Manual for CCM devices Determination of the water content by the

Manual for CCM devices Determination of the water content by the
Manual
for CCM devices
Determination of the
water content by
the carbide method
Determination of moisture levels
Fast. Easy to use. Reliable.
www.radtke-messtechnik.com
2
QR- CODES TO MOBILE ACCESS VIDEOS
Below you will find some QR-codes which guide you directly to our mobile access educational
videos.
This list will be actualized without furhter notice and is therefore not actual. We do not claim to
have a complete list.
VOR-ORT-KALIBRIERUNG (siehe Seite 30 dieser Anleitung)
ON-SITE-CALIBRATION (see page 30 of this manual)
ÉTALONNAGE SUR PLACE (voir page 30 de ce manuel)
CALIBRAZIONE SUL LUOGO (veda pagina 30 del´manuale)
3
SAFETY INSTRUCTIONS
Before carrying out measurements with the CCM device, we kindly request that you read the instructions precisely. There is no risk of an accident when using the CCM devices if the instructions are
followed precisely. Therefore, please observe the following operating instructions:
The CCM device may be used only in accordance with the operating instructions.
The pressure in the CCM pressure bottle results from the formation of acetylene. An
explosive air/acetylene mixture is rapidly formed. If this gas mixture is ignited during
a measurement due to the generation of sparks, this will result in the destruction of
the manometer as well as the loss of the measurement results.
The escaping gas is combustible:
a) Do not open the CCM pressure bottle in closed rooms.
b) Do not smoke and do not work near to open flames or electrical installations.
c) If a fire develops, smother it with sand or with a blanket; do not extinguish with water!
Following a measurement, hold the CCM pressure bottle pointing away from your
face, open it and allow the gas to escape slowly (you will have fewer problems with
the manometer as a result, since its mechanism is subjected to less stress).
As a matter of principle you should not use samples with more than 1.5 g water. Acetylene can
decompose at a pressure of 1.5 bar or more (equivalent to 1.5 g water). This rapid process of decomposition can lead to damage to the manometer.
Perform measurements on the CCM device using only the materials intended. For other materials we
kindly request you to send us a sample together with a description so that we can advise you. We
will be only too pleased to support you.
FIRST AID MEASUR ES
In case of skin contact: Brush off well before rinsing with copious amounts of
water.
In case of eye contact: Rinse the eyes out with copious amounts of water.
In case of caustic burns: These usually only occur if adhering calcium carbide is
not removed. In all cases consult a doctor and show
him/her the label of your calcium carbide box.
©
Dr. Radtke CPM Chemical-Physical Measuringtechniques Ltd.
Laettichstrasse 4A, CH-6340 Baar
Telefon +41 41 710 00 32, Fax +41 41 710 13 32
info@cpm-radtke.com, www.radtke-messtechnik.com
Reprinting, including of extracts, only with the permission of the publisher.
Version: 1.83 print 03/2015
4
FOREWORD / WARRANTY
FOREWORD
Our CCM devices are ideal moisture measuring instruments for the rapid determination of the moisture content of materials which themselves do not react with calcium carbide or its reaction products.
As with all measuring methods based on a chemical reaction, particular care is also
required here. Please study these operating instructions before putting the device
into operation and pay particular attention to the safety instructions.
Persons who are not familiar with the operating instructions may not use the measuring
instrument.
In addition we do not garantee for errors occured for insufficient translations.
WARRANTY
Dr. Radtke CPM Chemical-Physical Measuring techniques Ltd. guarantees the equipment to be free
from defective parts and poorly manufactured products, excluding consumables, for a period of 1
year from the date of purchase.
Important!
Please keep the operating instructions in a safe place.
Spare parts can be ordered from your dealer or directly on our website. The current version of the
instructions as well as supplementary information for the interpretation of measurement results can
also be found on our website and is continuously updated by us.
USE OF THE OPERATING INSTRUCTIONS
The information given in these operating instructions provides data on the components and their
characteristics. The operating instructions additionally contain the basic principles of the carbide and
drying oven methods, a comparison of the two methods as well as information on special measuring
procedures that arise from different questions of measurement.
Particular attention must be paid to bold text.
Proper use and application on the basis of the operating instructions is binding for
the product liability and product warranty. Attempting to repair the device yourself
renders the warranty null and void.
5
TABLE OF CONTENTS
QR-CODES TO MOBILE ACCESS VIDEOS
2
SAFETY INSTRUCTIONS
3
FOREWORD / WARRANTY
4
EQUIPMENT OPTIONS FOR THE CCM DEVICES
6
COMPONENTS
VERSIONS OF THE CCM SET ECO
VERSIONS OF THE CCM DEVICE IN AN ALU CASE
VERSIONS OF THE CCM DEVICE IN A METAL CASE
11
13
15
COMPONENT DESCRIPTION
16
PRINCIPLES OF THE CARBIDE METHOD
22
PRINCIPLES OF THE DRYING OVEN
25
COMPARISON OF
THE DRYING OVEN TO THE CM METHOD
27
ON-SITE DEVICE INSPECTION
30
GENERAL MEASURING PROCEDURE
31
‘SPECIAL’ MEASUREMENT PROCEDURES
MEASURING PROCEDURE ACCORDING TO DIN 18560-4:2011-03
MEASURING PROCEDURE ACCORDING TO SIA 253:2002 INCL. KORRIGENDA C1: 2011
33
MOISTURE DISTRIBUTION IN SCREED
38
TAKING OF SAMPLES OF TEST MATERIAL
AND THEIR PREPARATION
40
TECHNICAL DATA
42
CM MEASUREMENT LOG
46
CONCLUSION
47
34
36
EQUIPMENT OPTIONS FOR THE CCM DEVICES
The components described in these instructions are not included in every version of
the device. Different components are available, depending on the equipment option.
Calibrated pressure bottle
Surface thermometer
Range up to 10 M-% /20g
Range up to 20 % M-% /20g
Pressure measurement
Damping as per EN 837-2
Business manometer (3.0bar)
CLASSIC manometer (2.5bar)
ECO manometer (1.6bar)
Sample weighing
Digital scales up to 200 g
Spring scales up to 100 g
Measured value logging
Log template
Log printer
Data storage with PC (conditionally Business; optional)
Measuring time recording
Business manometer
Timer/stopwatch
Optional:
Equilibrium moisture
Eco longbo dig dig
Eco longbo dig
Eco longbo
Eco dig dig
Eco dig
Eco
Business Pro
Business
CLASSIC dig
CLASSIC
Alu Business Pro
Devise options
Alu Business
Models
of devices
Alu CLASSIC dig
The following table and the parts lists provide you with a quick overview of the equipment options available for our CCM devices.
Alu CLASSIC
6
7
EQUIPMENT OPTIONS FOR THE CCM DEVICES
Calibrated pressure bottles
Long pressure bottle
(up to 20 M-% with
20 g sample)
Standard pressure bottle
(up to 10 M-% with
20 g sample)
Small pressure bottle
(up to 5 M-% with
20 g sample)
Surface thermometer
for monitoring the bottle
temperature; measuring
range: 7 to 33 °C.
Pressure measurement
Damped manometer
assembly as per EN
837-2 for all versions
except for CCM Set ECO
and Eco dig
Business manometer
(max 3 bar) with value
storage: pressure and
duration; Cl.0.1.
CLASSIC manometer
(max. 2.5 bar) Bourdon
tube made of high-quality
bronze; Cl.1.0.
ECO manometer (max
1.6 bar) with standard
screw connection on the
cover; Cl.1.6.
Sample weighing
Precise digital CCM
scale with 100 g calibration weight for customer
calibration.
Very robust mechanical CCM scale with 50 g
check weight.
8
EQUIPMENT OPTIONS FOR THE CCM DEVICES
Device case
Light black device case
in aluminium look.
Sturdy blue device case
made of metal.
Low-priced device case
made of plastic.
Sampling of test material
Classically with hammer
and chisel
Optional: SIMPLER
battery-driven chisel
and further accessories
Optional: SIMPLER
with electric chisel for
long periods of use
Sample grinding/sample
homogenisation
Classically with the grinding bowl
Optional: Safer in the
sample bag – ideal for
homogenisation
Carbide ampoules
Set with 25 ampoules
offers a high degree of
measuring autonomy.
Suitable for the determination of readiness for covering.
On-site device inspection
With the calibration
ampoules you can
confirm the functionality
of your CM device in a
simple way or bring it up
to operating temperature.
3x
9
EQUIPMENT OPTIONS FOR THE CCM DEVICES
Measuring time recording
Timer/stopwatch for
recording the reaction
duration; in the CLASSIC
version; indispensable
for the determination of
readiness for covering.
In the case of the
Business manometer, recording of the measuring
time begins automatically with the start of the
chemical reaction.
Measured value logging
Optional: Log printer
with personal log header
and logo.
Optional: recording
via PC with Windows
requires Business manometer.
Standard logging by
hand: log template
online and in these
instructions.
Equilibrium moisture
Retrofit kit for equilibrium moisture:
patented CCM Hygro
Combi for the determination of the equilibrium
moisture (% RH)
CPM monitor 18/30 for
non-destructive location of
pipes
Optional: fast location of pipes with newly activated heating for
3 temperature ranges.
With floor thermometer
Capacitive moisture indicator
Optional: non-destructive location of moisture clusters in areas
close to the surface.
10 COMPONENTS
CCM Set ECO
Art. no. 110060
J Set of 25 carbide ampoules
1 Lump hammer 1000 g
K Calibrated standard pressure bottle with
2 Flat chisel for sample taking
surface thermometer (as per Pressure
3 Sampling spoon, short
Equipment Directive 97/23/EC)
4 Cleaning brush
L Weighing bar for precision spring scales
5 Mechanical sample scale up to 100 g
M ECO manometer up to 1.6 bar with lid
6 Ball set with 4 steel balls
N Double-walled plastic case with inlay
7 Grinding bowl for porous samples
(optionally 20 plastic bags)
8
9
2 sample cups with lid
Total weight: 7.13 kg
Set of sundries with seals, calibration
ampoules, controll weight 50g
CCM Set ECO dig
1
2
3
4
5
6
7
Lump hammer 1000 g
(optionally 20 plastic bags)
8
9
2 sample cups with lid
Flat chisel for sample taking
Art. no. 110061
J Set of 25 carbide ampoules
K Calibrated standard pressure bottle with
surface thermometer (as per Pressure
Sampling spoon, short
Equipment Directive 97/23/EC)
Cleaning brush
L Weighing bar for precision spring scales
M ECO manometer up to 1.6 bar with lid
N Double-walled plastic case with inlay
Digital sample scale up to 200 g *
Ball set with 4 steel balls
Grinding bowl for porous samples
Set of sundries, dig, with seals, calibration
Total weight: 7.13 kg
* Model may differ from the illustration.
ampoules, calibration weight 100g,
CCM Set ECO dig dig
1
2
3
4
5
6
7
Lump hammer 1000 g
(optionally 20 plastic bags)
8
9
2 sample cups with lid
Art. no. 110062
Flat chisel for sample taking
Sampling spoon, long
Cleaning brush
Digital sample scale up to 200 g *
Ball set with 4 steel balls
Grinding bowl for porous samples
Set of sundries, Business, with seals, calibration ampoules, calibration weight 100g
and spare battery
J
K
Set of 25 carbide ampoules
Calibrated standard pressure bottle with
surface thermometer (as per Pressure
Equipment Directive 97/23/EC)
L Weighing bar for precision spring scales
M Business manometer, up to 3.0 bar, with
damped cover as per EN 837-2
N Double-walled plastic case with inlay
Total weight: 7.13 kg
* Model may differ from the illustration.
11 VERSIONS OF THE CCM SET ECO
CCM Set ECO
Art. no. 110060
6
4
8
M
3
5
L
2
K
7
J
1
N
9
CCM Set ECO dig
Art. no. 110061
6
4
8
J
M
K
7
3
5
2
1
N
9
CCM Set ECO dig dig
Art. no. 110062
6
4
8
M
7
3
5
9
K
J
2
1
N
12 COMPONENTS
CCM device Alu CLASSIC
Art. no. 110004
J Set of 25 carbide ampoules
1 Lump hammer 1000 g
K Calibrated standard pressure bottle with
2 Flat chisel for sample taking
surface thermometer (as per Pressure
3 Sampling spoon, short
Equipment Directive 97/23/EC)
4 Cleaning brush
L
Weighing bar for precision spring scales
5 Mechanical sample scale up to 100 g
M
Manometer
CLASSIC, up to 2.5 bar, with
6 Ball set with 4 steel balls
damped
cover
as per EN 837-2
7 Grinding bowl for porous samples
N
Device
case
in
aluminium look
(optionally 20 plastic bags)
O
Stopwatch
/
timer
(not illustrated)
8 2 sample cups with lid
9 Set of sundries with seals, calibration
Total weight: 8.18 kg
ampoules, controll weight 50g
CCM device Alu CLASSIC dig
1
2
3
4
5
6
7
Lump hammer 1000 g
(optionally 20 plastic bags)
8
9
2 sample cups with lid
Art. no. 110005
J
K
Flat chisel for sample taking
surface thermometer (as per Pressure
Sampling spoon, short
Equipment Directive 97/23/EC)
Cleaning brush
L Weighing bar for precision spring scales
M CLASSIC Manometer, up to 2.5 bar, with
Digital sample scales up to 200 g *
Ball set with 4 steel balls
damped cover as per EN 837-2
Grinding bowl for porous samples
N Device case in aluminium look
O Stopwatch / timer (not illustrated)
Set of sundries with seals, calibration
Total weight: 8.27 kg;
* Model may differ from the illustration.
ampoules, calibration weight 100g
CCM device Alu Business
1
2
3
4
5
6
7
Lump hammer 1000 g
(optionally 20 plastic bags)
8
9
2 sample cups with lid
Set of 25 carbide ampoules
Calibrated standard pressure bottle with
Art. no. 110007
Flat chisel for sample taking
Sampling spoon, short
Cleaning brush
Digital sample scales up to 200 g *
Ball set with 4 steel balls
Grinding bowl for porous samples
Set of sundries with seals, calibration
ampoules, calibration weight 100g and
spare battery
J
K
Set of 25 carbide ampoules
Calibrated standard pressure bottle with
surface thermometer (as per Pressure
Equipment Directive 97/23/EC)
L Weighing bar for precision spring scales
M Business manometer, up to 3.0 bar, with
damped cover as per EN 837-2
N Device case in aluminium look
Total weight: 8.36 kg;
* Model may differ from the illustration.
13 VERSIONS OF THE CCM DEVICE IN AN ALU CASE
CCM device Alu CLASSIC
Art. no. 110004
6
J
M
2
4
5
9
K
8
1
3
7
N
L
CCM devicet Alu CLASSIC dig
Art. no. 110005
6
J
2
4
5
K
8
1
3
7
M
N
9
CCM device Alu Business
Art. no. 110007
6
J
2
1
3
5
9
4
7
M
K
8
N
14 COMPONENTS
CCM device CLASSIC
Art. no. 110000
1 Lump hammer 1000 g and fitter‘s hammer J Set of 25 carbide ampoules
K Calibrated standard pressure bottle with
2 Flat chisel for sample taking
surface thermometer (as per Pressure
3 Sampling spoon, short
Equipment Directive 97/23/EC)
4 Cleaning brush
L
Weighing bar for precision spring scales
5 Mechanical sample scales up to 100 g
M
CLASSIC
manometer, up to 2.5 bar, with
6 Ball set with 4 steel balls
damped
cover
as per EN 837-2
7 Grinding bowl for porous samples
N
Device
case
made
of sheet steel
(optionally 20 plastic bags)
O
Stopwatch
/
timer
(not
illustrated)
8 2 sample cups with lid
9 Set of sundries with seals, calibration
ampoules, controll weight 50g
Total weight: 10.78 kg
CCM device CLASSIC dig
Art. no. 113100
1 Lump hammer 1000 g and fitter‘s hammer J Set of 25 carbide ampoules
K Calibrated standard pressure bottle with
2 Flat chisel for sample taking
surface thermometer (as per Pressure
3 Sampling spoon, short
Equipment Directive 97/23/EC)
4 Cleaning brush
L Weighing bar for precision spring scales
5 Digital sample scales up to 200 g *
M CLASSIC manometer, up to 2.5 bar, with
6 Ball set with 4 steel balls
damped cover as per EN 837-2
7 Grinding bowl for porous samples
N Device case made of sheet steel
(optionally 20 plastic bags)
O Stopwatch / timer (not illustrated)
8 2 sample cups with lid
9 Set of sundries with seals, calibration
ampoules, calibration weight 100g
Total weight: 11.04 kg
*
Model may differ from the illustration.
CCM device Business
1
2
3
4
5
6
7
Art. no. 110021
Lump hammer 1000 g and fitter‘s hammer J Set of 25 carbide ampoules
K Calibrated standard pressure bottle with
Flat chisel for sample taking
surface thermometer (as per Pressure
Sampling spoon, short
Equipment Directive 97/23/EC)
Cleaning brush
Digital sample scales up to 200 g *
Ball set with 4 steel balls
L Weighing bar for precision spring scales
M Business manometer, up to 3.0 bar, with
damped cover as per EN 837-2
Grinding bowl for porous samples
(optionally 20 plastic bags)
8
9
2 sample cups with lid
N Device case made of sheet steel
O Stopwatch / timer (not illustrated)
Set of sundries with seals, calibration
ampoules, calibration weight 100g and
Total weight: 11.04 kg
spare battery
*
Model may differ from the illustration.
15 VERSIONS OF THE CCM DEVICE IN A METAL CASE
CCM device CLASSIC
Art. no. 110000
6
2
4
5
9
K
M
8
1
3
7
J
N
L
CCM device CLASSIC dig
Art. no. 113100
6
J
2
4
5
N
Art. no. 110021
6
2
1
5
M
9
CCM device Business
3
K
8
1
3
7
9
4
7
8
J
K
M
N
16 COMPONENT DESCRIPTION
Calibrated pressure bottle
All of our current pressure bottles fulfill the requirements of
the Pressure Equipment Directive 97/23/EC. They are made in
Switzerland of high-quality stainless steel and calibrated to the
company’s internal standards. Each individual pressure bottle
is provided with a corresponding calibration number. A surface
thermometer is attached to each pressure bottle for reading the
bottle temperature.
Surface thermometer
The surface thermometer has 9 temperature fields. Each field
covers a temperature range of 3 °C and can indicate temperatures between 7 and 34 °C.
Each temperature field changes its colour with increasing temperature from: Black-brown-green-blue-black.
Each field is marked by a number. This number corresponds to
the temperature when the field is green.
The other temperatures can be derived from it:
if the temperature is 1°C lower than the number shown, the field
is brown. If it is 1°C higher, the field is blue.
Ball set
The ball set included contains 4 steel balls with a defined diameter. The free volume of the pressure bottle is calibrated with
these balls, which perform four additional important tasks:
Start effect:
shattering of the carbide ampoule
Grinding effect:
grinding the sample material as well as the
calcium carbide
Mixing effect:
mixing the reaction mixture
Cleaning effect:
keeping the carbide surface free from the
reaction product calcium hydroxide
17 COMPONENT DESCRIPTION
Sundries set
The sundries set contains spare seals for the manometer and the
pressure bottle, a set of 3 calibration ampoules containing 1.0 g
water for on-site calibration and a 50 g check weight.
For instructions on the use of the calibration ampoules, please
refer to page 30 of these instructions or to the short video on
our website.
The red seals of the manometer are so-called squeeze-type seals,
which are squeezed by tightening the screw connection and seal
due to this squeezing. Such a seal can usually be used only once.
Sundries set, dig
The dig sundries set contains spare seals for the manometer and
the pressure bottle, a set of 3 calibration ampoules containing 1.0
g water for on-site calibration and a 100 g check weight.
For instructions on the use of the calibration ampoules, please
refer to page 30 of these instructions or to the short video on
our website.
The red seals of the manometer are so-called squeeze-type seals,
which are squeezed by tightening the screw connection and seal
due to this squeezing. Such a seal can usually be used only once.
Sundries set, Business
The Business sundries set contains spare seals for the pressure
bottle, a set of 3 calibration ampoules containing 1.0 g water for
on-site calibration, spare batteries for the BUSINESS manometer
and a 100 g check weight.
For instructions on the use of the calibration ampoules, please
refer to page 30 of these instructions or to the short video on
our website.
18 COMPONENT DESCRIPTION
ECO manometer
In addition to the black pressure scale, the ECO manometer has 3
coloured auxiliary scales for weighed samples of 20 g (red), 50 g
(green) or 100 g (blue). Using these auxiliary scales the moisture
content can be directly read off in “% by weight”.
The auxiliary scales were determined at a temperature of 20 °C
and are most accurate if the start and the end temperatures of a
measurement correspond to this temperature.
CLASSIC manometer
The CLASSIC manometer is mounted on a damped cover in
accordance with the directive EN 837-2.
It has the same accuracy as the ECO manometer, but its larger
pressure range offers greater safety in the case of unexpected
overpressure and in addition it is better protected by the rubber
protection cap.
In addition to the black pressure scale, it likewise has 3 coloured
auxiliary scales for weighed samples of 20 g (red), 50 g (green)
or 100 g (blue). Using these auxiliary scales the moisture content
can be directly read off in “% by weight”.
The auxiliary scales were determined at a temperature of 20 °C
and are most accurate if the start and the end temperatures of a
measurement correspond to this temperature.
Business manometer for CCM set ECO dig dig
The digital Business manometer is mounted on a damped cover
in accordance with the directive EN 837-2. It is designed as standard for weighed samples of 10, 20, 50 and 100 g. With its large
pressure range of up to 3 bar it is very well protected against
overpressure. In addition the manometer is equipped with a
rubber protection cap, which protects it against external dirt and
moisture. A printer or a measured value recording program can
optionally be connected to the data output (right).
Operation of the manometer
2 operating elements: ‘Menu’ and ‘Enter’ keys
19 COMPONENT DESCRIPTION
After switching on via one of the two buttons, the manometer displays the last measured value. The
duration of the last measurement is displayed by pressing the ‘Enter’ key.
In order to move through the manometer menu commands, there are three operating variants at
each point:
1) Do nothing:
A displayed command is displayed for 7 seconds. If no further key is
pressed during this period the manometer returns to its starting position.
2) Press the ‘Menu’ key: The next command that is possible from this position is displayed.
3) Press the ‘Enter’ key: The displayed command is confirmed and thus executed.
Further fundamental information:
When a measurement is running, 3 ticks flash at the bottom-left edge of the screen. In this phase
the unit of the displayed measured value cannot be changed.
The duration of the measurement is usually 10 minutes. A running measurement can be terminated
prematurely by selecting the STOP command with the ‘Menu’ button and confirming with the ‘Enter’
key.
The last measured value remains in memory even after a battery change. If no button is pressed for
a period of 60 minutes, the manometer switches itself off automatically.
After confirmation of the Start command by pressing the ‘Enter’
key:
The manometer switches to measuring mode and sets the zero
point at the currently prevailing ambient pressure. It now waits
5 minutes for the start of the reaction. If a pressure increase is
detected during this time, the definitive measuring cycle begins.
If no pressure increase is determined, the manometer returns to
its starting position.
The manometer can be prematurely reset to the starting position
by selecting the STOP command with the ‘Menu’ button and confirming with the ‘Enter’ key.
After confirmation of the OFF command with the ‘Enter’ key, the
manometer is switched off.
After confirmation of the Print command with the ‘Enter’ key, the
manometer sends the stored measurement data via the interface
(metal cover) to the log printer (log printer retrofit kit art. no.
110024).
After confirmation of the Unit command with the ‘Enter’ key, the
manometer outputs the measured value as pressure [bar] or as
moisture content [M-%] (% by weight). The moisture content
units [% by weight] refer to a sample quantity: 100 g, 50 g, 20 g
or 10 g (according to the tick at the upper edge of the display).
Further information and videos can be found on our website.
20 COMPONENT DESCRIPTION
Sample cup
The two sample cups are supplied with a lockable lid. Sample
material can be simply poured in using a sampling spoon or
another suitable aid. Both moist and moist-warm samples can be
conveniently and securely protected against drying out inside it.
If condensate forms on the inner edge of the cup after a moistwarm sample cools down, it can easily be mixed with the sample
again by shaking the sample.
The sample cups have a volume of 70 ml and can accept up to
100 g of granular sample material (relative density greater than
2).
Sturdy mechanical sample scales
The precision spring scales (scales for short) are supplied in
transparent plastic protective packaging. The scales allow the
weighing of sample quantities up to 100 g, wherein the weight
of the sample cup can be tared. The scale can be aligned to the
front simply by turning the bracket. (see picture center)
Preparation:
Remove scales from the protective packaging, check free movement of the spring. Press the weighing bar into the foam material
in a suitable place (see picture below). Suspend the scales on it.
Taring/reading:
Attach a clean, empty sample cup. Adjust the zero point by turning the white taring screw (black circle). Your eyes must be at
the same height as the scale when doing this in order to minimise
reading errors.
On-site checking:
For checking the scales a 50 g calibration weight is available
which has a maximum deviation of ± 10 mg (M2). To this end
the scales must be freely suspended together with the cup and
tared. Subsequently, the weight is placed in the cup and the
scales are read.
21 COMPONENT DESCRIPTION
Precise digital sample scales
Before using for the first time, ensure that the batteries are
inserted correctly.
1. Place the scales on a horizontal surface and press the ON/
OFF button.
2. Wait a few seconds until the display shows [0.00].
3. Place the clean empty sample cup on the platform.
4. Press the TARE button. The reading [0.00] is displayed.
5. If necessary, change the unit of weight to GRAMS by pressing
the MODE button. Fill the sample cup with the sample material
up to the necessary sample quantity of 20, 50 or 100 g.
6. With the lid closed you can keep a weighed sample in the sample cup for several minutes without loss of moisture.
7. The scales automatically switch off after 120 seconds; alternatively, press the ON/OFF button for longer than 3 seconds.
Taring:
1. With the scales switched on, place the container to be tared
on the platform.
2. Press TARE and wait until [0.00] is shown.
3. Add the weighing material and directly read off its weight.
Calibration (in GRAMS only):
1. Switch the scales on and, with the platform empty and clean,
press the CAL button until [CAL] appears on the display.
2. Subsequently, press the CAL button again; the scales indicate
[CAL] blinking and switches than to a blinking [100.00].
3. Place the 100 g calibration weight on the platform and wait a
few seconds.
4. [PASS] now appears on the display, indicating a successful
calibration. The scales switch to weighing mode. You can now
switch off the scales.
Additional information:
[LO]:
Low battery voltage, please replace the batteries
[O-LD]: Overload, reduce the load
22 PRINCIPLES OF THE CARBIDE METHOD
THE REACTION
The carbide method is a heterogeneous reaction involving a solid
body (carbide) and a further substance (water), which is present
in an arbitrary state (solid, liquid or gaseous). Water can be
present as a pure substance (calibration ampoule) or as part of
another substance (bulk material).
The following equation describes the reaction:
CaC2 + 2H2O
Calcium carbide + Water
Ca(OH)2 + C2H2
ΔH: -123.6 kJ/mol
Calcium hydroxide + acetylene
MEASUREMENT PRINCIPLE
Calcium carbide reacts with water, forming gaseous acetylene
and solid calcium hydroxide. For each molecule of water consumed, the same amount of acetylene is always formed; hence,
this reaction is extremely well suited for the determination of a
quantity of water.
Restriction: Since calcium carbide also reacts correspondingly
with methanol, a sample may not simultaneously contain water
and methanol.
FACTS REGARDING THE REACTION
1.The reaction takes place on the surface of calcium carbide.
(see picture above)
2.Both reaction partners must be able to contact each other.
Note from our quality assurance (see picture above): The
carbide ampoules can be stored indefinitely as long as they are
tightly sealed.
3.The intensity of the contact between the reaction partners
as well as the concentration of the reaction partners essentially determines the speed of the increase of pressure.
In the case of intensive and direct contact between calcium
carbide and water (liquid and solid in equal concentrations)
the reaction is rapid and violent. If a calibration ampoule
with fine carbide (see picture, centre) is made to react, the
increase of pressure takes place within fractions of a
second. The heat development that occurs is easily visible due
to the excessive increase of pressure.
23 PRINCIPLES OF THE CARBIDE METHOD
In the case of a lower concentration of water on the surface
of carbide due, for example, to less intense mixing (standing
pressure bottle), or if water can only contact the carbide via the
gaseous phase, the pressure increase takes place much
more slowly. The speed of the pressure increase is immediately limited by transport processes (saturated air at 20 °C
contains 17.28 mg/l water, partial pressure of water: 23.1 mbar,
equivalent to approx. 2 % by vol.).
4.Water is consumed by the reaction with carbide; a sample
with a corresponding surplus of carbide is dried out. (See
pictures, left): A slice of apple and carbide under the glass cover
at the start and after 47 hours.
5. The end point of the reaction is determined by the so-called reaction equilibrium: Either nearly all
the carbide or nearly all the water is consumed. In a scientific sense, “nearly all” means: in every
reaction a small remainder of the starting materials remains in a closed system (closed pressure
bottle). In this reaction, a residual partial pressure of water of 1.87x10-10 mbar is established in
the case of a surplus of carbide in the reaction equilibrium.
This is an extremely dry condition! In comparison, saturated air cooled to -100°C is 10,000 times
moister!
MEASURED VARIABLE: PRESSURE
The quantity of acetylene formed can easily be determined by measuring the pressure.
Ideal gas law:
∆p
x
V = ∆n
x
R
x
T =>
∆p = ∆n *K
where:
∆p Pressure increase in the bottle
V
Bottle volume
∆n Amount of material formed in the bottle
R
Gas constant
T
Temperature in the bottle
K Combined constant at constant temperature and volume
The acetylene formed corresponds to the amount of substance, ‘Δn’, by which the number of molecules increases in the gaseous phase of a closed system.
The ideal gas law establishes the relationship between pressure and the quantity of gas formed. The
variables of volume and temperature necessary for a quantitative determination of the consumed
quantity of water are fixed according to the specific system and the influence of these variables is
briefly discussed below.
24 PRINCIPLES OF THE CARBIDE METHOD
FACTORS NOT INFLUENCING THE MEASURED VARIABLE
The gas constant ‘R’ is a constant whose numerical value changes only with the definition of the
physical units.
The volume ‘V’ is determined by the size of the bottle and is in principle constant. The pressure
bottle is designed in such a way that one gram of water develops an acetylene pressure of one bar
(assuming a complete ball set). All of our pressure bottles are calibrated to this nominal volume.
FACTORS INFLUENCING THE MEASURED VARIABLE
The temperature ‘T’ is an environmental variable that occurs in the case of normal use. Our conversion tables are based on a reference temperature of 20 °C.
The use of a correction factor can be meaningful if measurements take place at other temperatures.
As a matter of principle, the temperature only needs to be considered in the case of low
moisture contents or very precise measurement results. The start and end temperatures of
the measurement must be known in order to evaluate the size of the correction factor.
The temperature at the moment of closing the pressure bottle is designated the start temperature. From this moment on the equipment is deemed to be a closed system and a pressure change
takes place only if the influencing variables change (ideal gas law).
The temperature prevailing at the moment of reading the pressure is designated the end temperature.
This variable can be evaluated using the surface thermometer on our pressure bottles!
Case Start End
Ruling
I
20°C
Relevance: No
20°C
Reference temperature: No correction necessary
II
26°C
26°C
Reduce the pressure by 1% for every 3°C too high.
Example:
(26 - 20 = 6) => - 2% (pressure reading*0.98)
Relevance: Not critical when not in critical moisture range
III
5°C
20°C
Subtract 3mbar from the read pressure for each 1°C difference.
Example:
(20 - 5): Δ15°C hence – 45 mbar
Relevance: Critical when other conditions are also critical
Case II
If the start and end temperatures are equal but differ from the reference temperature, then
the correction factor for the pressure can be corrected in accordance with case II in the above table.
If the measurement takes place at higher temperatures than 20 °C, the pressure reading is too high
and must be corrected downwards. The pressure would have been correspondingly lower at 20 °C.
Case III
If the start and end temperatures are different, it is necessary to know the current ambient
25 PRINCIPLES OF THE DRYING OVEN
pressure in order to precisely evaluate the correction factor. If an ambient pressure of 1 bar is assumed, a correction factor can be determined from the difference between the two temperatures. To
do this, 3 mbar must be subtracted from the pressure reading for each 1 °C increase in temperature.
In the example the bottle is closed at a temperature of 5 °C and the measurement result is read off
at an end temperature of 20 °C. This results in a temperature difference of 15 °C. 45 mbar must
be subtracted from the pressure reading before determining the moisture content in the conversion
table. In the reverse case the pressure must be corrected upwards.
At a measured pressure of approx. 1 bar and higher a temperature correction can usually be dispensed with. We will shortly be offering a small program for the evaluation of the temperature
correction on our website for download.
To avoid a cold bottle you can perform an on-site calibration to bring the bottle to
its operation temperature.
CONVERSION: PRESSURE – WATER CONTENT
A moisture range of 0.19 % by weight (sample quantity: 100 g) to 50 % by weight (sample quantity:
3 g) can be covered by appropriate calibration curves for defined sample quantities.
The lower the moisture content of a sample is, the more important the accuracy of the manometer
and the evaluation of the temperature become. Please refer to page 43 for the evaluation of the error
of a manometer. The measuring range can be extended to approximately 0.01 % by weight with the
digital manometers offered, wherein it can be meaningful to develop your own calibration curves for
samples with strongly deviating specific densities.
PURPOSE AND ADVANTAGE OF THE BALL SET
The ball set is used in order to improve the contact between water and calcium carbide under these
circumstances.
4 effects are achieved with the ball set:
1.Start: the glass ampoule containing the calcium carbide is shattered.
2.Grinding: if used properly, the material containing the water is ground.
3.Mixing: The different materials present are mixed with one another and contacting solid product
is shaken off.
4.Reaction acceleration: The reaction progress is accelerated by intensive shaking, since carbide
and water can contact each other faster.
STANDARD MOISTURE METHODS
Oven-drying, which is described in DIN 18121-1 among others, is considered to be the standard
moisture determination method. In this very simple method the test material is dried in an oven at a
26 PRINCIPLES OF THE DRYING OVEN
States in different drying processes
Water vapour content [g/m3]
Water vapour partial pressure [bar]
relative air humidity [%rF]
Temperature [°C]
certain temperature (usually 105 °C) as evaporable water until its weight is constant. By weighing the
sample before and during the drying process, the water content is determined from the weight loss.
The criterion for aborting the test is a weight change of less than 0.1 % by weight within 24 hours.
In addition to oven-drying, also known as kiln-drying or the drying oven method, further direct
methods for determining water content are also used in practice. What all of these methods have in
common is that the water is extracted from a sample by means of storage in an environment with a
relatively low air humidity (e.g. freeze drying, drying in a desiccator).
PRINCIPLES OF THE DRYING OVEN
In the drying oven the relative air humidity is reduced by increasing the temperature (see example
diagram above). This makes use of the following relationship:
Warm air can adsorb more water until it is saturated than cold air.
The consequence of this is that if arbitrary air with a defined humidity (e.g. laboratory air) is warmed
up, its original relative humidity is reduced.
In addition the mobility of the water molecules is increased by the increased temperature in the drying oven. This is one of the main reasons why drying at 105°C in the oven is much faster compared
to the other drying processes (desiccator etc.).
Depending on the oven temperature (40 °C, 50 °C, 70 °C or 105 °C) as well as the water content
of the room air drawn in (RK), a corresponding relative air humidity is established in the oven. This
relative air humidity (and also the temperature) corresponds to the equilibrium condition for the
sample, which gives off moisture (loses weight) until it is in equilibrium with the conditions prevailing
in the oven. Once this state is reached the weight of the sample does not change any further. (In
27 COMPARISON OF
THE DRYING OVEN TO THE CM METHOD
a state of equilibrium the sample adsorbs just as much water from the air as it gives off to the air.)
This equilibrium relationship between the water content of a sample and the relative air humidity is
described in so-called sorption isotherms and is characteristic of the capability of a sample to store
water. In the case of building materials, the sorption isotherms are said to depend very little on the
temperature and proceed slightly differently if a sample gives off water, i.e. dries, or if it adsorbs
water. The giving off of water is known as desorption, hence desorption isotherm, and the taking on
of water is known as adsorption, hence adsorption isotherm. The deviation between the equilibrium
values during the water adsorption and the water desorption is called hysteresis.
In addition to its composition and its property of entering into a covalent bond with the water molecule, the ability of a material mixture or a substance to store water essentially depends on the size
of its inner surface, i.e. its pore structure.
Cement-based systems exhibit a large number of very small, so-called gel pores. This is contrary
to calcium sulphate-bound systems, for example (see sorption isotherms in the diagram at the top
of this page). Cement-based systems therefore store more water at the same relative air humidity.
In the drying oven method, air is drawn in from the surrounding room and heated up. If the relative
air humidity in the room changes over the duration of the drying process, then the relative air humidity in the oven is also changed as a result.
The influence of this change of the equilibrium condition leads to a relevant change of the equilibrium
moisture of a sample, in particular when the sample is strongly hygroscopic. A strongly hygroscopic
sample exhibits a large inner surface and is capable of storing large quantities of water even when
the air humidity is low (e.g. gel pores in the cement).
However, the influence of the laboratory air drawn in lessens as the drying temperature increases.
COMPARISON OF THE DRYING OVEN TO THE CM METHOD
The two methods can be compared on the basis of a comparison of the equilibrium conditions. In the
adjacent diagram the equilibrium conditions for the two methods are compared to one another with
the names (D4 for drying at 40 °C etc. or D1 for 105 °C respectively as well as CM for the carbide
method).
28 COMPARISON OF
THE DRYING OVEN TO THE CM METHOD
In the drying oven method the degree of drying is primarily determined by the choice of drying
temperature. The air humidity established in the oven at the specified temperature depends on the
air conditions in the room surrounding the oven and decreases as the temperature increases. It
represents an open system.
The CM method, on the other hand, represents a closed system, in which the air humidity drops
at room temperature to 1.87x10-10 mbar due to the reaction of water to form acetylene. Water is
consumed as long as it can move to the surface of carbide.
In the test series below, 4 samples of a cement-based screed were initially dried in the drying
oven in accordance with the table below at different temperatures until their weight was
constant and then cooled down to room temperature in a closed system. The relative humidity
of the air in this closed system was measured. The remaining amount of mobile water
molecules was determined according to the CM method up to the reaction equilibrium
with 50g in each case. We selected this order of the combined drying process, since in the oven
drying the degree of drying of a sample can be specified by selecting the drying temperature. As
opposed to the carbide method, a sample can thus also be only partially dried.
The individual results of the two successively executed drying methods and their totals are illustrated
in the table below.
Sample designation
CT_S1CT_S2CT_S3CT_S4
Drying temperature 40 °C
50 °C
70 °C
105 °C
Equilibrium moisture of the sample [% RH]
19.1
10.6
4.1
2.8
Loss of weight through kiln-drying [% by weight]
1.0
1.3
1.8
2.3
Moisture content by subsequent
CM method up to reaction equilibrium [% by weight]1.5
1.1
0.7
0.2
Total of both methods
2.4
2.5
2.5
[% by weight]
2.5
29 COMPARISON OF
THE DRYING OVEN TO THE CM METHOD
CM-Messung
0.2
0.7
2.0
1.1
1.6
2.3
1.8
1.0
Wassergehalt/ [M-%]
1.5
2.4
1.3
Weight loss in % of weight
Darrung
1.2
0.8
0.4
0.0
Darrung bei
40°C Darrung
bei 50°C Darrung
bei 70°C Darrung
bei 105°C
Drying
at 40°C
at 50°C
at 70°C
at 105°C
DISCUSSION
All in all, the two methods applied lead to the same result with small deviations.
Despite the high drying temperature of 105 °C, a further 100 mg water is converted in the subsequent
CM method, which is equivalent to a mass content of 0.2 % by weight.
This quantity of water converted thus corresponds to the water content that would be present in a
volume of 10 litres of air (at 20 °C; 50 % RH). Since the sample was only in contact with the laboratory air for a few seconds following removal from the drying oven, it can be ruled out that this quantity
of water was adsorbed from the air. A check measurement with a sample dried at 125 °C resulted in
a proven quantity of water of only 20 mg.
In the case of strongly hygroscopic samples, higher moisture contents are determined with the
carbide method than with the drying oven at 105 °C. Hence, this method allows a more precise
determination of the mobile water content of a sample.
Because of the unchanged equilibrium condition (residual water vapour partial pressure of approx.
10-10 mbar), a higher reproducibility is possible in the comparison with the drying oven, whose
equilibrium condition can vary between 1 and 3 % rH depending on the moisture content of the
laboratory air.
30 ON-SITE CALIBRATION OF THE CM DEVICE
Calibration check of the CM device
The calibration ampoules contained in the sundries set can be
used to check the CM device as a complete system with regard
to its accuracy (manometer) and its suitability (tightness). This
calibration check can be performed in any shady and ventilated
place.
Preparation:
You require the cleaned (see picture above) and dried CM device,
including cover and manometer, the complete ball set, a calibration ampoule and a carbide ampoule (see picture, centre).
Execution:
The balls, the carbide ampoule and the calibration ampoule are
placed in the pressure bottle in this order and the bottle is subsequently closed with the manometer cover.
The ampoules are shattered by shaking the CM device and the
reagents released can react with one another (see picture below).
The reaction is usually completed after 2 to 3 minutes and
the final pressure must be 1.00 bar ± 0.05 bar.
[The permissible 5% deviation includes summarily the volume variance (± 1%), the water
quantity tolerance (± 1%), the permissible
manometer accuracy of ± 2.5% (25 mbar at 1
bar) as well as the possible temperature derivation of ±1% for each 3 °C deviation from 20°C.]
(IMPORTANT: While shattering the ampoules, splashes of
water may be deposited on the inside of the bottle)
Remark:
Too low a pressure can be indicated if you don’t
wait long enough, or if splashes of water have
collected under the cover. These are formed by
shaking too violently at the start of the measurement. These splashes can be made to react with
calcium carbide by ‘laying the bottle flat’ and
horizontally rotating and rocking it. This is
shown here with the CCM CLASSIC device.
Mobile access to: ON-SITE-CALIBRATION
31 GENERAL MEASURING PROCEDURE
General information
The CM method is suitable for the determination of the moisture content of all sample
materials which themselves do not react with calcium carbide or the reaction products and which
contain no methanol. These include fuels, building materials, salts and minerals as well as ore concentrates and ores.
For arbitrary materials with a sample quantity of more than 10 g or samples with a particularly low
density (less than 1 kg/m3) it is advisable to carry out a separate calibration.
The careful determination of the moisture content of a sample requires that a representative selection be made from the existing sample material.
The preparation of a sample therefore plays a significant part!
The following measuring procedure (pictures with the CLASSIC manometer) is designed for bulk
materials or granular samples as well as for liquids and paste-like materials. The reaction ends
with the reaching of the reaction equilibrium.
1 The test material must be homogenised in order to be able to take an average sample.
2 Depending on the assumed water content, the necessary quantity is weighed out according to the
following table:
Assumed water content
Necessary weighed quantity
1%
100 g
2%
50 g
5%
20 g
10 %
10 g
20 %
5g
50 %
3g
3 Place the complete ball set (1) and, depending upon the expected
moisture content, the accurately weighed, representative sample
(2) in the pressure bottle.
Then hold the bottle at an angle and carefully let a glass ampoule
containing carbide slide in (3).
4 The pressure bottle is closed with the cover and the carbide
ampoule is then shattered by vigorously shaking the bottle. The
chemical reaction begins with the shattering of the ampoule. Now
start the time measurement with the stopwatch (included in the
CLASSIC equipment).
32 GENERAL MEASURING PROCEDURE
5 Afterwards circular movements are made with the bottle for one
minute in order to mix the reaction mixture. In the case of liquid
or paste-like samples it is recommended to hold the pressure
bottle flat and to rotate it several times around its own longitudinal axis (see picture below). This way, sample material adhering
to the inner wall can also be made to react. This procedure is
repeated after approximately 3 minutes.
The reaction ends with the reaching of the reaction equilibrium.
This is typically reached after 10 minutes. The pressure bottle
is shaken again to check. If the pressure remains unchanged,
the measurement can be regarded as final. Be aware that not
shaking or less shaking leads to an incomplete reaction with a
result being to low.
The water content can be directly read off from the manometer for the usual sample weights of 20
g (red scale), 50 g (blue scale) or 100 g (green scale). The conversion table can be used for smaller
sample weights (higher moisture contents).
Draw up a handwritten log or use the template available on our website in order to record the
measurement results.
Since the calibration curves are calculated for a reference temperature of 20 °C, you should pay
attention to the display of the surface thermometer on the pressure bottle. In case of deviations,
evaluate the possible error in accordance with the chapter entitled ‘Principles of the carbide method’.
CONVERSION TABLE: PRESSURE MATERIAL MOISTURE CONTENT
PressureSample weight
Bar (black)
3g
5g
10g
20g (red)50g (green) 100g (blue)
Watercontent in % by weight in relation to the dry wreight
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0.2
6.3
3.8
1.9
0.9 0.38
0.19
0.3
9.7
5.8
2.9
1.5 0.58
0.28
0.4
13.0
7.8
3.9
2 0.78
0.38
0.5
16.3
9.8
4.9
2.5 0.98
0.47
0.6
19.7 11.8
5.9
3 1.18
0.57
0.7
23.0 13.8
6.9
3.5 1.37
0.66
0.8
26.3 15.8
7.9
4 1.57
0.76
0.9
29.7 17.8
8.9
4.5 1.76
0.85
1
33.3
20
10
5 1.96
0.95
1.1
36.7
22
11
5.5 2.16
1.05
1.2
40.0
24
12
6 2.35
1.14
1.3
43.3
26
13
6.5 2.55
1.23
1.4
46.7
28
14
7 2.74
1.33
1.5
50.0
30
15
7.5 2.94
1.42
Acetylene can decompose and damage the manometer above this pressure!
1.6
53.3
32
16
8 3.13
1.51
33 ‘SPECIAL’ MEASUREMENT PROCEDURES
Measurements with the Business manometer:
The Business manometer is designed in such a manner that it retains the last measured value until
a new measurement has definitely begun.
In order to start a new measurement, the manometer is switched on by pressing any button. The
sample weight is adapted if necessary. This step can also take place following the measurement.
The manometer is ‘zeroed’ and prepared for a new measurement by selecting the ‘Start’ command
with the ‘Menu’ button and confirming with the ‘Enter’ button. On the display you can see a timer
which counts down from 5:00 minutes and the current relative pressure is displayed every 5 seconds.
In this condition the manometer is ready for the measurement and can be used like a mechanical
manometer. In order to abort the definitive start of the measurement at this point, the ‘STOP’
command must selected with the ‘Menu’ button or the timer must be allowed to run down without
an increase in the pressure.
In this condition the manometer constantly checks whether the pressure is increasing and automatically sets the time to ‘0:00’ if a pressure increase of 20 mbar is determined. At this moment a new
measurement has definitely begun. The maximum duration of the measurement is set to 10 minutes
and can be terminated prematurely with the ‘STOP’ command.
‘SPECIAL’ MEASUREMENT PROCEDURES:
DETERMINATION OF READINESS FOR COVERING
In the case of building materials such as screeds or concrete, knowledge of the ‘free’ damage-causing
water content is of primary interest, but not that of the total water content.
The term readiness for covering describes the dampness of a screed, which, if it were to
be covered by a top covering, would cause no moisture damage to the covering
Such damp damage can occur if the moisture profile in the screed under the top covering can balance
itself faster than the moisture can pass through the top covering and be given off to the ambient
air. Such an accumulation of moisture under the top covering can lead up to the condensation of the
water. Depending on the resistivity of the used adhesive on the water pressure. Apart from the influence of the temperature on the accumulation of moisture under the top covering, no further potential
parameters have been investigated so far. The values for the readiness for covering are therefore
empirical limit values (experience values), which have continually changed over the course of time.
For questions of readiness for covering, special measuring procedures apply that differ in part from
country to country and are prescribed by different associations: In Germany by the IBF (BEB) and
the ZVPF, in Switzerland by the SIA, and a standard also exists for it in Italy.
Some of these special measuring procedures are described below.
For Germany a measuring procedure for the determination of the water content in concrete has likewise been specified in the ZTV ING. This will not be dealt in this version of the operating instructions.
No liability whatsoever is accepted for the quoted excerpts of the described measuring procedures,
which are taken from the available information. We refer with these quotes to the information
available to us, which we assume to be up to date and correct.
34 MEASURING PROCEDURE ACCORDING TO
DIN 18560-4:2011-03
QUOTE…
Measurement of the moisture content
1 General information
The measurement of the moisture content for evaluating the readiness for covering takes place
on the building site using the calcium carbide method.
NOTEAlternative measuring methods (e.g. dielectric methods) serve exclusively for preliminary
testing and for the containment of damp surfaces.
2. Test equipment
2.1 CM device, calibrated pressure bottle according to directive 97/23/EC (volume 650 ml), with a
manometer mounted according to EN 837-2 (max. absolute error 25 mbar)
2.2Four steel balls
2.3 Calcium carbide ampoule, with a filling weight of approximately 7 g (granulation 0.3 mm - 1.0
mm)
2.4 Scale, error limit ± 0.1 g
2.5 Clock
2.6 Mortar bowl made of metal or the like.
2.7 Two polyethylene (PE) bags
3.Execution
a) Take an average sample over the entire cross-section of the screed and place it in a PE bag (2.7).
NOTEIn the case of screeds with higher strength classes or larger screed thicknesses, the use
of an electric mortising device is recommended.
b) Grind the average sample in the PE bag (2.7) in the bowl (2.6) to the extent that complete grinding is possible in the CM device (2.1) with the steel balls (2.2).
c) Homogenise the sample by filling the entire sample material into a second PE bag (2.7).
d) Weigh out a material sample from the prepared test material:
-
-
-
Calcium sulphate screed:
Magnesia screed:
Cement screed:
100 g
50 g
50 g
35 MEASURING PROCEDURE ACCORDING TO
DIN 18560-4:2011-03
e)Carefully place the test material and the steel balls in the CM device.
f)Hold the CM device at an angle and place the glass ampoule containing calcium carbide (2.3)
inside.
g)After closing the CM device, shake vigorously until the reading on the manometer increases. Fully
grind the test material in the CM device with the aid of the steel balls by means of back and forth
and circular movements. Duration: 2 min.
h)5 min after closing the CM device, shake for 1 minute as described in g).
i) 10 min after closing the CM device, shake briefly (~ 10 s) once more and read off the value.
The moisture content can be read off directly from the manometer or taken from the calibration
table. Enter the value read in the log (see Appendix A).
NOTEA further increase in pressure is possible with calcium sulphate-bound screeds; this is to
be disregarded, since chemically (i.e. firmly) bound water is present.
j) Work through the test log: if the test material is not completely ground, discard the test result
and repeat the measurement.
…UNQUOTE
Readiness for covering values according to the BEB data sheet ‘CM measurement’,
edition: 01/2007
Binding agentheatedunheated
Cement screed
1.8 CM-%1
2.0 CM-%
Calcium sulphate screed
0.3 CM-%
0.5 CM-%
Under stone and ceramic coverings: 2.0 CM-%.
1
36 MEASURING PROCEDURE ACCORDING TO
SIA 253:2002 INCL. KORRIGENDA C1: 2011
QUOTE...
Measurement principle
By adding calcium carbide to the ground test material in a gastight container, the free water present
in the test material forms acetylene gas in a reaction. This produces a measurable pressure, from
which the water content can be calculated.
Devices and aids
- CM pressure bottle (0.66 l) with manometer
- Scales, accuracy 0.1g
- Steel plate or mortar bowl
- Hammer and chisel
- Steel balls, calcium carbide ampoules (approx. 6 g each), stopwatch
- Other accessories
Procedure
- Remove fragments of the concrete or mortar to be tested with hammer and chisel. The method
of sampling of the test material must not influence its moisture content.
- Grind the fragments with the hammer on the steel plate or in the mortar.
- Remove and weigh out a representative quantity from the ground material. The amount weighed
out depends on the assumed moisture content of the sample material:
• Moisture content ≥ 3% Sample weight 20 g
• Moisture content < 3% Sample weight 50 g
• Moisture content < 1.5%Sample weight 100 g
-
-
-
-
First place the steel balls in the dry pressure bottle, then the weighed sample.
Hold the pressure bottle at an angle and let the ampoule of calcium carbide carefully slide inside.
Fit the cover with the manometer and seal it gastight.
These procedures must be carried out quickly in order to avoid changes in moisture. The pressure
bottle must be at ambient temperature.
- Shatter the ampoule by vigorously shaking the pressure bottle. Move the pressure bottle vigorously up and down and in a circle for five minutes, then place it in a shady place to rest.
- Read off the pressure on the manometer when the pressure remains constant, but at the latest
after 20 minutes.
- After reading, carefully open the bottle (inflammable gas), pour out the contents and clean with
a dry bottle brush.
The device manufacturer’s instructions must be followed.
Note regarding the method
The water content determined directly with the CM method corresponds to the so-called ‘free’ water.
Oven drying (manufacturer’s note: kiln drying at 105 °C) until the weight is constant results in other
values, since ‘bound’ water is also partially released.
37 MEASURING PROCEDURE ACCORDING TO
SIA 253:2002 INCL. KORRIGENDA C1: 2011
Determination of the water content
The water content of the sample is determined from the measured pressure with the aid of Table
1. A bottle volume of 0.66 l and an ampoule of 5 g result in the benchmark figures in accordance
with Table 1.
Table 1
Pressure
0,2 bar
0,6 bar
1,0 bar
1,2 bar
1,5 bar
Water content in % by weight
Sample 20 g
0,903,005,006,007,50
Sample 50 g
0,381,181,962,352,94
Sample 100 g
0,190,570,951,141,42
Excerpt from chapter 5 ‘Execution’ of the same Swiss standard
5.1Substrate requirements
5.1.5 The substrate must maintain the following moisture content values during and after the covering of the surface:
-
Cement-bound substrates
• without under-floor heating
Linoleum
Textiles
Plastic
Parquet, derived timber products and laminated material products
Rubber
Cork
• with under-floor heating
- Conventional anhydrite mortar (calcium sulphate mortar)
• without under-floor heating
• with under-floor heating
- Anhydrite liquid screeds (calcium sulphate liquid mortar)
• without under-floor heating
• with under-floor heating
- Timber substrates
-Chipboards
-Fibreboards
* Measurement with CM device
** Measurement with wood moisture measuring device
…UNQUOTE
max.
max.
max.
max.
max.
max.
max.
2.5 %*
2.5%*
2.3%*
2.3%*
2.0%*
2.0%*
1.5%*
max. 0.5%*
max. 0.3%*
max. 0.5%*
max. 0.3%*
7-12%**
6-9%**
4-7%**
38 MOISTURE DISTRIBUTION IN SCREED
FAVOURABLE DRYING CONDITIONS
A screed can be regarded as a large flat slab that can give off its water only via the surface during the
drying phase, i.e. to the room air. The water is transported out of the building as a gas in the room
air. The desorption of the water to the room air depends to a large extent on the climatic conditions
in the room and on the intensity of the air movement. The stronger the ventilation, the faster
the water can be given off to the air. In addition to ventilation, a low relative air humidity assists
accelerated water desorption. A low relative air humidity is usually achieved on the building site
by increasing the temperature of the room air. In addition, the mobility of the water molecules
in the building material can be improved by increasing the temperature in the building
material. Here, however, the suitability of the building material for the selected temperature or its
possible reaction to the rise in temperature (possible curling in the case of a cement screed) must
be taken into account.
Since the moisture in a screed can be given off only via the surface, a moisture profile is formed
over the cross-section of the screed. The screed thus exhibits a vertical moisture profile: Dry
relatively quickly at the top and increasingly moist in a downward direction.
Furthermore, it may not be assumed that the screed exhibits a homogeneous moisture distribution
across the surface. Depending on the room geometry, exposure to the sun, ventilation, under-floor
heating and also the installation height, a different moisture distribution can likewise form across
the surface.
PRACTICAL EXAMPLE: PROBLEMATIC MOISTURE DISTRIBUTION IN THE SCREED
The picture above clearly shows the problem of different moisture distribution when sampling test
material for the determination of readiness for covering. In addition to the determined CM values, the
schematic also shows the relevant heating pipes. The pictures show the points found on the same
building site where samples of test material were taken for the CM measurements. Picture top left,
schematic left: With the heating switched off, test material was removed only to the depth of the
under-floor heating. The determined residual moisture content of 1.9 CM % led to the under-floor
heating being switched on in order to force the drying of the screed.
39 MOISTURE DISTRIBUTION IN SCREED
Picture at bottom left hand with measurer, 2nd schematic from left: One week later a further CM
measurement was carried out, this time by another person who, however, also only took the sample
of test material from the upper half and between two heating pipes. The same residual moisture
of 1.9 CM % determined this time led as expected to uncertainty on the part of the building site
management, who were already several weeks behind with their planning.
Pictures in the centre above and below, 3rd schematic from left: The building site management for
their part employed an external person a week later to determine the residual moisture. The test
material was taken directly above a heating pipe and was taken only to a depth of 3 cm, although the
planned installation height was 8 cm. On account of the residual moisture of 1.4 CM % determined
on this occasion, the building site management accused the parquet layer of deliberately delaying the
work because of his own date problems.
Picture top right and 2nd schematic from right: A fourth person was assigned by the parquet layer
on the same day to carry out his own CM measurement. This test material sample, taken for the first
time over the entire cross-section, also resulted in a residual moisture content of 1.9 CM %. In taking
this sample of test material, a screed installation height of 10 cm was measured. Furthermore, the
heating pipe beneath the 3rd sampling position was localised.
With these results it was possible to convince the building site management that there was no
intention on the part of the parquet layer to delay construction progress, but rather an inadmissible
sampling of test material by all preceding users as well as unawareness of the installation height had
led to this disagreement of the parties involved in the construction. All determined measured values
were in principle correct, but they were not representative of the screed and thus of no use for the
evaluation of the readiness for covering without additional knowledge of the installation height and
the layout of the heating pipes.
Loss
of weight nach
by drying
atbei
40°C
of weight
Masseverlust
Darrung
40°Cinin%
/ [M-%]
ThicknessEstrichdicke/
of the screed
in cm
[cm]
0.8
1.2
1.6
0.0
2.0
4.0
6.0
8.0
10.0
2.0
2.4
2.8
The table on the left side shows the moisture
profil for two different screed systems. The free
water was determined by drying at 40°C. This
could also have been done by a CM measurement. The moisture profils can be recognized
clearly.
CT Hagendorn
CT mit Beschleuniger Zug
The photo on the left side shows the infrared
picture of a heated screed surface. The light lines
show clearly the placement of the heating tubes.
It has to be expected, that due to the higher
mobility of the water, these regions are dryer
than the region between the tubes.
40 TAKING OF SAMPLES OF TEST MATERIAL
AND THEIR PREPARATION
Sampling of test material directly into the plastic bag
On the basis of our experience in dealing with screed samples, we
recommend a brisk approach when sampling the test material.
The test material removed should be placed immediately into a
prepared plastic bag and should be handled with gloves. With
these two measures, along with the removal of the sample of
material from the entire screed cross-section, you can be
sure of making no error in the first step of the evaluation of readiness for covering, or respectively of giving no cause for doubt
about your approach.
Grinding of the test material in the plastic bag
The test material removed contains fragments of screed in different sizes and with different water contents. In the following step
the entire collected test material is ground step-by-step
in the bag with the lump hammer on the screed slab and
immediately afterwards placed in a new bag. As a result of this
procedure the screed fragments are ground and mixed due to
being poured into new bags. An increasingly homogeneous material sample is created.
Homogenisation of the test material
Repeat the above two steps (grinding and re-bagging) 2 to 3
times until you have only fragments of screed that are smaller
than approx. 10 mm. Once again – the re-bagging is important
so that the differently moist sample material is well mixed.
PREPARATION
41 TAKING OF SAMPLES OF TEST MATERIAL
AND THEIR PREPARATION
Temporary storage of test material
Working with the plastic bags has the advantage that no significant quantity of moisture can be lost from the test material.
Hence, the removed and homogenised sample can be used for
repetition measurements.
Representative sampling of test material
The material sample ultimately prepared in this way may be called
homogeneous in the sense of DIN 18121, and a sample of the
material may now be weighed out and processed further for the
determination of the capillary (free) water (picture center).
Problem of sample taking: Sample ventilation
Loss of weight in % by weight
0.6%
0.5%
0.4%
0.3%
flat cover
0.2%
sample holder
0.1%
0.0%
00:00
00:15
00:30
00:45
01:00
01:15
01:30
01:45
02:00
Duration of evaporation/ [hours:minutes]
Problem when leaving a sample unprotected
When material sample is not protected from ventilation a loss of water by evaporation imediately
begins. Its extent strongly depends on ambient
conditions, the contact surfaces and the moisture
content of the sample. The grafic above shows
this effect, when two sam prélèvement ple of
50g each are left in different places (see picture
below).
42 TECHNICAL DATA
CALIBRATED PRESSURE BOTTLE
Regulations
Accuracy
Material
Diameter
Height
Wallthickness
Weight
Type of closure
Special feature
Conforms to the Pressure Equipment Directive 97/23/EC
± 1% of the nominal volume for the conversion of 1 g water to 1 bar.
(Version «longbo»: 0.55 bar)
Stainless steel
90 mm
ca. 164 mm
grösser 2 mm
ca. 1000 g
Swing top
Surface thermometer 7–32 ° C
DIGITAL SAMPLE SCALES
Capacity
200 g
Division
0.05 g
Colourblack
Accuracy
+/- 15mg in accordance with calibration weight
Tare range
100% of capacity
Weighing bowl
Stainless stell
automatic power-off
after 120 secunds
User calibration
with 100 g calibration weight M2
Power supply
2 alkaline batteries Typ AAA
Special features
Scales are sensitive to electro- magnetic radiation
Further data can be found in the separate manual.
MECHANICAL SAMPLE SCALES
Capacity
100 g
Division
1.0 g
Colour
Grün transparent
Accuracy
± 0.3%
Tare range (zeroing)
15 - 20%
S (Scale length)
100 mm
L0 (length unloaded)
225 mm
Lm (maximum lenght)
330 mm
Ø (diameter)
12.2 mm
Components
non-corroding (Clip only protected)
Net weight
20 g
User calibration
no (only by manufacturer)
43 TECHNICAL DATA
ACCURACY OF A MANOMETER
The typical error of a manometer is calculated as the product of
the two parameters ‘accuracy class’ and ‘full scale reading’.
This is shown (picture on left) taking the CLASSIC manometer as
an example: Accuracy class (Kl.) 1.0, full scale reading 2.5 bar.
The permissible error for this manometer is:
2.5 bar * 1 % = 25 mbar
This error applies absolutely to the entire pressure range and is
relatively higher at a lower pressure (at 0.25 bar: ± 10%) than at
a high pressure (2.5 bar: ± 1%). This must be taken into account
for each evaluation of a measured value.
MECHANICAL MANOMETER ECO
Measuring range
Display (division) Overloadproff to Accuracy
Operating temperature Manometer housing Protection class
Special features
0 to 1,6 bar
0.05 bar (50 mbar)
2,0 bar
± 1.6% typ. ± 25,6 mbar
(absolute over the entire pressure range)
-10 to 80 °C
Sheet steel, black
IP32
G1/4 cover stainless steel
MECHANICAL MANOMETER CLASSIC
Measuring range
0 to 2,5 bar
Display (division) 0.05 bar (50 mbar)
Overloadproff to 3,0 bar
Accuracy
± 1.0% typ. ± 25,0 mbar
(absolute over the entire pressure range)
Operating temperature -10 to 80 °C
Manometer housing Sheet steel, black
Protection class
IP32
Special features
Installation according to EN 837-2 protective cap with rubber
44 TECHNICAL DATA
DIGITAL MANOMETER BUSINESS
Measuring range
Display (division) Overload-proof to Accuracy
Operating temperature
Manometer housing Protection class
Special feature
Data output
Power supply
-1 bis 3,0 bar
0.01 bar (10 mbar)
3,5 bar
± 0.1% typ. ± 4 mbar (absolute over the entire pressure range)
0 bis 50 °C
robust plastic
IP 64
Installation according to EN 837-2
RS232/TTL printing log printer
RS485 recording with PC
Button cell type 2032 3V
BATTERY REPLACEMENT – BUSINESS MANOMETER
If the battery power is low, this is indicated on the left-hand side
of the display by a crossed-out battery symbol. We recommend
that you replace the battery at the earliest convenience.
To do this, the interface cover must be unscrewed and the rubber
cap removed.
The front side of the display can be removed from the top side
(ideally with the help of a coin).
Remove the old battery by lifting it out of the holder with the
fingernails of both index fingers. When doing this the thumbs
touch the black clip points on the opposite sides of the red circle.
Insert the new battery such that the two contacts on one
side lead around the battery (red circle).
Assemble the device again in the reverse order, ensuring that the
rubber sealing ring lies on the top edge of the front part so that
the part lies tight against the manometer housing when closed.
In principle the battery can be used for several hundred measurements. Power consumption during the measurement is very
small. Most power is consumed when sending the data packets
to the log printer.
45 TECHNICAL DATA
CARBIDE AMPOULE ACCORDING TO DIN 18560-4
Regulations
Possible dangers
First aid measures Ampoule diameter
Ampoule height
Contents
Qunatity
Granulation
Self life
Safety data sheet in accordance with 1907/2006/EC article 31
(see: www.cpm-radtke.com)
Reacts with water to form high- ly flammable gases
see safety data sheets
14 mm
approx. 75 mm
Calcium carbide techn.
(80.0 % typ.)
7.0 g (± 0.5 g)
0.3/1 mm
unlimited if sealed tight
CALIBRATION AMPOULE
Regulations
Ampoule diameter
Ampoule height
Contents
Quantity
Self life
none available
10 mm
approx. 35 mm
distilled water
1.00 g (typ. better than ± 1%)
unlimited if sealed tight
STOPWATCH/TIMER
Measuring range
Display (division) Accuracy
Operating temperature Manometer housing Protection class
Special feature
Power supply
99:59 minutes as stopwatch
99:59 minutes as timer
Minutes and seconds
typically +/- 1 second
-10 to 80 °C.
PE
IP32
Beeps for one minute, thereaf-
ter displays the timer time.
Clamp and magnetic holder.
Battery type AAA
46 CM MEASUREMENT LOG
COMPANY: __________ NAME OF TESTER:
__________
____________
Building/
property
Building section/
part
Floor/
apartment
Type of screed
CT
CA
CAF
OTHER:
Additive
Under-floor heating YES
NO
DOCUMENTATION OF ROOM AIR
Temperature
Humidity
[°C]
[°C]
[°C]
[%rF]
[%rF]
[%rF]
DOCUMENTATION OF FLOOR
Measurement No.:
1
2
3
Screed thickness
[mm]
[mm]
[mm]
Temperature
[°C]
[°C]
[°C]
PRELIMINARY TEST
Test device used
Measured value
digits
RESULT OF MATERIAL CLIMATE CCM HYGRO COMBI
Equilibrium
[%rF]
[%rF]
moisture
Equilibrium
[°C]
[°C]
temperature
Sample weight
Pressure
Water content
Temperature
RESULT OF MEASUREMENT
[g]
[%rF]
[°C]
[g]
[g]
[bar]
[bar]
[M-%]
[M-%]
[°C]
[°C]
Readiness for covering reached?
[bar]
[M-%]
[°C]
YES
NO
YES
NO
Date/signature
Client
Remarks: relevant Standard: DIN 18560-4: 2011-03
Remarks: relevant Norm: SIA 253/2002 incl. C1 2011
YES
NO
47 CONCLUSION
CONCLUSION
The data in the operating instructions correspond to our present level of knowledge and are intended
to inform about our products as well as their application possibilities. They are not intended to assure
certain characteristics of the products or their suitability for a specific purpose of use. Any existing
industrial property rights are to be taken into account.
We constantly strive to improve our products. Therefore we reserve the right to make changes and
improvements to the products described in these operating instructions without prior notice.
DECLARATION OF CONFORMITY
European Union directives applied:
We confirm that our products were manufactured in accordance with the following directives.
• 2002/95/EC of the European Parliament and of the Council of 27/01/2003 on the restriction of the
use of certain hazardous substances in electrical and electronic equipment.
• 2002/96/EC of the European Parliament and of the Council of 27/01/2003 on waste electrical and
electronic equipment.
• Directive (EC) No. 1907/2006 (REACh regulation) of the European Parliament and of the Council
of 18/12/2006.
• Manufacturing of the pressure bottle according to the Pressure Equipment Directive 97/23/EC of
29 May 1997 on the approximation of the laws of the member states concerning pressure equipment.
• Assembly of the digital manometer (for equipment version CCM Set ECO dig dig) according to DIN
EN 837-2 Pressure gauges, selection and installation recommendations for pressure gauges.
• Carbide ampoules conform to the specifications according to the latest edition of DIN
18560-4 ‘Screeds in the construction industry’ Part 4 ‘Screeds on separating layers’,
item 5.3, suitable for evaluation of readiness for covering.
LOG BOOK: CM MOISTURE TESTER
LOG BOOK: ON-SITE-CALIBRATION OF CM MOISTURE METER
Company:
Street:
Postal code/ Place:
Bottle-Nr.
Gauge-Nr.
The resulting pressure must be between 0.95 and 1.05 bar (black scale).
Date of cal.
Pressure
[bar]
Temperature
[°C]
Signature
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