Laws of the Sport of Bowls Crystal Mark Second Edition

Laws of the Sport of Bowls Crystal Mark Second Edition
Laws of the Sport of Bowls
Crystal Mark Second Edition
(including domestic regulations for
‘Member National Authority name’)
‘Retail price’
Contents
Foreword.................................................................................................................................... 5
Section 1 – Definitions: control, players, play and bowls ...................................................... 6
1
Definitions............................................................................................................ 6
1.1
Control ................................................................................................................. 6
1.2
Players .................................................................................................................. 6
1.3
Play ...................................................................................................................... 6
1.4
Bowls ................................................................................................................... 8
Section 2 – The green, ditch and banks................................................................................... 9
2
The green ............................................................................................................. 9
3
The ditch .............................................................................................................. 9
4
The bank............................................................................................................... 9
5
Division of the green ............................................................................................ 9
Section 3 – Equipment: mat, jack, bowls and measures ..................................................... 11
6
Mat ..................................................................................................................... 11
7
Jack .................................................................................................................... 11
8
Bowls ................................................................................................................. 12
8.1
Specifications ..................................................................................................... 12
8.2
Bias of bowls...................................................................................................... 12
8.3
Alteration to bias ................................................................................................ 13
8.4
Lodging a challenge to bowls ............................................................................ 13
8.5
Following up a challenge to bowls .................................................................... 13
8.6
Bowls failing a test............................................................................................. 14
9
Bowls: World Bowls Stamp............................................................................... 15
10
Measuring equipment......................................................................................... 15
Section 4 – Arranging a game ................................................................................................ 16
11
General form and length .................................................................................... 16
12
Choosing the rinks for play ................................................................................ 16
13
Practice............................................................................................................... 16
14
Play arrangements .............................................................................................. 16
14.1
Singles game ...................................................................................................... 17
14.2
Team game ......................................................................................................... 17
14.2.1 Pairs game .......................................................................................................... 17
14.2.2 Triples game....................................................................................................... 17
14.2.3 Fours game ......................................................................................................... 17
14.3
Side game ........................................................................................................... 17
14.4
A series of games ............................................................................................... 17
14.5
A tournament of games ...................................................................................... 18
15
Sets play ............................................................................................................. 18
15.1
Format of play .................................................................................................... 18
15.2
Tie-breaker ......................................................................................................... 18
15.3
Winners of sectional play................................................................................... 18
15.4
First to play ........................................................................................................ 19
15.5
Re-spotting the jack ........................................................................................... 19
16
Formats of play .................................................................................................. 20
1
16.1
16.2
16.3
World events and Commonwealth Games ......................................................... 20
International events ............................................................................................ 21
Domestic events ................................................................................................. 21
17
Regulations for play ........................................................................................... 22
17.1
Domestic regulations ......................................................................................... 22
17.2
Conditions of Play.............................................................................................. 23
Section 5 – The game .............................................................................................................. 23
18
Starting the game ............................................................................................... 23
18.1
Trial ends ........................................................................................................... 23
18.2
Tossing for opening play ................................................................................... 23
18.3
The start of play ................................................................................................. 24
18.4
Play in other ends ............................................................................................... 24
19
Placing the mat ................................................................................................... 24
19.1
At the start of each end ...................................................................................... 24
19.2
During each end ................................................................................................. 24
20
Position on the mat............................................................................................. 25
21
Foot-faulting ...................................................................................................... 25
22
Delivering the jack ............................................................................................. 25
23
Improper delivery of the jack ............................................................................. 26
Section 6 – Movement of bowls .............................................................................................. 27
24
Touchers............................................................................................................. 27
25
Marking a toucher .............................................................................................. 27
26
Movement of touchers ....................................................................................... 28
27
Dead bowl .......................................................................................................... 28
28
Bowl displacement ............................................................................................. 29
28.1
Bowl displacement by another player ................................................................ 29
28.2
Bowl displacement by a wheelchair .................................................................. 30
28.3
Bowl displacement by a neutral person or neutral object .................................. 30
28.4
Bowl displacement when being marked as a toucher or during measuring ....... 31
28.5
Bowl displacement by a rebounding non-toucher ............................................. 32
28.6
Bowl displacement by a bowl from a neighbouring rink ................................... 32
28.7
Bowl displacement by a dead bowl ................................................................... 32
Section 7 – Movement of the jack .......................................................................................... 32
29
Live jack in the ditch.......................................................................................... 32
30
Dead jack ........................................................................................................... 33
31
Dead end ............................................................................................................ 33
32
Rebounding jack ................................................................................................ 34
33
Jack displacement .............................................................................................. 34
33.1
Jack displacement by another player ................................................................. 34
33.2
Jack displacement by a wheelchair .................................................................... 34
33.3
Jack displacement by a neutral person or neutral object.................................... 34
33.4
Jack displacement during measuring ................................................................. 35
33.5
Jack displacement by a non-toucher .................................................................. 35
33.6
Jack displacement by a bowl from a neighbouring rink .................................... 35
Section 8 – Play, players and their duties ............................................................................. 35
34
Team play........................................................................................................... 35
2
34.1
34.2
Number of players.............................................................................................. 35
Order of play ...................................................................................................... 35
35
Possession of the rink......................................................................................... 36
36
Position of players.............................................................................................. 36
36.1
In relation to the rink of play ............................................................................. 36
36.2
In relation to a neighbouring rink ...................................................................... 37
37
Players’ duties .................................................................................................... 37
37.1
The skip .............................................................................................................. 37
37.2
The third ............................................................................................................. 38
37.3
The lead .............................................................................................................. 38
37.4
Other duties ........................................................................................................ 38
38
Players with disabilities ..................................................................................... 38
Section 9 – Result of an end ................................................................................................... 39
39
The shot .............................................................................................................. 39
40
Deciding the number of shots scored ................................................................. 39
41
No shot scored – tied end ................................................................................... 40
42
Delivering the final bowl of an end ................................................................... 40
Section 10 – Game decisions................................................................................................... 40
43
Games played on one occasion .......................................................................... 40
44
Tournament games and games in a series .......................................................... 40
45
A drawn game in a knockout (eliminating) competition ................................... 41
Section 11 – Defaults of players in Fours play ..................................................................... 41
46
Absentee players in a team or side..................................................................... 41
46.1
In a team game ................................................................................................... 41
46.2
In a side game .................................................................................................... 41
Section 12 – Irregularities ...................................................................................................... 42
47
Irregularities during play.................................................................................... 42
47.1
Playing out of turn ............................................................................................. 42
47.2
Playing another player’s bowl ........................................................................... 42
47.3
Changing bowls ................................................................................................. 42
47.4
Failing to play .................................................................................................... 42
48
Damaged jack..................................................................................................... 42
49
Damaged bowls.................................................................................................. 43
Section 13 – Factors affecting play ........................................................................................ 43
50
Game stoppages ................................................................................................. 43
51
Leaving the green during the course of play ...................................................... 43
52
Objects on the green........................................................................................... 44
53
Unforeseen incidents.......................................................................................... 44
54
Deliberate non-sporting action ........................................................................... 44
Section 14 – Officials and spectators ..................................................................................... 44
55
The marker’s duties............................................................................................ 44
56
The umpire’s duties............................................................................................ 46
57
The manager or coach ........................................................................................ 46
58
Spectators ........................................................................................................... 46
Section 15 – Administrative matters ..................................................................................... 47
59
International tours and competitions .................................................................. 47
3
60
Regulating Singles, Pairs, Triples and Fours games .......................................... 47
61
Contracting out of the Laws of the Sport of Bowls ........................................... 47
Appendix A .............................................................................................................................. 48
A.1
Conditions of Play.............................................................................................. 48
A.2
Footwear ............................................................................................................ 49
A.3
Clothing.............................................................................................................. 49
A.4
Restricting the movement of players during play .............................................. 49
Appendix B .............................................................................................................................. 50
B.1
Position of the bank ........................................................................................... 50
B.2
Marks on the surface of the rink ........................................................................ 51
B.3
Centring the jack ................................................................................................ 53
B.4
Distance charts ................................................................................................... 54
Appendix C .............................................................................................................................. 56
C.1
Bowl and jack displacement chart ..................................................................... 56
4
Foreword
Introduction
No laws governing a sport can cope with every situation, and the laws governing the sport of
bowls are no exception. Unusual situations not covered within the laws can often arise. The
Laws of the Sport of Bowls (‘the laws’) have been drawn up in the spirit of true sportsmanship.
So, if a situation arises that is not covered by these laws, players, markers and umpires should
use their common sense and a spirit of fair play to decide on the appropriate course of action.
Conventions
1
References to ‘should’ and ‘will’ within these laws mean that the action is compulsory.
2
References to ‘can’ within these laws mean that the action is optional.
3
References to ‘between’ when used to describe a range of weights or measurements within
these laws mean that the smallest and largest numbers given are included within the range.
4
The definitions in laws 1.2, 1.3 and 1.4 are in alphabetical order.
The ‘Laws of the Sport of Bowls – Crystal Mark Second Edition’ applies from 1 January 2011 or
1 April 2011, as decided by individual Member National Authorities.
Copyright © 2010 World Bowls Limited
All rights reserved. You cannot reproduce, store in a retrieval system, or transmit any part of this
publication, in any form or by any means (whether electronic, mechanical, photocopying,
recording or otherwise), without written permission of World Bowls Limited.
5
Section 1 – Definitions: control, players, play and bowls
1
Definitions
1.1
Control
Controlling Body: the body with immediate control over the Conditions of Play (see law
17.2) under which a game is played. The order is:
1.1.1 World Bowls (WB);
1.1.2 a National Bowling Authority that is a member of WB (‘Member National
Authority’) or a group of Member National Authorities;
1.1.3 divisions within Member National Authorities; and
1.1.4 the club on whose green the game is being played.
1.2
Players
1.2.1 Side: any agreed number of teams or Singles players (or a combination of teams
and Singles players) whose combined scores decide the result of a competition.
1.2.2 Skip: the player who is in charge of the team.
1.2.3 Team play
1.2.3.1 Team: a Pair, a Triple or a Four.
1.2.3.2 Pair: a team of two players whose positions, in order of play, are ‘lead’
and ‘skip’.
1.2.3.3 Triple: a team of three players whose positions, in order of play, are
‘lead’, ‘second’ and ‘skip’.
1.2.3.4 Four: a team of four players whose positions, in order of play, are ‘lead’,
‘second’, ‘third’ and ‘skip’.
1.3
Play
1.3.1
1.3.2
1.3.3
1.3.4
1.3.5
1.3.6
1.3.7
1.3.8
Centring the jack: placing the jack on the centre line of the rink, at the same
distance from the mat line as it was when it came to rest.
Delivery: deliberately releasing a jack or a bowl from the hand using an underarm
movement. If the jack or bowl accidentally slips from a player’s hand during
delivery, the player can pick it up and start the delivery again.
Defaulting player, team or side: the player, team or side that does not meet the
requirements of any specific law or laws.
Displaced jack or bowl: a jack or a bowl which is moved in a way that is not
approved within the Laws of the Sport of Bowls.
Disturbing the head: altering the position of the jack or a bowl in the head.
Domestic play: any play under the direct control of a Member National
Authority, a division within a Member National Authority or a club.
End: delivery of the jack, delivery of all the bowls required to be played by all of
the opponents in the same direction on a rink, and deciding the number of shots
scored.
End ditches
1.3.8.1 Front ditch: the ditch at the end of the green which is directly in front of a
player when they stand on the mat.
1.3.8.2 Rear ditch: the ditch at the end of the green which is directly behind a
player when they stand on the mat.
6
1.3.9
1.3.10
1.3.11
1.3.12
1.3.13
1.3.14
1.3.15
1.3.16
1.3.17
1.3.18
1.3.19
1.3.20
1.3.21
1.3.22
1.3.23
Face of the bank: the surface of the bank from the surface of the ditch up to the
top of any surround or edging.
Forfeited game: a game that is awarded to an opponent as a penalty for the
defaulting player, team or side not meeting the requirements of one or more laws.
Former position: the position of a jack or a bowl at rest within the rink of play
immediately before it is displaced. If a law says that a jack or a bowl should be
put back to its former position, the person replacing the jack or bowl in this way
should decide where that position is. If this person cannot accurately identify the
former position, they should put the jack or bowl as near as possible to its former
position.
Groundsheet: a rectangular piece of canvas or other suitable fabric placed
temporarily on the surface of the green to protect it from any damage caused as a
result of a player delivering the jack or a bowl. The rear edge of the groundsheet
should be placed at least 2 metres from the rear ditch and at least 25 metres from
the front ditch (in line with the requirements for placing the mat described in laws
19.1.1 and 19.1.5).
Head: the jack and any bowls which have come to rest within the boundaries of
the rink of play and are not dead. (Law 30.1 describes a dead jack and law 27.1
describes a dead bowl.)
Holding surface: a natural or synthetic material that will prevent the jack or a
bowl from running along the ditch.
Jack or bowl in its original course: a jack or a bowl from its delivery until it
comes to rest, no matter how many times (for a bowl) it comes into contact with
the jack or other bowls before it comes to rest or becomes dead.
Jack or bowl in motion: a jack or a bowl which is moving during play after it
has been at rest as part of the head.
Licensed Manufacturer: person or company licensed by WB to make bowls in
line with the standards laid down in World Bowls Regulations.
Licensed Tester: person or company licensed by WB to test bowls to make sure
they meet the standards laid down in World Bowls Regulations and the Laws of
the Sport of Bowls.
Line jack or bowl: a jack or bowl which has come to rest partly inside and partly
outside the side boundary of the rink of play.
Mat line: the edge of the mat nearest to the front ditch. All measurements
involving the mat and a jack or a bowl will be taken from the centre of the mat
line.
Net total of set points: the total number of set points a player or team scores
minus the total number of set points scored against them.
Net total of shots: the total number of shots a player, team or side scores minus
the total number of shots scored against them.
Neutral
1.3.23.1 Neutral person: a person who is not a player on the rink of play. This
includes the marker and the umpire.
1.3.23.2 Neutral object:
1.3.23.2.1 a jack, bowl or other object not belonging to any player on
the rink of play;
7
1.3.24
1.3.25
1.3.26
1.3.27
1.3.28
1.3.29
1.3.30
1.4
1.4.1
1.4.2
1.4.3
1.4.4
1.3.23.2.2 a line jack or a line bowl belonging to a player on a
neighbouring rink; or
1.3.23.2.3 a dead bowl that is at rest and has not been removed from the
rink of play.
Open tournaments: competitions in which both members and non-members of
the club hosting the event are eligible to take part, and in which more than one
round can be played on the same day.
Pace of the green: the number of seconds taken by a bowl from its delivery to the
moment it comes to rest at approximately 27 metres from the mat line. The higher
the number of seconds taken, the faster the pace of the green.
Position of bowl in relation to jack
Jack high or jack level: the nearest part of a bowl is in line with and at the same
distance from the mat line as the nearest part of the jack.
Rink and its boundaries
1.3.27.1 Rink: the section of the green on which a game is played.
1.3.27.2 Rink of play: the section of the green and the corresponding sections of
the end ditches on which a game is played.
1.3.27.3 Side boundaries of the rink of play: the imaginary straight lines
connecting the centres of the boundary pegs on opposite banks that show
the limits of the rink of play.
1.3.27.4 End boundaries of the rink of play: the faces of the banks which are
within the side boundaries of the rink of play.
Set: a pre-determined number of shots or ends forming part of a game.
Shot indicators (also known as lollipops or paddles): thin pieces of plastic or
other suitable material, shaped, for example, like oars. The heads of the indicators
match the colours of the adhesive markings on each player’s bowls (see law
8.1.8). During play, the marker holds up the appropriate number of indicators, in
the appropriate colour, to signal to players and spectators which player’s bowl or
bowls the marker considers to be shot.
Visiting skips: either:
1.3.30.1 the skips of teams other than those playing on their own green; or
1.3.30.2 the skips of the second-named team in each pair of competing teams
when games are being played at a neutral venue.
Bowls
Bias: the curved path along which a bowl travels from delivery until it comes to
rest. (The shape of the bowl gives it its bias.)
Bias side of a bowl: the side of the bowl that is the more rounded of the two
sides, which is identified by the small grooved rings surrounding its centre. (The
non-bias side is identified by the large grooved rings surrounding its centre.)
Set of bowls: four bowls, all of which are:
1.4.3.1 of a matched set;
1.4.3.2 of the same make and model; and
1.4.3.3 of the same size, weight, colour, bias, serial number and engraving.
Working Reference Bowl: a bowl approved by WB as:
1.4.4.1 having the minimum bias required; and
1.4.4.2 in all other respects, following the Laws of the Sport of Bowls.
8
Each Working Reference Bowl is engraved with the words ‘Working Reference
Bowl’ and WB makes sure that each Licensed Tester is given a Working
Reference Bowl.
Section 2 – The green, ditch and banks
2
The green
2.1
The green should be either rectangular or square.
2.2
The length of the green in the direction of play should be between 31 metres and
40 metres.
2.3
The green should have a suitable level playing surface.
2.4
The playing surface should be either vegetation or a synthetic surface approved by
a Member National Authority.
2.5
For domestic play, Member National Authorities can decide the standards for
greens constructed in line with previous editions of this law.
3
The ditch
3.1
The green should be surrounded by a ditch.
3.2
The ditch should be:
3.2.1 between 200 millimetres and 380 millimetres wide; and
3.2.2 between 50 millimetres and 200 millimetres deep.
3.3
The ditch should have a holding surface which is free from obstacles and made of
a material which will not damage the jack or the bowls.
3.4
For indoor greens, only the end ditches in the direction of play should meet the
standards mentioned in laws 3.2 and 3.3.
4
The bank
4.1
The ditch should have a bank against its outer edge.
4.2
The top of the bank should be at least 230 millimetres above the surface level of
the green.
4.3
The bank should be vertical and set at a right angle (90°) to the surface of the
green, or sloped at an angle of not more than 35° from the vertical (see diagrams
B.1.1, B.1.2 and B.1.3 in appendix B.1).
4.4
The surface of the face of the bank should be made of, or be covered with, a
material which will not damage the jack or the bowls.
4.5
There should be no steps that could interfere with play either cut into or
positioned against the face of the bank.
4.6
If advertising banners are fixed to the face of the bank, they should be made of a
material which will not damage the jack or the bowls. Also, they should be fixed
in a way that makes sure the specifications for the ditch and the bank, as described
in laws 3 and 4, still apply. The banners will be considered to be part of the face
of the bank for all purposes within the laws.
5
Division of the green
The green should be divided into sections called rinks.
9
5.1
5.2
5.3
5.4
5.5
5.6
5.7
5.8
5.9
The rinks should be:
5.1.1 between 4.3 metres and 5.8 metres wide for outdoor play; and
5.1.2 between 4.6 metres and 5.8 metres wide for indoor play.
Wherever possible, all rinks on a green should be the same width. For domestic
play, Member National Authorities can decide the standard for the minimum
width of a rink.
The rinks should be numbered in order, with the centre of each rink being marked
on the bank at each end by a peg, disc or other suitable device that has the rink
number on it and is fixed vertically:
5.2.1 to the face of the bank and flat against it; or
5.2.2 on the top of the bank not more than 100 millimetres back from its face; or
5.2.2 on the wall behind the bank (for indoor play only).
The four corners of the rinks should be marked by white or brightly coloured
boundary pegs that are fixed vertically:
5.3.1 to the face of the bank and flat against it; or
5.3.2 on the top of the bank not more than 100 millimetres back from its face.
The boundary pegs should be:
5.4.1 not more than 50 millimetres wide and not more than 430 millimetres high
if they are fixed to the face of the bank of an outdoor green; or
5.4.2 not more than 25 millimetres wide and not less than 600 millimetres high
if they are fixed on the top of the bank of either an outdoor or an indoor
green (although this height limitation does not apply to flexible boundary
pegs containing a spring or similar mechanism in their base that allows
them to bend on contact with an object or person); or
5.4.3 not more than 25 millimetres wide and the centre of the peg should be
clearly marked by a thin black vertical line if they are fixed to the face of
the bank of an indoor green.
For domestic play, Member National Authorities can decide:
5.5.1 the standards for boundary pegs made in line with previous editions of this
law; and
5.5.2 the requirements for thin black vertical lines marking the centres of
boundary pegs that are fixed to the face of the bank of an outdoor green or
fixed on the top of the bank of either an outdoor or an indoor green.
The boundary pegs of an outside rink should be:
5.6.1 at least 600 millimetres from the side ditch for outdoor play; and
5.6.2 at least 460 millimetres from the side ditch for indoor play.
If a boundary peg is not vertical, it should be put so before a player or the umpire
decides whether or not a jack or a bowl is within the boundary.
If a player or the umpire finds a boundary peg in the wrong position, they should
not move it until the end has been completed on any rinks affected. The peg
should then be correctly positioned by the umpire or by agreement between the
skips or opponents in Singles on the rinks affected.
For outdoor play, the side boundary of the rink of play can be marked by
connecting the boundary pegs with a green thread drawn tightly along the surface
of the green, leaving enough loose thread to reach the corresponding pegs on the
10
5.10
5.11
5.12
5.13
5.14
5.15
5.16
face or on the top of the bank. For domestic outdoor play, Member National
Authorities can decide not to use boundary threads.
The boundary thread (see law 5.9) should not be lifted or held down when the
jack or a bowl is in its original course or in motion.
Pegs, discs and other types of markers used to mark the centre and corners of the
rinks should be made of a material which will not damage the jack or bowls.
White or brightly coloured pegs or discs should be fixed vertically against the
face of the side banks or on top of the side banks in the direction of play to mark
distances of 2 metres and 25 metres from the end ditches (see diagram B.4.1 in
appendix B.4). Wherever possible, these should be the only pegs or discs visible
on the side banks.
The centre line of each rink can be marked along the surface of the green starting
2 metres from each end ditch and finishing at any point up to, but not less than, 25
metres from the opposite end ditch (see diagram B.2.1 in appendix B.2).
The centre line of the rink can be marked at a distance of 2 metres from each end
ditch (see diagram B.2.2 in appendix B.2). The mark can be:
5.14.1 lines drawn in the form of a ‘T’; or
5.14.2 a small piece of suitable material inserted immediately below the surface
of the green (for outdoor play only).
If part of the green is used for spectators, side ditches do not have to be used, but
the distance markers on the side banks should be brought forward and fixed
appropriately. They should be clearly visible to the players.
While there is temporary seating on the green, there should be a completely
unrestricted area of the green that is at least 900 millimetres wide between the
seated area and the outside boundary of the nearest rink.
Section 3 – Equipment: mat, jack, bowls and measures
6
Mat
The mat should be 600 millimetres long and 360 millimetres wide.
7
Jack
7.1
The jack should be a solid sphere (ball shaped) and either white or yellow.
7.2
For outdoor non-synthetic greens, the jack should:
7.2.1 measure between 63 millimetres and 64 millimetres across (the diameter);
and
7.2.2 weigh between 225 grams and 285 grams.
7.3
For outdoor synthetic greens and indoor greens, the jack should:
7.3.1 measure between 63 millimetres and 67 millimetres across (the diameter);
and
7.3.2 weigh between 382 grams and 453 grams.
11
8
Bowls
8.1
Specifications
8.1.1 Bowls should be made of wood (lignum vitae), rubber or plastic resin (called
composition or plastic bowls) and should be any colour approved by WB. The
basic colour is added during the manufacturing process.
8.1.2 Indentations designed to help the player grip the bowl during delivery (for
example, grooved rings or dimples) can be incorporated during the manufacturing
process. They can also be added at a later date, but only by a Licensed
Manufacturer or a Licensed Tester.
8.1.3 Each set of bowls can carry a player’s individual emblem, logo or engraving as a
distinguishing mark inside the smallest grooved ring on both sides of every bowl.
8.1.4 The requirement for distinguishing marks applies to all bowls used in
International Events, World Bowls Championships and Commonwealth Games.
8.1.5 For domestic play, Member National Authorities can decide the requirements for
distinguishing marks.
8.1.6 Bowls made of wood should:
8.1.6.1 measure between 116 millimetres and 134 millimetres across at their
widest points; and
8.1.6.2 weigh up to 1.59 kilograms.
8.1.7 Bowls made of rubber or plastic resin should:
8.1.7.1 measure between 116 millimetres and 131 millimetres across at their
widest points; and
8.1.7.2 weigh up to 1.59 kilograms.
8.1.8 The Controlling Body can supply adhesive (stick-on) markings for players to
temporarily fix to both sides of their bowls, or allow players to use their own
markings. When these markings are used:
8.1.8.1 they are part of the bowl for all purposes under the Laws of the Sport of
Bowls;
8.1.8.2 there should be only one such marking fixed to either side of the bowl;
8.1.8.3 they should not be put over any distinguishing marks on the non-bias side
of the bowl, although they can cover the distinguishing marks on the bias
side of the bowl; and
8.1.8.4 all bowls belonging to players within a team or side should have these
markings on them and the markings should all be the same design and
colour.
8.1.9 In all games, each player should play with the appropriate number of bowls from
the same set.
8.2
Bias of bowls
8.2.1 A Working Reference Bowl will have a bias approved by WB. All bowls should
have a bias that is not less than that of a Working Reference Bowl and should be
imprinted with the registered World Bowls Stamp.
8.2.2 To check the accuracy of the bias and the visibility of the World Bowls Stamp, all
bowls should be re-tested and re-stamped at least once every 10 years, or earlier if
the date of the stamp is not clearly legible.
12
8.2.3 For domestic play, Member National Authorities can decide the requirements for
re-testing and re-stamping bowls.
8.3
Alteration to bias
8.3.1 A player should not alter, or cause to be altered other than by a Licensed Tester,
any bowl imprinted with the registered World Bowls Stamp in any way that
would alter the bias of the bowl.
8.3.2 Any player breaking this law will be suspended from playing for as long as the
Member National Authority of which the player’s club is a member decides.
8.3.3 The Member National Authority which suspended the player should give WB
details of the suspension, and the suspension will apply among all Member
National Authorities.
8.3.4 Players or owners who colour the grooved rings or dimples on a bowl for
decoration are not breaking this law.
8.4
Lodging a challenge to bowls
8.4.1 Any challenge to bowls should be based on the grounds that they do not meet one
or more of the requirements of laws 8.1 and 8.2.
8.4.2 A challenge can be lodged by a player, the manager in a side game, the umpire or
the Controlling Body.
8.4.3 No challenge, or notice that a challenge will be made, should be lodged during the
trial ends or during a game. If the person making such a challenge is a player, that
person will be disqualified and the game will be forfeited to the opponent.
8.4.4 If a challenge is lodged:
8.4.4.1 it should be lodged with the umpire or the Controlling Body;
8.4.4.2 it should be made not later than 10 minutes after the final end in which
the bowls were used is completed; and
8.4.4.3 the person making the challenge, if they are an opponent or the manager
in a side game, should pay a deposit to the umpire or Controlling Body for
a fixed amount decided each year by WB or the relevant Member National
Authority.
8.4.5 Once a challenge is lodged and the deposit paid, it cannot be withdrawn.
8.5
Following up a challenge to bowls
8.5.1 The umpire should ask the player using the bowls concerned (the user) or the
person who owns the bowls concerned (the owner) to hand over the set of bowls
so that the umpire can send them to the Controlling Body for testing by a
Licensed Tester.
8.5.2 Bowls sent for testing should be in sets of four.
8.5.3 The bowls do not have to be sent to a Licensed Tester if the challenge relates to
the bowls not meeting the requirements of law 8.1.9. In this case, the challenge
can be dealt with by the Controlling Body (for example, by checking the serial
numbers).
8.5.3.1 If the Controlling Body finds that the bowls meet the requirements of law
8.1.9, law 8.5.7 will apply.
8.5.3.2 If the Controlling Body finds that the bowls do not meet the requirements
of law 8.1.9, law 8.6.1.3 will apply.
13
8.5.4
If the user or owner of the challenged set of bowls refuses to hand the whole set
over to the umpire, the game will be forfeited to the opponent.
8.5.5 Neither the user nor the owner should use the challenged set of bowls in any game
controlled or permitted by the Controlling Body until the set of bowls has been
tested by a Licensed Tester.
8.5.6 When the umpire has received the challenged set of bowls, they should take
immediate steps to pass the set to the Secretary of the Controlling Body who
should arrange for them to be tested by a Licensed Tester as soon as possible. The
test should be carried out in the presence of representatives of any of the
following: WB, the Member National Authority, the Controlling Body, and the
user or owner if they want to attend.
8.5.7 If a Licensed Tester finds that the challenged set of bowls meets the requirements
of laws 8.1 and 8.2:
8.5.7.1 the set of bowls should be returned to the user or owner by the
Controlling Body; and
8.5.7.2 the person who lodged the challenge should lose their deposit and pay the
Controlling Body for all expenses in having the tests done.
8.6
Bowls failing a test
8.6.1 Failing a test as a result of a challenge being lodged (see law 8.4)
8.6.1.1 If a Licensed Tester finds that a bowl does not meet the requirements of
laws 8.1 or 8.2, they should alter the bowl as necessary before returning it.
8.6.1.2 If a Licensed Tester cannot alter a bowl to meet the requirements of laws
8.1 and 8.2, they should cancel any current stamp imprinted on the bowl
by stamping an ‘X’ over it before returning it.
8.6.1.3 If a Licensed Tester tests a challenged set of bowls and finds that they do
not meet the requirements of laws 8.1 and 8.2:
8.6.1.3.1 the game in which they were used should be forfeited to the
opponent;
8.6.1.3.2 the deposit should be returned to the person who lodged the
challenge; and
8.6.1.3.3 the user or owner of the set of bowls should pay the Controlling
Body for all expenses in having the tests done.
8.6.2 Failing a test as a result of routine re-testing (see law 8.2.2)
8.6.2.1 If a Licensed Tester finds that a bowl does not meet the requirements of
laws 8.1 or 8.2, the user or owner of the set of bowls can choose whether
to:
8.6.2.1.1 have the Licensed Tester alter the bowl as necessary before
returning it; or
8.6.2.1.2 leave the bowl unaltered and have the Licensed Tester cancel
any current stamp imprinted on the bowl by stamping an ‘X’
over it before returning it.
8.6.2.2 If a Licensed Tester cannot alter a bowl to meet the requirements of laws
8.1 and 8.2, they should cancel any current stamp imprinted on the bowl
by stamping an ‘X’ over it before returning it.
14
9
Bowls: World Bowls Stamp
9.1
Licensed Manufacturers and Licensed Testers are entitled to imprint the registered
World Bowls Stamp between the inner and outer rings of bowls. Imprints on the
running surfaces of bowls should be avoided wherever possible.
WB
A
Numbers
R
9.2
9.3
9.4
9.5
10
World Bowls
is the code letter of the Licensed Manufacturer or
Licensed Tester
is the year that the stamp expires (in this example, 2013)
shows that the stamp is a registered trademark
The current World Bowls Stamp was introduced on 1 April 2002 and should be
used on all new and re-tested bowls from that date.
Both the International Bowling Board (IBB) and the World Bowls Board (WBB)
stamps, which were used before the current World Bowls Stamp, will be valid
until the end of the year that the stamp expires. (For example, the stamp in the
above illustration would not be valid after 31 December 2013.)
If bowls are imprinted with the registered World Bowls Stamp and are in line with
the Laws of the Sport of Bowls in all other ways, they can be used in all games
under the control of WB or any Member National Authority.
For domestic play, Member National Authorities can decide the requirements for
the stamps on bowls.
Measuring equipment
The umpire should bring, or be provided with by the club on whose green the game is
being played, suitable equipment to carry out the duties described in law 56. This
equipment should at least include:
10.1 a copy of the current Laws of the Sport of Bowls;
10.2 a tape measure at least 25 metres long;
10.3 equipment for measuring between the jack and bowls when the distances between
them are beyond the range of a flexible measure (for example, a string measure);
10.4 a flexible measure (for example, a box measure or a bullet measure);
10.5 callipers;
10.6 feeler gauges;
10.7 wedges (for supporting leaning bowls); and
10.8 equipment (for deciding whether or not the jack or a bowl is within the side
boundary of the rink when the side boundary is not marked by a green thread as
described in law 5.9) such as:
10.8.1 a portable, retractable line;
10.8.2 a mirror and a square (both with a levelling bubble); or
10.8.3 a boundary scope.
15
Section 4 – Arranging a game
11
General form and length
11.1 A game of bowls should be played on one rink or on several rinks.
11.2 The game should consist of a pre-arranged number of shots or ends, or be played
for a fixed period of time that is decided beforehand.
11.3 Ends should be played in turn from opposite directions, except as described in
laws 28, 31, 33 and 48.
12
Choosing the rinks for play
12.1 The skips, their representatives or the Controlling Body should make the draw for
the rinks on which games are to be played.
12.2 In games where competing skips have previously been decided, the visiting skips,
their representatives or the Controlling Body should make the draw to decide the
numbers of the rinks to be played on.
12.3 If, before play starts, a player in a competition or game plays on the same rink on
the day of the competition or game, that player will be disqualified. This does not
apply to open tournaments.
12.4 For domestic play, Member National Authorities can decide the requirements for
playing on the same rink on the day of a competition or game.
13
Practice
13.1 If a player or team that has not yet played is due to meet a player or team that has
already played on the same day, the player or team that has not yet played can
practise as long as:
13.1.1 the Controlling Body gives approval;
13.1.2 there is enough time available without delaying the competition; and
13.1.3 another rink is available apart from that on which the player or team has
been drawn to play later that day.
13.2 If a player or team has already played on the same green on the same day, that
player or team can practise in line with law 13.1 if they have a ‘bye’. (A player or
team has a ‘bye’ in any round of a competition if they don’t have an opponent in
that round.)
13.3 The Controlling Body should allocate the rink on which a player or team can
practise.
13.4 If two players or two teams are entitled to practise:
13.4.1 they can practise together; and
13.4.2 the format of, and the number of bowls used in, the practice should be
decided by the players concerned.
14
Play arrangements
Games should be organised as:
14.1 a Singles game;
14.2 a team game;
14.3 a side game;
16
14.4
14.5
a series of Singles games, team games or side games; or
a tournament of games.
14.1
Singles game
A Singles game should be played between two opposing players. Players should play
singly and in turn either two, three or four of a set of bowls as decided by the Controlling
Body.
14.2
Team game
14.2.1 Pairs game
14.2.1.1 A Pairs game should be played by two opposing teams, each with two
players. Players should play singly and in turn either two, three or four
of a set of bowls as decided by the Controlling Body.
14.2.1.2 The Controlling Body will also decide the order in which the players
will play their bowls as follows.
14.2.1.2.1 If each player is playing four bowls:
14.2.1.2.1.1 the leads will play their four bowls followed by the skips
playing their four bowls;
14.2.1.2.1.2 the leads will play two of their bowls, followed by the
skips playing two of their bowls, followed by the leads
playing their final two bowls, followed by the skips
playing their final two bowls; or
14.2.1.2.1.3 in the first end and every following odd-numbered end,
the leads will play two of their bowls, followed by the
skips playing their four bowls, followed by the leads
playing their final two bowls. In the second end and every
following even-numbered end, the skips will play two of
their bowls, followed by the leads playing their four
bowls, followed by the skips playing their final two
bowls.
14.2.1.2.2 If each player is playing two or three bowls, the leads will play
all their bowls, followed by the skips playing all their bowls.
14.2.2 Triples game
A Triples game should be played by two opposing teams, each with three players. Players
should play singly and in turn either two or three of a set of bowls as decided by the
Controlling Body.
14.2.3 Fours game
A Fours game should be played by two opposing teams, each with four players. Players
should play singly and in turn two of a set of bowls.
14.3
Side game
A side game should be played by two opposing sides, each with the same number of
teams or Singles players (or a combination of teams and Singles players).
14.4
A series of games
Games in a series should be arranged to be played on several occasions as:
17
14.4.1 an ordered series of games organised as a knockout (eliminating) competition and
arranged as Singles, Pairs, Triples or Fours; or
14.4.2 an ordered series of side games organised as either a league competition or a
knockout (eliminating) competition.
14.5
A tournament of games
14.5.1 Singles games and team games can be arranged into sections (or groups) as a
tournament of games in which the contestants either:
14.5.1.1 play each other in turn;
14.5.1.2 play as paired-off teams of players; or
14.5.1.3 play in line with any other format decided by the Controlling Body.
14.5.2 The games can be played on one or several greens in line with a common
timetable.
15
Sets play
15.1
Format of play
15.1.1 Competitions played in the sets format should consist of sectional play, knockout
(eliminating) play or a combination of both.
15.1.2 Each game should be played over the better of two sets, with each set consisting
of nine ends or any other format agreed beforehand by the Controlling Body.
15.1.3 The winner of a set will be the player or team with the highest number of shots
when the ninth end is completed.
15.1.4 If the shot scores are tied after the ninth end of a set, the set will be a draw.
15.1.5 During sectional play, all nine ends of a set should be completed.
15.1.6 During knockout play, there should be no further play in a set if, at any point, it
becomes impossible for one player or team to draw or win the set, given the
number of ends left.
15.2
Tie-breaker
15.2.1 If the game is tied after the two sets have been completed (each player or team
having won one set or both sets having been drawn), a tie-breaker consisting of
three ends should be played to decide the winner.
15.2.2 The winner of the tie-breaker will be the player or team with the highest number
of shots when the third end is completed.
15.2.3 There should be no further play in the tie-breaker if, at any point, it becomes
impossible for one player or team to draw or win the tie-breaker, given the
number of ends left.
15.2.4 If the shot scores are tied after the third end of the tie-breaker, the players or
teams should play a fourth tie-breaker end to decide the winner.
15.2.5 If the fourth end of a tie-breaker is a tied end, the players or teams will play more
tie-breaker ends until a winner is found.
15.3
Winners of sectional play
15.3.1 Points will be awarded as follows.
15.3.1.1 Two game points will be awarded for each game won. No game points
are awarded for any game lost.
18
15.3.1.2 One set point will be awarded for each set won. A half set point will be
awarded for each set drawn. No set points are awarded for any set lost.
(The tie-breaker is not a set.)
15.3.1.3 If a game is forfeited, the non-offending player or team will be awarded
two game points, two set points and a net total of shots that is equal to
the average net total of shots scored by the winners of all other games
played in the same round of the same section.
15.3.2 Section winners will be decided as follows.
15.3.2.1 Highest number of game points scored.
15.3.2.2 If game points are equal, the player or team with the highest number of
sets won.
15.3.2.3 If game points and sets won are equal, the player or team with the
highest net total of set points over all games in the section.
15.3.2.4 If game points, sets won and net totals of set points are equal, the player
or team with the highest net total of shots over all games in the section
(not including tie-breaker ends).
15.3.2.5 If game points, sets won, net totals of set points and net totals of shots
are equal, the player or team that won the game between the players or
teams that are equal.
15.4
First to play
15.4.1 First set: the skips or opponents in Singles should toss a coin and the winner of
the toss has the options described in law 18.2.2.
15.4.2 Second set: the winner of the first set should place the mat and then deliver the
jack and the first bowl. If the first set is a draw, the winner of the last scoring end
in that set should place the mat and then deliver the jack and the first bowl.
15.4.3 First, fourth and any further ends of a tie-breaker: the skips or opponents in
Singles should toss a coin and the winner of the toss has the options described in
law 18.2.2.
15.4.4 In all ends after the first in each set (including tie-breaker ends), the winner of the
previous scoring end should place the mat and then deliver the jack and the first
bowl. If, however, the first end of the first set or the first end of a tie-breaker is a
tied end, the first to play in that end should also play first in the second end of the
first set or the second end of the tie-breaker.
15.5
Re-spotting the jack
15.5.1 If a jack in motion passes completely outside the boundaries of the rink of play,
comes to rest in any hollow in the face of the bank, or rebounds to a distance of
less than 20 metres from the mat line, the end should not be declared dead.
Instead, the jack should be placed with the nearest point of the jack to the mat line
at the appropriate spot described in laws 15.5.2, 15.5.3, 15.5.4 and 15.5.5, and
play should continue.
15.5.2 If the jack passes outside the side boundary on the right of the rink, it should be
placed with the nearest point of the jack to the mat line at a spot on the rink which
is 2 metres from the front ditch and 1.5 metres to the right of the centre line.
19
15.5.3 If the jack passes outside the side boundary on the left of the rink, it should be
placed with the nearest point of the jack to the mat line at a spot on the rink which
is 2 metres from the front ditch and 1.5 metres to the left of the centre line.
15.5.4 If the jack passes above the face of the bank that is within the side boundaries of
the rink of play, or comes to rest in any hollow in the face of the bank, it should
be placed with the nearest point of the jack to the mat line at a spot on the rink
which is 2 metres from the front ditch and on the centre line.
15.5.5 If the jack rebounds to a distance of less than 20 metres from the mat line, it
should be placed:
15.5.5.1 with the nearest point of the jack to the mat line at the appropriate spot
described in laws 15.5.2 and 15.5.3; or
15.5.5.2 with the nearest point of the jack to the mat line at the spot described in
law 15.5.4 if it comes to rest on the centre line.
15.5.6 If any of the spots mentioned in laws 15.5.2, 15.5.3 and 15.5.4 are partly or
completely covered by a bowl, the jack should be placed as close as possible to
the covered spot, in line with that spot and the corresponding spot at the opposite
end of the rink, without touching a bowl.
15.5.7 The spots mentioned in laws 15.5.2, 15.5.3 and 15.5.4 should be marked using
chalk or some other suitable method (see diagram B.2.3 in appendix B.2).
16
Formats of play
16.1
World events and Commonwealth Games
16.1.1 Singles will be 21 shots (shots scored over 21 will not be counted), sets play or
any other format decided beforehand by WB. Four bowls will be played, with
each player playing in turn.
16.1.2 Pairs will be 18 ends, sets play or any other format decided beforehand by WB.
Two, three or four bowls can be played, with each player playing in turn.
16.1.3 For Triples, two or three bowls can be played, with each player playing in turn.
The format of play will be 18 ends (each player plays two bowls), 15 ends (each
player plays three bowls), sets play, or any other format decided beforehand by
WB.
16.1.4 Fours will be 18 ends, sets play or any other format decided beforehand by WB.
Two bowls should be played, with each player playing in turn.
16.1.5 The Controlling Body has the power to include in its Conditions of Play
regulations for introducing substitutes which are different from those described in
laws 50 and 51, if that Controlling Body decides that this is essential to
successfully carry out its Championship. The Controlling Body can also decide on
the regulations for introducing reserve or replacement players to take the place of
players who cannot play in any round after the first round.
16.1.6 Changing the programme
The Controlling Body has the power to alter or amend the programme of the
Championship as it considers necessary or appropriate if the weather or other
conditions are unsuitable. The Controlling Body can also suspend play
temporarily in any game or abandon any game, and it can also alter any of the
conditions of its programme if it decides that this is essential to successfully carry
out or finish the Championship.
20
16.2
International events
16.2.1 Singles will be 21 shots (shots scored over 21 will not be counted), sets play or
any other format agreed beforehand by WB. Four bowls will be played, with each
player playing in turn.
16.2.2 Pairs will be 18 ends, sets play or any other format agreed beforehand by WB.
Two, three or four bowls can be played, with each player playing in turn.
16.2.3 For Triples, two or three bowls can be played, with each player playing in turn.
The format of play will be 18 ends (each player plays two bowls), 15 ends (each
player plays three bowls), sets play, or any other format decided beforehand by
WB.
16.2.4 Fours will be 18 ends, sets play or any other format agreed beforehand by WB.
Two bowls should be played, with each player playing in turn.
16.2.5 The formats of play for Singles, Pairs, Triples and Fours which are played as part
of a side game will be the same as those described in laws 16.2.1, 16.2.2, 16.2.3
and 16.2.4 as appropriate.
16.2.6 There can be a time limit on play. The Controlling Body will decide the time limit
before the game begins. The game will end:
16.2.6.1 when the pre-arranged number of shots has been scored;
16.2.6.2 when the pre-arranged number of ends has been completed; or
16.2.6.3 if an end is in progress when a pre-arranged time limit is reached, when
that end has been completed.
16.2.7 The Controlling Body has the power to include in its Conditions of Play
regulations for introducing substitutes which are different from those described in
laws 50 and 51, if that Controlling Body decides that this is essential to
successfully carry out its Championship. The Controlling Body can also decide on
the regulations for introducing reserve or replacement players to take the place of
players who cannot play in any round after the first round.
16.2.8 Changing the programme
The Controlling Body has the power to alter or amend the programme of the
Championship as it considers necessary or appropriate if the weather or other
conditions are unsuitable or, in the case of indoor play, if there is a power failure
and the lighting is affected. The Controlling Body can also suspend play
temporarily in any game or abandon any game, and it can also alter any of the
conditions of its programme if it decides that this is essential to successfully carry
out or finish the Championship.
16.3
Domestic events
16.3.1 The formats of play for Singles, Pairs, Triples, Fours and side games will be
decided by the Controlling Body.
16.3.2 The Controlling Body has the power to include in its Conditions of Play
regulations for introducing substitutes which are different from those described in
laws 50 and 51, if that Controlling Body decides that this is essential to
successfully carry out its Championship. The Controlling Body can also decide on
the regulations for introducing reserve or replacement players to take the place of
players who cannot play in any round after the first round.
21
16.3.3 Changing the programme
The Controlling Body has the power to alter or amend the programme of the event
as it considers necessary or appropriate if the weather or other conditions are
unsuitable or, in the case of indoor play, if there is a power failure and the lighting
is affected. The Controlling Body can also suspend play temporarily in any game
or abandon any game, and it can also alter any of the conditions of its programme
if it decides that this is essential to successfully carry out or finish the event.
17
Regulations for play
17.1
Domestic regulations
17.1.1 For domestic play, Member National Authorities can make regulations (‘domestic
regulations’) to cover the following aspects of the sport:
17.1.1.1 the use of synthetic surfaces (see law 2.4);
17.1.1.2 standards for greens constructed in line with previous editions of the
Laws of the Sport of Bowls (see law 2.5);
17.1.1.3 standards for the minimum width of a rink (see law 5.1);
17.1.1.4 standards for boundary pegs made in line with previous editions of the
Laws of the Sport of Bowls (see law 5.5);
17.1.1.5 requirements for thin black vertical lines to mark the centres of boundary
pegs that are fixed to the face of the bank of an outdoor green or fixed
on the top of the bank of either an outdoor or an indoor green (see law
5.5);
17.1.1.6 the use of boundary threads (see law 5.9);
17.1.1.7 distinguishing marks on bowls (see law 8.1.5);
17.1.1.8 re-testing and re-stamping bowls (see law 8.2.3);
17.1.1.9 the deposit to be paid when a challenge to bowls is lodged (see law
8.4.4.3);
17.1.1.10 requirements for the stamps on bowls (see law 9.5);
17.1.1.11 requirements for playing on the same rink on the day of a competition
or game (see law 12.4);
17.1.1.12 the distance from the mat line within which a jack can come to rest for
it to be considered to be improperly delivered (see law 23.5);
17.1.1.13 re-spotting the jack in formats of play other than sets play (see law
30.4);
17.1.1.14 the use of a scoreboard instead of one of the score cards (see law
37.1.8);
17.1.1.15 artificial devices for delivering the jack or a bowl (see law 38.6);
17.1.1.16 substitute players (see law 51.9);
17.1.1.17 colours for footwear and the types of sole (see appendix A.2.2); and
17.1.1.18 colours and types of clothing, including bowling gloves (see appendix
A.3).
17.1.2 If there is no domestic regulation to cover a specific aspect of the sport listed in
law 17.1.1, all games will be played in line with the Laws of the Sport of Bowls.
17.1.3 Member National Authorities should give a copy of their domestic regulations to
all divisions and clubs within their authority.
22
17.2
Conditions of Play
17.2.1 Controlling Bodies should decide what Conditions of Play are necessary to
govern their competitions.
17.2.2 Controlling Bodies that govern club competitions which are purely social or
recreational (that is, competitions that do not directly or indirectly lead to the
winners being awarded a club title or qualifying to compete for a district, national
or international title) can set Conditions of Play which include aspects of play that
are different from those described within the Laws of the Sport of Bowls.
17.2.3 Controlling Bodies that govern competitions other than the types of club
competitions described in law 17.2.2 should make sure that their Conditions of
Play are in line with the requirements described in appendix A.1.
Section 5 – The game
18
Starting the game
18.1
Trial ends
18.1.1 Before the start of play in any game, or before continuing an unfinished game on
another day, one trial end should be played in each direction.
18.1.2 For domestic play, the Controlling Body can limit the number of trial ends to be
played (no trial ends or one trial end in one direction). It can also decide whether
the trial ends are played immediately before or immediately after the scheduled
start time for the game.
18.1.3 Trial ends should be played on the same rink that the game will be played on.
18.1.4 Each player should not use more than the number of bowls being used during the
game.
18.1.5 Each player can use any combination of bowls taken from different sets of bowls.
18.1.6 The opponents of the team which started the first trial end should start the second
trial end.
18.1.7 The team which starts the trial end should place the mat, deliver the jack and
place the jack on the centre line of the rink at a distance they choose from the mat
line (the distance should not be changed during the course of the trial end).
18.1.8 When each bowl comes to rest, any player or the marker can remove it and place
it towards the front ditch.
18.1.9 If a bowl moves the jack, the jack should be put back to its former position.
18.2
Tossing for opening play
18.2.1 The managers in a side game (or, in their absence, representatives of the sides),
skips in a team game or opponents in Singles should toss a coin.
18.2.2 The winner of the toss should choose whether to:
18.2.2.1 place the mat and then deliver the jack and the first bowl; or
18.2.2.2 tell the opposing player to place the mat and deliver the jack and the first
bowl (the opposing player cannot refuse).
18.2.3 The option chosen by the manager or representative who wins the toss in a side
game will apply to all teams or Singles players (or a combination of teams and
Singles players) who make up the side.
23
18.2.4 If the coin is tossed before the start of the trial ends, the option the winner of the
toss chooses will apply to both the first trial end and the first end of the game.
18.3
The start of play
18.3.1 In any game, the start of play is the delivery of the jack by the first player to play
in the first end.
18.3.2 In any end, the start of play is the delivery of the jack by the first player to play in
that end.
18.4
Play in other ends
In all ends after the first but apart from in an extra end, the winner of the previous scoring
end should place the mat and then deliver the jack and the first bowl.
19
Placing the mat
19.1
At the start of each end
19.1.1 Before the start of play in each end, the player to play first should place the centre
line of the mat lengthwise along the centre line of the rink, with the mat line at
least 2 metres from the rear ditch and at least 25 metres from the front ditch.
19.1.2 If, before the jack has been delivered, a player or the marker finds that the mat has
not been placed as described in law 19.1.1, the player to play first should correctly
position the mat.
19.1.3 If, after the jack has been delivered but before the first bowl is delivered, a player
or the marker finds that the mat line has not been positioned within the distances
described in law 19.1.1, the opposing player should place the mat as described in
law 19.1.1 and re-deliver the jack, making sure that it is centred, but the opposing
player should not play first.
19.1.4 After the first player to play has delivered the first bowl, no-one has the right to
challenge the legality of the original distance of the mat line from the rear and
front ditches.
19.1.5 If one or more groundsheets are to be used (outdoor play only), the following will
apply:
19.1.5.1 The Controlling Body should consult the nominated greenkeeper before
deciding where the groundsheets will be placed. The position should be
in line with law 1.3.12.
19.1.5.2 The Controlling Body can make the decision to use groundsheets either
before the start of play or at any time during play.
19.1.5.3 The groundsheets should be securely fastened to the surface of the green
using flat-headed pins (or an equivalent) that do not stick up from the
surface.
19.1.5.4 The groundsheets should stay in the same position until the end of the
game or until the Controlling Body decides that they are no longer
needed.
19.1.5.5 The mat line should be placed on the rear edge of the groundsheet.
19.2
During each end
After the start of play in any end, the mat should not be moved from its original position
except in the following circumstances.
24
19.2.1
19.2.2
19.2.3
19.2.4
If the mat is displaced, it should be replaced in its original position.
If the mat is out of line with the centre line, it should be straightened on that line.
If the mat is off the centre line, it should be moved to that line.
If a player picks up the mat before the end has been completed, an opposing
player should replace the mat in its original position.
19.2.5 If a bowl from a neighbouring rink, moving in its original course and on a bias
which will take it back into its own rink, is travelling on a path which will bring it
into contact with the mat, any player on the rink on which the mat is being used
can lift it so that the bowl can pass and then replace the mat in its original
position.
19.2.6 After the last bowl required to be played in each end has been delivered, a player
or the marker should lift the mat and place it completely beyond the face of the
rear bank. Opponents in Singles can, however, agree to carry the mat up the rink
so that they can use it at the next end.
20
Position on the mat
20.1 Before delivery a player should be standing on the mat with one foot fully on the
mat. At the moment they deliver the jack or a bowl, the player should have all or
part of one foot on or above the mat.
20.2 Before delivery a player using an approved wheelchair should have one wheel on
the mat and, at the moment they deliver the jack or a bowl, the player should have
all or part of one wheel on or above the mat.
20.3 Any player not meeting the terms of this law is committing a foot-fault, and law
21 will apply.
21
Foot-faulting
21.1 If the umpire, either by their own observation or on appeal by one of the skips or
opponents in Singles, decides that a player has not met the terms of law 20, the
umpire should, on the first occasion, warn the player in the presence of the skip
and advise the manager or the coach when they are present that a warning has
been given.
21.2 On each occasion after this, the umpire should have the player’s bowl stopped and
declared dead.
21.3 If it has not been possible to stop the bowl and it disturbs the head, the opponent
should choose whether to:
21.3.1 replace the head;
21.3.2 leave the head as altered; or
21.3.3 declare the end dead.
21.4 If a player has been given a warning and still fails to meet the terms of law 20
while delivering the jack, law 23.2 will apply.
22
Delivering the jack
22.1 Before the jack is delivered, the mat should be placed as described in law 19.1.1.
The player to play first should deliver the jack and make sure that it is centred.
22.2 If the jack in its original course comes to rest less than 2 metres from the front
ditch, it should be placed on the centre line of the rink with the nearest point of
25
22.3
22.4
22.5
22.6
22.7
23
the jack to the mat line being 2 metres from the front ditch. This should be done
by:
22.2.1 placing the jack at a mark on the centre line of the rink measuring a
distance of 2 metres from the front ditch (see diagram B.3.1 in appendix
B.3); or
22.2.2 placing the jack alongside the edge of a 2-metre measuring device (for
example, a thin wooden batten which is 2 metres long - see diagram B.3.2
in appendix B.3)
If, in its original course, the jack is displaced by one of the other players, law
33.1.1 will apply.
If, in its original course, the jack is displaced by a neutral person or neutral object,
law 33.3.1 will apply.
If, before a bowl has been played by each team, a player notices that the wrong
team has delivered the jack, the correct team will re-start the end.
If, after a bowl has been played by each team, a player notices that the wrong
team has delivered the jack, play in that end should continue in that order.
After the first player to play has delivered the first bowl, no-one has the right to
challenge the legality of the original position of the jack.
Improper delivery of the jack
23.1 The jack has been improperly delivered if it comes to rest:
23.1.1 in the ditch;
23.1.2 completely outside the boundaries of the rink;
23.1.3 at a distance of less than 23 metres from the mat line, as measured in a
straight line from the centre of the mat line to the nearest point of the jack,
after the jack has been centred;
23.1.4 on the rink after contact with the face of the bank; or
23.1.5 on the rink after contact with any object or person completely outside the
boundaries of the rink.
23.2 If a player improperly delivers the jack, the opposing player should place the mat
as described in law 19.1.1 and re-deliver the jack, making sure that it is centred,
but the opposing player should not play first.
23.3 If the jack is improperly delivered once by each player in any end, it should not be
delivered again in that end. Instead, it should be centred with the nearest point of
the jack to the mat line being 2 metres from the front ditch, and the mat should be
placed as described in law 19.1.1 by the first player to play.
23.4 If the jack is improperly delivered once by each player and the end is then
declared dead, law 31.3 will apply.
23.5 For domestic play, Member National Authorities can decide to change the
distance mentioned in law 23.1.3 from 23 metres to 21 metres. If a Member
National Authority decides to make that change, it should also change:
23.5.1 the distance mentioned in laws 15.5.1, 15.5.5, 30.1.4 and B.4.2 from 20
metres to 18 metres;
23.5.2 the distance mentioned in laws 1.3.12, 5.12, 5.13, 19.1.1, B.2.1, B.4.1 and
B.4.2 from 25 metres to 23 metres; and
26
23.5.3 the distance mentioned in laws 55.2.2 and B.4.2 from 23 metres to 21
metres.
Section 6 – Movement of bowls
24
Touchers
24.1 A bowl in its original course which touches the jack, even though it comes to rest
in the ditch within the boundaries of the rink of play, is a live bowl and is called a
toucher. If a bowl in its original course does not touch the jack, it is called a
non-toucher.
24.2 A bowl is also a toucher if, after having come to rest:
24.2.1 it falls and touches the jack before the next bowl is delivered; or
24.2.2 in the case of the last bowl of an end, it falls and touches the jack within
the period of 30 seconds that applies under law 40.1.
24.3 No bowl will be a toucher if it plays onto, or comes into contact with, the jack
when the jack is in the ditch.
24.4 The position of a toucher in the ditch should be marked by a brightly coloured
indicator not more than 50 millimetres wide and not more than 100 millimetres
high, and which is fixed vertically either against the face of the bank or on top of
the bank, immediately in line with the toucher. As well as the indicator, if the
surface of the ditch is sand, lines can be drawn in the sand around the toucher. If
the surface of the ditch is vegetation or synthetic, the lines can be drawn with
chalk.
25
Marking a toucher
25.1 A toucher should be marked with chalk by a member of the team that delivered
the bowl or the marker as soon as it comes to rest.
25.2 If, in the opinion of either skip or opponent or the marker, a toucher comes to rest
in a position in which marking it would be likely to move the bowl or alter the
head, the bowl should not be marked but nominated as a toucher instead.
25.3 If, before the next delivered bowl comes to rest or, in the case of the last bowl of
an end, before a period of 30 seconds that applies under law 40.1, a bowl is
neither marked nor nominated, it is no longer a toucher.
25.4 If a bowl has been nominated as either a toucher or a non-toucher, and both skips
or the opponents in Singles agree that further movement of the bowl means it
should no longer be nominated, the bowl should be marked or have its mark
removed as appropriate.
25.5 If a player fails to remove a mark from a bowl before delivery and that bowl does
not become a toucher, a member of the opposing team or the marker should
remove the mark as soon as the bowl comes to rest.
25.6 If, in the opinion of either skip or opponent or the marker, a wrongly marked bowl
comes to rest in such a position that removing the mark would be likely to move
the bowl or alter the head, the mark should not be removed and the bowl should
instead be nominated as a non-toucher.
27
26
Movement of touchers
26.1 The position of a toucher in the ditch will be validly altered if the toucher is
moved by:
26.1.1 a jack in play;
26.1.2 another toucher in play; or
26.1.3 a non-toucher while it is partly on the rink and partly overhanging the
ditch, as long as part of the non-toucher is still on the rink when it comes
to rest after it has moved the toucher.
26.2 If a toucher in the ditch is moved by a non-toucher entering the ditch, law 28.7
will apply.
26.3 If, once its position has been marked, there is further valid movement of a toucher
in the ditch as described in law 26.1, its new position should be marked as
described in law 24.4 by moving the indicators and removing and redrawing the
lines as appropriate.
27
Dead bowl
27.1 A bowl is a dead bowl if:
27.1.1 it is not a toucher and comes to rest in the ditch;
27.1.2 it is not a toucher and rebounds onto the rink after contact with the face of
the bank or with the jack or a toucher in the ditch;
27.1.3 after completing its original course or after being moved as a result of
play, it comes to rest at a distance of less than 14 metres, as measured in a
straight line, from the centre of the mat line to the nearest point of the
bowl;
27.1.4 it passes completely outside the boundaries of the rink of play after being
moved as a result of play;
27.1.5 in its original course, it passes outside a side boundary of the rink on a bias
which would prevent it from re-entering the rink of play; or
27.1.6 in its original course, it comes to rest outside a side boundary of the rink
even though it may have come to rest in contact with the outside edge of a
line jack.
27.2 A bowl is not a dead bowl if:
27.2.1 it is carried by a player while inspecting the head;
27.2.2 in its original course, it comes to rest within the boundaries of the rink
even though it may have passed outside a side boundary of the rink during
its course;
27.2.3 it is a toucher which rebounds from the face of the bank onto the rink of
play;
27.2.4 it is a toucher which comes to rest on top of the jack or another toucher at
rest in the ditch; or
27.2.5 it comes to rest on top of the jack or any bowls that are at rest within the
boundaries of the rink.
27.3 The skips or opponents in Singles should decide whether a bowl is dead or not as
soon as they realise it is necessary. (If the players do not realise that a decision is
necessary as soon as the bowl comes to rest, the decision can still be made even if
28
27.4
a number of bowls have been played after the bowl in question came to rest.) If
they cannot reach agreement, they should ask the umpire to make a decision.
A dead bowl should be removed from the rink of play as soon as it has been
declared dead.
28
Bowl displacement
(See the displacement chart in Appendix C for a quick-reference guide to laws 28.1, 28.2 and
28.3.)
28.1
Bowl displacement by another player
28.1.1 Displacement of a bowl in its original course that has not disturbed the head
before it is displaced
28.1.1.1 If the bowl is displaced by a member of the team that delivered the bowl
and it has not disturbed the head after it is displaced, the opposing skip
should declare the bowl dead.
28.1.1.2 If the bowl is displaced by a member of the team that delivered the bowl
and it has disturbed the head after it is displaced, the opposing skip
should:
28.1.1.2.1 replace the head; and
28.1.1.2.2 declare the bowl dead.
28.1.1.3 If the bowl is displaced by an opponent and it has not disturbed the head
after it is displaced, the skip of the team that played the bowl should
choose whether to:
28.1.1.3.1 have the bowl replayed;
28.1.1.3.2 place the bowl where the skip believes it would have come to
rest; or
28.1.1.3.3 leave the bowl where it came to rest.
28.1.1.4 If the bowl is displaced by an opponent and it has disturbed the head
after it is displaced, the skip of the team that played the bowl should
choose whether to:
28.1.1.4.1 replace the head and have the bowl replayed;
28.1.1.4.2 replace the head and place the bowl where the skip believes it
would have come to rest; or
28.1.1.4.3 declare the end dead.
28.1.2 Displacement of a bowl in its original course that has disturbed the head before it
is displaced
28.1.2.1 If a bowl has disturbed the head before it is displaced by a player, this
disturbance is valid. (The opposing skip should not replace any part of
the head that has been disturbed before the displacement.)
28.1.2.2 If the bowl is displaced by a player and it has not disturbed the head
after it is displaced, the opposing skip should choose whether to:
28.1.2.2.1 place the bowl where the skip believes it would have come to
rest; or
28.1.2.2.2 leave the bowl where it came to rest.
29
28.1.2.3 If the bowl is displaced by a player and it has disturbed the head after it
is displaced, the opposing skip should replace any part of the head
disturbed after the displacement and choose whether to:
28.1.2.3.1 place the bowl where the skip believes it would have come to
rest; or
28.1.2.3.2 leave the bowl where it came to rest.
28.1.3 Displacement of a bowl in motion
28.1.3.1 If a bowl in motion is displaced by a player and it has not disturbed the
head after it is displaced, the opposing skip should choose whether to:
28.1.3.1.1 place the bowl where the skip believes it would have come to
rest; or
28.1.3.1.2 declare the end dead.
28.1.3.2 If a bowl in motion is displaced by a player and it has disturbed the head
after it is displaced, the opposing skip should choose whether to:
28.1.3.2.1 place the bowl where the skip believes it would have come to
rest and replace any part of the head disturbed after the
displacement; or
28.1.3.2.2 declare the end dead.
28.1.4 Displacement of a bowl at rest
28.1.4.1 If a bowl at rest or a toucher in the ditch is displaced by a player and it
has not disturbed the head after it is displaced, the opposing skip should
put the bowl back to its former position.
28.1.4.2 If a bowl at rest or a toucher in the ditch is displaced by a player and it
has disturbed the head after it is displaced, the opposing skip should put
the bowl back to its former position and replace any part of the head
disturbed after the displacement.
28.2
Bowl displacement by a wheelchair
If a bowl is displaced by a wheelchair, the wheelchair should be treated as if it was the
wheelchair player for all purposes under law 28.1.
28.3
Bowl displacement by a neutral person or neutral object
28.3.1 Displacement of a bowl in its original course that has not disturbed the head
before it is displaced
28.3.1.1 If the bowl is displaced within the boundaries of the rink of play by a
neutral person or neutral object and it has not disturbed the head after it
is displaced, the bowl should be replayed.
28.3.1.2 If the bowl is displaced within the boundaries of the rink of play by a
neutral person or neutral object and it has disturbed the head after it is
displaced, the skips or opponents in Singles should agree how to replace
the head and then have the bowl replayed. If they cannot agree, they
should declare the end dead.
28.3.1.3 If the bowl, running on a bias that would have brought it back into the
rink of play, is displaced outside the boundaries of the rink of play by a
neutral person or neutral object and it has not disturbed the head after it
is displaced, the bowl should be replayed.
30
28.3.1.4 If the bowl, running on a bias that would have brought it back into the
rink of play, is displaced outside the boundaries of the rink of play by a
neutral person or neutral object and it has disturbed the head after it is
displaced, the skips or opponents in Singles should agree how to replace
the head and then have the bowl replayed. If they cannot agree, they
should declare the end dead.
28.3.2 Displacement of a bowl in its original course that has disturbed the head before it
is displaced
28.3.2.1 If a bowl has disturbed the head before it is displaced by a neutral person
or neutral object, this disturbance is valid. (The skips or opponents in
Singles should not replace any part of the head that has been disturbed
before the displacement.)
28.3.2.2 If the bowl is displaced by a neutral person or neutral object and it has
not disturbed the head after it is displaced, the skips or opponents in
Singles should agree where the bowl would have come to rest. If they
cannot agree, they should declare the end dead.
28.3.2.3 If the bowl is displaced by a neutral person or neutral object and it has
disturbed the head after it is displaced, the skips or opponents in Singles
should agree where the bowl would have come to rest and how to
replace any part of the head disturbed after the displacement. If they
cannot agree, they should declare the end dead.
28.3.3 Displacement of a bowl in motion
28.3.3.1 If a bowl in motion is displaced by a neutral person or neutral object and
it has not disturbed the head after it is displaced, the skips or opponents
in Singles should agree where the bowl would have come to rest. If they
cannot agree, they should declare the end dead.
28.3.3.2 If a bowl in motion is displaced by a neutral person or neutral object and
it has disturbed the head after it is displaced, the skips or opponents in
Singles should agree where the bowl would have come to rest and how
to replace any part of the head disturbed after the displacement. If they
cannot agree, they should declare the end dead.
28.3.4 Displacement of a bowl at rest
28.3.4.1 If a bowl at rest is displaced by a neutral person or neutral object and it
has not disturbed the head after it is displaced, the skips or opponents in
Singles should agree on the former position of the bowl. If they cannot
agree, they should declare the end dead.
28.3.4.2 If a bowl at rest is displaced by a neutral person or neutral object and it
has disturbed the head after it is displaced, the skips or opponents in
Singles should agree on the former position of the bowl and how to
replace any part of the head disturbed after the displacement. If they
cannot agree, they should declare the end dead.
28.4
Bowl displacement when being marked as a toucher or during measuring
28.4.1 If a bowl is displaced by a player when marking it as a toucher, or by the
equipment being used by a player during measuring, an opponent should put it
back to its former position.
31
28.4.2 If a bowl is displaced by the marker when marking it as a toucher, or by the
equipment being used by the marker during measuring, the marker should put the
bowl back to a position agreed by the opponents. If the opponents cannot agree,
the marker should put the bowl back to its former position.
28.4.3 If a bowl is displaced by the equipment being used by the umpire during
measuring, the umpire should put the bowl back to its former position.
28.5
Bowl displacement by a rebounding non-toucher
28.5.1 Displacement of a bowl in its original course
If a bowl in its original course is displaced by a non-toucher rebounding from the
face of the bank, the skips or opponents in Singles should put the displaced bowl
where they believe it would have come to rest. If they cannot agree on the bowl’s
final position, the end should be declared dead.
28.5.2 Displacement of a bowl in motion
If a bowl in motion is displaced by a non-toucher rebounding from the face of the
bank, the skips or opponents in Singles should put the displaced bowl where they
believe it would have come to rest. If they cannot agree on the bowl’s final
position, the end should be declared dead.
28.5.3 Displacement of a bowl at rest
If a bowl at rest or a toucher in the ditch is displaced by a non-toucher rebounding
from the face of the bank, an opponent or the marker should put it back to its
former position.
28.6
Bowl displacement by a bowl from a neighbouring rink
28.6.1 If a bowl at rest on the rink is in danger of being moved by a bowl from a
neighbouring rink, any player at the head can choose whether to:
28.6.1.1 lift the bowl at rest to allow the other bowl to pass and then replace it, as
long as this action would not influence the outcome of the head; or
28.6.1.2 stop the bowl from the neighbouring rink.
28.6.2 If, during a Singles game, a bowl at rest on the rink is in danger of being moved
by a bowl from a neighbouring rink, the marker should stop the bowl from the
neighbouring rink.
28.6.3 If a bowl that has been stopped was in its original course and was delivered on a
bias that would have taken it back into its own rink, it should be replayed.
28.7
Bowl displacement by a dead bowl
If a toucher in the ditch is displaced by a dead bowl from the rink of play, an opponent or
the marker should put it back to its former position.
Section 7 – Movement of the jack
29
Live jack in the ditch
29.1 A jack that is moved by a bowl in play into the front ditch within the side
boundaries of the rink of play is a live jack.
29.2 The position of a jack in the ditch should be marked by a white indicator, which is
not more than 50 millimetres wide and not more than 100 millimetres high and is
32
29.3
29.4
29.5
placed vertically either against the face of the bank or on top of the bank,
immediately in line with the jack. As well as the indicator, if the surface of the
ditch is sand, lines can be drawn in the sand around the jack. If the surface of the
ditch is vegetation or synthetic, the lines can be drawn with chalk.
The position of a jack in the ditch will be validly altered if the jack is moved by
either:
29.3.1 a toucher in play; or
29.3.2 a non-toucher while it is partly on the rink and partly overhanging the
ditch, as long as part of the non-toucher is still on the rink when it comes
to rest after it has moved the jack.
If a jack in the ditch is displaced by a non-toucher entering the ditch, law 33.5.3
will apply.
If, once its position has been marked, there is further valid movement of a jack in
the ditch (as described in law 29.3), its new position should be marked (as
described in law 29.2) by moving the indicators or removing and redrawing the
lines as appropriate.
30
Dead jack
30.1 If the jack is moved by a bowl in play, it is a dead jack if it:
30.1.1 passes above the face of the bank;
30.1.2 passes completely outside a side boundary of the rink of play;
30.1.3 comes to rest in any hollow in the face of the bank; or
30.1.4 comes to rest at a distance of less than 20 metres, as measured in a straight
line, from the centre of the mat line to the nearest point of the jack.
30.2 A jack is not a dead jack if it comes to rest:
30.2.1 on top of a toucher at rest in the ditch; or
30.2.2 on top of any bowls that are at rest within the boundaries of the rink.
30.3 The skips or opponents in Singles should decide whether a jack is dead or not as
soon as they realise it is necessary. (If the players do not realise that a decision is
necessary as soon as the jack comes to rest, the decision can still be made even if
a number of bowls have been played after the jack came to rest.) If they cannot
reach agreement, they should ask the umpire to make a decision.
30.4 If the jack is dead, the end is a dead end and law 31 will apply. However, for
domestic play, Member National Authorities can decide not to have the end
declared dead. Instead, they can decide to have the jack re-spotted in line with law
15.5.
31
Dead end
31.1 A dead end is not counted as a completed end even if all the bowls required to be
played have been played.
31.2 A dead end should be replayed in the same direction unless the skips or opponents
in Singles agree to play it in the opposite direction. (If the jack and bowls need to
be transferred to the opposite end of the rink before the end is replayed, they
should be carried up the rink to avoid distracting players on neighbouring rinks.)
31.3 If the skips or opponents in Singles or the umpire declare an end dead, the first to
play in that end should also play first when the end is replayed.
33
32
Rebounding jack
The end will continue if:
32.1 when the jack is at rest on the rink, it is driven against the face of the bank and
rebounds onto the rink of play; or
32.2 when the jack is at rest in the ditch, it is moved by a toucher and this takes it back
onto the rink.
33
Jack displacement
(See the displacement chart in Appendix C for a quick-reference guide to laws 33.1, 33.2 and
33.3.)
33.1
Jack displacement by another player
33.1.1 Displacement of a jack in its original course
33.1.1.1 If a jack in its original course is displaced by a member of the team that
delivered the jack, the opposing lead should place the mat as described
in law 19.1.1 and re-deliver the jack, making sure that it is centred, but
should not play first.
33.1.1.2 If a jack in its original course is displaced by an opponent, it should be
re-delivered by the same player.
33.1.2 Displacement of a jack in motion
If a jack in motion is displaced by a player, the opposing skip or opponent in
Singles can choose whether to:
33.1.2.1 place the jack where they believe it would have come to rest and replace
any part of the head disturbed by the displaced jack; or
33.1.2.2 declare the end dead.
33.1.3 Displacement of a jack at rest
If a jack at rest within the rink of play is displaced by a player, the opposing skip
or opponent in Singles should put the jack back to its former position.
33.2
Jack displacement by a wheelchair
If a jack is displaced by a wheelchair, the wheelchair should be treated as if it was the
wheelchair player for all purposes under law 33.1.
33.3
Jack displacement by a neutral person or neutral object
33.3.1 Displacement of a jack in its original course
If a jack in its original course is displaced by a neutral person or neutral object, it
should be re-delivered by the same player.
33.3.2 Displacement of a jack in motion
If a jack in motion is displaced by a neutral person or neutral object, the skips or
opponents in Singles should place the jack where they believe it would have come
to rest. If they cannot agree on the jack’s final position, the end should be
declared dead.
33.3.3 Displacement of a jack at rest
If a jack at rest within the rink of play is displaced by a neutral person or neutral
object, it should be put back to its former position. If the skips or opponents in
34
Singles cannot agree on the jack’s former position, the end should be declared
dead.
33.4
Jack displacement during measuring
33.4.1 If the jack is displaced by the equipment being used by a player during measuring,
an opponent should put it back to its former position.
33.4.2 If the jack is displaced by the equipment being used by the marker during
measuring, the marker should put the jack back to a position agreed by the
opponents. If the opponents cannot agree, the marker should put the jack back to
its former position.
33.4.3 If the jack is displaced by the equipment being used by the umpire during
measuring, the umpire should put the jack back to its former position.
33.5
Jack displacement by a non-toucher
33.5.1 If a jack in motion is displaced by a non-toucher rebounding from the face of the
bank, the skips or opponents in Singles should put the jack where they believe it
would have come to rest. If they cannot agree on the jack’s final position, the end
should be declared dead.
33.5.2 If a jack at rest on the rink is displaced by a non-toucher rebounding from the face
of the bank, an opponent or the marker should put it back to its former position.
33.5.3 If a jack at rest in the ditch is displaced by a non-toucher entering the ditch, an
opponent or the marker should put it back to its former position.
33.6
Jack displacement by a bowl from a neighbouring rink
If a jack at rest on the rink is in danger of being moved by a bowl from a neighbouring
rink, any player at the head or the marker should stop the bowl. If the bowl was in its
original course and was delivered on a bias that would have taken it back into its own
rink, it should be replayed.
Section 8 – Play, players and their duties
34
Team play
34.1
Number of players
A team should consist of two, three or four players as defined in law 1.2.3.
34.2
Order of play
34.2.1 The leads should play their bowls in turn, followed by each pair of players in their
order of play.
34.2.2 If a player delivers a bowl before the previous bowl has come to rest,
34.2.2.1 the first time this happens the umpire should:
34.2.2.1.1 warn the player, while the skip is present; and
34.2.2.1.2 tell the manager or the coach, if they are present, that the
player has received a warning.
35
34.2.2.2 on each occasion after this, the umpire should declare the player’s bowl
dead. If that bowl has disturbed the head, the opposing skip or opponent
in Singles should choose whether to:
34.2.2.2.1 replace the head;
34.2.2.2.2 leave the head as altered; or
34.2.2.2.3 declare the end dead.
34.2.3 The positions of players within a team should not be changed after the first end
has been completed unless the change is necessary because a substitute is
introduced as described in law 51.
34.2.4 If players in a team game change positions when law 34.2.3 does not apply, the
team will be disqualified and they will forfeit the game to their opponents.
34.2.5 If players in a side game change positions within a team when law 34.2.3 does not
apply, or if they change teams, the side will be disqualified and they will forfeit
the game to their opponents.
35
Possession of the rink
35.1 Possession of the rink will belong to the player or team whose bowl is being
played.
35.2 As soon as each bowl comes to rest, possession of the rink will transfer to the
opposing player or team after allowing time for marking a toucher as soon as it
comes to rest.
35.3 If the umpire, either by their own observation or on appeal by one of the skips or
opponents in Singles, decides that the players in possession of the rink are being
interfered with, annoyed or distracted in any way by their opponents,
35.3.1 the first time this happens the umpire should:
35.3.1.1 warn the offending player, while the skip is present; and
35.3.1.2 tell the manager or the coach, if they are present, that the player
has received a warning.
35.3.2 on each occasion after this, the umpire should have the bowl last played by
the offending player or team declared dead. If that bowl has disturbed the
head, the opponent should choose whether to:
35.3.2.1 replace the head;
35.3.2.2 leave the head as altered; or
35.3.2.3 declare the end dead.
36
Position of players
36.1
In relation to the rink of play
36.1.1 Players at the mat-end of the rink who are not delivering a bowl should stand at
least 1 metre behind the mat.
36.1.2 Players at the head-end of the rink and who are not controlling play should stand:
36.1.2.1 behind the jack if they are members of the team which is in possession
of the rink;
36.1.2.2 behind the jack and away from the head if they are members of the team
which is not in possession of the rink;
36.1.2.3 on the surrounds of the green if the jack is in the ditch; or
36.1.2.4 well clear of the head if it is not possible to stand on the surrounds.
36
36.1.3 As soon as a bowl is delivered, a player who is controlling play from a position
that is either level with or in front of the jack, should take their position as
described in law 36.1.2.
36.1.4 If a player does not meet the terms of this law, law 35 will apply.
36.2
In relation to a neighbouring rink
36.2.1 A player should not go into a neighbouring rink where play is in progress.
36.2.2 A player should neither go into nor walk along a neighbouring rink, even if it is
not being used, while an opponent is about to deliver or is actually delivering a
bowl.
36.2.3 If the rink of play is an outside rink (see law 5.6), a player should neither go into
nor walk along the section of green that lies between the outside side boundary of
the rink and the side ditch while an opponent is about to deliver or is actually
delivering a bowl.
36.2.4 If a player does not meet the terms of this law, law 35 will apply.
37
Players’ duties
37.1
The skip
37.1.1 The skip will have sole charge of the team and all players in the team should
follow the skip’s instructions.
37.1.2 The skip should decide all disputed points with the opposing skip, making sure
that any decision reached is in line with the Laws of the Sport of Bowls.
37.1.3 If the skips need to check any part of the Laws of the Sport of Bowls before
reaching a decision, they should ask the umpire for an explanation.
37.1.4 If the umpire considers that a decision reached by the skips is not in line with the
Laws of the Sport of Bowls, the umpire should overrule that decision so that it is
in line with the laws.
37.1.5 If the skips cannot reach agreement on any disputed point, they should ask the
umpire to make a decision. The umpire’s decision is final.
37.1.6 If the Controlling Body has not appointed an umpire, the skips should choose a
competent neutral person to act as the umpire.
37.1.7 The skip should:
37.1.7.1 be responsible for the score card supplied by the Controlling Body while
play is in progress;
37.1.7.2 enter the names of all players of both teams on the score card;
37.1.7.3 record, on the score card, all shots scored for and against the team as
each end is completed;
37.1.7.4 compare the score card with that of the opposing skip as each end is
completed; and
37.1.7.5 at the end of the game, record on the score card the time that the game
finished and then sign it.
37.1.8 If a Member National Authority agrees to a scoreboard being used instead of one
of the score cards, the skip of the team which won the toss for opening play
should update the scoreboard and the opposing skip should deal with the score
card as described in law 37.1.7.
37
37.1.9 Skips can, at any time, delegate their own powers and any of their own duties
(except those described in laws 37.1.7 and 37.1.8) to any other members of the
team as long as they tell the opposing skip immediately.
37.2
The third
37.2.1 The third can measure any and all disputed shots.
37.2.2 The third can tell the skip the number of shots scored for or against their team as
each end is completed.
37.3
The lead
The lead of the team to play first in an end should:
37.3.1 place the mat as described in law 19.1.1; and
37.3.2 deliver the jack and make sure that it is centred before delivering the first bowl of
the end.
37.4
Other duties
Along with the duties mentioned in the previous paragraphs of law 37, players can carry
out any other duties assigned to them by their skip as described in law 37.1.9.
38
Players with disabilities
38.1 Wheelchairs should be of a type approved by both WB and the Governing Body
for wheelchair bowlers in the country in which the player is playing.
38.2 Wheelchair bowlers can use any form of assistance necessary (including having
an assistant with them) to allow them to take part in the sport of bowls, as long as
the assistance is approved by the Governing Body for wheelchair bowlers in the
country in which the player is playing.
38.3 Players who are classified partially sighted or blind by their National Governing
Body for partially sighted and blind bowlers can use any form of assistance
necessary (including having an assistant with them, and having a white, breakable
string placed on the surface of the green, along the centre line of the rink) to allow
them to take part in the sport of bowls, as long as the assistance is approved by the
Governing Body for partially sighted and blind bowlers in the country in which
the player is playing.
38.4 The person assisting a partially sighted or blind bowler will not be breaking
law 35.2 or law 58.3 if the assistant:
38.4.1 repeats the skip’s instructions to the player;
38.4.2 helps to direct the player; or
38.4.3 tells the player where the jack or a bowl came to rest.
38.5 A player who has a physical disability will be allowed to use a support or an
artificial limb (or both) when delivering the jack or a bowl, or when walking on
the green. The support should have a base covered with rubber or a similar
material. This base should measure at least 76 millimetres across, and it can be
placed on or next to the mat.
38.6 For domestic play, Member National Authorities can approve the use of artificial
devices for delivering the jack or a bowl.
38
Section 9 – Result of an end
39
The shot
39.1 A shot or shots refers to the bowl or bowls (called shot bowls) which is or are
nearer to the jack than the nearest bowl played by the opposing team or opponent
in Singles.
39.2 No bowl should be moved until the opponents have agreed whether it is a shot or
not, except where a bowl has to be moved so that another bowl can be measured.
39.3 As the shots are agreed, each shot bowl can be removed from the head.
39.4 Shot bowls can be placed in a group where they will not interfere with measuring.
39.5 If shot bowls have been placed in a group, the number of bowls in the group
should be agreed by the opponents.
39.6 The skips or the marker where appropriate should be told (or have signalled to
them) the number of shots scored in each end.
40
Deciding the number of shots scored
40.1 The process of deciding the number of shots scored should not start until the last
bowl required to be played in an end has come to rest, or 30 seconds after that if
either skip or opponent in Singles asks for this 30-second period (for example, to
see whether or not a bowl lying at an angle will fall of its own accord within that
time).
40.2 If either skip or opponent in Singles has asked for a 30-second period, no bowl
which is likely to fall should be secured during that period.
40.3 No measuring will be allowed before the process of deciding the number of shots
scored starts (as described in law 40.1).
40.4 All measurements should be made between the nearest points of the jack and the
bowl.
40.5 When measuring between a jack in the ditch and a bowl on the green or a jack on
the green and a bowl in the ditch, the measurement should be carried out using a
flexible or string measure whenever possible.
40.6 At any time during the process of deciding the number of shots scored:
40.6.1 if a bowl is likely to fall, either opponent can use the best available means
to secure it in its position;
40.6.2 if a bowl needs to be measured and it is currently resting on another bowl
which is interfering with the measurement in any way, any player should
use the best available means to secure the resting bowl in its position and
then remove the other bowl;
40.6.3 if a bowl falls of its own accord, it should be left in its new position while
deciding the number of shots scored continues, and all the shots agreed
before the bowl fell will count;
40.6.4 if a bowl is displaced by the equipment being used during measuring, law
28.4 will apply; and
40.6.5 if the jack is displaced by the equipment being used during measuring, law
33.4 will apply.
39
41
No shot scored – tied end
41.1 There will be no shot scored by either team if it is agreed that:
41.1.1 the nearest bowl of each team is touching the jack;
41.1.2 the nearest bowl of each team is the same distance from the jack; or
41.1.3 no live bowls are left within the boundaries of the rink of play.
41.2 The end should be declared tied and recorded on the score card as a completed
end.
41.3 Following a tied end, law 18.4 will apply.
41.4 If, however, the first end is a tied end, the first to play in that end should also play
first in the second end.
42
Delivering the final bowl of an end
It is not compulsory for the last player to play in any end to deliver the final bowl of the
end, but the player should tell the opposing skip or opponent in Singles of the decision
not to deliver the final bowl before the process of deciding the number of shots scored
starts (as described in law 40.1). This decision is final.
Section 10 – Game decisions
43
Games played on one occasion
43.1 In Singles games, team games or side games played on one occasion or at any
stage of a knockout (eliminating) competition, victory will be awarded to the
player, team or side that, when the game finishes and in line with the Conditions
of Play, has:
43.1.1 the highest total score of shots;
43.1.2 the highest number of ends won;
43.1.3 the highest number of sets; or
43.1.4 a combination of the highest total score of shots, the highest number of
ends won and the highest number of sets as decided by the Controlling
Body.
43.2 If competitions or games are played for a fixed length of time, the Controlling
Body will be responsible for making sure that Conditions of Play are in place to
cover these competitions or games.
44
Tournament games and games in a series
44.1 In tournament games or games in a series, victory will be awarded to the player,
team or side that, when the tournament or series of games finishes and in line with
the Conditions of Play, has:
44.1.1 the highest number of games won; or
44.1.2 the highest net total of shots.
44.2 The Controlling Body will be responsible for making sure that Conditions of Play
are in place to decide the winner if, in line with the Conditions of Play mentioned
in law 44.1, two or more players, teams or sides are equal.
44.3 Points can be awarded for games won or drawn.
40
44.4
45
If points are equal, the Controlling Body will divide the total of shots scored
against each player, team or side into the total of shots it has scored. The player,
team or side with the highest result will be declared the winner.
A drawn game in a knockout (eliminating) competition
45.1 In a knockout (eliminating) competition with a fixed number of ends, if the scores
are equal when all ends have been played, an extra end should be played to decide
the result.
45.2 The managers in a side game (or, in their absence, representatives of the sides),
skips in a team game or opponents in Singles should toss a coin and the winner
will decide who should play first as described in laws 18.2.2 and 18.2.3.
45.3 The extra end should be played from where the previous end was completed.
45.4 If an extra end is completed and the scores are still equal, another extra end
should be played.
45.5 If more than one extra end is needed, the managers or representatives, skips or
opponents should again toss a coin, and the winner will decide who should play
first.
45.6 If an extra end is declared dead, law 31.3 will apply.
Section 11 – Defaults of players in Fours play
46
Absentee players in a team or side
46.1
In a team game
46.1.1 In a team game, the Controlling Body will decide on the eligibility of each
member of the team. If a team introduces an ineligible player, the defaulting team
will forfeit the game to their opponents.
46.1.2 If, 30 minutes after the scheduled start time for a game, or sooner if the
Controlling Body decides, one or more players are absent from a team, the
defaulting team will forfeit the game to their opponents.
46.2
In a side game
46.2.1 In a side game, the Controlling Body will decide on the eligibility of each
member of the side. If a side introduces an ineligible player, the defaulting side
will forfeit the game to their opponents.
46.2.2 If, 30 minutes after the scheduled start time for a game, or sooner if the
Controlling Body decides, one player is absent from one or more teams in a side,
the game should continue but:
46.2.2.1 the number of bowls played by each defaulting team should be made up
by the lead and second, both playing three bowls; and
46.2.2.2 one fourth of the total shots scored (including decimal places) by each
defaulting team should be deducted from their score after the game has
finished.
41
Section 12 – Irregularities
47
Irregularities during play
47.1
Playing out of turn
47.1.1 If a player plays out of turn, the opposing skip can stop the bowl and return it to
the player to play it in the proper order.
47.1.2 If the bowl has come to rest and has not disturbed the head, the opposing skip
should choose whether to:
47.1.2.1 leave the head as it is and have their team play two bowls one after the
other to get back to the proper order of play; or
47.1.2.2 return the bowl and get back to the proper order of play.
47.1.3 If the bowl has disturbed the head, the opposing skip should choose whether to:
47.1.3.1 leave the disturbed head as it is and have their team play two bowls one
after the other to get back to the proper order of play;
47.1.3.2 replace the head in its former position, return the bowl and go back to
the proper order of play; or
47.1.3.3 declare the end dead.
47.2
Playing another player’s bowl
47.2.1 If a player plays another player’s bowl instead of their own, the other player’s
bowl should be replaced with the player’s own bowl.
47.2.2 If the bowl which was replaced was marked or nominated as a toucher, the
player’s own bowl should be marked or nominated as a toucher.
47.3
Changing bowls
47.3.1 If a player changes their set of bowls during an uninterrupted game, or during a
game that has been stopped as described in law 50 and continued on the same day,
the game should be forfeited to the opponent unless the player changes their set
because a bowl has been damaged (see law 49).
47.3.2 If a game that has been stopped as described in law 50 is continued on another
day, a player can use a different set of bowls to the set they used during the game
that was stopped.
47.4
Failing to play
47.4.1 If the result of an end has been agreed or the process of deciding the number of
shots scored has started (as described in law 40.1), a player who has failed to play
a bowl (either deliberately or accidentally) will lose the right to play the bowl.
47.4.2 If a bowl has been played by each team before the players discover that one of
them has failed to play a bowl in the proper order, that player will lose the right to
play the bowl.
48
Damaged jack
48.1 If the jack is damaged during the course of play, the umpire should decide if a
replacement jack is needed.
48.2 If a replacement jack is needed, the end will be declared dead and law 31 will
apply.
42
49
Damaged bowls
49.1 If a bowl is damaged during the course of play, the umpire should decide if a
replacement bowl is needed.
49.2 If a bowl that has been struck by another bowl during the course of play splits into
pieces, the end should be declared dead.
49.3 In the circumstances described in laws 49.1 and 49.2, the damaged bowl should
be replaced by another bowl from the same set before the start of the next or
replayed end as appropriate.
49.4 If a bowl at rest in the rink of play splits into pieces without having been struck by
another bowl, the bowl should be replaced with another bowl from the same set
and the end continued.
49.5 If a damaged bowl cannot be replaced by another bowl from the same set, all
bowls in the damaged set should be replaced with bowls from a different set.
Section 13 – Factors affecting play
50
Game stoppages
50.1 If a game is stopped because of darkness, weather conditions or any other valid
reason by:
50.1.1 the Controlling Body;
50.1.2 the umpire after an appeal has been made by the players; or
50.1.3 agreement between the players when an umpire or a representative of the
Controlling Body is not present;
the game should be continued either on the same day or on a different day. The
scores will be as they were when the game was stopped.
50.2 If an end has started but all the required bowls have not been played, it should be
declared dead. (The end should be declared dead even if one or more players
choose to remain on the green during the stoppage.)
50.3 If all the required bowls in an end have been played but the process of deciding
the number of shots scored (as described in law 40) has not been completed, the
number of shots scored should be decided before the game stops.
50.4 Substitutes in a game that is being continued after a stoppage.
50.4.1 If any one of the original players in a team is not available, one substitute
will be allowed as described in law 51.
50.4.2 Players, however, should not be transferred from one team to another.
51
Leaving the green during the course of play
51.1 No player should delay play by leaving the rink of play or their team unless their
opponent agrees, and then only for no more than 10 minutes.
51.2 If a player has to leave the green during the course of a team or side game due to
illness or some other reasonable cause, and they cannot return within 10 minutes,
the umpire or the Controlling Body can approve the introduction of a substitute.
51.3 A substitute should only be introduced if, in the opinion of both skips or, if they
cannot agree, in the opinion of the umpire or the Controlling Body, the
substitution is necessary.
43
51.4
51.5
51.6
51.7
51.8
51.9
The substitute should play in any position other than skip, and the other members
of the team can rearrange their positions as necessary.
The Controlling Body will decide the substitute’s eligibility.
If no eligible substitute is available:
51.6.1 in a team game, the defaulting team will forfeit the game to their
opponents; and
51.6.2 in a side game, law 46.2.2 will apply from the end in which the
substitution became necessary.
If a player has to leave the green during the course of a Singles game due to
illness or some other reasonable cause, and they cannot return within 10 minutes,
the defaulting player will forfeit the game to their opponent.
If a player or team breaks this law, they will forfeit the game to their opponent.
For domestic play, Member National Authorities can decide the requirements for
introducing a substitute player.
52
Objects on the green
Under no circumstances, other than those described in laws 5, 15.5, 24, 29 and 38, should
any object be placed on the bank, the green, in the ditch, on the jack, on a bowl or
anywhere else to help a player.
53
Unforeseen incidents
If, during the course of play, the position of the jack or a bowl is altered by the wind, a
storm or any other unforeseen incident, the skips or opponents in Singles should put the
jack or bowl back to its former position. If they cannot agree on the jack’s or bowl’s
former position, they should declare the end dead.
54
Deliberate non-sporting action
54.1 If an opponent, the manager in a side game, the umpire or the Controlling Body
decides that a player has deliberately committed an act designed to give them or
their team an unfair advantage, they can appeal to the Controlling Body.
54.2 If an appeal is made, it should be made to the Controlling Body no later than 24
hours after the final end in the game affected is completed.
54.3 The person making the appeal should take immediate steps to send details to the
Secretary of the Controlling Body who should arrange for it to be dealt with in
line with their code of conduct and disciplinary procedures.
Section 14 – Officials and spectators
55
The marker’s duties
55.1 In the absence of an umpire, the marker should:
55.1.1 make sure that all aspects of play are carried out in line with the Laws of
the Sport of Bowls;
55.1.2 make sure, before the game starts, that:
55.1.2.1 all bowls have a clearly visible, valid World Bowls Stamp
imprinted on them;
44
55.2
55.3
55.4
55.1.2.2 the rink of play is the correct width in line with law 5.1 by
measuring it; and
55.1.2.3 the pegs or discs on the side banks in the direction of play are the
correct distances in line with law 5.12 by measuring them.
The marker should:
55.2.1 centre the jack;
55.2.2 make sure that the jack is at least 23 metres from the mat line after it has
been centred;
55.2.3 place a jack that comes to rest less than 2 metres from the front ditch as
described in law 22.2;
55.2.4 stand to one side of the rink, behind the jack and away from the head;
55.2.5 answer any specific question about the state of the head which is asked by
the player in possession of the rink;
55.2.6 when asked, tell or show the player in possession of the rink the position
of the jack;
55.2.7 when asked, tell or show the player in possession of the rink which bowl
or bowls the marker considers to be shot;
55.2.8 when authorised by the Controlling Body, signal to players and spectators
(using the appropriate number and colour of shot indicators or some other
suitable method) which player’s bowl or bowls the marker considers to be
shot;
55.2.9 mark all touchers with chalk and remove the chalk marks from nontouchers as soon as they come to rest;
55.2.10 stop any bowl that is from a neighbouring rink and could move a jack or
bowl that is at rest;
55.2.11 if both players agree, remove all dead bowls from the rink of play;
55.2.12 mark the position of a jack and any touchers which are in the ditch as
described in laws 24.4 and 29.2;
55.2.13 not move, or cause to be moved, either the jack or any bowls until the
players have agreed the number of shots scored; and
55.2.14 measure any disputed shot or shots when asked to do so by either player.
If the players are not satisfied with the marker’s decision, the marker
should ask the umpire to do the measuring. If the Controlling Body has
not appointed an umpire, the marker should choose a competent neutral
person to act as the umpire. The umpire’s decision is final.
When each end has been completed, the marker should:
55.3.1 record the score on the score card;
55.3.2 tell the players the running totals of the scores; and
55.3.3 remove from the rink the mat used during the previous end, if necessary.
When the game has been completed, the marker should make sure that the score
card:
55.4.1 contains the names and signatures of the players;
55.4.2 contains the time at which the game was completed; and
55.4.3 is dealt with in line with the Conditions of Play.
45
56
The umpire’s duties
56.1 An umpire should be appointed by, or on behalf of, the Controlling Body for the
competition.
56.2 The umpire’s duties are as follows.
56.2.1 To make sure, before the game starts, that:
56.2.1.1 all bowls have a clearly visible, valid World Bowls Stamp
imprinted on them;
56.2.1.2 the rink of play is the correct width in line with law 5.1 by
measuring it; and
56.2.1.3 the pegs or discs on the side banks in the direction of play are the
correct distances in line with law 5.12 by measuring them.
56.2.2 The umpire should measure any disputed shot or shots using suitable
measuring equipment, such as that described in law 10.
56.2.3 The umpire should decide whether the distance of the mat from the rear
and front ditches and the distance of the jack or a bowl from the mat line
are in line with the Laws of the Sport of Bowls or not.
56.2.4 The umpire should decide whether a jack or a bowl is in play or not.
56.2.5 The umpire should make sure that all aspects of play are in line with the
Laws of the Sport of Bowls.
56.2.6 The umpire’s decision is final in all circumstances except those relating to
the meaning or interpretation of a law, in which case there will be a right
of appeal to the Controlling Body.
57
The manager or coach
Either the manager or the coach of a player, team or side or, in their absence, the
manager’s delegated deputy, can give advice to a player during the course of play as long
as:
57.1 the umpire is given the names of the manager, the coach or the manager’s
delegated deputy as appropriate before the game starts;
57.2 only one person gives advice at any one time; and
57.3 the person giving the advice does so from outside the boundaries of the green.
58
Spectators
58.1 Spectators and anyone else not directly taking part in the game should stay
outside the boundaries of the green and clear of the players.
58.2 If part of the green is being used for spectators, they should stay outside the
boundaries of the rinks of play and clear of the players.
58.3 They should not disturb or advise the players in any way.
58.4 If, in the umpire’s opinion, this law has been broken, the umpire should ask the
spectator or spectators concerned to stay within the law. If they do not stay within
the law, the umpire should ask the Controlling Body to take immediate action to
make sure that the offender stops breaking this law, including escorting the
offender away from the area immediately surrounding the green or away from the
venue as appropriate.
46
58.5
Betting or gambling on any game or games will not be allowed or take place
within the grounds of any club. (See World Bowls Regulations, Part VIII –
Betting and match-fixing.)
Section 15 – Administrative matters
59
International tours and competitions
(World Bowls Regulations Part V – Laws of the Sport, Clause 9 – International Tours
and Competitions.)
59.1 An International Event needs a licence or written permission from WB.
59.2 The licence or permission will only be granted if the players involved are
affiliated to (in other words, members of) a Member National Authority.
59.3 If a Member National Authority competes against a National Authority that is not
affiliated to WB, the Board of WB will penalise the Member National Authority
(including disqualification from a future International Event) as they consider
appropriate in the circumstances.
60
Regulating Singles, Pairs, Triples and Fours games
Where appropriate, all Laws of the Sport of Bowls will apply to Singles, Pairs, Triples
and Fours games.
61
Contracting out of the Laws of the Sport of Bowls
No Controlling Body or individual has the right or power to contract out of any of the
Laws of the Sport of Bowls.
47
Appendix A
A.1
Conditions of Play
A.1.1 The Controlling Body should decide on the Conditions of Play for an event before
details of the event are publicised.
A.1.2 The Conditions of Play should be available to umpires and to entrants who ask for
them and should be clearly displayed at all venues throughout the course of the
event.
A.1.3 Conditions of Play should at least include the following.
A.1.3.1 The type of event (for example, Invitation Pairs Tournament, Mixed
Fours and so on).
A.1.3.2 Start and finish dates and times.
A.1.3.3 Venue (or venues).
A.1.3.4 Entry conditions (for example, open or restricted entry, player eligibility
and so on).
A.1.3.5 Format of play (such as sectional or knockout).
A.1.3.6 Length of games (such as the number of bowls, ends, shots, sets, time
limits and so on).
A.1.3.7 Arrangements for trial ends.
A.1.3.8 Footwear and clothing (including any sponsors’ requirements). (See
appendices A.2 and A.3.)
A.1.3.9 Requirements for the stamps on bowls.
A.1.3.10 Statement that all games will be played in line with the Laws of the
Sport of Bowls.
A.1.4 If appropriate, details of the following should also be included in the Conditions
of Play.
A.1.4.1 Statement that the event has a licence from WB, a Member National
Authority or a division within a Member National Authority as
appropriate.
A.1.4.2 Alterations to the format or length of the game (or both) if the game has
to be stopped.
A.1.4.3 Arrangements for practice.
A.1.4.4 Arrangements for players to ‘warm up’.
A.1.4.5 The period, immediately after the scheduled start time of a game, during
which players should be present.
A.1.4.6 Arrangements for substitutes.
A.1.4.7 Arrangements for dealing with slow play.
A.1.4.8 Arrangements for restricting the movement of players during play (see
appendix A.4).
A.1.4.9 Policy on tobacco and alcohol at each venue.
A.1.4.10 Arrangements for drug testing.
A.1.4.11 Code of conduct and disciplinary procedures.
A.1.4.12 Emergency committee and disputes committee.
A.1.4.13 Prizes and awards.
48
A.2
Footwear
A.2.1 Players, umpires and markers should wear flat-soled (‘heel-less’) footwear when
they play on the green or act as umpires or markers.
A.2.2 WB and Member National Authorities can approve specific colours for footwear
and the types of sole.
A.3
Clothing
WB and Member National Authorities can approve specific colours and types of clothing
(including bowling gloves) for players, umpires and markers when they play on the green
or act as umpires or markers.
A.4
Restricting the movement of players during play
If a Controlling Body decides that it is appropriate to restrict the movement of players
during play, provision for this should be included within the Conditions of Play in line
with the following.
A.4.1 After delivering their first bowl, players will only be allowed to walk up to the
head under the following circumstances.
A.4.1.1 Singles game
A.4.1.1.1 the opponents: after delivery of their third and fourth bowls.
A.4.1.2 Pairs game (each player playing four bowls)
A.4.1.2.1 the leads: after delivery of their third and fourth bowls; and
A.4.1.2.2 the skips: after delivery of their second, third and fourth bowls.
A.4.1.3 Pairs game (each player playing two bowls)
A.4.1.3.1 the leads: after delivery of their second bowl; and
A.4.1.3.2 the skips: after delivery of each of their bowls.
A.4.1.4 Triples game (each player playing three bowls)
A.4.1.4.1 the leads: after delivery of their third bowl;
A.4.1.4.2 the seconds: after delivery of their second and third bowls; and
A.4.1.4.3 the skips: after delivery of each of their bowls.
A.4.1.5 Triples game (each player playing two bowls)
A.4.1.5.1 the leads: after delivery of their second bowl;
A.4.1.5.2 the seconds: after delivery of their second bowl; and
A.4.1.5.3 the skips: after delivery of each of their bowls.
A.4.1.6 Fours game
A.4.1.6.1 the leads: after the second player in their team has delivered
their second bowl;
A.4.1.6.2 the seconds: after delivery of their second bowl;
A.4.1.6.3 the thirds: after delivery of their second bowl; and
A.4.1.6.4 the skips: after delivery of each of their bowls.
A.4.2 In exceptional and limited circumstances, a Singles player can ask the marker for
permission to walk up to the head, or a skip can ask that a player walks up to the
head earlier than described in law A.4.1.
A.4.3 If a player does not meet the terms of this law, law 35 will apply.
49
Appendix B
B.1
Position of the bank
B.1.1 Vertical
Bank - vertical and so at a right
angle (90°) to the surface of the
green
Surface of the green
Ditch
B.1.2 Sloped inwards towards the green
Bank - sloped inwards towards
the green at an angle of not
more than 35° from the vertical
Surface of the green
Ditch
B.1.3 Sloped outwards from the green
Bank - sloped outwards from
the green at an angle of not
more than 35° from the vertical
Surface of the green
Ditch
The standard described in diagram B.1.3 above applies only to banks constructed in line
with previous editions of the laws. After the introduction of the Crystal Mark Edition of
the Laws of the Sport of Bowls (1 September 2006 in the southern hemisphere and
1 April 2007 in the northern hemisphere), all new banks that are constructed, and all
existing banks that are replaced, should meet the standard described in either diagram
B.1.1 or diagram B.1.2 above.
50
B.2
Marks on the surface of the rink
B.2.1 Marking the centre line of the rink
E
n
d
d
i
t
c
h
E
n
d
25 metres from end ditches
2 metres
Marks to show the centre
line of the rink
2 metres
B.2.2 Marking 2 metres from each front ditch on the centre line of the rink
Piece of suitable
material
Cross bar of a ‘T’
2 metres
2 metres
Front ditch
51
2 metres
d
i
t
c
h
B.2.3 Marking the spots to meet the terms of laws 15.5.2, 15.5.3 and 15.5.4
Centre line
of rink
1.5 metres
1.5 metres
2 metres
2 metres
Front ditch
52
2 metres
B.3
Centring the jack
B.3.1 Position of the jack in relation to the marks that are 2 metres from each front ditch
on the centre line of the rink (see diagram B.2.2 in appendix B.2)
Nearest
portion of the
jack to the
mat line
2 metres
2 metres
2 metres
Front ditch
B.3.2 Position of the jack alongside a 2-metre measuring device
Nearest portion of
the jack to the mat
line
Jack
Measuring
device such as a
wooden batten
2 metres
Front ditch
53
B.4
Distance charts
B.4.1 Pegs or discs fixed against the face of the side banks or on top of the side banks
(illustrated by a ‘+’)
Bank
Ditch
2 metres
25 metres
25 metres
2 metres
Ditch
Bank
54
B.4.2 Illustration of distances in the direction of play
Rear ditch
Mat
G
Mat
Line
B
C
D
E
Mat
F
A
Front ditch
A:
B:
C:
D:
E:
2 metres – minimum distance of a delivered jack from the front ditch.
14 metres – minimum distance of a live bowl from the mat line.
20 metres – minimum distance of a rebounding jack from the mat line.
23 metres – minimum distance of a delivered jack from the mat line.
27 metres – distance of the jack from the mat line when measuring the pace of the
green.
F: 25 metres – minimum distance of the mat line from the front ditch.
G: 2 metres – minimum distance of the mat line from the rear ditch.
55
Appendix C
C.1
Bowl and jack displacement chart
Laws 28 and 33 describe the action that needs to be taken when a bowl or jack is displaced in a
number of situations. To decide what is the correct action to take, players and umpires should
decide the following.
C.1.1 Who or what caused the bowl or jack to be displaced
C.1.1.1 A player or wheelchair
C.1.1.2 A neutral person or a neutral object
C.1.1.3 Being marked as a toucher or during measuring
C.1.1.4 A rebounding non-toucher
C.1.1.5 A bowl from a neighbouring rink
C.1.1.6 A dead bowl
C.1.2 Where the bowl or jack was when it was displaced
C.1.2.1 In its original course
C.1.2.2 In motion
C.1.2.3 At rest
C.1.3 Whether the head was disturbed before or after the bowl or jack was displaced
C.1.3.1 Not disturbed before and not disturbed after
C.1.3.2 Not disturbed before but disturbed after
C.1.3.3 Disturbed before but not disturbed after
C.1.3.4 Disturbed before and disturbed after
The chart on the following page provides a quick-reference guide for deciding what action to
take in the two most complex situations – displacement by a player (laws 28.1 and 33.1) or a
wheelchair (laws 28.2 and 33.2), and displacement by a neutral person or neutral object (laws
28.3 and 33.3).
56
Situation
Action
Bowl displaced by a player or wheelchair
In original course – head not disturbed before
Declare the bowl dead
 By member of team that delivered
the bowl, head not disturbed after
Replace the head and declare the bowl dead
 By member of team that delivered
the bowl, head disturbed after
Have the bowl replayed, or place the bowl where it is believed it would have come to rest,
 By opponent, head not disturbed
or leave the bowl where it came to rest
after
Replace the head and have the bowl replayed, or replace the head and place the bowl
 By opponent, head disturbed after
where it is believed it would have come to rest, or declare the end dead
In original course – head disturbed before
Do not replace any part of the head disturbed before the displacement. Place the bowl
 Head not disturbed after
where it is believed it would have come to rest, or leave the bowl where it came to rest
Do not replace any part of the head disturbed before the displacement. Replace any part of
 Head disturbed after
the head disturbed after displacement and either place the bowl where it is believed it
would have come to rest or leave the bowl where it came to rest
In motion
Place the bowl where it is believed it would have come to rest, or declare the end dead
 Head not disturbed after
Place the bowl where it is believed it would have come to rest and replace any part of the
 Head disturbed after
head disturbed after displacement, or declare the end dead
At rest
Put back to former position
 Head not disturbed after
Put back to former position and replace any part of the head disturbed after displacement
 Head disturbed after
Bowl displaced by a neutral person or neutral object
In original course – head not disturbed before
Have the bowl replayed
 Within boundaries of rink, head not
disturbed after
Agree how to replace the head and have the bowl replayed, or, if no agreement, declare
 Within boundaries of rink, head
the end dead
disturbed after
Have the bowl replayed
 Outside boundaries on correct bias,
head not disturbed after
Agree how to replace the head and have the bowl replayed, or, if no agreement, declare
 Outside boundaries on correct bias,
the end dead
head disturbed after
In original course – head disturbed before
Do not replace any part of the head disturbed before the displacement. Agree where the
 Head not disturbed after
bowl would have come to rest, or, if no agreement, declare the end dead
Do not replace any part of the head disturbed before the displacement. Agree where the
 Head disturbed after
bowl would have come to rest and replace any part of the head disturbed after
displacement, or, if no agreement, declare the end dead
In motion
Agree where the bowl would have come to rest, or, if no agreement, declare the end dead
 Head not disturbed after
Agree where the bowl would have come to rest and replace any part of the head disturbed
 Head disturbed after
after displacement, or if no agreement, declare the end dead
At rest
Put back to former position, or, if no agreement, declare the end dead
 Head not disturbed after
Put back to former position and replace any part of the head disturbed after displacement,
 Head disturbed after
or, if no agreement, declare the end dead
Jack displaced by a player or wheelchair
In original course
 By member of team that delivered
the jack
 By opponent
In motion
 Head not disturbed after
 Head disturbed after
At rest
Opposing lead to place the mat and re-deliver the jack (but not play first)
Re-delivered by same player
Place the jack where it is believed it would have come to rest or declare the end dead
Place the jack where it is believed it would have come to rest and replace any part of the
head disturbed by the displaced jack, or declare the end dead
Put back to former position
Jack displaced by a neutral person or neutral object
In original course
In motion
At rest
Re-delivered by same player
Place the jack where it is believed it would have come to rest, or, if no agreement, declare
the end dead
Put back to former position, or, if no agreement, declare the end dead
57
Domestic regulations
Plain English Campaign’s Crystal Mark does not apply to these domestic regulations.
58
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