First Aid The American Red Cross Recommendation List

First Aid The American Red Cross Recommendation List
First Aid
The American Red Cross Recommendation List
mast
maska
tampon
balení(krabička)
rukavice
obklad
teploměr
nůžky
náplast
pinzeta
2 absorbent compress dressings (5 x 9 inches)
25 adhesive bandages (assorted sizes)
1 adhesive cloth tape (10 yards x 1 inch)
5 antibiotic ointment packets (approximately 1 gram)
5 antiseptic wipe packets
2 packets of aspirin (81 mg each)
1 blanket (space blanket)
1 breathing barrier (with one-way valve)
1 instant cold compress
2 pair of nonlatex gloves (size: large)
2 hydrocortisone ointment packets (approximately 1 gram each)
Scissors
1 roller bandage (3 inches wide)
5 sterile gauze pads (3 x 3 inches)
Oral thermometer (non-mercury/nonglass)
2 triangular bandages
Tweezers
First aid instruction booklet
obvaz
brožurka
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gáza
If you have an immediately recognized chemical burn
Remove the chemical causing the burn while protecting yourself. For dry chemicals, brush off any remaining material.
Wear gloves or use a towel or other suitable object, such as a brush.
Remove contaminated clothing or jewelry to stop further burning.
Rinse the burn immediately. Run a gentle, steady stream of cool tap water over the burn for 10 or more minutes. A
shower may be an effective way to do this. Always protect your eyes.
Loosely apply a bandage or gauze.
If needed, take an over-the-counter pain reliever, such as ibuprofen (Advil, Motrin IB, others
Consider a tetanus shot. Make sure that your tetanus booster is up to date. Doctors recommend people get a tetanus shot
at least every 10 years.
If a chemical splashes into your eye, take these steps immediately.
Flush your eye with water. Use clean, lukewarm tap water for at least 20 minutes. Use whichever of these approaches is
quickest:
o
Get into the shower and aim a gentle stream of water on your forehead over your affected eye. Or direct the
stream on the bridge of your nose if both eyes are affected. Hold the lids of your affected eye or eyes open.
o
Put your head down and turn it to the side. Then hold the lids of your affected eye open under a gently running
faucet. If you have access to a work site eye-rinse station, use it.
Wash your hands with soap and water. Thoroughly rinse your hands to be sure no chemical or soap is left on them.
Remove contact lenses. If they don't come out during the flush, then take them out.
While helping someone with an electrical burn and waiting for medical help, follow these steps:
Look first. Don't touch. The person may still be in contact with the electrical source. Touching the person may pass the
current through you.
Turn off the source of electricity if possible. If not, move the source away from both you and the injured person using a
dry, non-conducting object made of cardboard, plastic or wood.
Check for signs of circulation (breathing, coughing or movement). If absent, begin cardiopulmonary resuscitation
(CPR) immediately.
Prevent shock. Lay the person down with the head slightly lower than the trunk, if possible, and the legs elevated.
Cover the affected areas. If the person is breathing, cover any burned areas with a sterile gauze bandage, if available, or a
clean cloth. Don't use a blanket or towel, because loose fibers can stick to the burns.
A puncture wound — such as from stepping on a nail — can be dangerous because of the risk of infection. Wounds resulting from
human or animal bites may be especially prone to infection. If the bite was deep enough to draw blood and bleeding persists, seek
medical attention.
Otherwise, follow these steps:
Stop the bleeding. Apply gentle pressure with a clean cloth or bandage. If bleeding doesn’t stop after several minutes of
pressure, seek emergency assistance.
Clean the wound. Rinse the wound with clear water. Use tweezers cleaned with alcohol to remove small, superficial
particles. If debris remains embedded, see your doctor. Clean the area around the wound with soap and a clean cloth.
Apply an antibiotic. After you clean the wound, apply a thin layer of an antibiotic cream or ointment.
Cover the wound. Bandages can help keep the wound clean and keep harmful bacteria out.
Change the bandage regularly. Do so at least daily or whenever it becomes wet or dirty.
Watch for signs of infection. See your doctor if the wound doesn't heal or if you notice any redness, drainage, warmth or
swelling.
Minor cuts and scrapes usually don't require a trip to the emergency room. These guidelines can help you care for such wounds:
Wash your hands. This helps avoid infection. Also put on disposable protective gloves if they're available.
Stop the bleeding. Minor cuts and scrapes usually stop bleeding on their own. If not, apply gentle pressure with a sterile
bandage or clean cloth and elevate the wound.
Clean the wound. Use clear water to rinse the wound. Also clean around the wound with soap and a washcloth. Keep soap
out of the wound, as it can cause irritation. If dirt remains in the wound after washing, use tweezers cleaned with alcohol to
take it away. There's no need to use hydrogen peroxide, iodine or an iodine-containing cleanser, which can be irritating to
tissue already injured.
Apply an antibiotic. Apply a thin layer of an antibiotic cream or ointment (Neosporin, Polysporin) to help keep the surface
moist. These products don't make the wound heal faster. But they can discourage infection and help the body's natural
healing process.
Cover the wound. Bandages can help keep the wound clean and keep harmful bacteria out. If the injury is just a minor
scrape, or scratch, leave it uncovered.
Grammar practice
If you have an immediately recognized chemical burn
Remove the chemical causing the burn while protecting yourself. For dry chemicals,
brush off any remaining material. Wear gloves or use a towel or other suitable object, such as
a brush.
Remove contaminated clothing or jewelry to stop further burning.
Rinse the burn immediately. Run a gentle, steady stream of cool tap water over the burn
for 10 or more minutes. A shower may be an effective way to do this. Always protect your eyes.
Loosely apply a bandage or gauze.
If needed, take an over-the-counter pain reliever, such as ibuprofen (Advil, Motrin IB,
others).
Consider a tetanus shot. Make sure that your tetanus booster is up to date. Doctors
recommend people get a tetanus shot at least every 10 years.
While helping someone with an electrical burn and waiting for medical help, follow these steps:
Look first. Don't touch. The person may still be in contact with the electrical source.
Touching the person may pass the current through you.
Turn off the source of electricity if possible. If not, move the source away from both you
and the injured person using a dry, non-conducting object made of cardboard, plastic or
wood.
Check for signs of circulation (breathing, coughing or movement). If absent, begin
cardiopulmonary resuscitation (CPR) immediately.
Prevent shock. Lay the person down with the head slightly lower than the trunk, if possible,
and the legs elevated.
Cover the affected areas. If the person is breathing, cover any burned areas with a sterile
gauze bandage, if available, or a clean cloth. Don't use a blanket or towel, because loose
fibers can stick to the burns.
A puncture wound — such as from stepping on a nail — can be dangerous because of the risk of
infection. Wounds resulting from human or animal bites may be especially prone to infection. If the
bite was deep enough to draw blood and bleeding persists, seek medical attention.
Otherwise, follow these steps:
Stop the bleeding. Apply gentle pressure with a clean cloth or bandage. If bleeding persists
after several minutes of pressure, seek emergency assistance.
Clean the wound. Rinse the wound with clear water. Use tweezers cleaned with alcohol to
remove small, superficial particles. If debris remains embedded, see your doctor. Clean the
area around the wound with soap and a clean cloth.
Apply an antibiotic. After you clean the wound, apply a thin layer of an antibiotic cream or
ointment.
Cover the wound. Bandages can help keep the wound clean and keep harmful bacteria out.
Change the bandage regularly. Do so at least daily or whenever it becomes wet or dirty.
Watch for signs of infection. See your doctor if the wound doesn't heal or if you notice any
redness, drainage, warmth or swelling.
Minor cuts and scrapes usually don't require a trip to the emergency room. These guidelines can
help you care for such wounds:
Wash your hands. This helps avoid infection. Also put on disposable protective gloves if
they're available.
Stop the bleeding. Minor cuts and scrapes usually stop bleeding on their own. If not, apply
gentle pressure with a sterile bandage or clean cloth and elevate the wound.
Clean the wound. Use clear water to rinse the wound. Also clean around the wound with
soap and a washcloth. Keep soap out of the wound, as it can cause irritation. If dirt remains
in the wound after washing, use tweezers cleaned with alcohol to remove it. There's no need
to use hydrogen peroxide, which can be irritating to tissue already injured.
Apply an antibiotic. Apply a thin layer of an antibiotic cream or ointment (Neosporin,
Polysporin) to help keep the surface moist. These products don't make the wound heal faster.
But they can discourage infection and help the body's natural healing process.
Cover the wound. Bandages can help keep the wound clean and keep harmful bacteria out.
If the injury is just a minor scrape, or scratch, leave it uncovered.
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