Technical Information - Yokogawa Electric Corporation

Technical Information - Yokogawa Electric Corporation
<Int> <Ind> <Rev>
Technical
Information
Model DY Vortex
Flowmeter
TI 01F06A00-01E
TI 01F06A00-01E
© Copyright May 2001
1st Edition May 2001
Yokogawa Electric Corporation
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Toc-1
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Model DY Vortex Flowmeter
TI 01F06A00-01E 1st Edition
CONTENTS
1. PREFACE .................................................................................................... 1-1
2. FEATURES .................................................................................................. 2-1
2.1 Features of Vortex Flowmeter ................................................................................. 2-1
2.2 Unique Features of digitalYEWFLO ........................................................................ 2-1
2.2.1 Features of Sensor Section ..................................................................... 2-1
2.2.2 Features of Converters ............................................................................ 2-2
3. PRINCPLE OF MEASUREMENT ................................................................. 3-1
4. METHOD OF DETECTING VORTEX-SHEDDING FREQUENCY ................. 4-1
4.1 Principle of Frequency Detection .......................................................................... 4-2
4.2 Principle of Operation ............................................................................................. 4-3
4.2.1 Detector Construction .............................................................................. 4-3
4.2.2 Spectral Signal Processing (SSP) ........................................................... 4-4
5. FLOW RATE CALCULATION ...................................................................... 5-1
6. CORRECTION FUNCTIONS ........................................................................ 6-1
6.1 Reynolds Number Correction ................................................................................. 6-1
6.2 Compressibility Coefficient Correction ................................................................. 6-1
7. SELF-DIAGNOSIS FUNCTION .................................................................... 7-1
8. BASIC DATA ................................................................................................ 8-1
8.1 Effects of Spectral Adaptive Filter .......................................................................... 8-1
8.2 Effects of Adaptive Noise Suppression ................................................................. 8-3
8.3 Measurement in Low Flow Rate .............................................................................. 8-5
9. SIZING ......................................................................................................... 9-1
10. FLUID DATA .............................................................................................. 10-1
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1.
<1. PREFACE>
1-1
PREFACE
Generally, a blunt body (vortex shedder) submerged in a flowing fluid sheds the
boundary-layer from its surface and generates alternating-whirl in the backward
stream called the Karman vortex street. The frequency of this vortex street is
directly proportional to the flow velocity within a given range of Reynolds number. Therefore, the flow velocity or flow rate can be measured by measuring the
vortex-shedding frequency. Vortex flowmeters work on this principle.
Based on the sales of 200,000 flowmeters around the world and years of experience since developing the world's first commercial vortex flowmeter in 1968,
Yokogawa has now developed the digitalYEWFLO.
In addition to the reliability and endurance of former models, the digitalYEWFLO
has an on-board SSP amplifier based on the state-of-the-art digital circuit technology to provide high-level stability and accuracy.
■ New Feature, Spectral Signal Processing (SSP) Amplifier
● Spectral Adaptive Filter (Key technology)
The spectral adaptive filter integrated in the DSP amplifier analyzes vortex signals so that the
optimum measuring condition can be obtained without any interaction.
● Adaptive noise Suppression (ANS)
Eliminates all possible effects from vibrations, allowing vortex signals to be received precisely
and ensuring stable signals, even under environments where piping vibrations inevitably occur.
● Multi-function display
The two-column display allows monitoring of the instantaneous flow rate and sum together. It
also displays piping vibrations or fluid fluctuations from the self-diagnostic, allowing for earlystage judgement and/or remedies in the field.
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2.
<2. FEATURES>
2-1
FEATURES
The digital YEWFLO has many unique features in addition to the usual features
of conventional vortex flowmeters.
2.1
Features of Vortex Flowmeter
● High accuracy
The accuracy of the vortex flowmeter is ±1% (pulse output) of the indicated value for both
liquids and gases and is higher compared to orifice flowmeters. For liquids, an accuracy of
±0.75% is available depending on the fluid types and their conditions.
● Wide rangeability
Rangeability is defined as the ratio of the maximum value to the minimum value of the measurable range. Its broad rangeability allows YEWFLO to operate in processes where the measuring
point may fluctuate greatly.
● Output is proportional to flow rate
Since the output is directly proportional to the flow rate (flow velocity), no square root calculation is needed, while orifice flowmeters require square root calculation.
● No zero-point fluctuation
Since frequency is output from the sensor, zero-point shift does not occur.
● Minimal pressure loss
Since only the vortex shedder is placed in the pipe of the vortex flowmeter, the fluid pressure
loss due to the small restriction in the flow piping is small compared with flowmeters having an
orifice plate.
2.2 Unique Features of digitalYEWFLO
2.2.1 Features of Sensor Section
● Sensor is not exposed to process fluid
The digital YEWFLO uses piezoelectric elements for the sensor; these are embedded inside the
vortex shedder and are not exposed to the process fluid.
● Simple construction with no moving parts
Only the vortex shedder with a trapezoidal cross section and no moving parts are placed in the
flow piping. This gives the digital YEWFLO a solid and simple construction.
● Operable at high-temperature and high-pressure without any problem
The digital YEWFLO measures hot fluids up to 450°C (25 to 200 mm, HT remote converter
type for high temperature) and high-pressure fluids up to ANSI class 900 flange rating (15 MPa
at ambient temperature) as standard.
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<2. FEATURES>
2-2
● Low cost of ownership
Compared with other flowmeters, the total cost for YEWFLO (including installation and maintenance cost) is very economical.
2.2.2
Features of Converters
■ New Functions with SSP (Spectral Signal Processing) Technology
SSP is built into the powerful electronics of digitalYEWFLO. SSP analyses the fluid conditions
inside digitalYEWFLO and uses the data to automatically select the optimum adjustment for the
application, providing features never before seen in a vortex flowmeter.
SSP accurately senses vortices in the low flow range, providing outstanding flow stability.
● Adaptive noise suppression (ANS) technology
The full automation of adaptive noise suppression allows for the provision of optimal measurement conditions immediately after turning on the system. Even under environments where
piping vibrations are inevitable, it can capture vortex signals without being influenced by
vibrations to ensure stable output signals.
● Improved self-diagnosis
Improved self-diagnosis enables the detection and displaying of the influences from excessive
piping vibrations or fluid fluctuations at an early stage. This allows early determination of the
line status.
● Improved operability for setting parameters
Frequently used parameters are grouped into one block to significantly improve the operability.
● Multi-function display
Facilitates monitoring of instantaneous flow rate and total flow rate together in the field.
● Dual output for Analog/Pulse
Simultaneous output is available for flow rate and pulse.
F0201.EPS
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3.
<3. PRINCPLE OF MEASUREMENT>
3-1
PRINCPLE OF MEASUREMENT
When a vortex shedder is placed in a flowing fluid, it generates a Karman vortex street, with
alternating whirl vortices on the downstream side of the shedder as shown in Figure 3.1.
Flow
d
Karman vortex
V
Vortex shedder
F0301.EPS
Figure 3.1
Karman Vortex Street
Assuming that the frequency of vortex generated by a shedder is f, the flow velocity is v, and the
vortex shedder width is d, the following equation is obtained.
f = St · v ................................................................................................................ (1)
d
This equation also applies to YEWFLO installed in a pipeline.
V=
Q
π · D2 – dD .......................................................................................................... (2)
4
Q: Volumetric flow rate
D: Inside diameter of YEWFLO
St: Strouhal number
From equations (1) and (2), the volumetric flow rate is given by,
f·( π·D – d·D )·d
4
............................................................................................... (3)
Q=
St
2
Strouhal number (St) is a dimensionless number which is a function of the shape and size of the
vortex shedder. Therefore, by selecting an appropriate shape, the Strouhal number can be kept
constant over a wide range of Reynolds numbers.
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<3. PRINCPLE OF MEASUREMENT>
3-2
Figure 3.2 shows the relationship between Reynolds number and Strouhal number.
Measurable range
Strouhal number
0.3
Normal operating range
0.2
0.1
5 × 103
2 × 104
Reynolds number
Figure 3.2
F0302.EPS
Relationship between Strouhal Number and Reynolds Number
Thus, once the Strouhal number is known, the flow rate can be obtained by measuring the vortex
shedding frequency. Equation (3) also shows that the flow rate can be measured independently
of the fluid pressure, temperature, density and viscosity. However, compensations for temperature and pressure are necessary when measuring volumetric flow and mass flow rate in the
reference (standard) state.
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4.
<4. METHOD OF DETECTING VORTEX-SHEDDING FREQUENCY>
4-1
METHOD OF DETECTING VORTEXSHEDDING FREQUENCY
The vortex shedder of YEWFLO has a trapezoidal cross section which provides excellent
linearity of the vortex-shedding frequency and generates a stable and strong street pattern.
Figure 4.1 shows the vortex flow-pattern forming behind a trapezoidal vortex shedder.
F0401.EPS
Figure 4.1
Karman’s Vortex Trails Generated by Trapezoidal Columned Object
To transmit the vortex-shedding frequency, YEWFLO uses piezoelectric elements to detect the
stress generated by the alternating lift on the whole vortex shedder when vortices are generated.
The features of the piezoelectric element method are as follows:
(1) The piezoelectric element sensor can be built into the vortex shedder to avoid direct
contact with the process fluid.
(2) Because the method detects stress, the vortex shedder does not need to be displaced far, so
the meter construction remains stable and rigid.
(3) Because the piezoelectric element is very sensitive, a wide range of flow rates, from low to
high velocity, can be measured.
(4) Wide range of operating temperature and pressure
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4.1
<4. METHOD OF DETECTING VORTEX-SHEDDING FREQUENCY>
4-2
Principle of Frequency Detection
Figure 4.2 shows the principle of detecting the vortex-shedding frequency.
Stress or strain distribution
in the piezoelectric sensor
Compression
stress
Piezoelectric sensor element
Tensile stress
Lift
Vortex shedder
Pipeline
F0402.EPS
Figure 4.2
Principle of Vortex-shedding Frequency Detection
When the fluid flows directly into the shedder bar pictured in Figure 4.2, vortices are generated
from the vortex shedder. The shedder is subjected to alternating lift representing the same
frequency as that of vortex-shedding. This alternating lift produces stress changes in the vortex
shedder. The frequency of these stress changes, the vortex-shedding frequency, is detected by
piezoelectric elements hermetically sealed in the vortex shedder.
The intensity of the alternating lift is proportional to the square of the flow velocity and the
density of the fluid. The peak value of lift FL is given by,
FL = ±1/2 · CL · ρ · V2 · d · D ...................................................................................... (4)
where,
CL: Dimensionless coefficient
V: Flow velocity
D: Inside diameter of pipeline
ρ: Fluid density
d: Width of vortex shedder
The average stress σ M generated in the piezoelectric element and the electric charge q induced
in the element are given by the following equations:
σ M = K · FL
q = d0 · σ M ·S
where,
K: Constant determined by the shape of the vortex shedder and how it is supported.
d0: Piezoelectric coefficient
S: Surface area of piezoelectric element
The AC electric charge is processed by the electric circuit in the transmitter to obtain the vortex
shedding frequency.
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4-3
<4. METHOD OF DETECTING VORTEX-SHEDDING FREQUENCY>
4.2
Principle of Operation
4.2.1
Detector Construction
The construction of the detector is shown below.
1
1. Converter
2. Gasket
3. Detector elements (sensor)
4. Vortex shedder
5. Indicator (option)
6. Lead wire
5
6
2
2
3
3
Vertical force
Drag
Direction of flow
4
Lift
F0403.EPS
Figure 4.3
Detector Construction
Dual piezoelectric elements fixed on the upper part of the vortex shedder efficiently detect the
signal stress caused by the vortex street while eliminating the effects of noise such as pipeline
vibration.
+2Q
N1
+Q
+Q
-Q
-Q
Polarization direction
Lift
Polarization direction
S1
N2
S2
-2Q
N
Lift
S
Flow
F0405.EPS
F0404.EPS
Figure 4.4
Signal Stress
Figure 4.5
Lift Signal and Noise Distribution
As expressed by the arrows in Figure 4.3, stress caused by pipeline vibration can be divided into
three components of force: lift, drag, and vertical force. The alignment of the dual piezoelectric
elements as shown in Figure 4.4 is set so as not to sense the vibration in the directions of the
drag and vertical force. The vibration in the direction of lift, however, is sensed as part of the
vortex signal since they appear in the same direction. While in a digital YEWFLO, an effective
combination of the proven dual-sensor alignment and spectral signal processing (SSP) technology, eliminates noise caused by pipeline vibration or the like even in this vertical direction.
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4.2.2
4-4
<4. METHOD OF DETECTING VORTEX-SHEDDING FREQUENCY>
Spectral Signal Processing (SSP)
The converter circuitry incorporating the SSP technology is shown in the figure below. The
SSP, a state-of-the-art technology, effectively rejects the effects of pipeline vibration.
Gate Array
QA
Charge
converter
CPU
Frequency
analysis
AD
Element A
Band-pass
filter
Flow rate
computation
Output
circuit
Spectral
analysis
Control
Gain
Charge
converter
AD
Frequency
analysis
Element B
F0406.EPS
Figure 4.6
Detector Construction
● Adaptive Noise Suppression (ANS)
Catch the vortex signal using two piezo ceramics sensors and suppress the vibration noise.
● Spectral Adaptive Filter (SAF)
Separate vortex signal and vibration noise.
Using these digital technology, the following effects are demonstrated.
(1) Improves vibration performance.
The extensive improvement of the vibration performance wa realized compared with the
previous model.
(2) Realize the low-flow measurement.
The output change by the vibration noise is removed and a normal signal is outputted.
(3) Extend a self-diagnostic function
Since frequency analysis is always performed, alarm can be taken out at the time of
abnormalities, such as an unstable flow, and adhesion, vibration.
(1) Adaptive noise suppression (ANS)
The YEWFLO eliminates the effect of pipeline vibration by using the distribution of the signal
and noise in the direction of a lift shown in Fig.4.5. This feature, which balances noise in the
outputs with each other, is referred to as adaptive noise suppression.
The signals output from two piezoelectric elements are converted into alternating signals by
respective charge converters. Each of these alternating signals is then converted into a digital
signal through an A/D converter. The SSP filter continuously performs spectral analyses for
these digital signals and measures the signal components and noise components in the outputs
from the piezoelectric elements. With the results of these measurements, the noise is rejected
continuously based on the principle described next.
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4-5
<4. METHOD OF DETECTING VORTEX-SHEDDING FREQUENCY>
Perform frequency analysis of a signal
and a noise in each frequency band.
QA = S1+N1
QA– λQB = S1 – λS2
Frequency
Analysis
S1
To SAF
S2
N1
y6
Varying λ
y5
N21
y4
y3
y1
From CPU
QA
– QB = – S2 – N2
y2
QB
From the frequency analysis of QA and QB,
it always calculates in CPU so that it may be
set to N1 = λN2
F0407.EPS
Since the two piezoelectric elements, elements A and B, are so aligned as to be polarized in
opposite directions, their outputs QA and QB can be expressed by the respective signal components S1 and S2, and noise components N1 and N2 as:
QA = S1 + N1 ............................................................................................................. (1)
–QB = –S2 – N2 .......................................................................................................... (2)
Multiplying the output of element B by a value (from 0.5 to 1.2), λ, obtains:
–λQB = –λS2 – λN2 .................................................................................................... (3)
Then, adding this multiplied signal to the output of element A, namely, adding equation (2) to
equation (3) obtains:
QA – λQB = S1 – λS2 + N1 – λN2 ................................................................................ (4)
When N1 is equal to λN2, equation (4) becomes as follows and only the signal components can
be detected:
QA – λQB = S1 – λS2 .................................................................................................................................................................................... (5)
Hence, if the detector can measure the amplitudes of noise components, N1 and N2 and can
determine the value of λ to offset them, the noise in the direction of lift can be eliminated.
For earlier models, the N1 and N2 levels were measured and the value of λ was adjusted during
shipment preparations. Therefore, if the noise ratio has changed from the factory-set λ after the
flowmeter in question is installed on site, the intended noise rejection result cannot be obtained.
While in a digital YEWFLO, the CPU automatically computes the optimum value at all times
and sets it in λ, so the signal components can always be extracted no matter if the noise ratio
changes.
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4-6
<4. METHOD OF DETECTING VORTEX-SHEDDING FREQUENCY>
(2) Spectral Adaptive Filter (SSP)
a
ANS
b
S1–λS2
Band-pass
filter
CPU
Schmitt trigger
Spectral
analysis
F0408.EPS
Figure 4.7
Block Diagram of Spectral Adaptive Filter
The Spectral Adaptive Filter (SAF) is shown in the figure above. Two sensor outputs digitized
through individual A/D converters are inputted to the band-pass filter after ANS processing.
Although noise components are normally removed by ANS, if any level of noise is left such as
high frequency noise, the resulting waveform will still carry noise as shown in (a) of Figure 4.8.
(a)
Input waveform
Eliminating noise using SSP
Time
(b)
Output waveform
Time
F0409.EPS
Figure 4.8
Input and Output Waveforms
With previous models, to reject these signals containing a noise component, maintenance people
had to make the filter settings manually while monitoring the input waveform (a) using an
oscilloscope. In addition, there are limits in the filter settings due to the characteristics of the
filter circuit. SAF, however, analyzes the spectral of the signal from which noise could not be
removed completely, and makes the optimum filter settings automatically as shown in Figure
4.9.
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4-7
<4. METHOD OF DETECTING VORTEX-SHEDDING FREQUENCY>
Previous Models
Digital YEWFLO
Spectral
analysis
Amplifier
Vortex-street signal sensitivity curve
Uses an oscilloscope and
handheld terminal to set filter
setting parameters.
Hand-held terminal
Signal
Noise
Amplitude
y6
y5
As the broad band filter is fixed,
noise output is inseparable.
y4
y3
y2
The optimal filter is set up
frequency.
Band-pass
filter
Separate
a noise
Band-pass
filter
Frequency
Frequency
Signal
y1 Frequency
Noise
Signal
Noise
F0410.EPS
Figure 4.9 Operation of Spectral Adaptive Filter
The SAF contains multiple band-pass filters for divided bands, and performs a spectral analysis
on each band for a waveform carrying noise as in (a) of Figure 4.8. Then, the circuit compares
the analysis results with the vortex signal sensitivity curve stipulated for each flowmeter size.
This comparison allows noise components to be discriminated from the vortex-street signal, and
therefore the filter can be optimally set automatically to let only the signal component pass
through. Accordingly, a waveform as in (a) of Figure 4.8 can be filtered into a clear waveform
as in (b) of Figure 4.8.
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5.
<5. FLOW RATE CALCULATION>
5-1
FLOW RATE CALCULATION
The flow rate is calculated based on the count number N of generated vortices as follows:
a) Flow rate (actual flow rate unit)
1
1
1
RATE = N• ∆t • εf • εe • εr • εp• KT • UKT • UK • UTM • SE .................................... (8)
KT = KM • {1– 4.81×(Tf –15)×10-5} ........................................................................ (9)
b) Flow rate (%)
1
RATE (%) = RATE • FS ...................................................................................... (10)
c) Integrated value
For a scaled pulse
1
1
TOTAL = N • εf • εe • εr • εp • KT • UKT • UK • TE .................................................. (11)
For an unscaled pulse
TOTAL = εf • εe • εr • εp • N ..................................................................................... (12)
d) Flow velocity
1
1
4
V= N• ∆t • KT • UKT • π•D2 ............................................................................... (13)
e) Reynolds number
Red =
V•D
×106
µ
....................................................................................... (14)
pf ×1000
where,
N
: Input pulse number (pulse)
εf
: Correction coefficient of instrument error
εr
: Correction coefficient of Reynolds number
εe
: Correction coefficient of expansion for compressible fluid
εp
: Correction coefficient of adjacent pipe
KM : K factor in 15°C (p/l)
KT
: K factor for operating temperature (P/l)
UKT : Unit conversion coefficient of K factor
UTM : Coefficient for flow rate unit time (e.g.: /m (min) = 60)
SE
: Span factor (ex.: E + 3 = 103)
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<5. FLOW RATE CALCULATION>
FS
: Flow rate span
µ
: Viscosity coefficient (cP)
D
: Internal diameter (m)
∆t
: Time corresponding to N (second)
Uk
: Flow conversion coefficient
Tf
: Operating temperature (°C)
TE
: Total factor
pf
: Operating density (kg/m3)
5-2
The flow conversion coefficient Uk is automatically calculated just by setting parameters
(temperature, pressure and density).
The parameters to be set are sequentially displayed on a hand held BT200 (BRAIN terminal)
when the fluid type is specified.
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6.
<6. CORRECTION FUNCTIONS>
6-1
CORRECTION FUNCTIONS
The digitalYEWFLO has extensive correction functions to support various applications. These correction functions are outlined below.
6.1
Reynolds Number Correction
Strouhal number (St)
In a 3-dimensional flow inside a pipeline, as Reynolds number (≤20000) decreases, the Strouhal
number (K factor) gradually increases. The curve of this K factor is corrected using a 5-point
line segment approximation.
0.20
Water
Fuel oil (specific gravity: 0.85)
0.19
0.2 MPa abs. Air
0.4 MPa abs. Air
0.6 MPa abs. Air
0.18
Water
0.17
Fuel oil
0.16
0.5
1
2
5
10
Air
20 50 × 104
Reynolds number (Re)
F0601.EPS
Figure 6.1 Strouhal Number for Low Reynolds Number
6.2
Compressibility Coefficient Correction
Pressure changes and errors are generated, as the compressible fluid flow becomes faster.
Assuming that the fluid changes state adiabatically, the vortex-shedding frequency of the
compressible fluid is given by the following equation.
f =A ·
1/K
( P1
P2 )
· St ·
V2
.............................................................................................. (15)
d
where
V2
: Local average flow velocity at position 2.5D downstream of the vortex shedder
P1
: Pressure at position 1D upstream of the vortex shedder
κ
: Ratio of specific heat of gas
A
: Coefficient indicating the influence of flow velocity distribution and area ratio
P2
: Pressure at position 2.5D down stream of the vortex shedder
St
: Strouhal number
d
: Internal diameter
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<6. CORRECTION FUNCTIONS>
K factor (p/ )
1.476
6-2
An example of air flow in a
100mm diameter pipe
1.462
1.448
±1%
P = 2.6MPa
P = 1.2MPa
P = 0.4MPa
1.434
5
10
20
50
Velocity (m/s)
F0602.EPS
Figure 6.2
K Factor of Compressible Fluid
Ordinarily, temperature and pressure are corrected by providing a pressure tap at positions 2D to
6D, where the pressure is stable, downstream of the vortex shedder. However, the pressure
actually decreases most near position 0.5D. As Figure 6.2 shows, if the measuring point to
obtain P2 of equation (15) is changed, errors will occur in the K factor as the flow becomes
faster. By approximating these errors as a secondary order function of flow velocity, errors due
to the difference of measuring points can be corrected.
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7.
<7. SELF-DIAGNOSIS FUNCTION>
7-1
SELF-DIAGNOSIS FUNCTION
The digitalYEWFLO provides the following self-diagnosis functions:
Indication
Diagnostic
Error Name
Message
Problem
Cause
Current
Output
Over range Output
output
signal is
signal
110% or
more
Fixed at
110%
Pulse
Output
% Output
Fixed at
Normal
Operation 110%
Err-01
OVER
OUTPUT
Err-02
SPAN SET Span
Setting
ERROR
Error
Err-06
PULSE
OUT
ERROR
Pulse
output
error
Pulse output
frequency is
more than 10kHz
Fixed at
Normal
Operation 10KHz
Err-07
PULSE
SET
ERROR
Pulse
setting
error
CHECK Transient
Vibration noise
CHECK High
Vibration Vibration
Engineering Totalizing
Unit Output Output
Normal
Operation
How to
recover
Change
Normal
Operation parameters
or over
ranged flow
input
Normal
Normal
Normal
Span setting
Normal
parameter is more Operation Operation Operation Operation
than 1.5 times of
max flow velocity
Change
Normal
Operation parameters
span factor
is outside the
acceptable
limits
Normal
Normal
Operation Operation
Change
Normal
Operation parameters
(ItemC, ItemE)
Pulse output
frequency
setting
is more than
10kHz
Normal
Normal
Normal
Normal
Operation Operation Operation Operation
Normal
Change
Operation parameters
(ItemC, ItemE)
Error of
Vibration
Transitional
disturbance
Hold
Hold
Normal
Operation
Error of
Vibration
High vibration
Fixed at
0%
Stop
Output
Fixed at
0%
Hold
Normal
CHECK the
Operation vibration
Fixed at
0
Stop the
total
CHECK the
vibration
CHECK
Flow
Fluctuating Error of
Flow
Fluctuating
Normal
Normal
Normal
Normal
Operation Operation Operation Operation
Normal
CHECK the
Operation clogging
CHECK
Flow
Clogging
Error of
Flow
Clogging
Normal
Normal
Normal
Normal
Operation Operation Operation Operation
Normal
CHECK the
Operation clogging
Err-20
PRE-AMP
ERROR
PRE-AMP
is failed
Normal
Normal
Normal
Normal
Operation Operation Operation Operation
Normal
Replace the
Operation AMP. unit
Err-30
EE PROM
ERROR
EEPROM
is not
functioning
correctly
Over
110% or
-2.6%
below
Halt
Fixed at
0%
Fixed at
0
Halt
Replace the
AMP. unit
CPU
FAULT
CPU is
failed
All operations are Over
Dead.
110% or
Display and self
-2.6%
dignostic function
is also dead.g
Halt
Halt
Halt
Halt
Replace the
AMP. unit
Note. Normal Operation : Operation continues without relation to error occurrence.
Retain Operation : Calculation continues with relation to error occurrence.
T0701.EPS
Alternating display
F0701.EPS
TI 01F06A00-01E
1st Edition : May 30, 2001-00
Blank Page
<Toc> <Ind>
8.
8-1
<8. BASIC DATA>
BASIC DATA
8.1 Effects of Spectral Adaptive Filter
● Purpose
This test determines the effects of the spectral adaptive filter, one of the key technologies of the
digital YEWFLO.
● Method
Apply vibrations to a fluid (air) at a low flow rate to see the effect of the spectral adaptive filter.
● Specifications
(1) Applying vibrations (equivalent to 1 G) should not influence the vortex waveform or
vortex pulses.
(2) Applying vibrations (equivalent to 1 G) should not influence 4 to 20 mA output.
● Actual measurements
(1) No vortex pulse was generated.
(Test data)
< For previous model >
< For digital YEWFLO >
Flow rate range
1Hz
GAIN
GAIN
Flow rate range
10Hz
100Hz
1000Hz
Signal
Vibration noise
component component
• Since previous models process signals with residual
noises, resulting vortex waveforms and vortex pulses
are adversely affected, and generated output is also
unstable.
1Hz
Effects of
spectral
adaptive filter
10Hz
100Hz
Signal
Vibration noise
component component
• digitalYEWFLO continuously analyzes signal
and noise components to set up an optimal filter so
that stable outputs are ensured even for low flow
rate ranges.
Size: 40 mm
Vortex
Fluid: water
waveform Flow rate: 0.5 m/s
Vibration noise:
40 Hz
Vortex
waveform
Vortex
pulses
(a)
1000Hz
Vortex
pulses
(b)
F0801.EPS
Figure 8.1
TI 01F06A00-01E
1st Edition : May 30, 2001-00
<Toc> <Ind>
8-2
<8. BASIC DATA>
(Description)
Figure 8.1 shows the effects of the “spectral adaptive filter.” The test data for earlier models in
Figure 8.1 (a) shows that the vibration noises influence the vortex waveform to cause vortex
pulses and adversely influence the output. The test data for the digital YEWFLO with a spectral
adaptive filter in Figure 8.1 (b) shows that vortex signals and noise components are continuously
being analyzed, meaning the existence of vibration noises does not influence the output.
0.4 m/s
ADMAG AE (% of Span)
ADMAG AE
1.0 m/s
Previous model
50
Previous model
Previous model (% of Span)
1.4 m/s
digitalYEWFLO
digitalYEWFLO(% of Span)
Vibration : 1G
12.5% of Span
Fluid : Water
Size : 50mm
Setting : Default
Span : 15m3/h(2m/s)
50
50
ADMAG AE(MASTER METER)
digitalYEWFLO
0
0
0
F0802.EPS
Figure 8.2
Figure 8.2 shows output result of flow rate when giving vibration noise 1G. In zero flow rate,
earlier model carry out the incorrect output by vibration noise. However digitalYEWFLO carry
out the output always stable.
TI 01F06A00-01E
1st Edition : May 30, 2001-00
<Toc> <Ind>
Effects of Adaptive Noise Suppression
● Purpose
This test determines the effects of “auto noise balancing,” one of the key technologies of digital
YEWFLO.
● Method
Apply vibrations to a fluid (air) at zero flow rate to compare the auto noise balancing features of
an previous model and the digital YEWFLO.
● Specifications
(1) Applying vibrations (equivalent to 1 G) should not cause vortex pulses.
(2) Applying vibrations (equivalent to 1 G) should not influence 4 to 20 mA output.
● Actual measurements
(1) No vortex pulse was generated.
(2) No effect on the output was found.
(Test data)
400
• For previous model with default setup
from time of shipping
Due to vibrations, vortex pulses occurred
and output was influenced.
• For digitalYEWFLO with auto noise balance
setup
Vibrations did not influence the output, because
digitalYEWFLO always adjusts noise balance
automatically.
300
Output [Nm3/h]
8.2
8-3
<8. BASIC DATA>
Vortex
waveform
200
Vortex
pulses
Auto noise balance OFF
(a)
Auto noise balance ON
(b)
100
Error output: 25 m3/h
Stable output: 0 m3/h
Vibration being applied
F0803.EPS
Figure 8.3
TI 01F06A00-01E
1st Edition : May 30, 2001-00
<Toc> <Ind>
<8. BASIC DATA>
8-4
(Description)
Figure 8.3 shows the effect of the auto noise balance. For the previous model in Figure 8.3 (a),
the influences from vibration noises appeared on the vortex waveform, vortex pulses occurred
and the output was influenced. Figure 8.3 (b) shows the effect of digitalYEWFLO with the auto
noise balance turned on. The same noises which were applied to the previous model were
automatically canceled, and no vortex pulse was generated. This means the vibrations did not
influence the output.
TI 01F06A00-01E
1st Edition : May 30, 2001-00
<Toc> <Ind>
Measurement in Low Flow Rate
● Purpose
This test determines the effects of Low flow measurement comparing with previous model.
● Method
As compared with Magnetic Flowmeter (ADMAG AE), measurement of low flow rate is
performed conventionally.
(Test data)
2min
0.34m/s
0.32m/s
25
0.3m/s
0.28m/s
0.26m/s
ADMAG AE(MASTER METER)
0.24m/s
0.22m/s
0.2m/s
25
0
digitalYEWFLO
Previous model
Previous model (% of Span)
25
digitalYEWFLO(% of Span)
Fluid : Water
Size :50mm
Setting : Default
ADMAG AE (% of Span)
8.3
8-5
<8. BASIC DATA>
0
0
F0804.EPS
Figure8.4
(Description)
Figure 8.4 shows the measurement result of low flow rate.
According to the SSP, digitalYEWFLO had the low flow region expanded.
TI 01F06A00-01E
1st Edition : May 30, 2001-00
Blank Page
<Toc> <Ind>
9.
9-1
<9. SIZING>
SIZING
This section outlines the sizing for various fluids for check purposes. For details
on sizing, refer to GS 01F6A00-01E.
(1) Liquid
● Maximum measurable flow rate check
Table 9.1 Maximum Measurable Flow Rate Range for Each Flowmeter Size
Maximum measurable range [m3/h]
Nominal diameter
Maximum measurable
range [m3/h]
12 in.
10 in.
8 in.
6 in.
4 in.
3 in.
2 in.
1.5 in.
1 in.
1/2 in.
(15 mm) (25 mm) (40 mm) (50 mm) (80 mm) (100 mm) (150 mm) (200 mm) (250 mm) (300 mm)
6
18
44
73
142
248
544
973
1506
2156
T0901.EPS
(1) With reference to 15°C, except for ammonia which references to -40°C
(2) Maximum flow rate was calculated from a flow rate of 10 m/s.
● Minimum measurable flow rate check
Table 9.2 Minimum Measurable Flow Rate Ranges for Various Liquids
Minimum measurable range [m3/h]
Nominal diameter 1/2 in.
1 in.
1.5 in.
2 in.
3 in.
4 in.
6 in.
8 in.
10 in.
12 in.
(15 mm) (25 mm) (40 mm) (50 mm) (80 mm) (100 mm) (150 mm) (200 mm) (250 mm) (300 mm)
Fluid type
Water (H2O)
0.3
0.65
1.3
2.2
4.3
7.5
17
34
60
86
Methanol (CH3OH)
0.4
0.7
1.5
2.5
4.8
8.4
18
38
67
97
Ethanol (C2H5O)
0.5
0.9
1.5
2.5
4.8
8.4
18
38
67
97
Aniline (C6H5N)
0.8
1.5
2.4
3.1
4.3
7.3
16
33
59
85
Acetone (CH3)
0.34
0.73
1.5
2.5
4.7
8.3
18
38
67
96
Carbon bisulfide (CS2)
0.26
0.58
1.2
2.0
3.8
6.6
15
30
54
77
Carbon tetrachloride (CCl4)
0.24
0.51
1.1
1.8
3.4
5.9
13
27
48
68
Ammonia (NH3)
0.34
0.74
1.5
2.5
4.8
8.4
18
37
65
93
T0902.EPS
(1) For sizes of 2 inches or less, the above table shows the lower limit of the normal operation
range.
● Cavitation check
When using a YEWFLO with the same nominal diameter as the process piping and the minimum flow rate during operation becomes lower than the lower limit of the measurable range,
perform a cavitation check for a YEWFLO one or two sizes smaller than the process pipe. If it is
confirmed that this smaller YEWFLO may not cause cavitation, install it to the piping using
reducers.
Cavitation occurs when the flow line pressure is low and flow verosity is high during measurement, preventing correct measurement of flow rate. Please be sure to perform a cavitation check.
TI 01F06A00-01E
1st Edition : May 30, 2001-00
<Toc> <Ind>
<9. SIZING>
9-2
(2) Pressure Loss and Cavitation
● Pressure loss
For water with a flow velocity of 10 m/sec, use 108 kPa (1.1 kgf/cm2)
For atmospheric pressure with a flow velocity of 80 m/sec, use 9 kPa (910 mmH2O)
The pressure loss can be obtained from the following equation:
∆P =108×10-5×ρ×V2 ........................................................................................... (1)
or
2
∆P =135× ρ × Q4 .................................................................................................. (2)
D
where
∆P : Pressure loss (kgf/cm2)
ρ
: Fluid density at operating conditions (kg/m3)
V
: Flow velocity (m/s)
Q
: Volumetric flow rate at operating conditions (m3/h)
D
: Flowmeter tube inner dia. (mm)
Figure 9.1 shows a graph based on the above equation.
When the nominal size is within 15mm to 50mm and the adjacent pipe is Sch40, and when the
nominal size is within 80mm to 300mm and the adjacent pipe is Sch80, pressure loss will be
approx. 10% smaller than the calculated value.
● Cavitation (minimum line pressure)
In liquid measurement, a low line pressure and high flow velocity condition can cause cavitation
and measuring flow velocities may fail. Minimum line pressure causing no cavitation can be
obtained from the following equation:
P = 2.7 × ∆P +1.3 × PO ............................................................................................... (3)
P
: Downstream 2 to 7 D line pressure, from the flowmeter downstream side end surface
[kPa abs {kgf/cm2 abs}]
∆P : Pressure loss [kPa{kgf/cm2}]
Po
: Saturate vapor pressure of liquid at operating conditions [kPa abs {kgf/cm2 abs}]
TI 01F06A00-01E
1st Edition : May 30, 2001-00
<Toc> <Ind>
9-3
<9. SIZING>
(Example) Pressure loss calculation example
If water with a temperature of 80°C and a flow rate of 30 m3/h is measured within a nominal size
of 2 inches (50mm), how much is the pressure loss?
(1) Since water with a density of 80°C is 972 kg/m3, from Equation (2) the following equation
can be derived:
302
51.14
= 17.3kPa (0.176kgf/cm2)
∆P = 135 × 971.8 ×
(2) From Equation (1), the flow velocity at a flow rate of 30 m3/h is
354 × Q 354 × 30
=
= 4.07m/s
D2
51.12
∆P =108×10-5 × 971.8 × 4.0652
V=
= 17.3kPa (0.176kgf/cm2)
(3) From Figure 10.1 the following equation can be derived:
Since C = 18.5, ∆P = 98.1×18.5×972×10-5 = 17.6kPa (0.18kgf/cm2)
(Example) Cavitation confirmation
Suppose line pressure is 120 kPa abs (1.22 kgf/cm2) and the flow rate scale is 0 to 30 m3/h under
the same conditions as above. Since confirmation at only the maximum flow rate is needed,
saturated vapor pressure of 80°C water can be Po = 47.4 kPa{0.483 kgf/cm2}.
From Equation (3)
P = 2.7×17.3+1.3×47.4
=108.3kPa abs. {1,106kgf/cm2 abs}
Thus, line pressure (120 kPa {1.22 kgf/cm2G}) higher than the minimum line pressure (108.3
kgf/cm2 abs) shows that no cavitation will occur.
Pressure loss factor of liquid (C) Pressure loss factor of gas/steam (C)
15mm
100
25mm
40mm 50mm 80mm 100mm 150mm 200mm250mm 300mm
10000
∆P = 98.1 × C × ρ × 10
∆P : Pressure loss (kPa)
ρ : Density (kg/cm3)
Pressure loss factor of liquid (C)
50
5000
30
3000
20
2000
10
1000
5
500
3
300
2
200
1
1
2
3
5
10
20
30
50
100
200 300
500
1000
2000 3000 5000
10000
2000 3000 50000
Pressure loss factor of gas/steam (C)
-5
Liquid flow rate (m3/h)
10
20
30
50
100
200 300
500
1000
2000 3000 5000
Gas/steam flow rate (m3/h)
F0901.EPS
Figure 9.1 Relations between Pressure Loss and Flow Rate (operating conditions)
TI 01F06A00-01E
1st Edition : May 30, 2001-00
<Toc> <Ind>
9-4
<9. SIZING>
(3) Gas
● Minimum/maximum measurable flow rate check
Table 9.3 Measurable Range for Gas
Nominal
Size
Flow
Rate
Limits
0 MPa
0.1 MPa
0.2 MPa
0.4 MPa
0.6 MPa
0.8 MPa
1 MPa
1.5 MPa
2 MPa
min.
4.8(11.1)
6.7(11.1)
8.2(11.1)
10.5(11.1)
12.5
16.1
19.7
28.6
37.5
46.4
max.
48.2
95.8
143
239
334
429
524
762
1000
1238
Minimum and Maximum Measurable Flow Rate in Nm3/h
2.5 MPa
15 mm
25 mm
40 mm
50 mm
80 mm
100 mm
min.
11.0(19.5)
15.5(19.5)
19.0(19.5)
24.5
29.0
33.3
40.6
59.0
77.5
95.9
max.
149
297
444
739
1034
1329
1624
2361
3098
3836
min.
21.8(30.0)
30.8
37.8
48.7
61.6
79.2
97
149
184
229
max.
356
708
1060
1764
2468
3171
3875
5634
7394
9153
min.
36.2(38.7)
51
62.4
80.5
102
131
161
233
306
379
max.
591
1174
1757
2922
4088
5254
6420
9335
12249
15164
min.
70.1
98.4
120
155
197
254
310
451
591
732
max.
1140
2266
3391
5642
7892
10143
12394
18021
23648
29274
min.
122
172
211
272
334
442
540
786
1031
1277
max.
1990
3954
5919
9847
13775
17703
21632
31453
41274
51095
min.
268
377
485
808
1131
1453
1776
2583
3389
4196
max.
4358
8659
12960
21559
30163
38765
47365
68867
90373
111875
min.
575
809
990
1445
2202
2599
3175
4617
6059
7501
max.
7792
15482
23172
38549
53933
69313
84693
123138
161591
200046
150 mm
200 mm
min.
1037
1461
1788
2306
3127
4019
4911
7140
9370
11600
max.
12049
23939
35833
59611
83400
107181
130968
190418
249881
309334
250 mm
min.
1485
2093
2561
3303
4479
5756
7033
10226
13419
16612
max.
17256
34286
51317
85370
119441
153499
187556
272699
357856
443017
300 mm
T0903.EPS
(1) The pressures shown above represent gauge pressures at 0°C.
(2) Each flow rate in the table represents the flow rate to the rate under the reference conditions (0°C, 101.325 kPa [1 atm]).
(3) Each value within parentheses is the lower limit value of the normal operation range.
Unless otherwise followed by a value in parentheses, the lower limit of the normal operation range is the same as that of the measurable range.
(4) 1 kgf/cm2 = 98.0665 kPa
(5) The maximum flow rate indicates the rate when the flow velocity is 80 m/s.
When using an YEWFLO with the same nominal diameter as the process piping and the maximum flow rate under the operating condition is larger than the upper limit of the measurable
range, use a YEWFLO one or two sizes smaller. If the smaller size YEWFLO can measure the
specified maximum and minimum flow rates, install it to the piping using reducers.
TI 01F06A00-01E
1st Edition : May 30, 2001-00
<Toc> <Ind>
9-5
<9. SIZING>
(4) Steam
● Minimum/maximum measurable flow rate check
Table 9.4 Measurable Range for Saturated Steam
Nominal
Size
Flow
Rate
Limits
0.1 MPa
0.2 MPa
0.4 MPa
0.6 MPa
0.8 MPa
1 MPa
1.5 MPa
2 MPa
2.5 MPa
3 MPa
min.
5.8(10.7)
7.0(11.1)
8.8(11.6)
10.4(12.1)
11.6(12.3)
12.8
15.3
19.1
23.6
28.1
max.
55.8
80
129
177
225
272
390
508
628
748
Minimum and Maximum Measurable Flow Rate in kg/h
15 mm
25 mm
40 mm
50 mm
80 mm
100 mm
min.
13.4(18.9)
16.2(20.0)
20.5
24.1
27.1
30
36
41
49
58
max.
169.7
247.7
400
548
696
843
1209
1575
1945
2318
min.
26.5(29.2)
32
40.6
47.7
53.8
59
72
93
116
138
max.
405
591
954
1310
1662
2012
2884
3759
4640
5532
min.
44.0
53
67.3
79
89
98
119
156
192
229
max.
671
979
1580
2170
2753
3333
4778
6228
7688
9166
min.
84.9
103
130
152
171
189
231
300
371
442
max.
1295
1891
3050
4188
5314
6435
9224
12024
14842
17694
min.
148
179
227
267
300
330
402
524
647
772
max.
2261
3300
5326
7310
9276
11232
16102
20986
25907
30883
min.
324
392
498
600
761
922
1322
1723
2127
2536
max.
4950
7226
11661
16010
20315
24595
35258
45953
56729
67624
min.
697
841
1068
1252
1410
1649
2364
3081
3803
4534
max.
8851
12918
20850
28627
36325
43976
63043
82165
101433
120913
150 mm
200 mm
min.
1256
1518
1929
2260
2546
2801
3655
4764
5882
7011
max.
13687
19977
32243
44268
56172
68005
97489
127058
156854
186978
250 mm
min.
1799
2174
2762
3236
3646
4012
5235
6823
8423
10041
max.
19602
28609
46175
63397
80445
97390
139614
181960
224633
267772
300 mm
T0904.EPS
(1) Each value within parentheses is the lower limit value of the normal operation range.
(2) Unless otherwise followed by a value in parentheses, the lower limit of the normal operation range is the same as that of the measurable range.
(3) The pressures shown above represent gauge pressures
(4) 1 kgf/cm2 = 98.0665 kPa
(5) The maximum flow rate indicates the rate when the flow velocity is 80 m/s.
TI 01F06A00-01E
1st Edition : May 30, 2001-00
<Toc> <Ind>
9-6
<9. SIZING>
Table 9.5 Measurable Range for Hot Steam
Pressure
Saturation
temperature
MPa
0.1
0.2
0.4
0.6
0.8
1
1.5
2
2.5
3
˚C
120.5
133.7
152
165.1
175.5
184.2
201.5
214.9
226.1
235.7
Density
kg/m3
1.1362
1.6582
2.6752
3.6731
4.6607
5.6426
8.0891
10.545
13.016
15.518
150˚C
1.0492
1.5851
2.132
---
---
---
---
---
---
---
Ratio
0.92
0.96
0.80
---
---
---
---
---
---
---
200˚C
0.9317
1.4022
2.3596
3.3408
4.3485
5.3856
---
---
---
---
Ratio
0.82
0.85
0.88
0.91
0.93
0.95
---
---
---
---
250˚C
0.8396
1.2612
2.1135
2.9787
3.8576
4.751
7.0549
9.4729
12.026
14.738
Superheated
temperature
Ratio
0.74
0.76
0.79
0.81
0.83
0.84
0.87
0.90
0.92
0.95
300˚C
0.7648
1.1476
1.9187
2.6978
3.4849
4.2805
6.3083
8.3964
10.551
12.78
Ratio
0.67
0.69
0.72
0.73
0.75
0.76
0.78
0.80
0.81
0.82
350˚C
0.7025
1.0534
1.7589
2.4696
3.1855
3.9068
5.7342
7.5979
9.5003
11.444
Ratio
0.62
0.64
0.66
0.67
0.68
0.69
0.71
0.72
0.73
0.74
400˚C
0.6498
0.9738
1.6246
2.279
2.9369
3.5984
5.2684
6.9623
8.6808
10.425
Ratio
0.57
0.59
0.61
0.62
0.63
0.64
0.65
0.66
0.67
0.67
T0905.EPS
Sizing for superheated steam is also available by multiplying the measured flow rate of saturated steam by the correction factor K1 as follows:
Max. measurable flow rate of superheated steam = Max. measurable flow rate of saturated
steam (Mmax) x correction factor (K1)
(Example)
If superheated steam with a pressure of 2.5 MPa and a temperature of 250°C is measured
within a nominal size of 2 inches, what is the measurable flow rate?
Mmax × K1 = 7688 × 0.92 = 7073kg/h
These tables and equations can be used to calculate the maximum measurable flow rate of steam
by pressure and size.
(5) Summary
The measurable and normal operation ranges for this flowmeter depend on the conditions of
liquid to be measured. Choose an optimum diameter in consideration of the following conditions:
■Minimum measurable flow rate: With a Reynolds number of 5000 or more and a larger
flow rate that can be calculated from the relation between the minimum flow rate and density.
■Normal operation range (assured accuracy) minimum flow rate: With a Reynolds
number of 20000 or more (40000 for 150, 200, 250, 300 mm) and a larger flow rate that can be
calculated from the relation between the minimum flow rate and density. For the measurable
range and assured accuracy range, refer to General Specifications sheet GS 01F06A00-01E.
● For flow rates smaller than the lower value that can be derived from the conditions, the
outputs (both of the analog and pulse outputs) show zero.
■Maximum flow rate: 10 m/s for liquid; 80 m/s for gas
■Check the cavitation
TI 01F06A00-01E
1st Edition : May 30, 2001-00
<Toc> <Ind>
<10. FLUID DATA>
10-1
10. FLUID DATA
(1) Density and viscosity of liquid
Table 10.1 Viscosity of Liquid
Liquid substance
100% Acetone
35% Acetone
Aniline
Amyl alcohol
Sulfur dioxide
100% Ammonia
26% Ammonia
Isobutyl alcohol
100% Ethyl alcohol
80% Ethyl alcohol
30% Ethyl alcohol
Ethylene glycol
Ether
Ethyl chloride
o-chlorotoluene
Chlorobenzene
31.5% Hydrochloric acid
Octane
50% Sodium hydroxide
o-xylene
100% Glycerin
50% Glycerin
Chloroform
100% Acetic acid
70% Acetic acid
Ethyl acetate
Methyl acetate
Vinyl acetate
Carbon tetrachloride
Diphenyl
Mercury
Carbolic acid
Carbon dioxide
Turpentine oil
Kerosene
Toluene
Naphthalene
Nitrobenzene
Carbon disulfide
Brine (25% CaCl2)
Butyl alcohol
Hexane
Heptane
Benzene
Pentane
Water
100% Methyl alcohol
60% Methyl alcohol
30% Methyl alcohol
111% Sulfuric acid
98% Sulfuric acid
60% Sulfuric acid
Viscosity (cP)
0˚C
10˚C
20˚C
40˚C
0.268
1.070
2.300
2.580
0.290
0.088
0.850
2.320
0.829
1.200
1.370
11.800
0.200
0.230
0.820
0.670
1.870
0.450
42.500
0.670
0.085
1.76
3.00
0.667
0.322
1.80
4.40
4.50
0.34
0.115
1.27
4.20
1.20
2.01
2.71
23.50
0.24
0.27
1.06
0.88
2.40
0.56
110.00
0.84
14.99
6.05
0.57
1.22
2.66
0.449
0.381
0.45
0.97
3.00
1.554
11.60
0.074
1.50
2.42
0.586
2.46
0.396
3.450
3.870
0.355
0.458
0.760
0.254
1.310
0.720
2.100
2.440
66.000
39.000
7.500
2.01
0.366
2.45
2.95
0.320
0.409
0.65
0.229
1.01
0.62
1.59
1.76
59.00
27.00
5.70
1.440
0.319
1.320
1.780
0.264
0.332
0.492
0.395
3.2
10.2
8.0
0.42
0.15
1.9
7.8
1.84
3.69
6.94
48.00
0.292
0.335
1.38
1.18
3.10
0.71
0.356
2.4
6.5
6.0
0.37
0.13
1.54
5.7
1.46
2.71
4.05
33.50
0.263
0.300
1.20
1.01
2.7
0.63
1.06
12100.00
12.5
0.70
0.94
3950
9.0
0.63
5.13
0.578
3.57
0.507
0.56
1.35
4.15
1.685
0.50
1.13
3.50
1.615
0.10
2.10
3.65
0.768
3.09
0.433
4.83
5.19
0.397
0.517
0.910
0.283
1.79
0.86
2.85
3.63
90.00
10.00
80˚C
0.41
1.10
0.94
0.22
0.44
0.80
0.435
0.57
3.40
0.141
0.165
0.52
0.41
1.21
0.305
6.70
0.45
3.500
0.466
0.900
1.630
0.360
0.312
0.370
0.740
2.290
1.450
4.770
1.20
1.100
1.660
0.466
0.62
0.82
0.319
0.967
0.87
0.650
0.56
0.78
0.248
0.217
0.26
0.472
1.34
1.298
1.59
0.42
0.76
0.231
0.316
0.36
28.000 9.60
14.000 5.50
3.710 2.21
T1001.EPS
TI 01F06A00-01E
1st Edition : May 30, 2001-00
<Toc> <Ind>
<10. FLUID DATA>
10-2
Table 10.2 Density of Liquid
T˚C
ρg/cm3
Vm/s
Acetone
Aniline
Alcohol
Ether
Ethylene glycol
n-octane
o-xylol
Chloroform
Chlorobenzene
Glycerin
Acetic acid
Methyl acetate
Ethyl acetate
Cyclohexane
Dioxane
Heavy water
Carbon tetrachloride
Mercury
Nitrobenzene
Carbon disulfide
Bromoform
n-propyl alcohol
n-pentane
n-hexane
20
20
20
20
20
20
20
20
20
20
20
20
20
20
20
20
20
20
20
20
20
20
20
20
0.7905
1.0216
0.7893
0.7135
1.1131
0.7021
0.871
1.4870
1.1042
1.2613
1.0495
0.928
0.900
0.779
1.033
1.1053
1.5942
13.5955
1.207
1.2634
2.8904
0.8045
0.6260
0.654
1190
1659
1168
1006
1666
1192
1360
1001
1289
1923
1159
1181
1164
1284
1389
1388
938
1451
1473
1158
931
1225
1032
1083
Light oil
Transformer oil
Spindle oil
Petroleum
Gasoline
25
32.5
32
34
34
0.81
0.859
0.905
0.825
0.803
1324
1425
1342
1295
1250
Water
35% sea water
13.5
16
1
1
1460
1510
Liquid name
Legends:
T: temperature; ρ: viscosity; V: sound speed
(Bibliography: Supersonic Waves Technology Handbook published by
The Nikkan Kogyo Shimbun Ltd.)
T1002.EPS
TI 01F06A00-01E
1st Edition : May 30, 2001-00
<Toc> <Ind>
<10. FLUID DATA>
10-3
(2) Density and viscosity of gas
Molecular Weight and Densities of Typical Gases under Standard Conditions (1 atm, 0°C)
Gas name
Chemical
formula
Molecular
Density (g/l)
weight
Sulfur dioxide
Argon
Ammonia
Carbon monoxide
Hydrogen chloride
SO2
Ar
NH3
CO
HCI
64.07
39.94
17.03
28.01
36.47
2.9268
1.7828
0.7708
1.2501
1.6394
Chlorine
Air
Oxygen
Hydrogen
Carbonic acid gas
Cl2
O2
H2
CO2
70.91
28.97
32.00
2.016
44.01
3.2204
1.2928
1.4289
0.0898
1.9768
Nitrogen
Neon
Helium
Hydrogen sulfide
Isobutane
N2
Ne
He
H2 S
C4H10
28.02
20.18
4.003
34.08
58.12
1.2507
0.8713
0.1769
1.5392
* 2.081
Ethane
Ethylene
Methyl chloride
Butane (n)
Butadiene (1.3)
l-butene
Freon 12
Freon 13
Propane
Propylene
C2H6
C2H4
CH3Cl
C4H10
C4H6
C4H8
CCl2F2
CClF3
C3H8
C3H6
30.07
28.05
50.49
58.12
54.09
56.11
120.9
104.5
44.10
42.08
* 1.048
* 0.976
2.3044
* 2.094
(2.301)
* 2.013
(5.533)
(4.762)
* 1.562
* 1.480
CH4
16.04
* 0.555
Methane
Based on “Chemical Industry Handbook”
The value within parentheses was calculated in consideration of a
compression coefficient.
The value with an asterisk (*) indicates density in which the gas is in the
real state according to JIS K 2301 (1992).
T1003.EPS
TI 01F06A00-01E
1st Edition : May 30, 2001-00
<Toc> <Ind>
<10. FLUID DATA>
10-4
(3) Viscosity of gas
Viscosity (10 -6 poise)
Gas substance
Dinitrogen monoxide
Acetylene
Acetone
Sulfur dioxide
Argon
Ammonia
Carbon monoxide
Isobutane
Ethane
Ethyl alcohol
Ethyl ether
Ethylene
Ethyl chloride
Hydrogen chloride
Chlorine
Air
Acetic acid
Ethyl acetate
Nitrogen oxide
Oxygen
Cyanogen
Hydrogen cyanide
Cyclohexane
3H2+1N2
Hydrogen bromide
Bromine
Hydrogen
Carbon dioxide
Toluene
Carbon disulfide
Butylene
Fluorine
Butene
Freon 11 (CCl3F)
Freon 21 (CHCl2F)
Propane
Propylene
Hexane
Helium
Benzene
Water
Methane
Methyl alcohol
Hydrogen iodide
Hydrogen sulfide
0˚C
20˚C
50˚C
100˚C
200˚C
137
96
71
116
212
93
166
69
86
75
68
94
90
131
123
171
72
70
179
192
93
94
66
132
170
146
84
138
65
89
71
205
79
130
107
75
78
60
186
68
146
102
77
126
222
100
177
74
92
160
111
83
140
242
111
189
225
101
97
143
132
181
78
75.5
188
203
110
107
99
70
139
108
77
148
183
126
95
163
271
128
210
95
115
109
96
126
124
183
168
218
101
95
227
244
127
121
87
162
234
153
88
147
69
97
76
224
84
109
113
80
84
65
196
74
94
162
76
107
83
250
91
116
121
88
96
71
208
82
103
185
88
126
95
299
105
130
134
101
107
82
229
96
128
133
122
121
229
110
162
119
396
130
154
159
125
102
89
173
117
101
145
195
86
83
204
218
108
95
186
124
118
106
202
119
207
321
165
247
143
140
120
140
157
230
210
133
120
268
290
148
109
190
104
270
121
166
147
155
293
159
Viscosity of gas (1 atm min.)
Viscosity (10 -6 poise)
Gas substance
Temperature
(˚C)
1atm
40atm
60atm
Air
Carbonic acid gas
Carbonic acid gas
Hydrogen
Hydrogen
Nitrogen
Nitrogen
16 to 20
20
40
30
70
30
70
170
148
157
90
98
179
196
180
166
176
96
102
194
210
187
700
187
97
103
202
215
80atm 200atm
198
810
330
99
104
207
222
110
113
241
256
T1004.EPS
TI 01F06A00-01E
1st Edition : May 30, 2001-00
i
<Int> <Toc> <Ind>
Revision Information
● Title
: Model DY Vortex Flowmeter
● Manual No. : TI 01F06A00-01E
May 2001/1st Edition/R1.02*
Newly published
* : Denotes the release number of the software corresponding to the contents of this technical information.
The revised contents are valid until the next edition is issued.
Written by
Product Marketing Dept.
Process Control Systems Center
Industrial Automation Systems Business Div.
Yokogawa Electric Corporation
Published by Yokogawa Electric Corporation
2-9-32 Nakacho, Musashino-shi, Tokyo 180, JAPAN
Printed by
Yokogawa Graphic Arts Co., Ltd.
TI 01F06A00-01E
1st Edition : May 30, 2001-00
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