F²MC-8FX Family LI-iON Charger Based on MB95F223

F²MC-8FX Family LI-iON Charger Based on MB95F223
AN205003
F²MC-8FX Family Li-ion Charger Based on MB95F223
This application note describes Li-ion Battery Charger which integrates functions like composite timer and A/D
converter, for charging Li-ion battery, which is suitable for down conversion.
Contents
1
2
3
4
5
Introduction .................................................................. 1
Theory of Operation ..................................................... 1
2.1 Battery Charging ................................................. 1
2.2 Man-Machine Interface ....................................... 3
Li-Ion Battery Charger features ................................... 3
Li-Ion Battery Charger Hardware Design ..................... 4
4.1 Hardware Block Diagram .................................... 4
4.2 MCU Control Circuit ............................................ 6
4.3 Charger Main Control Circuit............................... 7
4.4 Battery Voltage Detect Circuit ............................. 9
4.5 Battery Temperature Detect Circuit ................... 10
4.6 MCU Programme Circuit ................................... 11
4.7 Terminal Information ......................................... 12
Li-Ion Battery Charger Software ................................ 12
5.1 Software Description ......................................... 12
5.2 State Diagram ................................................... 13
5.3 Battery Inserted Detection................................. 14
5.4 Trickle Charge................................................... 14
1
5.5 Fast Charge ...................................................... 14
5.6 Constant Current Charging ............................... 14
5.7 Constant Voltage Charging ............................... 14
5.8 Safety Protection .............................................. 15
5.9 Source File........................................................ 16
6 Conclusion................................................................. 17
7 Additional Information ................................................ 18
8 Schematic.................................................................. 19
8.1 Evaluation Board Layout ................................... 20
8.2 Bill of Materials ................................................. 22
Document History............................................................ 24
Worldwide Sales and Design Support ............................. 25
Products .......................................................................... 25
PSoC® Solutions ............................................................. 25
Cypress Developer Community....................................... 25
Technical Support ........................................................... 25
Introduction
This application note describes Li-ion Battery Charger based on LPC MCU MB95F223K and MB39A134,
MB95F223K is a SOP16 package MCU, which integrates functions, like composite timer and 8/10 A/D converter, on
chip; the MB39A134 is a DC/DC converter IC for charging Li-ion battery, which is suitable for down conversion, and
uses pulse width modulation (PWM) for controlling the charge voltage and current independently.
This document mainly describes the hardware and software design to implement this Li-Ion Battery Charger.
2
Theory of Operation
2.1
Battery Charging
Li-ion batteries have a very different charging procedure from NiCd or NiMH batteries. Li-ion batteries should be
charged using two different methods (Figure 1), constant voltage and constant current.
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F²MC-8FX Family Li-ion Charger Based on MB95F223
Figure 1. Li-ion Charging Method
For example, charging single li-ion batteries needs two stages. During Stage 1 (constant current charge), the
charging current is kept at a constant value (Iconst) until the battery voltage reaches the final cell voltage (VF). Note
that the battery could suffer significant damage if this final voltage is exceeded. Then, in Stage 2 (constant voltage
charge), the voltage is kept constant within this limit by slowly decreasing the current. Charging is stopped when the
current drops below the manufacturer fixed threshold value (ISAT). This current indicates that the battery is saturated.
If the battery voltage drops below a certain threshold (VFAST), a fast charge is applied. After a certain time (tFAIL) of fast
charging, and if battery voltage remains particularly low (under VFAIL), the charger indicates a battery failure and stops
charging.
If the charging time exceeds a certain expiration value (tEXP), charging is stopped even if the battery is not yet
saturated. As the tEXP value is greater than the tFAIL value, the charger indicates that the battery is in good condition
and fully charged
The battery temperature is also monitored. If the battery overheats, charging is suspended until the battery cools
down.
Once the battery is saturated, its voltage is still monitored to prevent the battery from discharging completely. If the
battery voltage drops below VTRI, charging restarts until VF is reached again. Charge time is reset when trickle
charging starts.
Charge Parameters used by the Evaluation Board:
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F²MC-8FX Family Li-ion Charger Based on MB95F223
Table 1.Charge Parameters
Symbol
Meaning
Value
Unit
VF
Final Battery Voltage
4.2
VTRI
Trickle Charge Voltage
1.0
VFAST
Fast Charge Voltage
3.0
VFAIL
Battery Failure Voltage
1.0
ICONST
Constant Charge Current
2.0
A
ISAT
Battery Saturation Current
100
mA
TFAIL
Battery Failure Time
1
TEXP
Charge Expire Time
4
V
H
2.2
Man-Machine Interface
As the charger periodically checks battery presence, no button is needed to start or stop charging.
A reset button is included on the evaluation board for development purposes.
A pair of LEDs (green/red) is dedicated to each slot to indicate the charge status.
Table 2. LED Color and Status
Color
3
Status
Off
No battery or bad battery or No charging
Red only
Battery under charge
Red and green
Overheat or super-cooling
Green only
Battery full
Flashing red
Trickle charge
Flashing green
Fast charge
Li-Ion Battery Charger features
The MB39A134+LPC Li-Ion Battery Charger have the following features:










Input voltage:8-25V
Charge current: 0.2A-5A
Supports 2, 3 and 4 cell battery pack by setting the CELLS pin
Charge voltage can be set as 4.1V/cell or 4.2V/cell by setting the ADJ3 pin
Over voltage protection
Overcharge protection to prevent damaging the battery
Overcurrent protection in the event of a shorted battery
Battery insertion detection
Faulty battery detection
Over temperature protection to prevent the battery from reaching too high a temperature during charge
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F²MC-8FX Family Li-ion Charger Based on MB95F223




Supports CC/CV mode charge
Supports Trickle charge (on Li-battery is under 3.0V)
Supports full charge detection
Charge voltage setting accuracy ±0.7%(on 4.2V setting)
Li-Ion Battery Charger Specification:
Table 3. Li-Ion Battery Charger Specification
Parameter
MIN
TYP
MAX
Unit
Input voltage
8
19
25
V
Output voltage
4.1
12.6
16.8
V
Output current
0
2
5
A
Note: This solution is applied to the application it does not required charge current monitor at full charge.
4
Li-Ion Battery Charger Hardware Design
4.1
Hardware Block Diagram
Figure 2. Hardware Block Diagram
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F²MC-8FX Family Li-ion Charger Based on MB95F223
Figure 3. MCU Pin Assignment
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F²MC-8FX Family Li-ion Charger Based on MB95F223
4.2
MCU Control Circuit
The P06, P05 and P04 are used to control charge current. A/D channel 3 is used to detect charge current. A/D
channel 1 is used to detect charge voltage. A/D channel 2 is used to detect cell temperature. P07 is used to control
charge mode. PG2 and PG1 are used to control 2 LEDs which indicate charge status. 4M crystal is used as main
clock. DBG pin is used as debug pin.
Below figure shows MCU control circuit.
Figure 4. MCU Control Circuit
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F²MC-8FX Family Li-ion Charger Based on MB95F223
4.3
Charger Main Control Circuit
AO4425 is a P-Channel mode field effect transistor, G pin is the base of AO4425, which is controlled by PWM output
of MB39A134.
The charger voltage depends on the Pin ADJ3 and CELLS setting, shown at below table. Besides, the charger
voltage should be lower than system input voltage. By default, ADJ3 pin is connected to VREF. The number of cell
depends on CELLS pin setting.
Table 4. ADJ3 and CELLS Setting
ADJ3 Input Voltage
VREF pin
(ADJ3 ≥ 4.6 V)
GND pin
(ADJ3 ≤ 0.2 V)
External voltage setting
(ADJ3 = 0.4 V to 4.4 V)
CELLS
Charge Voltage
Note
OPEN
8.4 V
2 Cell × 4.20 V/Cell
GND
12.6 V
3 Cell × 4.20 V/Cell
VREF
16.8 V
4 Cell × 4.20 V/Cell
OPEN
8.2 V
2 Cell × 4.10 V/Cell
GND
12.3 V
3 Cell × 4.10 V/Cell
VREF
16.4 V
4 Cell × 4.10 V/Cell
OPEN
4 × ADJ3 pin voltage
2 Cell × 2 × ADJ3 pin voltage/Cell
GND
6 × ADJ3 pin voltage
3 Cell × 2 × ADJ3 pin voltage/Cell
VREF
8 × ADJ3 pin voltage
4 Cell × 2 × ADJ3 pin voltage/Cell
Note: Charge single cell, ADJ3 pin connected to external voltage 1.05V and CELLS pin set open.
Table 5. CELLS Setting
Reference Name
Function
OPEN
AGND
VREF
CELLS
Numbers of CELL Selection
2 CELLS
3 CELLS
4 CELLS
Note: Charge single cell, ADJ3 pin connected to external voltage 1.05V and CELLS pin set open.
The PWM rate (open rate of AO4425) depends on charge voltage and current, charge voltage can be set by ADJ3
and CELLS pin, and charge current can be set by ADJ2, which is indirectly controlled by 3 IO ports of MCU.
Table 6. ADJ2, Battery Charge Current Setting Voltage
ADJ2 Input Voltage
VREF (ADJ2 > 4.6 V)
External Voltage Setting (ADJ2
= GND to 4.4 V)
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Charge Current Control Block
Output Voltage
Charge Current
R5 = 40 mΩ
R5 = 20 mΩ
R5 = 15 mΩ
1.425 A
2.85 A
3.79 A
1.5 V
VADJ2(V)
2.66 × (VADJ2-0.075)
VADJ2-0.075(A) 2 × (VADJ2-0.075) (A)
(A)
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F²MC-8FX Family Li-ion Charger Based on MB95F223
The charge current (R2’s current) is detected by +INC2 and BATT pin of MB39A134, as it integrates an amplifier on
chip and can amplify the current signal, which may be so weak that it cannot be identified by MCU internal 8/10 bit
A/D converter. And the OUTC2 pin outputs the amplified current that inputs MCU A/D channel. The charge voltage
(VBAT) can be directly detected by MCU internal A/D converter.
Below figure shows the main control circuit of charger, the main unit in this circuit is MB39A134.
Figure 5. Charger Main Control Circuit
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F²MC-8FX Family Li-ion Charger Based on MB95F223
4.4
Battery Voltage Detect Circuit
Below figure shows the battery voltage detection circuit. The battery voltage signal is directed to one A/D converter
analogy input pin of MCU.
Figure 6. Battery Voltage Detect Circuit
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F²MC-8FX Family Li-ion Charger Based on MB95F223
4.5
Battery Temperature Detect Circuit
Below figure shows the battery temperature detection circuit. The battery temperature signal is directed to one A/D
converter analogy input pin of MCU.
Figure 7. Battery Temperature Detects Circuit
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F²MC-8FX Family Li-ion Charger Based on MB95F223
4.6
MCU Programme Circuit
Below figure shows the MCU programmer circuit. J1 is connected to BGM Adaptor and JUPMER is the reset key.
Figure 8. MCU Programme Connecter Circuit
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F²MC-8FX Family Li-ion Charger Based on MB95F223
4.7
Terminal Information
Table 7. Terminal J1-J9 Information
Reference name
Description
J1
MCU program download and On-chip debug terminal
J2
1 to 8 pin terminal of MCU
J3
9 to 16 pin terminal of MCU
J4
Numbers of cell selection terminal
J5
Charge voltage selection terminal
J6
Manual reset terminal
J7
NTC terminal
J8
Power output terminal
J9
Power input terminal and +5V output terminal
Table 8. Terminal ADJ3 Connect
Reference Name
Function
OPEN
AGND
VREF
ADJ3
Numbers of CELL Selection
2 CELLS
3 CELLS
4 CELLS
Note: Charge single cell, ADJ3 pin connected to external voltage 1.05V and CELLS pin set open.
Table 9. Terminal ADJ2 Connect
Reference Name
Function
AGND
VREF
ADJ2
Charge voltage Selection
4.1V/cell
4.2V/cell
5
Li-Ion Battery Charger Software
5.1
Software Description
Firstly MCU initializes the on-chip peripherals and initializes the system parameters when the battery has been
detected. If the single battery voltage is above 1V, then enter the trickle charge and charge current is 0.1C. When the
trickle charge time is over 1hour, it shows the battery is fault.
When it is detected that the single battery voltage is above 3V, the system will enter fast charge and start with 1C
charge current. In the fast charge status, the MCU compares detected temperature and voltage, if COMP4 voltage of
MB39A134 is under 1.6V, the cell will be considered charge fully, and enters the battery full status and charge current
is under 0.1C.
If any battery voltage and temperature parameter is abnormal, charger will enter battery error status and shut down
MB39A134, and next charge process will be halted.
In the error status, MCU will wait voltage and temperature parameters return to normal. Charger will go back to the
charging status. If maintain time is over 20mins, charger still in the error status, it will enter the battery fault status.
In normal status, if the charge time reaches the maintain charge time (4hours). The charge process finishes.
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F²MC-8FX Family Li-ion Charger Based on MB95F223
5.2
State Diagram
Figure 9 : Li-Ion Battery Charger State Diagram
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F²MC-8FX Family Li-ion Charger Based on MB95F223
5.3
Battery Inserted Detection
When battery insertion is detected, the firmware will go on to check the inserted battery's voltage and temperature. If
it falls in the valid range, then proceed to charging mode.
Vbat < 1.0V
No charging, bad\no battery, all LED off.
Vbat > 4.2V
Battery full, no charging, green LED on.
1.0V < Vbat < 3.0VTrickle charge, red LED flash.
Tickle charging time from 0V to 3.0V is less than 1 hour, otherwise battery is bad, turn all LEDs off.
3.0V < Vbat < 4.1VCC\CV charging mode, green LED flash.
Vtemp < 0oC
No charging. Red LED on.
o
Vtemp > 45 C
No charging. Red LED on.
I_charge > 1C
Overcurrent, stop charging, red LED on.
If the current less than 0.1C and Vbat >4.1V, announce the battery is full.
5.4
Trickle Charge
If the battery voltage is lower than 3.0V, then go to trickle charge. The current for trickle charge is set to 0.1C to 0.2C
which equals to the 10% or 20% of the battery's rate capacity, and the max. Charge time is 1 hour. If within 1 hour
time, the battery voltage rises above 3.0V. It means the battery is a good battery and the charger can then switch to
fast charging mode. If the voltage does not rise up to 3.0V after 1 hour trickle charge, the charger will signify that the
battery is a bad battery and stop the charging process.
5.5
Fast Charge
The fast charging is divided into two states. They are constant current charging and constant voltage charging. A max
charging time is also set for the fast charging mode. If outside 4 hour time, it means the battery is full in fast charge
mode.
5.6
Constant Current Charging
Constant current charging mode is a close loop control. The firmware continuously checks the charging current by
sensing the voltage at the current sense resistors (R24, R25). The battery's voltage is checked frequently. Whenever
found the battery's voltage reaches or above 4.1V, the charger will switch to constant voltage charging mode.
5.7
Constant Voltage Charging
In constant voltage charging state, the battery voltage is checked and maintained at 4.1V by controlling the duty of
PWM output. The charging current will gradually decrease when the battery is close to battery full.
The battery is announced charge full and charging power is cut off when the charging current is less than 100mA.
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F²MC-8FX Family Li-ion Charger Based on MB95F223
5.8
Safety Protection
During charging, either in trickle charge, constant current charge or constant voltage charge, if it is detected that the
battery's voltage, current or temperature is out of range, the charger will cut off the charging power. Table 10 shows
the system state transfer and abnormal event when charging.
Table 10. State Transfer Table
State
Start
battery voltage
check
Event
next state
Initialize
battery voltage check
battery_voltage<1v
battery_fault
battery_voltage>4.1v
battery_full
1v<battery_voltage<3v
trickle charge mode
battery_voltage>3v
CC_charge mode
battery_fault
battery_readyflag = 0
Start
battery_full
battery_readyflag = 0
Start
charge time>1hr.
battery_fault
battery_readyflag = 0
Start
trickle charge
mode
battery_voltage>4.4v | battery_voltage<1v
battery_current >0.2C
error handle
battery_temperature>40
battery_voltage>3v
CC_charge mode
charge_time>4hr.
battery_full
battery_readyflag = 0
Start
battery_voltage>4.1v
CV_charge mode
CC_charge mode
battery_voltage>4.4v | battery_voltage<2.8v
battery_current<0.8C | battery_current>1.2C
error handle
battery_temperature>40
CV_charge mode
battery_readyflag = 0
Start
charge_time>4hr.| battery_current<100mA
battery_full
battery_voltage>4.4v | battery_voltage<3.9v
battery_current>1.2C
error handle
battery_temperature>40
temperature error flag = 0
voltage error flag = 0(need return error occur layer)
error handle
error time out flag = 1
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battery voltage check
current error flag = 0(need return error occur layer)
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F²MC-8FX Family Li-ion Charger Based on MB95F223
5.9
Source File
Code is written in C language and Table 10 summarizes the functions of each source files.
Table 11. Software Source File
Files
Functions
Main.c
Charger main program
MB95200.ASM
Registers and memory definitions
STARTUP.ASM
Initialization MCU
VECTORS.C
Define Interrupt vector and Interrupt level setting
MB95200.H
Define MCU register and IO ports
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F²MC-8FX Family Li-ion Charger Based on MB95F223
6
Conclusion
The MB39A134+LPC Li-Ion Battery Charger demonstrates Cypress Pulse Width Modulator (the MB39A134) used in
a battery charger application.
The Li-Ion Battery Charger supports max four cells to charger, 8-25V input voltage and 0.2A -5A charge current. It
can protect the cells and charger when the charger is under overvoltage, overcharge, overcurrent and over
temperature statuses.
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F²MC-8FX Family Li-ion Charger Based on MB95F223
7
Additional Information
For more Information on Cypress Semiconductor products, visit the following web sites:
English version:
http://www.cypress.com/supporttools/8fx
http://www.cypress.com/8fx-mb95200
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F²MC-8FX Family Li-ion Charger Based on MB95F223
8
Schematic
Figure 10. Schematic
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F²MC-8FX Family Li-ion Charger Based on MB95F223
8.1
Evaluation Board Layout
Figure 11. PCB Layout
Figure 12. PCB Layout Top Layer
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F²MC-8FX Family Li-ion Charger Based on MB95F223
Figure 13. PCB Layout
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F²MC-8FX Family Li-ion Charger Based on MB95F223
8.2
Bill of Materials
Item
Quantity
Reference
Part
1
2
C1,C2
22pF/50V/0603/10%
2
2
C3,C6
10uF/25V/1206/10%/NC
3
5
C4,C7,C25,C27,C28
10uF/25V/1206/10%
4
12
5
1
C12
0603/NC
6
3
C14,C17,C22
50V/0603/10%/NC
7
2
C15,C16
22n/50V/0603/10%
8
1
C20
NC/50V/0603/10%
9
2
C24,C31
0.01uF/50V/0603/10%
10
1
C30
0.47uF/50V/0603/10%
11
1
D1
MBRA340T3
12
1
D3
GREEN LED
13
1
D4
RED LED
14
1
D5
DIODE PIN/NC
15
1
J1
CON4
16
2
J2,J3
CON8
17
2
J4,J5
CON3
18
1
J6
JUMPER
19
1
J7
NTC
20
1
J8
CON2
21
1
J9
CON10
22
1
L1
6.8uH/4.5A/60mOHM
23
1
R1
5.1K/0603/5%
24
1
R2
0.025R/1%/1/2W
25
5
R3,R4,R5,R6,R7
0R/0603
26
1
R8
0R/0603/NC
27
1
R9
470R/0603/1%
28
1
R10
47K/0603/1%
29
1
R11
390R/0603/1%
30
1
R12
360K/0603/1%
31
3
R13,R15,R16
NC/0603/1%
32
2
R14,R19
470R/0603/5%
33
1
R17
16K/0603/1%
34
1
R18
130K/0603/1%
35
1
R21
1K/0603/5%
36
2
R22,R23
5.1K/0603/1%
37
1
R24
33k/0603/1%
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C5,C8,C9,C10,C11,C13,C18,
C19,C21,C23,C26,C29
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0.1uF/50V/0603/10%
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F²MC-8FX Family Li-ion Charger Based on MB95F223
Item
Quantity
Reference
Part
38
1
R25
10k/0603/1%
39
2
TP5,TP6
T POINT R
40
1
TP7
GND_SIGNAL
41
1
TP8
GND_ANALOG
42
1
U1
MB39A134
43
1
U2
MB95F223K
44
1
U3
LM1117-5.0
45
1
U4
NE555
46
1
U5
AO4425
47
1
Y1
4MHz
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F²MC-8FX Family Li-ion Charger Based on MB95F223
Document History
Document Title: AN205003 - F²MC-8FX Family Li-ion Charger Based on MB95F223
Document Number: 002-05003
Revision
**
ECN
Orig. of
Change
-
HUAL
Submission
Date
Description of Change
12/27/2009
Initial release.
01/05/2010
Added theory of operation and update hardware design and software
01/11/2010
Update state diagram and safety protection
03/21/2012
Update the features and Hardware Block Diagram
*A
5265599
HUAL
05/11/2016
Migrated Spansion Application Note from MCU-AN-500075-E-13 to Cypress
format.
*B
5817679
AESATMP8
07/14/2017
Updated logo and Copyright.
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F²MC-8FX Family Li-ion Charger Based on MB95F223
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use with Cypress hardware products, only internally within your organization, and (b) to distribute the Software in binary code form externally to end
users (either directly or indirectly through resellers and distributors), solely for use on Cypress hardware product units, and (2) under those claims of
Cypress’s patents that are infringed by the Software (as provided by Cypress, unmodified) to make, use, distribute, and import the Software solely for
use with Cypress hardware products. Any other use, reproduction, modification, translation, or compilation of the Software is prohibited.
TO THE EXTENT PERMITTED BY APPLICABLE LAW, CYPRESS MAKES NO WARRANTY OF ANY KIND, EXPRESS OR IMPLIED, WITH REGARD
TO THIS DOCUMENT OR ANY SOFTWARE OR ACCOMPANYING HARDWARE, INCLUDING, BUT NOT LIMITED TO, THE IMPLIED WARRANTIES
OF MERCHANTABILITY AND FITNESS FOR A PARTICULAR PURPOSE. To the extent permitted by applicable law, Cypress reserves the right to
make changes to this document without further notice. Cypress does not assume any liability arising out of the application or use of any product or
circuit described in this document. Any information provided in this document, including any sample design information or programming code, is
provided only for reference purposes. It is the responsibility of the user of this document to properly design, program, and test the functionality and
safety of any application made of this information and any resulting product. Cypress products are not designed, intended, or authorized for use as
critical components in systems designed or intended for the operation of weapons, weapons systems, nuclear installations, life-support devices or
systems, other medical devices or systems (including resuscitation equipment and surgical implants), pollution control or hazardous substances
management, or other uses where the failure of the device or system could cause personal injury, death, or property damage (“Unintended Uses”). A
critical component is any component of a device or system whose failure to perform can be reasonably expected to cause the failure of the device or
system, or to affect its safety or effectiveness. Cypress is not liable, in whole or in part, and you shall and hereby do release Cypress from any claim,
damage, or other liability arising from or related to all Unintended Uses of Cypress products. You shall indemnify and hold Cypress harmless from and
against all claims, costs, damages, and other liabilities, including claims for personal injury or death, arising from or related to any Unintended Uses of
Cypress products.
Cypress, the Cypress logo, Spansion, the Spansion logo, and combinations thereof, WICED, PSoC, CapSense, EZ-USB, F-RAM, and Traveo are
trademarks or registered trademarks of Cypress in the United States and other countries. For a more complete list of Cypress trademarks, visit
cypress.com. Other names and brands may be claimed as property of their respective owners.
www.cypress.com
Document No. 002-05003 Rev. *B
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