Child Passenger Safety - Safe Kids Pennsylvania

Child Passenger Safety - Safe Kids Pennsylvania
Child Passenger Safety:
National Recommendations
and
State Resources 2012
Traffic Injury Prevention Project
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November 28, 2012
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Objectives
 Provide current recommendations on child
passenger safety (AAP and NHTSA)
 Discuss child passenger safety laws in PA
 Increase awareness of available CPS
resources to PA families and advocates
 Provide information on locating Certified
child passenger safety technician in PA
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1
AAP Policy
Released March, 2011
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Algorithm
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Rear Facing Position
“All infants and toddlers
should ride in a Rear
Facing Car Safety Seat
until they are 2 years of
age or until they reach
the highest weight or
height allowed by their
car safety seat’s
manufacturer.”
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Rear Facing Position
 21% of U.S. infants less than age 1 or 20 lbs. are
incorrectly seated in forward facing seats.
 Children up to age 2 placed in
FF CSS are 1.8 times more likely
to be seriously injured than
children up to age 2 in RF CSS.
 Applies for all crash types
(frontal, side) and age groups
(0 to 23 months)
 Forward facing children ages 12 to 23 months were
over five times as likely to be injured when compared to
rear facing children of the same age.
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Rear Facing Position
 34% of U.S. children are
“obese” or “overweight”
 More child restraints with
higher weight limits are
becoming available to
accommodate this change
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Forward Facing Position
“All children 2 years or
older, or those younger
than 2 who have
outgrown the rear facing
weight or height limit of
their car safety seat
should use a Forward
Facing Car Safety Seat
with a harness for as long
as possible, up to the
highest weight or height
allowed by their car
safety seat’s
manufacturer.”
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Forward Facing Position
When correctly placed in a
FF CSS vs. a seat belt alone,
children ages 1 to 4 have a 71%
reduction in serious injury risk.
Forward Facing vs. Unrestrained (1988 – 1994)
 1-to 4-year-olds placed in forward facing restraints
reduced their risk of dying in a crash by 54%.
Forward Facing vs. Seat Belt
 2-to 6-year-olds placed in forward facing restraints
reduced their fatality risk by 22%.
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Belt-Positioning Booster
“All children whose
weight or height is above
the forward-facing limit
for their car safety seat
should use a BeltPositioning Booster Seat
until the vehicle seat belt
fits properly, typically
when they have reached
4 feet 9 inches in height
and are between 8 and
12 years of age.”
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Belt-Positioning Booster
 Most seat belts do not properly fit children until
they are 4’9” and between 8 and 12 years of age
 Proper fit of a lap and shoulder belt
 Shoulder belt should lie across
the center of the chest
 NOT across the neck or face
 Lap belt should sit low across
the hips and pelvis
 NOT on the abdomen
 Child should be tall enough to sit against seatback
with knees bent and without slouching
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Belt Positioning Booster
Effectiveness in Preventing Injury
 Children ages 4 to 8 secured in a BPB seat
 45% less likely to sustain injury
than those using a seat belt alone
(no difference high back vs. no back)
Side Impact
 Children ages 4 to 8 secured in a BPB seat
 68% reduction of injury in near-side crash
 82% reduction in injury in far-side crash
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Belt-Positioning Booster
Prevention of Deaths
 Booster Seats vs. Unrestrained:
 67% reduced fatality risk for ages 4 to 5
 55% reduced fatality risk for ages 6 to 8
 Booster Seats vs. Seat belts
 Booster seats do not appear to offer additional
protection against fatal injuries in severe
crashes as compared to seat belts alone.
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Lap and Shoulder Belts
“When children are old
enough and large enough
to use the vehicle seat
belt alone, they should
always use Lap and
Shoulder Seat Belts for
optimal protection.”
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Lap and Shoulder Belts
Since 2005, lap and shoulder belts are required
in all rear seating positions
 Lap and shoulder belt vs. lap belt only
 For children placed in the center rear, there is
81% less risk of injury with lap and shoulder
belt vs. lap belt only
 Lap and shoulder belt vs. Unrestrained
 Seatbelts reduce the risk of serious injury or
death by 40% for children ages 4 to 14.
 If 100% of passengers ages 8 to 15 were
properly restrained by a lap and shoulder belt:
 45% less deaths would occur
 32% less hospitalizations would occur
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7
Rear Seating Position
“All children younger than 13 years
should be restrained in the rear seats of vehicles
for optimal protection.”
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Rear Seating Position
Injury Risk by Row and Restraint Type
 Children riding in the front seat are 40% to 70% more
likely to be injured than those riding in the rear.
 The rear seat benefit extends to side impact crashes
 62% less likely to be injured when riding
in the rear seat
Risk of injury (%)
10
No restraint/front seat
8.7
No restraint/rear seat
Inappropriate restraint/front seat
7.5
5
2.5
Appropriate restraint/front seat
Inappropriate restraint/rear seat
Appropriate restraint/rear seat
3.5
2.6
2.1
1.8
1.1
0
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NHTSA Recommendations
 Select a car seat based on your child’s age and size, and
choose a seat that fits in your vehicle and use it every
time.
 Always refer to your specific car seat manufacturer’s
instructions; read the vehicle owner’s manual on how to
install the car seat using the seat belt or LATCH system;
and check height and weight limits.
 To maximize safety, keep your child in the car seat for
as long as possible, as long as the child fits within the
manufacturer’s height and weight requirements.
 Keep your child in the back seat
at least through age 12.
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NHTSA Recommendations
Birth – 12 months
 Children under age 1 should ride
rear-facing;
 Always keep your child rear-facing
for a longer period of time.
1-3 years
 Keep your child rear-facing until
they reach the maximum height
or weight limit allowed by the
car seat manufacturer;
 Once the child outgrows the
rear-facing car seat place the child is
ready to travel forward-facing.
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NHTSA Recommendations
4-7 years
 Keep your child in a forward-facing
car seat until they reach the maximum
height or weight limit of the seat
allowed by the manufacturer;
 Once they outgrow the forward-facing
car seat, they can travel in a BPB in
the back seat.
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NHTSA Recommendations
8-12 years
 Keep your child in a booster seat until
he or she is big enough to fit in a seat
belt properly.
 For a seat belt to fit properly:
 The lap belt must lie snugly across the
upper thighs, not the stomach.
 The shoulder belt should lie snug
across the shoulder and chest and not
cross the neck or face.
 Remember: your child should still ride
in the back seat because it’s safer.
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Pennsylvania’s
Child Passenger Safety Law
 All drivers are responsible for securing children
in the appropriate child restraint system.
 Birth up to age 4 - Car Seat / Primary
 4 up to age 8 – Booster / Primary
 8 up to age 18 – Seat Belt / Primary
According to the law § 4581(d):
A child passenger restraint system and a child booster seat
shall be used as designated by the manufacturer of the
system in motor vehicles equipped with seat safety belts and
shall meet the Federal Motor Vehicle Safety Standard
(FMVSS 213).
Note: Children between the ages of 8 and 18 must be properly
restrained in a vehicle seat belt system.
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Booster Seat Exemptions
Title 67: Transportation Chapter 102
Child Passenger Protection – Statement of Policy
All children who are 4 years of age but younger
than 8 years of age:
 Weigh less than 40 lbs. /Car Seat with Harness
 Weigh more than 80 lbs. or are 4’9” / Seat Belt
 Vehicle not originally equipped with a shoulder
belt / Lap Belt = no booster
 Booster requirement satisfied with integrated
child restraint or booster
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Booster Seat Exemptions
Title 67: Transportation Chapter 102
Child Passenger Protection – Statement of Policy
Medical Exemption from use of the child passenger
restraint system for medical reasons:
 Written Certification by a physician that use of a
child passenger restraint system is impractical.
 Physician’s name and practice address
 Date the form was completed
 Name, age, weight of the child
 Medical or physical reasons that
the use of a particular child passenger
restraint system is impractical
 The completed form must be in the vehicle
with the child whenever the child is transported.
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PA Car Seat Loan Programs
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Finding a Loan Program
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Finding a Loan Program
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Finding a Loan Program
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PA Fitting Stations
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Finding a Fitting Station
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Finding a Fitting Station
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CPS Technicians in PA
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Finding a CPS Technician
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Finding a CPS Technician
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PA Chapter American Academy of Pediatrics,
Traffic Injury Prevention Project
Rose Tree Corporate Center II
1400 N. Providence Road
Suite 3007
Media, PA 19063-2043
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