Ambient computing Michel Banâtre Paul Couderc Frédéric Weis Content Two examples (video) Mobility Introduction to ambient – Definition – Context – Reasons Examples – – – – – The precursors Location based User assistant Colaborative backup Physical web Implementation computing Introduction Video – Ubi-Board – Ubi-Bus Some explanations Content Two examples (video) Mobility Introduction to ambient – Definition – Context – Reasons Examples – – – – – The precursors Location based User assistant Collaborative backup Physical web Implementation computing Mobility (1) Mobile applications (« standard ») – – – – – – Distributed files systems, Databases, Web, Mail, Multimedia … Mobile support for execution – Mobile computer, – Appliances PDA, mobile phone… Mobility (2) Problems – Limited resources Processing power Energy, (battery), Network, (bandwidth, connectivity,…), User interface, (period of interest) Environment variable Energy <-> MIPS Networks, Dependability – Security, – Reliability, …. Mobility (3) Solution – Adaptative approaches Transparency Application level, Hybrid Mobility (4) Transparency Principle: To emulate at the system level missing resources (Middleware approach) Examples: – Cellular network handover technique to mask user mobility between cellulars (the mobility is transparency from the user point of view Disconnected file systems (CODA) – To emulate the connection to the file server • Hoarding in connected mode, similar to prefetch technique in architecture. • caching in the disconnected mode • Update synchronisation at the reconnection time (hard problem due to multiple writers). • One limit: coherency problem at the reconciliation time Mobility (5) Transparency Examples – Info stations To provide a continuous network with a high bandwidth onto a discontinuous network (discontinuous high bandwidth small cellular) Problems – To take into account the discontinuity and the distance between two cellulars. Solutions – Implementation of (Hoarding) mechanisms at the info station level, and caching mechanisms at the terminal level. – Take into account the distance between info stations and the velocity and trajectory of user in order to define the size of the cache in the terminals. Hybrid solution Principle – To combine the two previous approaches Transparency, if possible, Provide the adaptation at the application level otherwise.. Example – ASR CODA After a disconnections mode, if there is a conflict problem for file update reconciliation there is a specific application Application Specific Resolver to solve the conflict. Analyse Transparency – No impact on the applications (in particular existing one) but it is hard to take into account mobility aspects. Specific adaptation – More complex – But it is possible to have a fine adaptation the behaviour of the application and integrate mobility aspects in the application design. Content Two examples (video) Mobility Introduction to ambient – Definition – Context – Reasons Examples – – – – – The precursors Location based User assistant Colaborative backup Physical web Implementation computing Ambient Computing (1) Main principles Another way to exploit mobility and embedded systems. In the mobility area, – The user distinguishes his laptops and his real life environment. - Real life environment: movement, temperature, noises, … information to be exploited. - - Neccesity to provide new models to acces and to manage useful information based on the notion of context. To imagine new applications. - Behind this there is …Ubiquitous computing, ambient computing, pervasive computing…. Ambient Computing (3) Main principles Context can be related to a location problem, position (x,y). It is necessary to have a strong integration of computing equipments and the real world. – It is based on Mobile and wireless facilities, Embedded systems, Nice user interfaces First definition given by Mark Weiser « The computer for the 21st century » in 1991 Ambient computing (3) Weiser’s definition Principle – « Merging physical and digital world » Spreading intelligence in everyday objects Motivation – To help users when they interact with their real environment. – The computer has to des appear and the interaction with this computer have to be implicit (if possible) – Context awareness (context sensitive)) – Information which characterizes a real life situation – Information which relates one entity with its current task. Three steps – A set of sensors capture information from the environment, – From this information, we have a situation, – Services and/or information delivering are provided related to this situation. Adaptative vs ambient computing approach Adaptative approach – We try to make applications already running in new environments related to mobility and wireless communication facilities. Ubiquitous computing – We assist user in a transparent way when he moves inside his environment. Context sensitive Computer use is quite different. – It is not machine centric, but it combines at the same time information captured from the real world and information from the information system. Information and services need to be accessible in an spontaneous way depending of the context. – Two problems: To define and to get a context, To exploit a context. To get a context (1) To get a context = to detect and analyse situations. – Ex. : number of persons in a room, name of these persons,… Four classes of context: – Computer resources context: Access to a network, available bandwidth, available resources,… – User context : Identity, profile, physical location, …. – Environment physical context related to the user : Noise intensity in a room, temperature, people near a the user,… – The time parameter: It can be combine with the other context elements in order to be able to manage the context history. To get a context (2) Simple methods, – Embedded sensors on the entity; GPS,… – Embedded sensors in the environment: movement detection, light detection, … Combined methods, take into account a set of criteria. – Context = set of persons in a same room – Application = to get benefit of these persons in the same room in order to exchange information based on common interests. – Context related to the physical proximity of mobile entities (communication range) and of their mobility. Context exploitation Adaptation Information presentation (ex: virtual reality) Performance increasing (ex: energy saving) Information access To extract information from the information system using the context (the nearer pizzeria) Notification Contextual annotation To generate information in the SI from the context (ex: observations “on the field”) Reasons for ambient computing Why ambient computing is possible now ? – Technological reason Wireless communications, Short distance wireless communications Embedded systems – New users behaviour Mobile phone, web accesses. Technological reasons (1) High hardware integration (small size) – "Systems on the chips", smart cards … Design of new embedded operating systems – New solution for critical resources management Energy – Dynamic update of the processor frequency in order to reduce the energy consumption, in particular in multi processor architecture) Real time – Programming Mobile code : Java, API MIDP Technological reasons (2) New technologies – GPS, RFID, … Wireless networks short range – WPANs : Bluetooth, wireless USB … – WLANs : 802.11 a/b/g, which can be used either in the ad hoc or infrastructure mode – Cellular networks : 2G/2.5G (GSM / GPRS), 3G (UMTS) – Future networks 4G : discontinuous coverage networks based on very high bandwidth network (info station) and traditional cellular networks. New behaviour New vision of the computer due to the development of internet. People are more reactive to the deployment of implicit information systems. – Mobile phone uses anytime, anyway – New local services are increasing Calendar, distributed agenda SMS, MMS Web access (WAP) …. Content Two examples (video) Mobility Introduction to ambient – Definition – Context – Reasons computing Examples – – – – – The precursors Location based User assistant Collaborative backup Physical web Implementation The first ones: ParcTab (1) ParcTab project Xerox-Parc A campus especially equipped with – Each user has a small computer (the tab) with a tactile screen and an hand written recognized system. – The computer is able to communicate with a server using infra-red cellular located in the environment The first ones: ParcTab (2) Tab Pad board User IR antenna The first ones : ParcTab (3) General architecture SHELL MAIL TAB SHELL TAB MAIL CALENDAR SHELL MEMOS ParcTab Agent TAB Tab VOTE CALENDAR Transceiver IR Ethernet Gateway Applications LOCATE The first ones: ParcTab (4) The user location is based on the infra-red cellular in the physical environment. Applications – « classical ones » Information access using the cellular network. Mails Location et paging – Contextual applications Group management and shared board, Resource selection (printer, fax,…) taking into account the physical proximity ( to be closed to an infra red access point) To activate an application taking into account a specific context. The first ones: Active Badge (1) Designed at the ATT lab Cambridge First system provided an indoor positioning Goal – To localized people in a building – The first idea was to help the phone operator to ring a fix phone in the nearest office near be the called person The first ones : Active Badge (2) Individual tag with low energy consumption – Infra red communication – A beacon is sent every 15 seconds toward a (infra red) sensor Sensor network in a building – Connected using phone circuit – Each sensor is able to store upto 20 user uid before processing QuickTime™ et un décompresseur TIFF (non compressé) sont requis pour visionner cette image. A master station is connected to this sensor network in order to deliver user identifier to the phone operator. The first ones: Active Badge (3) Commands provided to the operator FIND (name) – To localize the current tag and deliver the five last localizations of this tag. WITH (name) – To localize the current tag and deliver information related to proximity tags. LOOK (location) – Look for tag near a given location. NOTIFY (name) – Alarm toward a specific tag. ( the alarm is delayed until the tag is closed to the sensor network). HISTORY (name) – To deliver the history of a tag location during the last hour. Location systems Mainly oriented on the physical location of users – ex. : Smart Floor Major problems – Cost for deployment – Confidentiality. Application domains – WEB Technologies: Cooltown, Mobisaic – Assistant for visit Museums : Hippie Cities : Lancaster’s guide, CyberGuide, GUIDE, Smart Sight Campus : Metraunot, C-Map – Assistant for shopping : ShopNavi Smart Floor System to identify and to locate an user – Researches done at Georgia Tech. – To propose a new solution which differs from the classical ones based on tag or voice recognition Based on the measure of biometric parameters Biometric parameter: GRF (Ground Reaction Force), To define a GRF signature for each user, To identify a user from the comparison between the current GRF and the GRF database where all the GRF are stored. – Efficiency of the recognition: 90 % (group of twenty users). Application – Information delivery to students on interactive board depend on the identification. Mobisaic Location sensitive information system. – Based on a WEB architecture – Informations are stored on http servers. – User accesses to servers are based on a wireless network. Two basics mechanisms – Dynamic URLs Environment variables are part of URLs – Ex. : http://www/offices/$(location).html Association: dynamic URL to static URL is done on the client appliance – Dynamic documents A web page is updated as soon as the user context is changing, (for example his location). – The client is linked explicitly to variables, – This linking operation is managed by the infrastructure Cooltown (1) Principles Déveloped by the HP Labs Goals – – To combined the web infrastructure and the basic concepts behind ambient computing. Attach a virtual representation to places people, day life objects,… Each entity is associated to a set of web pages, the access to these web page is related to the physical proximity. Web presence – – Either we have a local server associated to an object (printer, video projector,…) Either a remote server is in charge of providing information, the access is initiated from an object, (ex: painter in a museum). CoolTown (2) CoolTown in a meeting room Internet Place Web Portal Place manager URL URL -Reservation -Printer -Electronic whiteboard -People Print URL Chat URL CoolTown (3) web presence on a passive object Tag resolver tag WWW 2. Transformation en URL 1. Get id 3. Get HTTP Lancaster’s guide (1) Electronic guide for tourism in the old Lancaster city. Experiment with 60 users during four weeks. Experimental architecture – – Tablets PC WiFi 802.11 Physical location based on WiFi cellular. Lancaster’s guide (2) Localisation object galery castle References between objects Main characteristics of the information system: – – coffee Link to an html page Geographical information, Hypertext information Implementation of data caches to mask disconnection problems, (between two WiFi cellulars) – Pages HTML Dynamic and distributed Based on However these data are considered dirty if the disconnection time is too long, (data will be out of the location context) Lancaster’s guide (3) Applications Interactive guide to find information Navigation into the city using a map providing by the system. Creation d’un tour personalized tour., Communication with other visitors Connection with others services (hotels, restaurants). C-MAP system System for guide tours in museums – To allow to users to locate points of interest on a map. – To take into account the profile of the users, (semantic map) Dynamic management of a personalized visit. – User location based on active badge (ATT) Size of a cellular, two meters. Information stored on a centralized server, accessed using a WLAN. – The UID of the tag of a user are sent using html. Metraunot system Guide system on a campus – Design to give the good direction to users. – Localisation is based on bar code. Bar codes are associated to events which are automatiquely integrated in the user information system. – Information is stored on three servers connected using WLAN. (1) A data base for localisations (2) A data base to store information about user location. (3) A data base for events – The appliance is responsible to syntetize a context using (1) and (3) and find the user direction using (2). Shopping applications Applications designed to help the client in a shop. – Exploits a richer context than those which are based only on localization. – Take into account the physical proximity of products in the shop. Can be used to personalize advertisement. Can be used to build user profiles – Ex:WEB navigation in a shop, Ajout de la dimension physique à la navigation WEB ShopNavi (SONY) – The client get directly information related to the product he is taking off, – Help to localize a product Virtual reality. User « memory » assistant (1) This assistant is based on past events Forget-me-not – To create a data base of context in order to help the user to find a past situation. – Requests on this data base such that «is ju-Julio present? » – Similar architecture to Parc Tab (Xerox) The Tab collects information related to user activities – Person encounters, – Access to an application (agenda, board, …). User “memory” assistant(2) Automatic occurs. recall of a task to run when a situation – CyberMinder Notification of the recall using the communication message system – Mail – SMS,… Each message has a deadline – The physical context is considered Notification triggered Notification process, Encounters applications To exploit the physical proximity of mobile users – To enrich encounters with contextual services, – Major interest with Bluetooth Simple interactions … – Proxy Lady Notifications triggered when proximate interesting profile are discovered (mails exchange) – More complex complex… – Proem Automatic exhange of user profile, (professional cards), – Side Surfer Automatic exchange of interesting documents based on user profile. Collaborative backup Mosaic Before, data were produced on fixed station. Now, new devices create data during disconnection period Short-range wireless communications (WiFi, BlueTooth, etc…) Mobile terminals (cell phones, PDAs, digital cameras, mobile sensors, mobile robots, ...) New data (Pictures, movies, schedules, contact lists, etc…) Risk of data loss when the device fails A collaborative backup system can cope with this problem 48 Collaborative backup MoSAIC running Scenario : – Alice takes notes on her devices during a meeting – After the meeting, she takes the bus home – Once at home, she notices that she has lost her PDA Loss of the device ¸ Loss of data – But, thanks to MoSAIC, Alice recovers her data from the Internet once at home The data have been transparently backed-up on neighbor terminals by MoSAIC 49 Collaborative backup MoSAIC's Basic Idea MoSAIC uses neighbours interaction to backup data Reliable storage on the Internet Home terminal Short-range wireless communications Very high data resilience Low data resilience Increasing data resilience 50 Collaborative backup Issues Handling data coherency and data dissemination – Fragmentation, replication, etc... – Scheduling replica backups Resource management – Network management – Memory management Security – Encryption of data – Trust between terminals 51 Collaborative backup Applications Personal devices – PDA – Cellphones MoSAIC - http://www.laas.fr/mosaic Swarm robots – Mobile robots realizing collaborative tasks Mobile sensors – Delivery tracking – Contagious disease tracking (for animals) 52 The Web in the psysical space Motivations – Mobile navigators (Wap,…). – Numerous documents related to physical objects and/or represented physical objects/ places. Opportunities to access these informations taking into account the physical context. Opportunities to build web site implicitly from the physical world. Context in the Web (1) Relative position of a document in the information space. – Proximity due to other documents (or pages) Example : – Set of pages which referenced a document/page. Context in the Web (2) Existing dimensions – References (<a ref=…>) Static links specified by the creator/writer of the documents. Dynamic links – Ex: collaborative navigation : • Clients who have bought this book have also bought this other one… – Temporal location The history of navigation (past/next button) – Textual proximity: A set of world/phrase which can be discovered in a document Context in the Web (3) Mobility impact Numerous « starting points/roots » are related to the physical context. – Examples : Time schedule for flights in an airport. Information on a product in a shop. Attendee profiles in a conference. Context in the Web (4) The idea To consider the spatial navigation as a new dimension in the Web, like the hypertext, or historical one). : – In the spatial mode, le navigator displays spontaneously the page for the current place. Ex: the good scheduling, if I am closed to trains to the airport – Obviously classical navigation is always available, the user need to choose it. Temporal navigation (next/previous) Hypertext navigation (given url) Context in the Web (2) Looking for information in the physical space. Association of information to physical objects. A set of word in a given geometrical space (sphere,…) specifies a textual context. – Example : « chocolat », « sarrazin » cuisine.com Crepes, Genoise au Chocolat, etc. New applications Smart space – New possibilities for interactions, Help to reduce handicap (cultural and/or physical). Automatic checking – Intelligent frig. Stock management Game, Etc. Content Two examples (video) Mobility Introduction to ambient Examples Implementation computing Implementation problems To implement an implicit link between real environment and processing. – To get a perception of the state of the environment and of its change (sensor). – To process the collected data and determine the impact of the result of this computation on the environment. – Distributed execution in a very volatile environment – Information are « physically » linked to physical objects which may have a strong mobility – Physical processing are tightly coupled with physical activities. Ambient computing application design Logical approach – GIS geographical Information System Physical approach – Spatial Information System Principles Classical implementation Based on geolocalisation – Physical -> logical representation -> Physical Service plateform GPS Logical representation model ? processing Perception Closer cab? Actions Physical world – Drawbacks Complexity, scalability, cost, privacy (people)… Principles one observation It is not necessary to have a global infrastructure: – Information is linked to objects – The interactions in the real world can be considered as the processing of this information. Ex: Urban transport services Arrival time : 04h07pm Line# 16 Destination: university Next stop: tournebride blind: STOP 16 requested! The Spatial approach (1) Principles of the spatial machine – The structure of the information system is based on physical objects and geometrical properties related to these objects Orientation, relative position of objects, physical coverage of the data associated with an object – The physical space is considered as a « big memory » used to structure and manage all information. An information item belongs to a shape (cube, sphere, …) – The addressing mechanism and Read/Write operations are based on these physical properties – The application control flow is driven by physical mobility <d> <a> <a> <e> <b> <c> <f> Application mobility <g> The Spatial approach (2) Information system built from the physical space. – Data are asociated to geometrical space around the considered physical objects – The computation is directly expressed from the interaction between objects from the physical space. <‘a’> <12,‘b’> <‘c’,5> <‘a’> <‘a’> <12,‘b’> <12,‘b’> <‘c’,5> The Spatial approach (3) Two questions: – How to support spatial addressing? – How to reflect process mobility in a such information space? The Spatial approach (4) Spatial coverage of an information – Geometrical property : Volume – Sphere – cube To belong (or not) to a volume. Information structure – Information is structured using tuples – A tuple is always associated to a physical object. <10int, ‘pierre’string, 50.3float> <‘a’> <5> <‘somme’,10> The Spatial approach (4) Tuple-space, derived from Linda Linda – Programming language for process synchronisation. – Shared memory between processes – Anonymous addressing based on type motifs tuples <string, int> <10, string> <‘a’,5>, <‘b’,’b’>, <‘b’,3> <5,’a’>, <10,5>, <10,‘a’>, <10,’a’,5> – Linda primitives : Out(t) In(pattern) Rd(pattern) Eval(t) The Spatial approach (5) Instructions – Out(t) To publish a tuple – Rd(m) To read a tuple among those corresponding to the type m The process is suspended until one corresponding tuple is found – Capture(m) To read all the tuples corresponding to the type m. The process is suspended until at least one corresponding tuple is found. – Drop(t) To retrieve one tuple, the instruction can be run only by the process which have created the tuple (out operation). The Spatial approach (6) Physical objects are able to: – To publish tuples – To « view » tuples associated to proximate physical objects. tuple-space management – Embedded computer (mobile phone, access point,….) Tuple spatial coverage – Short distance Wireless communication. Infrarouge IEEE 802.11 Bluetooth RFID Mixed of Bluetooth and RFID (see technical details) The Spatial approach (7) Application design – Building and managing information system implicitly : Spontaneous construction of the information system simply by disposing physical objects in the space. The relations between the information are derived from the spatial arrangement of the objects. Spontaneous evolution of the information system when objects move. The Spatial approach (8) Differences with classical solutions Logical representation model Perception Logical representation processing Actions Physical World Physical world Processing The global infrastructure is not necessary Simplicity (architecture et programmes). – It is not necessary to maintain an intermediate representation of the physical world (Geographical database) No centralisation of confidential informayion related to people. – Easy to deploy (low cost). Independent from operators. – Free services. The Spatial approach (9) Results Support for a spatial information systems – Well defined to support spontaneous operation related to user mobility and to proximate interactions. Innovative applications: – The mobile phone is the best interface between users and ambient information systems. It is used as a sensor. WebWalker, a physical Web Ubi-Bus, to help handicapped person in public transportation Ubi-Q, a system to support efficient queue management (DAB, fast-food,…) Ubi-Board, A fragmented and distributed display. SPREAD : architecture •Request application management, flow •Request application management, flow control control synchronisation synchronisation •Spatial data manages with four operations (API) SPREAD API SPREAD engine Controller ••Two Two tupple tupple space space management management system system •Local : tuples published by the •Local : tuples published by the local local node node ••Remote Remote :: tuples tuples received received from from neighbour neighbour nodes nodes RemoteTM TM Remote Readannouncer announcer Read Tuplelistener listener Tuple LocalTM TM Local Tupleforwarder forwarder Tuple Readlistener listener Read Wireless interface OUT <data> ••Read Read Announcer Announcer :: periodical periodical announced announced of of waiting waiting read read (UDP (UDP multicast) multicast) ••ReadListener ReadListener :: listent listent to to Read Read type type of of neighbour neighbour nodes nodes ••TupleForwarder TupleForwarder :: send send tuples tuples corresponding to a corresponding to a read read type type ••TupleListener TupleListener :: received received tuples tuples related related to to aa read read type type OUT Controller <data> RemoteTM TM Remote LocalTM TM Local <info, new> <data> Readannouncer announcer Read Readlistener listener Read Tuplelistener listener Tuple Tupleforwarder forwarder Tuple LocalTM TM Local Tupleforwarder forwarder Tuple Tuplelistener listener Tuple RemoteTM TM Remote <tuple, 10> Readlistener listener Read Readannouncer announcer Read DROP <data> DROP Controller <data> RemoteTM TM Remote LocalTM TM Local <info, new> <data> Readannouncer announcer Read Readlistener listener Read Tuplelistener listener Tuple Tupleforwarder forwarder Tuple LocalTM TM Local Tupleforwarder forwarder Tuple Tuplelistener listener Tuple Readlistener listener Read Readannouncer announcer Read RemoteTM TM Remote <tuple, 10> READ Local READ <data> <data> Controller <data> <data> ? RemoteTM TM Remote LocalTM TM Local <info, new> <data> Readannouncer announcer Read Readlistener listener Read Tuplelistener listener Tuple Tupleforwarder forwarder Tuple LocalTM TM Local Tupleforwarder forwarder Tuple Tuplelistener listener Tuple RemoteTM TM Remote <tuple, 10> Readlistener listener Read Readannouncer announcer Read READ Remote READ <tuple,?int> <tuple,10> Controller <tuple,?int> ? <tuple,?int> ? <tuple,?int> ? RemoteTM TM Remote Readannouncer announcer Read <info, new> <data> <tuple,10> Tuplelistener listener Tuple Tupleforwarder forwarder Tuple Readlistener listener Read <tuple,10> <tuple,?int> ? Readlistener listener Read <tuple,?int> ? LocalTM TM Local <tuple,10> Tupleforwarder forwarder Tuple Tuplelistener listener Tuple <tuple,10> RemoteTM TM Remote LocalTM TM Local Readannouncer announcer Read <tuple,10> CAPTURE <tuple,10> <tuple,20> <tuple,11> READ <tuple,?int> Controller <tuple,?int> ? <tuple,?int> ? <tuple,10> <tuple,11> LocalTM TM Local RemoteTM TM Remote <tuple,10> <tuple11> <tuple,?int> ? Readannouncer announcer Read Tuplelistener listener Tuple <tuple,?int> ? Tupleforwarder forwarder Tuple <tuple, 20> <data> Readlistener listener Read <tuple,10><tuple11> Readlistener listener Read <tuple,?int> ? <tuple,20> Tupleforwarder forwarder Tuple Tuplelistener listener Tuple <tuple,10><tuple,11> LocalTM TM Local <tuple,10> <tuple11> RemoteTM TM Remote Readannouncer announcer Read Technological aspects (1) Context sensivity and context description have different requirements, depending on the service/application – – – – – Range Reactivity Penetration / Radiation properties Multicast support Built-in security support Reactivity [lower bound; upper bound] 10s 1s 10ms HF [Location accuracy; range] UHF 1m 3m 10m 100m Technological aspects (2) RFID + Bluetooth Basic principle – Linking the handset (or user device) with other(s) physical object(s). Virtual link Regular BT comm RFID : provides connexion parameters and context descriptors (language, etc.) Obvious benefits : - bypass BT sluggish reactivity - can address non-discoverable devices QuickTime™ et un décompresseur TIFF (non compressé) sont requis pour visionner cette image. QuickTime™ et un décompresseur TIFF (non compressé) sont requis pour visionner cette image. Technological aspects (3) Advantages Progressivity – Leverage on existing technologies BT was slow to take off, but has reach a significant user base (> 250 Millions phones in 2006, ~1 billion expected by the end of 2008) – The tag can be used to address heterogeneous communications technologies (SMS, BT, Wi-Fi…) and various devices (phone, headset, … ) Bt addr, accept streaming audio Bt addr, accept audio, image, … Technological aspects (4) Advantages Flexibility – Support both personal and collective services – Support spontaneous as well as user-initiated triggering – Depending on the requirements of the service and the target site, using external tags allows a fine tuning of the context sensitivity : Selection of the appropriate RFID technology (LF, HF, UHF) Specific antenna design Technological aspects (5) Advantages Convenience – Physical vs virtual, will the users really adopt “e-everything” ? tangible objects are still preferred in many occasions: post-it, calculators, map clips, photo prints… – More convenient : simpler, easier, faster – Too much services/functions packed into a single device: complexity in function selection. External tags linked to user devices allow tangible and contextualized access to the services. – Tangible link with the end-user for the service provider / Branding Physical cards / Tickets has value QuickTime™ et un décompresseur TIFF (non compressé) sont requis pour visionner cette image. Technological aspects (6) Conclusion vs NFC – NFC is very promising for many services where user initiative (including payment) is the way to go. – However, NFC-enabled phones will take time be mass deployed How exactly users will adopt new usage is not known Experimentation is important RFID combined to existing communication technologies (in particular Bluetooth) offers advantages – Can be used today, on many existing devices – External tags offers great flexibility for the service provider or site operator Conclusion Ambient computing and industry(1) Very hard to find truly ambient computing application in the industry today Ambient computing and industry(2) Why is it not developed enough today? – It is application domain dependent Stick management – RFID solutions very well deployed Mobile phone as the user terminal – Minority terminals (Bluetooth + Java), but it is changing (50% by the end of 2008) – It is a concurrent of operator technology, 3G/UMTS Difficult to make ambient computing services compatible with the operator « business model ». They prefer UMTS. Ambient computing and industry (3) Who can be interested? – Users who request a rich interaction with the physical world without any dependency with the telecom operator (economical cost) Advertising, … Museum, electronic newspapers, … Ambient computing is a simple answer to handicap (physical, cultural), but it hard to make this point important for the society. One solution: to find partners who are ready to invest in order to build real system/application. Ambient computing and industry(4) Examples – The U-Japan project running in Japan – Goals: Ubiquitous Universal, User oriented, Innovative. Perspectives industrielles (5) Exemple (2)-U-Japan – Mainly based on RFID Each object is equipped with an RFID tag or a RFID reader. As soon as the object UID is read there is a connection to a server in order to activate the associated process. – Numerous experimentations (large scale aspects are taken into account) NTT DoCoMo (Felica- micro paiement) Pilots deployed in Tokyo (zoo, Ginza park,…) Ambient computing and industry(6) Major investments of the major telecom companies. Nokia, samsung Sony Ericsson, Apple… New appliances (bluetooth, RFID/NFC) New services (geo localisation based, …) – Operators (Orange, DoCoMo, …) To define new services in order to generate more and more bandwidth (remote server accesses).
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