
external oil cooler. In the event that cold oil or an obstruction should restrict the flow of oil to the cooler, an
oil cooler bypass valve is provided. Pressure oil from the cooler returns to a second threaded connection on
the accessory housing from which point a drilled passage conducts the oil to the oil pressure screen, which
is contained in a cast chamber located on the accessory housing below the tachometer drive.
The oil pressure screen is provided to filter from the oil any solid particles that may have passed through
the suction screen in the sump. After being filtered in the pressure screen chamber, the oil is fed through a
drilled passage to the oil relief valve, located in the upper right side of the crankcase in front of the
accessory housing.
This relief valve regulates the engine oil pressure by allowing excessive oil to return to the sump, while
the balance of the pressure oil is fed to the main oil gallery in the right half of the crankcase. During its
travel through this main gallery, the oil is distributed by means of separate drilled passages to the main
bearings of the crankshaft. Separate passages from the rear main bearing supply pressure oil to both
crankshaft idler gears. Angular holes are drilled through the main bearings to the rod journals. Oil from the
main oil gallery also flows to the cam and valve gear passages, and is then conducted through branch
passages to the hydraulic tappets and camshaft bearings. Oil enters the tappets through indexing holes and
travels out through the hollow push rods to the valve mechanism, lubricating the valve rocker bearings and
valve stems. Residual oil from the bearings, accessory drives and the rocker boxes is returned by gravity to
the sump, where after passing through a screen it is again circulated through the engine. Pressure build-up
within the crankcase is held to a minimum by means of a breather located on the accessory housing.
Priming System – Provision for a primer system is provided on all engines.
Ignition System – Dual ignition is furnished by two magnetos. Consult Table 1 for model application.
Bendix magnetos are designed to permit periodic internal maintenance; Slick Electro magnetos are designed
to operate for approximately 900 hours without internal maintenance.
1-2
LYCOMING OPERATOR’S MANUAL
O-320 SERIES
SECTION 1
DESCRIPTION
TABLE 1
Model
O-320
-A1A, -A1B
-A2A*, -A2B*
-A3A, -A3B
-A2C*, -A3C
-B1A, -B1B
-B2A*, -B2B*
-B3A, -B3B
-B2C*, -B3C
-B2D
-B2E
-D1A, -D2A*
-D1B, -D2B*
-D1C, -D2C*
-D1F, -D2F*
-E1A, -E2A*
-E1B, -E2B*
-E1C, -E2C*
-E1F, -E2F*
-E1J, -E2D*, -E3D*
-A2D*, -E2G*
-D2G, -D2H, -D3G
-E2H*, -E3H*
-D1D
-D2J*
MODEL APPLICATION
Left
Right
Height
S4LN-21
S4LN-21
S4LN-21
S4LN-200
S4LN-21
S4LN-21
S4LN-21
S4LN-200
4373
4373
S4LN-21
S4LN-200
S4LN-1227
S4LN-1227
S4LN-21
S4LN-200
S4LN-1227
S4LN-1227
4051
4051
4051
S4LN-21
4051
4251
S4LN-20
S4LN-20
S4LN-20
S4LN-204
S4LN-20
S4LN-20
S4LN-20
S4LN-204
4370
4370
S4LN-20
S4LN-204
S4LN-1209
S4LN-1209
S4LN-20
S4LN-204
S4LN-1209
S4LN-1209
4050
4050
4050
S4LN-20
4050
4251
22.99
22.99
22.99
22.99
22.99
22.99
22.99
22.99
19.22
23.92
22.99
22.99
22.99
22.99
22.99
22.99
22.99
22.99
22.99
22.99
22.99
22.99
19.22
23.00
Width
Length
32.24
32.24
32.24
32.24
32.24
32.24
32.24
32.24
32.24
32.24
32.24
32.24
32.24
32.24
32.24
32.24
32.24
32.24
32.24
32.24
32.24
32.24
32.24
32.24
29.56
29.56
29.56
29.81
29.56
29.56
29.56
29.81
31.28
31.28
29.56
29.56
30.70
30.70
29.56
29.81
30.70
30.70
29.05
29.05
29.05
29.56
31.82
29.05
* - Fixed Pitch Propeller.
1-3
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LYCOMING OPERATOR’S MANUAL
SECTION 2
SPECIFICATIONS
Page
Explanatory Note ......................................................................................................................................... 2-1
Specifications – O-320-A, -B, -D, -E Series................................................................................................ 2-2
Accessory Drive Ratio.................................................................................................................................. 2-3
Detail Weights .............................................................................................................................................. 2-3
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LYCOMING OPERATOR’S MANUAL
O-320 SERIES
SECTION 2
SPECIFICATIONS
SECTION 2
SPECIFICATIONS
The model specifications shown on the following pages of this section are divided according to model
designation. When differences among models can be clearly stated, the specifications of more than one
model are combined in a single group; otherwise, each model has its specifications listed separately. Also,
as additional models are added to this series, new specification pages containing data pertinent to the new
models will be added.
2-1
SECTION 2
SPECIFICATIONS
LYCOMING OPERATOR’S MANUAL
O-320 SERIES
SPECIFICATIONS
O-320-A, -E* SERIES
FAA Type Certificate ....................................................................................................................................274
Rated horsepower...........................................................................................................................................150
Rated speed, RPM........................................................................................................................................2700
Bore, inches.................................................................................................................................................5.125
Stroke, inches..............................................................................................................................................3.875
Displacement, cubic inches.........................................................................................................................319.8
Compression ratio ....................................................................................................................................... 7.0:1
Firing order ............................................................................................................................................. 1-3-2-4
Spark occurs, degrees BTC..............................................................................................................................25
Valve rocker clearance (hydraulic tappets collapsed) ......................................................................... .028-.080
Propeller drive ratio ....................................................................................................................................... 1:1
Propeller drive rotation (viewed from rear) ........................................................................................Clockwise
* - O-320-E2A, -E2C, and –E2F have alternate rating of 140 HP at 2450 RPM.
O-320-B, -D** SERIES
FAA Type Certificate ....................................................................................................................................274
Rated horsepower...........................................................................................................................................160
Rated speed, RPM........................................................................................................................................2700
Bore, inches.................................................................................................................................................5.125
Stroke, inches..............................................................................................................................................3.875
Displacement, cubic inches.........................................................................................................................319.8
Compression ratio ....................................................................................................................................... 8.5:1
Firing order ............................................................................................................................................. 1-3-2-4
Spark occurs, degrees BTC..............................................................................................................................25
Valve rocker clearance (hydraulic tappets collapsed) ......................................................................... .028-.080
Propeller drive ratio ....................................................................................................................................... 1:1
Propeller drive rotation (viewed from rear) ........................................................................................Clockwise
** - O-320-D2H has alternate rating of 150 HP at 2500 RPM. O-320-D2J has alternate rating of 150 HP at
2500 RPM and 155 HP at 2600 RPM.
2-2
LYCOMING OPERATOR’S MANUAL
O-320 SERIES
*Accessory Drive
Starter
Starter
Generator
Generator
Alternator
Tachometer
Magneto
Vacuum Pump
Propeller Governor AN20010
Mounted on Accessory Housing
Mounted on Crankcase
Fuel Pump AN20003
Fuel Pump – Plunger Operated
Dual Drives
Vacuum – Hydraulic Pump
Vacuum Pump – Propeller Governor
SECTION 2
SPECIFICATIONS
Drive Ratio
**Direction of Rotation
13.556:1
16.556:1
1.910:1
2.500:1
3.250:1
0.500:1
1.000:1
1.300:1
Counterclockwise
Counterclockwise
Clockwise
Clockwise
Clockwise
Clockwise
Clockwise
Counterclockwise
0.866:1
0.895:1
1.000:1
0.500:1
Clockwise
Clockwise
Counterclockwise
1.300:1
1.300:1
Counterclockwise
Counterclockwise
* - When applicable.
** - Viewed facing drive pad.
DETAIL WEIGHTS
1. Engine, Standard, Dry Weight.
Includes carburetor, magnetos, spark plugs, ignition harness, intercylinder baffles, tachometer drive,
starter and generator (alternator) drive, starter and generator (alternator) with mounting bracket.
O-320 SERIES
LBS.
-E2D, -E3D, -E2G..........................................................................................................................................268
-A1A, -A1B, -A2A, -A2B, -A3A, -A3B, -A2C.............................................................................................272
-A3C, -E1A, -E2A, -E1B, -E2B, -E1C, -E2C................................................................................................272
-D2J, -E1J ......................................................................................................................................................275
-B2C, -B3C, -D1B, -D2B ..............................................................................................................................277
-B1A, -B1B, -B2A, -B2B, -B3A, -B3B.........................................................................................................278
-A2D, -D1A, -D1C, -D2A, -D2C, -E1F, -E2F ..............................................................................................278
-D2G, -D3G, -D2H ........................................................................................................................................281
-B2D, -B2E, -D1D .........................................................................................................................................283
-D1F, -D2F.....................................................................................................................................................285
2-3
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LYCOMING OPERATOR’S MANUAL
SECTION 3
OPERATING INSTRUCTIONS
Page
General.......................................................................................................................................................... 3-1
Prestarting Items of Maintenance .............................................................................................................. 3-1
Starting Procedures ..................................................................................................................................... 3-1
Cold Weather Starting ................................................................................................................................ 3-2
Ground Running and Warm-Up ................................................................................................................ 3-2
Ground Check .............................................................................................................................................. 3-3
Operation in Flight ...................................................................................................................................... 3-4
Fuel Mixture Leaning Procedures........................................................................................................... 3-4
With EGT Gage...................................................................................................................................... 3-4
To Flowmeter ......................................................................................................................................... 3-5
With Manual Mixture Control ............................................................................................................. 3-5
Use of Carburetor Heat Control................................................................................................................. 3-5
Engine Flight Chart ..................................................................................................................................... 3-6
Operating Conditions .................................................................................................................................. 3-7
Engine Shut Down ....................................................................................................................................... 3-8
Performance Curves .................................................................................................................................. 3-10
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LYCOMING OPERATOR’S MANUAL
O-320 SERIES
SECTION 3
OPERATING INSTRUCTIONS
SECTION 3
OPERATING INSTRUCTIONS
1. GENERAL. Close adherence to these instructions will greatly contribute to long life, economy and
satisfactory operation of the engine.
NOTE
YOUR ATTENTION IS DIRECTED TO THE WARRANTIES THAT APPEAR IN THE
FRONT OF THIS MANUAL REGARDING ENGINE SPEED, THE USE OF SPECIFIED
FUELS AND LUBRICANTS, REPAIRS AND ALTERATIONS. PERHAPS NO OTHER ITEM
OF ENGINE OPERATION AND MAINTENANCE CONTRIBUTES QUITE SO MUCH TO
SATISFACTORY PERFORMANCE AND LONG LIFE AS THE CONSTANT USE OF
CORRECT GRADES OF FUEL AND OIL, CORRECT ENGINE TIMING, AND FLYING
THE AIRCRAFT AT ALL TIMES WITHIN THE SPEED AND POWER RANGE SPECIFIED
FOR THE ENGINE. DO NOT FORGET THAT VIOLATION OF THE OPERATION AND
MAINTENANCE SPECIFICATIONS FOR YOUR ENGINE WILL NOT ONLY VOID YOUR
WARRANTY BUT WILL SHORTEN THE LIFE OF YOUR ENGINE AFTER ITS WARRANTY
PERIOD HAS PASSED.
New engines have been carefully run-in by Lycoming; therefore, no further break-in is necessary insofar as
operation is concerned; however, new or newly overhauled engines should be operated on straight mineral
oil for a minimum of 50 hours or until oil consumption has stabilized. After this period, a change to an
approved additive oil may be made, if so desired.
NOTE
Cruising should be done at 65% to 75% power until a total of 50 hours has accumulated or
oil consumption has stabilized. This is to ensure proper seating of the rings and is applicable
to new engines, and engines in service following cylinder replacement or top overhaul of one
or more cylinders.
The minimum fuel octane rating is listed in the flight chart, Part 9 of this section. Under no circumstances
should fuel of a lower octane rating or automotive fuel (regardless of octane rating) be used.
2. PRESTARTING ITEMS OF MAINTENANCE. Before starting the aircraft engine for the first flight of the
day, there are several items of maintenance inspection that should be performed. These are described in
Section 4 under Daily Pre-Flight Inspection. They must be observed before the engine is started.
3. STARTING PROCEDURES.
The following starting procedures are recommended, however, the starting characteristics of various
installations will necessitate some variation from these procedures.
NOTE
Cranking periods must be limited to ten (10) to twelve (12) seconds with a five (5) minute
rest between cranking periods.
3-1
SECTION 3
OPERATING INSTRUCTIONS
LYCOMING OPERATOR’S MANUAL
O-320 SERIES
a. Cold Engines.
(1) Perform pre-flight inspection.
(2) Set carburetor heat control in “off” position.
(3) Set propeller governor control in “Full RPM” position (where applicable).
(4) Turn fuel valves “On”.
(5) Move mixture control to “Full Rich”.
(6) Turn on boost pump.
(7) Open throttle approximately ¼ travel.
(8) Prime with 1 to 3 strokes of manual priming pump or activate electric primer for 1 or 2 seconds.
(9) Set magneto selector switch (consult airframe manufacturer’s handbook for correct position).
(10) Engage starter.
(11) When engine fires move the magneto switch to “Both”.
(12) Check oil pressure gage. If minimum oil pressure is not indicated within thirty seconds, stop
engine and determine trouble.
NOTE
If engine fails to achieve a normal start, assume it to be flooded and use standard clearing
procedure, then repeat above steps.
b. Hot Engines. Proceed as outlined above omitting the priming step.
4. COLD WEATHER STARTING. During extreme cold weather, it may be necessary to preheat the engine
and oil before starting.
5. GROUND RUNNING AND WARM-UP.
The engines covered in this manual are air-pressure cooled and depend on the forward speed of the aircraft
to maintain proper cooling. Particular care is necessary, therefore, when operating these engines on the
ground. To prevent overheating, it is recommended that the following precautions be observed.
NOTE
Any ground check that requires full throttle operation must be limited to three minutes, or
less if the indicated cylinder head temperature should exceed the maximum stated in this
manual.
3-2
LYCOMING OPERATOR’S MANUAL
O-320 SERIES
SECTION 3
OPERATING INSTRUCTIONS
a. Head the aircraft into the wind.
b. Leave mixture in “Full Rich”.
c. Operate only with the propeller in minimum blade angle setting.
d. Warm-up at approximately 1000-1200 RPM. Avoid prolonged idling and do not exceed 2200 RPM on
the ground.
e. Engine is warm enough for take-off when the throttle can be opened without the engine faltering.
6. GROUND CHECK.
a. Warm-up as directed above.
b. Check both oil pressure and oil temperature.
c. Leave mixture in “Full Rich”.
d. (Where applicable) Move propeller control through its complete range to check operation and return
to full low pitch position. Full feathering check (twin engine) on the ground is not recommended but
the feathering action can be checked by running the engine between 1000-1500 RPM; then
momentarily pulling the propeller control into the feathering position. Do not allow the RPM to drop
more then 500 RPM.
e. A proper magneto check is important. Additional factors, other than the ignition system, affect
magneto drop-off. They are load-power output, propeller pitch and mixture strength. The important
thing is that the engine runs smoothly because magneto drop-off is affected by the variables listed
above. Make the magneto check in accordance with the following procedures.
(1) Controllable Pitch Propeller. When propeller in minimum pitch angle, set the engine to produce
50-65% power as indicated by the manifold pressure gage. Mixture control should be in the full
rich position. At these settings, the ignition system and spark plugs must work harder because of
the greater pressure within the cylinders. Under these conditions ignition problems, if they exist,
will occur. Mag checks at low power settings will only indicate fuel-air distribution quality.
NOTE
Aircraft that are equipped with fixed pitch propellers, or not equipped with manifold
pressure gage, may check magneto drop-off with engine operating at a maximum of
2000/2100 RPM.
(2) Switch from both magnetos to one and note drop-off, return to both until engine regains speed and
switch to the other magneto and note drop-off, then return to both. Drop-off should not exceed 175
RPM and should not exceed 50 RPM between magnetos. A smooth drop-off past normal is usually
a sign of a too lean or too rich mixture.
f. Do not operate on a single magneto for too long a period, a few seconds is usually sufficient to check
drop-off and will minimize plug fouling.
3-3
SECTION 3
OPERATING INSTRUCTIONS
LYCOMING OPERATOR’S MANUAL
O-320 SERIES
7. OPERATION IN FLIGHT
a. See airframe manufacturer’s instructions for recommended power settings.
b. Fuel Mixture Leaning Procedure.
Improper fuel/air mixture during flight is responsible for many engine problems, particularly during
take-off and climb power settings. The procedures described in this manual provide proper fuel/air
mixture when leaning Lycoming engines; they have proven to be both economical and practical by
eliminating excessive fuel consumption and reducing damaged parts replacement. It is therefore
recommended that operators of all Lycoming aircraft power plants utilize the instructions in this
publication any time the fuel/air mixture is adjusted during flight.
Manual leaning may be monitored by exhaust gas temperature indication, fuel flow indication, and
by observation of engine speed and/or airspeed. However, whatever instruments are used in
monitoring the mixture, the following general rules should be observed by the operator of Lycoming
aircraft engines.
GENERAL RULES
Never exceed the maximum red line cylinder head temperature limit.
For maximum service life, cylinder head temperatures should be maintained below 435°F
(224°C) during high performance cruise operation and below 400°F (205°C) for economy
cruise powers.
Do not manually lean engines equipped with automatically controlled fuel system.
Maintain mixture control in “Full Rich” position for rated take-off, climb and maximum
cruise powers (above approximately 75%). However, during take-off from high elevation
airport or during climb, roughness or loss of power may result from over-richness. In such a
case adjust mixture control only enough to obtain smooth operation – not for economy.
Observe instruments for temperature rise. Rough operation due to over-rich fuel/air mixture
is most likely to be encountered in carbureted engines at altitude above 5,000 feet.
Always return the mixture to full rich before increasing power settings.
Operate the engine at maximum power mixture for performance cruise powers and at best
economy mixture for economy cruise power; unless otherwise specified in the airplane
owners manual.
During let-down flight operations it may be necessary to manually lean uncompensated
carbureted engines to obtain smooth operation.
1. LEANING TO EXHAUST GAS TEMPERATURE GAGE.
a. Normally aspirated engines with uncompensated carburetors.
(1) Maximum Power Cruise (approximately 75% power) – Never lean beyond 150°F
on rich side peak EGT unless aircraft operator’s manual shows otherwise.
Monitor cylinder head temperatures.
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OPERATING INSTRUCTIONS
(2) Best Economy Cruise (approximately 75% power and below) – Operate at peak
EGT, or if desired, drop 50°F on rich side of peak EGT.
2. LEANING TO FLOWMETER.
Lean to applicable fuel-flow tables or lean to indicator marked for correct fuel-flow for
each power setting.
3. LEANING WITH MANUAL MIXTURE CONTROL (Economy Cruise, 75% power or less,
without flowmeter or EGT gage).
a. Slowly move mixture control from “Full Rich” position toward lean position.
b. Continue leaning until engine roughness is noted.
c. Enrich until engine runs smoothly and power is regained.
As shown in Figure 3-1, if engine speed and throttle setting are kept constant at normal cruise conditions,
the effect of leaning on engine power and engine temperatures will be as shown. Power drops rapidly when
the engine is leaned beyond peak exhaust gas temperature; also, best power is attained on the rich side of
peak exhaust gas temperature.
8. USE OF CARBURETOR HEAT CONTROL. Under certain moist atmospheric conditions when the
relative humidity is more than 50% and at temperature of 20° to 90°, it is possible for ice to form in the
induction system, even in summer weather. This is due to the high air velocity through the carburetor
venturi and the absorption of heat from this air by vaporization of the fuel. The temperature in the mixture
chamber may drop as much as 70°F below the temperature of the incoming air. If this air contains a large
amount of moisture, the cooling process can cause precipitation in the form of ice. Ice formation generally
begins in the vicinity of the butterfly and may build up to such an extent that a drop in power output could
result. A loss of power is reflected by a drop in manifold pressure in installations equipped with constant
speed propellers and a drop in manifold pressure and RPM in installations equipped with fixed pitch
propellers. If not corrected, this condition may cause complete engine stoppage.
a. To avoid this, all installations are equipped with a system for preheating the incoming air supply to
the carburetor. In this way sufficient heat is added to replace the heat loss of vaporization of fuel,
preventing the mixture chamber temperature from dropping to the freezing point of water. This air
preheater is essentially a tube or jacket through which the exhaust pipe from one or more cylinders is
passed, and the air flowing over these surfaces is raised to the required temperature before entering the
carburetor. Consistently high temperatures can cause a loss in power and a decided variation of
mixture. The following outline is the proper method of utilizing the carburetor heat control.
(1) Ground Operation – Use of the carburetor air heat on the ground should be held to a minimum.
On some installations the air does not pass through the air filter, and dirt and foreign substances
can be taken into the engine with the resultant cylinder and piston ring wear. In dirt and dust free
areas carburetor air heat should be used on the ground to make certain it is functioning properly, or
when carburetor icing conditions require it.
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OPERATING INSTRUCTIONS
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O-320 SERIES
(2) Take-Off – Take-offs and full throttle operation should be made with carburetor heat in full cold
position. The possibility of throttle icing at wide throttle openings is very remote, so remote in
fact, that it can be disregarded.
(3) Climbing – When climbing at part throttle power settings of 80% or above, the carburetor heat
control should be set in the full cold position; however, if it is necessary to use carburetor heat to
prevent icing it is possible for engine roughness to occur due to the over-rich fuel-air mixture
produced by the additional carburetor heat. When this happens, carefully lean the mixture with the
mixture control only enough to produce smooth engine operation. Do not continue to use
carburetor heat after flight is out of icing conditions, and adjust mixture according to percent of
power and altitude.
(4) Flight Operation – During normal flight, leave the carburetor air heat control in the cold position.
On damp, cloudy, foggy or hazy days, regardless of the outside air temperatures, look out for loss
of power. This will be evidenced by an unaccountable loss in manifold pressure or RPM or both,
depending on whether a constant speed or fixed pitch propeller is installed on the aircraft. If this
happens, apply full carburetor air heat and increase the throttle, if available to compensate for
power loss. This will result in a slight additional drop in manifold pressure which is normal, and
this drop will be regained as the ice is melted out of the induction system. When ice has been
melted from the induction system, heat should be used as long as known or suspected icing exists.
Only in those aircraft equipped with a carburetor air temperature gage may partial heat be used to
keep the mixture temperature above freezing point (32°F). Be alert to the threat of carburetor icing
during reduced power operation on or above water.
WARNING
IT IS ADVISABLE TO USE EITHER FULL HEAT OR NO HEAT IN AIRCRAFT THAT ARE
NOT EQUIPPED WITH A CARBURETOR AIR TEMPERATURE GAGE. AT AN AMBIENT
TEMPERATURE OF 14°F OR BELOW, ANY MIXTURE IN THE AIR IS FROZEN AND
HEAT SHOULD NOT BE USED.
(5) Landing Approach – In making a landing approach, the carburetor heat should usually be in the
“Full Cold” position. However, if icing conditions are known or suspected, the “Full Heat” should
be applied. In the case that full power need be applied under these conditions, as for an aborted
landing, the carburetor heat should be returned to “Full Cold” prior to full power application. See
the aircraft flight manual for specific instructions. As a safety measure, there is no objection to the
use of carburetor heat during landing approach provided that on a go-around, or touch-and-go
landing, the carburetor heat is returned promptly to the cold position.
9. ENGINE FLIGHT CHART.
FUEL AND OIL
Model
Aviation Grade Fuel
O-320-A, -E Series........................................................................................................ 80/87 octane, minimum
O-320-B, -D (except –B2D, -B2E, -D2J) ................................................... 91/96 or 100/130 octane, minimum
O-320-B2D, -B2E .................................................................................. 91/96 or 100/100LL octane, minimum
O-320-D2J.............................................................................................................100/100LL octane, minimum
NOTE: Aviation grade 100/100LL fuels in which the lead content is limited to 2 c.c. per gal. are approved
for continuous use in the above listed engines.
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SECTION 3
OPERATING INSTRUCTIONS
FUEL AND OIL (CONT.)
ALL MODELS
*Recommended Grade Oil
Average
Ambient Air
MIL-L-6082
Grades
Ashless Dispersant
Grades
Above 80°F
Above 60°F
30°F to 90°F
0°F to 70°F
Below 10°F
SAE 60
SAE 50
SAE 40
SAE 20
SAE 20
SAE 60
SAE 40 or SAE 50
SAE 40
SAE 30 or SAE 40
SAE 30
* - Refer to latest revision of Service Instruction No. 1014.
Oil Sump Capacity.........................................................................................................................8 U.S. Quarts
Minimum Safe Quantity in Sump ..................................................................................................2 U.S. Quarts
OPERATING CONDITIONS
Average
Ambient Air
Oil Inlet Temperature
Desired
Above 80°F
Above 60°F
30°F to 90°F
0°F to 70°F
Below 10°F
Oil Pressure, psi
Normal Operating
(except O-320-B2D, -B2E)
O-320-B2D, -B2E
Start and Warm-Up
(except O-320-B2D, -B2E, -D2J)
O-320-B2D, -B2E, -D2J
Fuel Pressure, psi
O-320 Series
Inlet to carburetor
Maximum
180°F (82°C)
180°F (82°C)
180°F (82°C)
170°F (77°C)
160°F (71°C)
245°F (118°C)
245°F (118°C)
245°F (118°C)
225°F (107°C)
210°F ( 99°C)
Maximum
Minimum
Idling
90
95
60
55
25
100
115
Maximum
Desired
Minimum
8.0
3.0
0.5
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SECTION 3
OPERATING CONDITIONS
LYCOMING OPERATOR’S MANUAL
O-320 SERIES
OPERATING CONDITIONS (CONT)
Operation
RPM
HP
Fuel
Cons.
Gal./Hr.
Max.
Oil Cons.
Qts./Hr.
*Max.
Cyl. Head
Temp.
O-320-A, -E** Series
Normal Rated
Performance Cruise
(75% Rated)
Economy Cruise
(65% Rated)
2700
150
------
.67
500°F (260°C)
2450
110
10.0
.37
500°F (260°C)
2350
97
8.8
.33
500°F (260°C)
O-320-B, -D† Series
Normal Rated
Performance Rated
(75% Rated)
Economy Cruise
(65% Rated)
2700
160
------
.72
500°F (260°C)
2450
120
10.0
.40
500°F (260°C)
2350
104
8.8
.35
500°F (260°C)
* - At Bayonet Location – For maximum service life of the engine, maintain cylinder head temperatures
between 150°F (66°C) and 435°F (223.86°C) during continuous operation.
** - O-320-E2A and –E2C have alternate rating of 140 HP at 2450 RPM.
† - O-320-D2H has alternate rating of 150 HP at 2500 RPM. O-320-D2J has alternate rating of 150 HP at
2500 RPM and 155 HP at 2600 RPM.
10. ENGINE SHUT-DOWN.
a. Set propeller at minimum blade angle (where applicable).
b. Idle until there is a decided decrease in cylinder head temperature.
c. Move mixture control to “Idle Cut-Off”.
d. When engine stops, turn ignition switch off.
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O-320 SERIES
SECTION 3
OPERATING CONDITIONS
Figure 3-1. Representative Effect of Leaning on Cylinder Head Temperature,
EGT (Exhaust Gas Temperature), Engine Power and Specific Fuel Consumption at
Constant Engine RPM and Manifold Pressure
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OPERATING INSTRUCTIONS
LYCOMING OPERATOR’S MANUAL
O-320 SERIES
Figure 3-2. Sea Level Power Curve –
O-320-A and –E Series
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O-320 SERIES
SECTION 3
OPERATING INSTRUCTIONS
Figure 3-3. Sea Level and Altitude Performance –
O-320-A and –E Series
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OPERATING INSTRUCTIONS
LYCOMING OPERATOR’S MANUAL
O-320 SERIES
Figure 3-4. Part Throttle Fuel Consumption –
O-320-A and –E Series
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SECTION 3
OPERATING INSTRUCTIONS
Figure 3-5. Sea Level Power Curve –
O-320-B and –D Series (Except O-320-B2D)
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OPERATING INSTRUCTIONS
LYCOMING OPERATOR’S MANUAL
O-320 SERIES
Figure 3-6. Sea Level Power Curve –
O-320-B2D
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O-320 SERIES
SECTION 3
OPERATING INSTRUCTIONS
Figure 3-7. Sea Level and Altitude Performance –
O-320-B and –D Series (Except O-320-B2D, -B2E, -D2J)
3-15
SECTION 3
OPERATING INSTRUCTIONS
LYCOMING OPERATOR’S MANUAL
O-320 SERIES
Figure 3-8. Sea Level and Altitude Performance –
O-320-B2D
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O-320 SERIES
SECTION 3
OPERATING INSTRUCTIONS
Figure 3-9. Sea Level and Altitude Performance –
O-320-B2E, -D2J
3-17
SECTION 3
OPERATING INSTRUCTIONS
LYCOMING OPERATOR’S MANUAL
O-320 SERIES
Figure 3-10. Fuel Flow vs. Percent Rated Power –
O-320-B2E
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LYCOMING OPERATOR’S MANUAL
SECTION 4
PERIODIC INSPECTION
Page
General.......................................................................................................................................................... 4-1
Pre-Starting Inspection ............................................................................................................................... 4-1
Daily Pre-Flight............................................................................................................................................ 4-2
25-Hour Inspection ...................................................................................................................................... 4-2
50-Hour Inspection ...................................................................................................................................... 4-2
100-Hour Inspection .................................................................................................................................... 4-3
400-Hour Inspection .................................................................................................................................... 4-4
Non-Scheduled Inspection........................................................................................................................... 4-4
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SECTION 4
PERIODIC INSPECTION
SECTION 4
PERIODIC INSPECTION
NOTE
Perhaps no other factor is quite so important to safety and durability of the aircraft and its
components as faithful and diligent attention to regular checks for minor troubles and
prompt repair when they are found.
The operator should bear in mind that the items listed in the following pages do not
constitute a complete aircraft inspection, but are meant for the engine only. Consult the
airframe manufacturer’s handbook for additional instructions.
Pre-Starting Inspection – The daily pre-flight inspection is a check of the aircraft prior to the first flight of
the day. This inspection is to determine the general condition of the aircraft and engine.
The importance of proper pre-flight inspection cannot be over emphasized. Statistics prove several
hundred accidents occur yearly directly responsible to poor pre-flight inspection.
Among the major causes of poor pre-flight inspection are lack of concentration, reluctance to
acknowledge the need for a check list, carelessness bred by familiarity and haste.
4-1
SECTION 4
PERIODIC INSPECTION
LYCOMING OPERATOR’S MANUAL
O-320 SERIES
1. DAILY PRE-FLIGHT.
a. Be sure all switches are in the “Off” position.
b. Be sure magneto ground wires are connected.
c. Check oil level.
d. Be sure that fuel tanks are full.
e. Check fuel and oil connections, note minor indications for repair at 50-hour inspection. Repair any
major leaks before aircraft is flown.
f. Open the fuel drain to remove any accumulation of water and sediment.
g. Make sure all shields and cowling are in place and secure. If any are missing or damaged, repair or
replacement should be made before the aircraft is flown.
h. Check controls for general condition, travel and freedom of operation.
i. Induction system air filter should be inspected and serviced in accordance with the airframe
manufacturer’s recommendation.
2. 25-HOUR INSPECTION. After the first twenty-five hours operating time, new, rebuilt or newly
overhauled engines should undergo a 50-hour inspection including draining and renewing lubricating oil.
Engines equipped with oil pressure screen are required to comply with the following inspection after every
25 hours of operating time.
a. Lubrication System (Engines Equipped with Oil Pressure Screen) –
(1) Remove oil suction and oil pressure screens and check carefully for presence of metal particles
that are indicative of internal engine damage. Clean and reinstall the oil suction and oil pressure
screens. Drain and renew the lubricating oil.
NOTE
Change the oil at least every four (4) months even if the engine has not accumulated 25
hours since the last oil change.
3. 50-HOUR INSPECTION. In addition to the items listed for daily pre-flight inspection, the following
maintenance checks should be made after every 50 hours of operation.
a. Ignition System –
(1) If fouling of spark plugs has been apparent, rotate bottom plugs to upper position.
(2) Examine spark plug leads of cable and ceramics for corrosion and deposits. This condition is
evidence of either leaking spark plugs, improper cleaning of the spark plug walls or connector
ends. When this condition is found, clean the cable ends, spark plug walls and ceramics with a dry,
clean cloth or a clean cloth moistened with methyl-ethyl-ketone. All parts should be clean and dry
before reassembly.
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O-320 SERIES
SECTION 4
PERIODIC INSPECTION
(3) Check ignition harness for security of mounting clamps and be sure connections are tight at spark
plug and magneto terminals.
b. Fuel and Induction System – Check the primer lines (where applicable) for leaks and security of the
clamps. Remove and clean the fuel inlet strainers. Check the mixture control and throttle linkage for
travel, freedom of movement, security of the clamps and lubricate if necessary. Check the air intake
ducts for leaks, security, filter damage; evidence of dust or other solid material in the ducts is
indicative of inadequate filter care or damaged filter. Check vent lines for evidence of fuel or oil
seepage; if present, fuel pump may require replacement.
c. Lubrication System (Engines Equipped with an External Full Flow Oil Filter) –
(1) Remove oil suction and oil pressure screens and check carefully for presence of metal particles
that are indicative of internal engine damage.
(2) Replace external full flow oil filter element. Drain and renew lubricating oil.
NOTE
Change the oil at least every four (4) months even if the engine has not accumulated 50
hours since the last oil change.
(3) Check oil lines for leaks, particularly at connections for security of anchorage and for wear due to
rubbing or vibration, for dents and cracks.
d. Exhaust System – Check attaching flanges at exhaust ports on cylinder for evidence of leakage. If they
are loose, they must be removed and machined flat before they are reassembled and tightened.
Examine exhaust manifolds for general condition.
e. Cooling System – Check cowling and baffles for damage and secure anchorage. Any damaged or
missing part of the cooling system must be repaired or replaced before the aircraft resumes operation.
f. Cylinders – Check rocker box covers for evidence of oil leaks. If found, replace gasket and tighten
screws to specified torque (50 inch lbs.).
Check cylinders for evidence of excessive heat which is indicated by burned paint on the cylinder.
This condition is indicative of internal damage to the cylinder and, if found, its cause must be
determined and corrected before the aircraft resumes operation.
4. 100-HOUR INSPECTION. In addition to the items listed for daily pre-flight and 50-hour inspection, the
following maintenance check should be made after every one hundred hours of operation.
a. Electrical System –
(1) Check all wiring connected to the engine or accessories. Any shielded cables that are damaged
should be replaced. Replace clamps or loose wires and check terminals for security and
cleanliness.
4-3
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PERIODIC INSPECTION
LYCOMING OPERATOR’S MANUAL
O-320 SERIES
(2) Remove spark plugs; test, clean and regap. Replace if necessary.
b. Magnetos – Check breaker points for pitting and minimum gap. Check for excessive oil in the breaker
compartment, if found, wipe dry with a clean lint free cloth. The felt located at the breaker points
should be lubricated in accordance with the magneto manufacturer’s instructions. Check magneto to
engine timing. Timing procedure is described in Section 5, 1, b of this manual.
c. Engine Accessories – Engine mounted accessories such as pumps, temperature and pressure sensing
units should be checked for secure mounting, tight connections.
d. Cylinders – Check cylinders visually for cracked or broken fins.
e. Engine Mounts – Check engine mounting bolts and bushings for security and excessive wear. Replace
any bushings that are excessively worn.
f. Fuel Lines – Check fuel lines for fuel stains which are indicative of fuel leaks. Repair or replacement
must be accomplished before the aircraft resumes operation.
5. 400-HOUR INSPECTION. In addition to the items listed for daily pre-flight, 50-hour and 100-hour
inspections, the following maintenance check should be made after every 400 hours of operation.
Valve Inspection – Remove rocker box covers and check for freedom of valve rockers when valves are
closed. Look for evidence of abnormal wear or broken parts in the area of the valve tips, valve keeper,
springs and spring seats. If any indications are found, the cylinder and all of its components should be
removed (including the piston and connecting rod assembly) and inspected for further damage. Replace any
parts that do not conform with limits shown in the latest revision of Special Service Publication No.
SSP1776.
6. NON-SCHEDULED INSPECTIONS. Occasionally, service bulletins or service instructions are issued by
Lycoming Engines that require inspection procedures that are not listed in this manual. Such publications,
usually are limited to specified engine models and become obsolete after corrective modification has been
accomplished. All such publications are available from Lycoming distributors, or from the factory by
subscription. Consult the latest revision of Service Letter No. L114 for subscription information.
Maintenance facilities should have an up-to-date file of these publications available at all times.
4-4
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SECTION 5
MAINTENANCE PROCEDURES
Page
General.......................................................................................................................................................... 5-1
Ignition and Electrical System
Ignition Harness and Wire Replacement................................................................................................ 5-1
Timing Magneto to Engine
Single Magneto ....................................................................................................................................... 5-1
Fuel System
Repair of Fuel Leaks................................................................................................................................. 5-3
Carburetor Fuel Inlet Screen Assembly ................................................................................................. 5-3
Fuel Grade and Limitations..................................................................................................................... 5-3
Air Intake Ducts and Filter...................................................................................................................... 5-3
Idle Speed and Mixture Adjustment ....................................................................................................... 5-3
Lubrication System
Oil Grades and Limitations...................................................................................................................... 5-4
Oil Suction and Oil Pressure Screens ..................................................................................................... 5-4
Oil Pressure Relief Valve.......................................................................................................................... 5-4
Cylinders....................................................................................................................................................... 5-5
Generator or Alternator Belt Tension ....................................................................................................... 5-8
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SECTION 5
MAINTENANCE PROCEDURES
SECTION 5
MAINTENANCE PROCEDURES
The procedures described in this section are provided to guide and instruct personnel in performing such
maintenance operations that may be required in conjunction with the periodic inspections listed in the
preceding section. No attempt is made to include repair and replacement operations that will be found in the
applicable Lycoming Overhaul Manual.
1. IGNITION AND ELECTRICAL SYSTEM.
a. Ignition Harness and Wire Replacement – In the event that an ignition harness or an individual lead is
to be replaced, consult the wiring diagram to be sure harness is correctly installed. Mark location of
clamps and clips to be certain the replacement is clamped at correct locations.
b. Timing Magnetos to Engine – Although several combinations of magnetos are used on this series of
engine, (see Table of Models for model application) the timing procedures, with the exception of the
method of turning the magnetos to the correct breaker position, are the same for all magnetos.
NOTE
Either the impulse coupling or retard breaker magneto (whichever is applicable) is installed
on the left side of the engine.
(1) Remove a spark plug from No. 1 cylinder and place a thumb over the spark plug hole. Rotate the
crankshaft in direction of normal rotation until the compression stroke is reached, this is indicated
by a positive pressure inside the cylinder tending to push the thumb off the spark plug hole.
Continue rotating the crankshaft in direction of normal rotation until the advance timing mark on
the front face of the starter ring gear is in exact alignment with the small hole located at the two
o’clock position on the front face of the starter housing. (Starter ring gear may be marked at 20°
and 25°. Consult specifications, or nameplate, for correct timing mark of your installation.)
NOTE
If the crankshaft is accidentally turned in the direction opposite normal rotation, repeat the
above procedure as accumulated backlash will make the final timing incorrect.
(2) At this point, the engine is ready for assembly of the magnetos.
(a) Bendix Magnetos – Remove the inspection plugs from both magnetos and turn the driveshafts
in direction of normal rotation until the first painted chamfered tooth on the distributor gear is
aligned in the center of the inspection window.
(b) Slick Magnetos – Remove the bottom vent plugs and “spark out” the magnetos. This is
accomplished in the following manner.
5-1
SECTION 5
MAINTENANCE PROCEDURES
LYCOMING OPERATOR’S MANUAL
O-320 SERIES
FIRING ORDER
MAGNETO – Left Hand Rotation – 1-3-2-4
MAGNETO – Right Hand Rotation – 1-4-2-3
Figure 5-1. Ignition Wiring Diagram
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O-320 SERIES
SECTION 5
MAINTENANCE PROCEDURES
FIRING ORDER
MAGNETO – Left Hand Rotation – 1-3-2-4
MAGNETO – Right Hand Rotation – 1-4-2-3
Figure 5-2. Ignition Wiring Diagram (Optional)
5-3
SECTION 5
MAINTENANCE PROCEDURES
LYCOMING OPERATOR’S MANUAL
O-320 SERIES
(Impulse Coupling Magneto) – Hold the T1 or B1 lead wire spring 1/16 in. to 1/8 in. away from
the magneto frame and turn the impulse coupling one click at a time until a strong spark jumps
between the spring and the frame. Hold the magneto firmly so the coupling will not move beyond
the point where it trips and the spark occurs. Reverse the rotation approximately 25° until the
timing pin hole appears in the center of the vent plug hole. Hold the rotor by inserting the timing
pin and line the timing pin with the center of the vent plug hole.
(Conventional Magneto) – Hold the B1 lead wire spring 1/8 in. away from the frame. Turn the
gear counterclockwise vigorously through the flux lines until a strong spark occurs at the lead.
Reverse the rotation into the flux until the timing pin hole appears in the center of the vent plug
hole and insert the timing pin into the hole.
(3) Being sure that the gear does not move from this position, install gaskets and magnetos on the
engine. Secure with washers and nuts; tighten only finger tight.
NOTE
In order to turn the shaft on an impulse coupling magneto, depress the pawl on the impulse
coupling with the finger.
(4) Using a battery powered timing light, attach the positive lead to a suitable terminal connected to
the ground terminal of the magneto and the negative lead to any unpainted portion of the engine.
Rotate the magneto in its mounting flange to a point where the light comes on, then slowly turn it
in the opposite direction until the light goes out. Bring the magneto back slowly until the light just
comes on. Repeat this with the second magneto.
NOTE
Some timing lights operate in the reverse manner as described above, the light comes on
when the breaker points open. Check your timing light instructions.
(5) After both magnetos have been timed to the engine, check, as described below, to ascertain that
both magnetos are set to fire together.
(6) Back off the crankshaft a few degrees, the timing lights should go out. Being the crankshaft slowly
back in direction of normal rotation until the timing mark and the hole in the starter housing are in
alignment. At this point, both lights should go on simultaneously. Tighten nuts to specified torque.
c. Generator or Alternator Output – The generator or alternator (whichever is applicable) should be
checked to determine that the specified voltage and current are being obtained.
2. FUEL SYSTEM.
a. Repair of Fuel Leaks – In the event a line or fitting in the fuel system is replaced, only a fuel soluble
lubricant such as clean engine oil or Loctite Hydraulic Sealant may be used on tapered threads. Do not
use Teflon tape or any other form of thread compound. Do not apply sealant to the first two threads.
b. Carburetor Fuel Inlet Screen Assembly – Remove the assembly and check the screen for distortion or
openings in the strainer. Replace for either of these conditions. Clean screen assembly in solvent and
dry with compressed air and reinstall. The fuel inlet screen assembly is tightened to 35-40 in.-lbs. The
hex head plug on pressure carburetor is tightened to 150-175 in.-lbs.
5-4
LYCOMING OPERATOR’S MANUAL
O-320 SERIES
SECTION 5
MAINTENANCE PROCEDURES
c. Fuel Grades and Limitations – The recommended aviation grade fuel for the subject engines is listed
in Section 3, Item 9.
In the event that the specified fuel is not available at some locations, it is permissible to use higher
octane fuel. Fuel of a lower octane than specified is not to be used. Under no circumstances should
automotive fuel be used (regardless of octane rating).
NOTE
It is recommended that personnel be familiar with latest revision of Service Instruction No.
1070 regarding specified fuel for Lycoming engines.
d. Air Intake Ducts and Filter – Check all air intake ducts for dirt or restrictions. Inspect and service air
filters as instructed in the airframe manufacturer’s handbook.
e. Idle Speed and Mixture Adjustment.
(1) Start the engine and warm up in the usual manner until oil and cylinder head temperatures are
normal.
(2) Check magnetos. If the “mag-drop” is normal, proceed with idle adjustment.
(3) Set throttle stop screw so that the engine idles at the airframe manufacturer’s recommended
idling RPM. If the RPM changes appreciably after making idle mixture adjustment during the
succeeding steps, readjust the idle speed to the desired RPM.
(4) When the idling speed has been stabilized, move the cockpit mixture control lever with a smooth,
steady pull toward the “Idle Cut-Off” position and observe the tachometer for any change during
the leaning process. Caution must be exercised to return the mixture control to the “Full Rich”
position before the RPM can drop to a point where the engine cuts out. An increase of more than
50 RPM while “leaning out” indicates an excessively rich idle mixture. An immediate decrease in
RPM (if not preceded by a momentary increase) indicates the idle mixture is too lean.
If step (4) indicates that the idle adjustment is too rich or too lean, turn the idle mixture
adjustment in direction required for correction, and check this new position by repeating the
above procedure. Make additional adjustments as necessary until a check results in a momentary
pick-up of approximately 50 RPM. Each time the adjustment is changed, the engine should be run
up to 2000 RPM to clean the engine before proceeding with the RPM check. Make final
adjustment of the idle speed adjustment to obtain the desired idling RPM with closed throttle. The
above method aims at a setting that will obtain maximum RPM with minimum manifold pressure.
In case the setting does not remain stable, check the idle linkage; any looseness in this linkage
would cause erratic idling. In all cases, allowance should be made for the effect of weather
conditions and field altitude upon idling adjustment.
3. LUBRICATION SYSTEM.
a. Oil Grades and Limitations – Service the engine in accordance with the recommended grade oil as
specified in Section 3, Item 8.
b. Oil Suction and Oil Pressure Screens – At each 25-hour inspection remove, inspect for metal
particles, clean and reinstall, not to exceed four (4) months between oil changes.
5-5
SECTION 5
MAINTENANCE PROCEDURES
LYCOMING OPERATOR’S MANUAL
O-320 SERIES
NOTE
On installations employing full flow oil filters, this step is not practical at this time, but
should be observed at the 50-hour inspection, not to exceed four (4) months between oil
changes.
(1) Non-Adjustable Oil Pressure Relief Valve – The function of the oil pressure relief valve is to
maintain engine oil pressure within specified limits. The valve, although not adjustable, may be
controlled by the addition of a maximum of nine STD-425 washers under the cap to increase
pressure or the use of a spacer (Lycoming P/N 73629 or 73630) to decrease pressure. A
modification on later models has eliminated the need for the spacers. Particles of metal or other
foreign matter lodged between the ball and seat will result in faulty readings. It is advisable,
therefore, to disassemble, inspect and clean the valve if excessive pressure fluctuations are noted.
(2) Oil Pressure Relief Valve (Adjustable) – The adjustable oil relief valve enables the operator to
maintain engine oil pressure within the specified limits. If pressure under normal operating
conditions should consistently exceed the maximum or minimum specified limits, adjust the
valve as follows:
With the engine warmed up and running at approximately 2000 RPM, observe the reading on
the oil pressure gage. If the pressure is above maximum or below minimum specified limits, stop
engine and screw the adjusting screw outward to decrease pressure or inward to increase
pressure. Depending on installation, the adjusting screw may have only a screw driver slot and is
turned with a screw driver; or may have the screw driver slot plus a pinned .375-24 castellated
nut and may be turned with either a screw driver or a box wrench.
4. CYLINDERS. Although the complete procedure for disassembly and reassembly is given here, it is
recommended that, as a field operation, cylinder maintenance be confined to replacement of the entire
assembly. Valve replacement should be undertaken only as an emergency measure.
a. Removal of Cylinder Assembly.
(1) Remove exhaust manifold.
(2) Remove rocker box drain tube, intake pipe, baffle and any clips that might interfere with the
removal of the cylinder.
(3) Disconnect ignition cables and remove the bottom spark plug.
(4) Remove rocker box cover and rotate crankshaft until piston is approximately at top center of the
compression stroke. This is indicated by a positive pressure inside of cylinder tending to push
thumb off of bottom spark plug hole.
(5) Slide valve rocker shafts from cylinder head and remove the valve rockers. Valve rocker shafts
can be removed when the cylinder is removed from the engine. Remove rotator cap from exhaust
valve stem.
(6) Remove push rods by grasping ball end and pulling rod out of shroud tube. Detach shroud tube
spring and lock plate and pull shroud tubes through holes in cylinder head.
5-6
LYCOMING OPERATOR’S MANUAL
O-320 SERIES
SECTION 5
MAINTENANCE PROCEDURES
NOTE
The hydraulic tappets, push rods, rocker arms and valves must be assembled in the same
location from which they were removed.
(7) Remove cylinder base nuts and hold down plates (where employed) then remove cylinder by
pulling directly away from crankcase. Be careful not to allow the piston to drop against the
crankcase, as the piston leaves the cylinder.
b. Removal of Valves and Valve Springs from Cylinder – Place the cylinder over a block of wood so as to
hold the valves in a closed position. Compress the valve springs using the valve spring compressor.
Remove the split keys from the end of the valve stem. The valve springs and valve spring seat may
now be removed from the cylinder head. Hold the valve stems so that the valves will not fall out and
remove the cylinder from the holding block. The valves may now be removed from the inside of the
cylinder.
c. Removal of Piston from Connecting Rod – Remove the piston pin plugs. Insert piston pin puller
through piston pin, assemble puller nut; then proceed to remove piston pin. Do not allow connecting
rod to rest on the cylinder pad of the crankcase. Support the connecting rod with heavy rubber bands,
discarded cylinder base oil ring seal, or any other non-marring method.
d. Removal of Hydraulic Tappet Sockets and Plunger Assemblies – It will be necessary to remove and
bleed the hydraulic tappet plunger assembly so that dry tappet clearance can be checked when the
cylinder assembly is reinstalled. This is accomplished in the following manner:
(1) Remove the hydraulic tappet push rod socket by inserting the forefinger into the concave end of
the socket and withdrawing. The socket will usually stick to the finger firmly enough to be pulled
out of the tappet body. If the socket cannot be removed in this manner, it may be removed by
grasping the edge of the socket with a pair of needle nose pliers. However, care must be
exercised to avoid scratching the socket.
(2) To remove the hydraulic tappet plunger assembly, use the special Lycoming service tool. In the
event the tool is not available, the hydraulic tappet plunger assembly may be removed by a hook
in the end of a short piece of lockwire, inserting the lockwire around the edge of the plunger
assembly and turning the wire so that the hook engages the spring of the plunger assembly. Draw
the plunger assembly out of the tappet body by gently pulling the wire.
CAUTION
NEVER USE A MAGNET TO REMOVE HYDRAULIC PLUNGER ASSEMBLIES FROM
THE CRANKCASE. THIS CAN CAUSE THE CHECK BALL TO REMAIN OFF ITS SEAT,
RENDERING THE UNIT INOPERATIVE.
e. Assembly of Hydraulic Tappet Plunger Assemblies – To assemble the unit, unseat the ball by inserting
a thin clean wire through the oil inlet hole. With the ball off its seat, insert the plunger and twist
clockwise so that the spring catches. All oil must be removed before the plunger is inserted.
f. Assembly of Valves in Cylinder – Prelubricate valve stems with Molytex Grease O or equivalent and
insert each valve stem in its respective valve guide. Place cylinder over a block of wood so that the
valves are held against the seats and assemble the lower valve spring seat, auxiliary valve spring and
outer valve spring over the valve stem and guide. Place the upper valve spring seat on top of the
springs.
5-7
SECTION 5
MAINTENANCE PROCEDURES
LYCOMING OPERATOR’S MANUAL
O-320 SERIES
NOTE
When installing valve springs, place the dampener end of spring (close wound coils marked
with dye or lacquer) toward the cylinder.
Using a valve spring compressor, compress the valve springs and place the split keys in the groove
around the upper end of the valve stem. Slowly release the pressure on the valve spring compressor
and allow the upper spring seat to lock itself in place around the valve keys.
d. Assembly of Cylinder and Related Parts – Rotate the crankshaft so that the connecting rod of the
cylinder being assembled is at the top center position that corresponds with both valves closed.
(1) Place each plunger assembly in its respective tappet body and assemble the socket on top of
plunger assembly.
(2) Assemble piston with rings so that the cylinder number stamped on the piston pin boss is toward
the front of the engine. The piston pin should be a handpush fit. If difficulty is experienced in
inserting the piston pin, it is probably caused by carbon or burrs in the piston pin hole. During
assembly, always use a generous quantity of oil, both in the piston hole and on the piston pin.
(3) Assemble one piston pin plug at each end of the piston pin and place a new rubber oil seal ring
around the cylinder skirt. Coat piston and rings and the inside of the cylinder generously with oil.
(4) Using a piston ring compressor, assemble the cylinder over the piston so that the intake and
exhaust ports are at the bottom of the engine. Push the cylinder all the way on, catching the ring
compressor as it is pushed off.
NOTE
Before installing cylinder hold-down nuts, lubricate crankcase thru-stud threads with any
one of the following lubricants, or combination of lubricants.
1. 90% SAE 50W engine oil and 10% STP.
2. Parker Thread Lube.
3. 60% SAE 30W engine oil and 40% Parker Thread Lube.
(5) Assemble hold-down plates (where applicable) and cylinder base hold-down nuts and tighten as
directed in the following steps.
NOTE
At any time a cylinder is replaced, it is necessary to retorque the thru-studs on the cylinder
on the opposite side of the engine
(a) Engines Using Hold-Down Plates – Install shims between cylinder base hold-down plates
and cylinder barrel, as directed in Figure 5-3, and tighten ½ inch hold-down nuts to 300 in.lbs. (25 ft.-lbs.) torque, using the sequence shown in Figure 5-3.
(b) Remove shims, and using the same sequence, tighten the ½ inch cylinder base nuts to 600
in.-lbs. (50 ft.-lbs.) torque.
NOTE
Cylinder assemblies not using hold-down plate are tightened in the same manner as above
omitting the shims.
5-8
LYCOMING OPERATOR’S MANUAL
O-320 SERIES
SECTION 5
MAINTENANCE PROCEDURES
Figure 5-3. Location of Shims Between Cylinder Barrel and
Hold-Down Plates (where applicable) and Sequence of Tightening
Cylinder Base Hold-Down Nuts
(c) Tighten the
is optional.
inch hold-down nuts to 300 in.-lbs. (25 ft.-lbs.) torque. Sequence of tightening
(d) As a final check, hold the torque wrench on each nut for about five seconds. If the nut does
not turn, it may be presumed to be tightened to correct torque.
CAUTION
AFTER ALL CYLINDER BASE NUTS HAVE BEEN TIGHTENED, REMOVE ANY NICKS IN
THE CYLINDER FINS BY FILING OR BURRING.
5-9
SECTION 5
MAINTENANCE PROCEDURES
LYCOMING OPERATOR’S MANUAL
O-320 SERIES
(6) Install a new shroud tube oil seal on the crankcase end of each shroud tube and fit a new annular
ring in the groove provided in the rocker box and of each shroud tube. Install each shroud tube
through rocker box and seat the end firmly in the crankcase. Place a spacer, two springs, a lock
plate and nut over the stud provided in the rocker box and secure both shroud tubes in place.
Bend the tang of the lock plate to prevent the nut and spring from loosening.
(7) Assemble each push rod in its respective shroud tube, and assemble each rocker in its respective
position by placing rocker between bosses and sliding valve rocker shaft in place to retain rocker.
Before installing exhaust valve rocker, place rotator cap over end of exhaust valve stem.
(8) Be sure that the piston is at top center of compression stroke and that both valves are closed.
Check clearance between the valve stem tip and the valve rocker. In order to check this clearance,
place the thumb of one hand on the valve rocker directly over the end of the push rod and push
down so as to compress the hydraulic tappet spring. While holding the spring compressed, the
valve clearance should be between .028 and .080 inch. If clearance does not come within these
limits, remove the push rod and insert a longer or shorter push rod, as required, to correct
clearance.
NOTE
Inserting a longer push rod will decrease the valve clearance.
(9) Install intercylinder baffles, rocker box covers, intake pipes, rocker box drain tubes and exhaust
manifold.
5. GENERATOR OR ALTERNATOR DRIVE BELT TENSION.
Check the tension of a new belt 25 hours after installation. Refer to latest revision of Service Instruction
No. 1129 for methods of checking generator or alternator drive belt tension.
5-10
LYCOMING OPERATOR’S MANUAL
SECTION 6
TROUBLE-SHOOTING
Page
Failure of Engine to Start............................................................................................................................ 6-1
Failure of Engine to Idle Properly.............................................................................................................. 6-2
Low Power and Uneven Running............................................................................................................... 6-2
Failure of Engine to Develop Full Power................................................................................................... 6-3
Rough Engine ............................................................................................................................................... 6-3
Low Oil Pressure.......................................................................................................................................... 6-3
High Oil Temperature ................................................................................................................................. 6-3
Excessive Oil Consumption......................................................................................................................... 6-4
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LYCOMING OPERATOR’S MANUAL
O-320 SERIES
SECTION 6
TROUBLE-SHOOTING
SECTION 6
TROUBLE-SHOOTING
Experience has proven that the best method of trouble-shooting is to decide on the various causes of a
given trouble and then to eliminate causes one by one, beginning with the most probable. The following
charts list some of the more common troubles, which may be encountered in maintaining engines; their
probable causes and remedies.
1. TROUBLE-SHOOTING – ENGINE.
TROUBLE
PROBABLE CAUSE
REMEDY
Failure of Engine to Start
Lack of fuel
Check fuel system for leaks. Fill
fuel tank. Clean dirty lines,
strainers or fuel valves.
Overpriming
Leave ignition “off” and mixture
control in “Idle Cut-Off”, open
throttle and “unload” engine by
cranking for a few seconds. Turn
ignition switch on and proceed to
start in a normal manner.
Defective spark plugs
Clean and adjust or replace spark
plugs.
Defective ignition wire
Check with electric tester, and
replace any defective wires.
Defective battery
Replace with charged battery.
Improper operation of magneto
breaker
Clean points. Check internal
timing of magnetos.
Lack of sufficient fuel flow
Disconnect fuel line and check
fuel flow.
Water in carburetor
Drain carburetor and fuel lines.
Internal failure
Check oil screens for metal
particles. If found, complete
overhaul of the engine may be
indicated.
6-1
SECTION 6
TROUBLE-SHOOTING
LYCOMING OPERATOR’S MANUAL
O-320 SERIES
TROUBLE
PROBABLE CAUSE
REMEDY
Failure of Engine to Idle
Properly
Incorrect idle mixture
Adjust mixture.
Leak in induction system
Tighten all connections in the
induction system. Replace any
parts that are defective.
Incorrect idle adjustment
Adjust throttle stop to obtain
correct idle.
Uneven cylinder compression
Check condition of piston rings
and valve seats.
Faulty ignition system
Check entire ignition system.
Insufficient fuel pressure
Adjust fuel pressure.
Mixture too rich indicated by
sluggish operation, red exhaust
flame at night. Extreme cases
indicated by black smoke from
exhaust.
Readjustment of carburetor by
authorized personnel is indicated.
Mixture too lean; indicated by
overheating or backfiring
Check fuel lines for dirt or other
restrictions. Readjustment of
carburetor by authorized personnel is indicated.
Leaks in induction system
Tighten all connections. Replace
defective parts.
Defective spark plugs
Clean and gap or replace spark
plugs.
Improper fuel
Fill tank with fuel of recommended grade.
Magneto breaker points not
working properly
Clean points. Check internal
timing of magnetos.
Defective ignition wire
Check wire with electric tester.
Replace defective wire.
Defective spark plug terminal
connectors
Replace connectors on spark plug
wire.
Low Power and Uneven
Running
6-2
LYCOMING OPERATOR’S MANUAL
O-320 SERIES
SECTION 6
TROUBLE-SHOOTING
TROUBLE
PROBABLE CAUSE
REMEDY
Failure of Engine to Develop
Full Power
Leak in induction system
Tighten all connections and
replace defective parts.
Throttle lever out of adjustment
Adjust throttle lever.
Improper fuel flow
Check strainer, gage and flow
at the fuel inlet.
Restriction in air scoop
Examine air scoop and remove
restrictions.
Improper fuel
Drain and refill tank with recommended fuel.
Faulty ignition
Tighten all connections. Check
system with tester. Check
ignition timing.
Cracked engine mount
Replace or repair mount.
Defective mounting bushings
Install new mounting bushings.
Uneven compression
Check compression.
Insufficient oil
Fill to proper level with recommended oil.
Air lock or dirt in relief valve
Remove and clean oil pressure
relief valve.
Leak in suction line or pressure
line
Check gasket between accessory
housing and crankcase.
High oil temperature
See “High Oil Temperature” in
“Trouble” column.
Defective pressure gage
Replace.
Stoppage in oil pump intake
passage
Check line for obstruction. Clean
suction strainer.
Insufficient air cooling
Check air inlet and outlet for
deformation or obstruction.
Insufficient oil supply
Fill to proper level with specified
oil.
Rough Engine
Low Oil Pressure
High Oil Temperature
6-3
SECTION 6
TROUBLE-SHOOTING
LYCOMING OPERATOR’S MANUAL
O-320 SERIES
TROUBLE
PROBABLE CAUSE
REMEDY
High Oil Temperature (Cont.)
Low grade of oil
Replace with oil conforming to
specifications.
Clogged oil lines or strainers
Remove and clean oil strainers.
Excessive blow-by
Usually caused by worn or stuck
rings.
Failing or failed bearings
Examine sump for metal particles. If found, overhaul of
engine is indicated.
Defective temperature gage
Replace gage.
Low grade of oil
Fill tank with oil conforming to
specifications.
Failing or failed bearings
Check sump for metal particles.
Worn piston rings
Install new rings.
Incorrect installation of piston
rings
Install new rings.
Failure of rings to seat (new
nitrided cylinders)
Use mineral base oil. Climb to
cruise altitude at full power and
operate at 75% cruise power
setting until oil consumption
stabilizes.
Excessive Oil Consumption
6-4
LYCOMING OPERATOR’S MANUAL
SECTION 7
INSTALLATION AND STORAGE
Page
Preparation of Engine for Installation....................................................................................................... 7-1
General........................................................................................................................................................ 7-1
Inspection of Engine Mounting ................................................................................................................ 7-1
Attaching Engine to Mounts ..................................................................................................................... 7-1
Oil and Fuel Line Connections ................................................................................................................. 7-1
Propeller Installation ................................................................................................................................. 7-1
Preparation of Carburetors for Installation.............................................................................................. 7-2
Corrosion Prevention in Engines Installed in Inactive Aircraft.............................................................. 7-2
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LYCOMING OPERATOR’S MANUAL
O-320 SERIES
SECTION 7
INSTALLATION AND STORAGE
SECTION 7
INSTALLATION AND STORAGE
1. PREPARATION OF ENGINE FOR INSTALLATION. Before installing an engine that has been prepared
for storage, remove all dehydrator plugs, bags of desiccant and preservative oil from the engine.
Preservative oil can be removed by removing the bottom spark plugs and turning the crankshaft three or
four revolutions by hand. The preservative oil will then drain through the spark plug holes. Draining will be
facilitated if the engine is tilted from side to side during the above operation. Preservative oil which has
accumulated in the sump can be drained by removing the oil sump plug. Engines that have been stored in a
cold place should be removed to an environment of at least 70°F (21°C) for a period of 24 hours before
preservative oil is drained from the cylinders. If this is not possible, heat the cylinders with heat lamps
before attempting to drain the engine.
After the oil sump has been drained, the plug should be replaced and safety-wired. Fill the sump with
lubricating oil. The crankshaft should again be turned several revolutions to saturate the interior of the
engine with the clean oil. When installing spark plugs, make sure that they are clean, if not, wash them in
clean petroleum solvent. Of course, there will be a small amount of preservative oil remaining in the engine,
but this can cause no harm. However, after twenty-five hours of operation, the lubricating oil should be
drained while the engine is hot. This will remove any residual preservative oil that may have been present.
CAUTION
DO NOT ROTATE THE CRANKSHAFT OF AN ENGINE CONTAINING PRESERVATIVE
OIL BEFORE REMOVING THE SPARK PLUGS, BECAUSE IF THE CYLINDERS
CONTAIN ANY APPRECIABLE AMOUNT OF THE MIXTURE, THE RESULTING
ACTION, KNOWN AS HYDRAULICING, WILL CAUSE DAMAGE TO THE ENGINE.
ALSO, ANY CONTACT OF THE PRESERVATIVE OIL WITH THE PAINTED SURFACES
SHOULD BE AVOIDED.
General – Should any of the dehydrator plugs, containing crystals of silica-gel or similar material, be broken
during their term of storage or upon their removal from the engine, and if any of the contents should fall into
the engine, that portion of the engine must be disassembled and thoroughly cleaned before using the engine.
The oil strainers should be removed and cleaned in gasoline or some other hydrocarbon solvent. The fuel
drain screen located in the fuel inlet of the carburetor should also be removed and cleaned in a hydrocarbon
solvent. The operator should also note if any valves are sticking. If they are, this condition can be eliminated
by coating the valve stem generously with a mixture of gasoline and lubricating oil.
Inspection of Engine Mounting – If the aircraft is one from which an engine has been removed, make sure
that the engine mount is not bent or damaged by distortion or misalignment as this can produce abnormal
stresses within the engine.
Attaching Engine to Mounts – See airframe manufacturer’s recommendations for method of mounting the
engine.
Oil and Fuel Line Connections – The oil and fuel line connections are called out on the accompanying
installation drawings.
Propeller Installation – Consult the airframe manufacturer for information relative to propeller installation.
7-1
SECTION 7
INSTALLATION AND STORAGE
LYCOMING OPERATOR’S MANUAL
O-320 SERIES
2. PREPARATION OF CARBURETORS FOR INSTALLATION.
Carburetors that have been prepared for storage should undergo the following procedures before being
placed in service.
Remove the fuel drain plug and drain preservative oil. Remove the fuel inlet strainer assembly and clean
in a hydrocarbon solvent. Reinstall the fuel drain plug and fuel inlet strainer assembly.
3. PREPARATION OF ENGINE FOR STORAGE OR SHIPMENT.
General – The following procedure is intended for application to installed engines, which are being
removed from the aircraft and will provide protection from corrosion for a period of 30 to 60 days.
Preservation Run – Immediately prior to removal of the engine from the aircraft, the engine should be given
a preservation run under the following operating conditions.
Fuel – Normal service fuel.
Oil – Fill sump to normal capacity with preservative type lubricating oil (Soconoy’s Avrex 901, Esso’s
“Rust-Ban 626” or equivalent).
Duration of Run – Operate the engine for a period of four minutes, holding the engine speed to a maximum
of 1800 RPM. All precautions pertaining to ground running should be carefully observed. Cylinder head,
ignition harness, and magneto temperatures should not be allowed to exceed the prescribed limits.
Compound Injection – Upon completion of the preservation run, drain the preservative oil from the engine
and remove, clean and replace the oil suction and oil pressure screens. Perform any of the engine checks,
such as valve clearance or ignition timing, which require rotation of the crankshaft. Disconnect the ignition
harness and remove the spark plugs. Starting with cylinder No. 1, make certain piston is at the bottom of
compression stroke. Fill cylinder with preservative oil (use same oil as specified for preservation run) and
rotate crankshaft until piston is at top center. Oil will spill out of spark plug hole. In order to preserve the
top wall of the cylinder, it will be necessary to either rock the engine, or blow compressed air with very light
pressure into the spark plug hole. Following the engine firing order, preserve the remainder of the cylinders
in the same manner. When all cylinders have been treated, then spray the exhaust port and valve of each
cylinder the piston ¼ turn before top center on the exhaust stroke. When absolutely certain that no further
need exists for turning the crankshaft, again spray each cylinder through the spark plug holes. (Maintain
spray nozzle temperature at 200°F to 220°F (93°C to 104°C) for all spraying operations.)
Installation of Seals and Plugs – Install cylinder dehydrator plugs (Lycoming P/N 40238 or equivalent) in
spark plug holes. Install ignition cable protectors (Lycoming P/N 40239 or equivalent) over the spark
terminal of each ignition cable and secure by attaching to the end of the dehydrator plug. Flush all accessory
drives for which oil seals are provided with preservative oil before assembling the drive covers. Suitable
covers should be used in sealing the exhaust ports; moisture resistant tape (Minnesota Mining and
Manufacturing Company, 711 Acetate Fibre Tape or equivalent) will be sufficient for the ground
connections and similar openings. Install a plug (Lycoming P/N 1540 or equivalent) in the thermometer well
at the rear of the oil pressure screen housing. Install sealing caps (Lycoming P/N 61595 or equivalent) over
the breather opening and (Lycoming P/N 71596 or equivalent) over the generator or alternator blast tube.
Install tachometer drive cap (Lycoming P/N 61545 or equivalent) over tachometer drive. Make sure all other
openings are properly sealed.
7-2
LYCOMING OPERATOR’S MANUAL
O-320 SERIES
SECTION 7
INSTALLATION AND STORAGE
Exterior Surfaces – All exposed cadmium plated and machined surfaces should be coated with soft-film
corrosion-preventative compound (E. F. Houghton and Company, Cosmoline 1059 or equivalent). The
starter ring gear and propeller mounting surfaces in particular should receive a liberal coating of the
compound.
Carburetor – Drain all residual gasoline from the carburetor, fill with flushing oil (MIL-C-16173, Grade 2)
and flush the interior surfaces by rocking the carburetor. Drain excess oil from the fuel passages and replace
plugs. Lock the throttle in the closed position and pack the carburetor in a cardboard container.
Shipping Case – Upon completion of the preceding steps, the engine should be secured in a suitable engine
shipping container. The date of preservation and the following legend should be legibly marked on the side
of the container:
“On
(Date)
the engine was preserved for 60 days short term storage with preservative oil and
cylinder and crankcase dehydrator plugs shall be inspected on arrival at destination or 30 days after the
above date (whichever occurs sooner) to determine if renewal of the dehydrating agent is necessary.”
4. RECOMMENDED PROCEDURE FOR RE-PRESERVATION. The engine shall be examined every 30
days (or less, depending on weather and locality). If any evidence of corrosion is present, the affected area
should be cleaned free of corrosion and the engine re-preserved.
Engines prepared in the preceding manner are not adequately protected for extended periods of storage. If
at the end of 60 days it is found that the engine must remain in storage for an additional period, the engine
must be re-preserved according to the foregoing procedure.
NOTE
Inspection and re-preservation will not be the responsibility of the engine manufacturer after
engines have been shipped from the engine manufacturer’s plant. It shall be the
responsibility of the consignee to put engines into service in the order of storage preparation
date to reduce the storage period to a minimum.
7-3
SECTION 7
O-320 SERIES
LYCOMING OPERATOR’S MANUAL
INSTALLATION AND STORAGE
Figure 7-1. Fuel Metering System
7-4
LYCOMING OPERATOR’S MANUAL
O-320 SERIES
SECTION 7
INSTALLATION AND STORAGE
Figure 7-2. Magneto Connections
7-5
SECTION 7
INSTALLATION AND STORAGE
LYCOMING OPERATOR’S MANUAL
O-320 SERIES
Figure 7-3. Optional Oil Cooler Connections
7-6
LYCOMING OPERATOR’S MANUAL
O-320 SERIES
SECTION 7
INSTALLATION AND STORAGE
Figure 7-4. Installation Drawing Left Side View – Typical O-320-A, -B Series
7-7
SECTION 7
INSTALLATION AND STORAGE
LYCOMING OPERATOR’S MANUAL
O-320 SERIES
Figure 7-5. Installation Drawing Rear View – Typical O-320-A, -B Series
7-8
LYCOMING OPERATOR’S MANUAL
O-320 SERIES
SECTION 7
INSTALLATION AND STORAGE
Figure 7-6. Installation Drawing Left Side View – Typical O-320-D, - E Series
7-9
SECTION 7
INSTALLATION AND STORAGE
LYCOMING OPERATOR’S MANUAL
O-320 SERIES
Figure 7-7. Installation Drawing Rear View – Typical O-320-D, -E Series
7-10
LYCOMING OPERATOR’S MANUAL
SECTION 8
TABLES
Page
Table of Limits ............................................................................................................................................. 8-1
Ground Run After Top Overhaul .............................................................................................................. 8-2
Flight Test After Top Overhaul.................................................................................................................. 8-3
Full Throttle HP at Altitude........................................................................................................................ 8-4
Table of Speed Equivalents ......................................................................................................................... 8-4
Centigrade-Fahrenheit Conversion Table................................................................................................. 8-5
Inch – Fraction Conversions ....................................................................................................................... 8-6
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LYCOMING OPERATOR’S MANUAL
O-320 SERIES
SECTION 8
TABLES
SECTION 8
TABLES
FOR
TIGHTENING
TORQUE
RECOMMENDATIONS
AND
INFORMATION
CONCERNING TOLERANCES AND DIMENSIONS THAT MUST BE MAINTAINED
IN LYCOMING AIRCRAFT ENGINES, CONSULT LATEST REVISION OF SPECIAL
SERVICE PUBLICATION NO. SSP1776.
CONSULT LATEST REVISION OF SERVICE INSTRUCTION NO. 1029 AND NO.
1150 FOR INFORMATION PERTINENT TO CORRECTLY INSTALLING CYLINDER
ASSEMBLY.
8-1
SECTION 8
TABLES
8-2
LYCOMING OPERATOR’S MANUAL
O-320 SERIES
LYCOMING OPERATOR’S MANUAL
O-320 SERIES
SECTION 8
TABLES
8-3
SECTION 8
TABLES
LYCOMING OPERATOR’S MANUAL
O-320 SERIES
FULL THROTTLE HP AT ALTITUDE
(Normally Aspirated Engines)
Altitude
Ft.
% S.L.
H.P.
Altitude
Ft.
% S.L.
H.P.
Altitude
Ft.
% S.L.
H.P.
0
500
1,000
2,000
2,500
3,000
4,000
5,000
6,000
7,000
8,000
9,000
100
98.5
96.8
93.6
92.0
90.5
87.5
84.6
81.7
78.9
76.2
73.5
10,000
11,000
12,000
13,000
14,000
15,000
16,000
17,000
17,500
18,000
18,500
19,000
70.8
68.3
65.8
63.4
61.0
58.7
56.5
54.3
53.1
52.1
51.4
50.0
19,500
20,000
20,500
21,000
21,500
22,000
22,500
23,000
23,500
24,000
24,500
25,000
49.1
48.0
47.6
46.0
45.2
44.0
43.3
42.2
41.4
40.3
39.5
38.5
TABLE OF SPEED EQUIVALENTS
Sec./Mi.
M.P.H.
Sec./Mi.
M.P.H.
Sec./Mi.
M.P.H.
72.0
60.0
51.4
45.0
40.0
36.0
32.7
30.0
27.7
25.7
50
60
70
80
90
100
110
120
130
140
24.0
22.5
21.2
20.0
18.9
18.0
17.1
16.4
15.6
15.0
150
160
170
180
190
200
210
220
230
240
14.4
13.8
13.3
12.8
12.4
12.0
11.6
11.2
10.9
10.6
250
260
270
280
290
300
310
320
330
340
8-4
LYCOMING OPERATOR’S MANUAL
O-320 SERIES
SECTION 8
TABLES
CENTIGRADE-FAHRENHEIT CONVERSION TABLE
Example: To convert 20°C to Fahrenheit, find 20 in the center column headed (F-C); then read 68.0°F in
the column (F) to the right. To convert 20°F to Centigrade; find 20 in the center column and read –6.67°C in
the (C) column to the left.
C
F-C
F
C
F-C
F
-56.7
-51.1
-45.6
-40.0
-34.0
-28.9
-23.3
-17.8
-12.22
-6.67
-1.11
4.44
10.00
15.56
21.11
26.67
32.22
37.78
43.33
48.89
54.44
60.00
65.56
71.00
76.67
82.22
87.78
93.33
98.89
-70
-60
-50
-40
-30
-20
-10
0
10
20
30
40
50
60
70
80
90
100
110
120
130
140
150
160
170
180
190
200
210
-94.0
-76.0
-58.0
-40.0
-22.0
-4.0
14.0
32.0
50.0
68.0
86.0
104.0
122.0
140.0
158.0
176.0
194.0
212.0
230.0
248.0
266.0
284.0
302.0
320.0
338.0
356.0
374.0
392.0
410.0
104.44
110.00
115.56
121.11
126.67
132.22
137.78
143.33
148.89
154.44
160.00
165.56
171.11
176.67
182.22
187.78
193.33
198.89
204.44
210.00
215.56
221.11
226.67
232.22
237.70
243.33
248.89
254.44
260.00
220
230
240
250
260
270
280
290
300
310
320
330
340
350
360
370
380
390
400
410
420
430
440
450
460
470
480
490
500
428.0
446.0
464.0
482.0
500.0
518.0
536.0
554.0
572.0
590.0
608.0
626.0
644.0
662.0
680.0
698.0
716.0
734.0
752.0
770.0
788.0
806.0
824.0
842.0
860.0
878.0
896.0
914.0
932.0
8-5
SECTION 8
TABLES
LYCOMING OPERATOR’S MANUAL
O-320 SERIES
INCH FRACTIONS CONVERSIONS
Decimals, Area of Circles and Millimeters
Inch
Fraction
Decimal
Equiv.
Area
Sq. In.
MM
Equiv.
Inch
Fraction
Decimal
Equiv.
Area
Sq. In.
MM
Equiv.
1/64
1/32
3/64
1/16
3/32
7/64
1/8
5/32
11/64
3/16
7/32
15/64
1/4
9/32
19/64
5/16
11/32
23/64
3/8
13/32
27/64
7/16
15/32
31/64
.0156
.0312
.0469
.0625
.0937
.1094
.125
.1562
.1719
.1875
.2187
.2344
.25
.2812
.2969
.3125
.3437
.3594
.375
.4062
.4219
.4375
.4687
.4844
.0002
.0008
.0017
.0031
.0069
.0094
.0123
.0192
.0232
.0276
.0376
.0431
.0491
.0621
.0692
.0767
.0928
.1014
.1105
.1296
.1398
.1503
.1725
.1842
.397
.794
1.191
1.587
2.381
2.778
3.175
3.969
4.366
4.762
5.556
5.593
6.350
7.144
7.540
7.937
8.731
9.128
9.525
10.319
10.716
11.112
11.906
12.303
1/2
17/32
35/64
9/16
19/32
39/64
5/8
21/32
43/64
11/16
23/32
47/64
3/4
25/32
51/64
13/16
27/32
55/64
7/8
29/32
59/64
15/16
31/32
63/64
.5
.5312
.5469
.5625
.5937
.6094
.625
.6562
.6719
.6875
.7187
.7344
.75
.7812
.7969
.8125
.8437
.8594
.875
.9062
.9219
.9375
.9687
.9844
.1964
.2217
.2349
.2485
.2769
.2916
.3068
.3382
.3545
.3712
.4057
.4235
.4418
.4794
.4987
.5185
.5591
.5800
.6013
.6450
.6675
.6903
.7371
.7610
12.700
13.494
13.891
14.288
15.081
15.478
15.875
16.669
17.065
17.462
18.256
18.653
19.050
19.844
20.241
20.637
21.431
21.828
22.225
23.019
23.416
23.812
24.606
25.003
8-6
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