EATON UPS and Power Management Fundamentals
Brochure
The Eaton UPS and Power Management
Fundamentals Handbook
April 2015
2
EATON UPS and Power Management Fundamentals Handbook
TABLE OF CONTENTS
Introduction
4
Questions to consider
5
Top UPS design considerations
6
Other UPS design considerations
8
How to size a UPS
9
Head-to head UPS comparison 10
UPS cost justification worksheet 11
UPS form factors 12
Input plugs and output receptacles 13
UPS startup 15
The difference between VA and watts 16
Decentralized or central UPS? 17
What is three-phase power? 19
Increase server energy efficiencies by using high-voltage power supplies and 208V UPSs 20
Worldwide voltage map 21
Worldwide voltages 22
The nine power problems 23
UPS topologies 24
UPS battery overview 25
Factors affecting battery life 27
UPS software overview 28
Make health-checking your UPS a top priority 29
Service overview 30
Frequently asked questions 31
Electric transmission distribution system 33
Eaton's Blackout Tracker 35
Overview of 2014 national power outage data 36
Commonly used acronyms 38
Glossary of power terms 40
EATON UPS and Power Management Fundamentals Handbook
3
Introduction
Welcome to the Eaton UPS and Power Management Fundamentals
Handbook.
From plug and receptacle charts and facts about power problems to an
overview of various UPS topologies and factors affecting battery life, you’ll
find a wealth of pertinent resources designed to help you develop the
optimum solution.
This handbook is your one-stop source for essential information ... whether
you need power protection for small, medium or large data centers; health
care facilities; or other environments in which ensuring uptime and
safeguarding data are critical.
Why a UPS?
In general, a UPS protects IT equipment and other electrical loads from
problems that plague our electrical supply, performing the following three
basic functions:
1. Preventing hardware damage typically caused by surges and spikes.
Many UPS models continually condition incoming power as well.
2. Preventing data loss and corruption. Without a UPS, devices that are
subjected to a hard system shutdown can lose data completely or have
it corrupted. In conjunction with power management software, a UPS
can facilitate a graceful system shutdown.
3. Providing availability for networks and other applications while
preventing downtime. In some cases, they provide enough battery
runtime to ride through brief outages; in other cases, they provide hours
of runtime to ride through extended power outages. UPSs are also
paired with generators to provide enough time for them to power up.
Thanks to Eaton, IT pros are spending fewer nights
and weekends at work, leaving their desk toys at
the office all alone.
N OW I S PEND M Y
T IME F OCUSING O N
WORLD D OMINATION.
4
EATON UPS and Power Management Fundamentals Handbook
W ILL YOU A DOPT U S?
W E'RE A S OLID T EAM.
W IND M E U P A ND I' LL
P ROGRAM YOUR DATA
C ENTER TO R UN P ERFECTLY.
Questions to
consider
When it comes to backup power, here are
some basic questions to ask yourself.
Applications
Accessories
1. How often do you refresh and maintain
your IT hardware (including servers)?
What about your UPS equipment?
1. How is power getting from the UPS to
your equipment?
2. If you have a converged data-voice
network, have you protected all critical
switches?
3. If you have virtualized your servers, have
you considered the impact on your UPS
equipment?
4. What would happen if the power went
out at your facility right now?
5. Have you thought about the impact of
damaged or corrupted data?
6. How much energy do your UPS units
consume? How efficient are they?
7. What is the air speed velocity of an
unladen swallow? An African swallow.
UPS-specific
1.What size UPS do you need? (kVA or
amperage)
2.What voltage is currently available at
your site?
2. Do you have a need for enclosures,
communications, seismic mounting, floor
stands or rail kits?
3. Is a maintenance bypass switch needed?
4. Are unorganized cables hindering your
efficiency or coming a safety concern?
Software
1. Is there a need to have orderly scheduled
shutdowns?
2. Do you want to remotely monitor the
UPS?
3. Would you like to remotely notify others
of UPS events?
4. How will your UPS software manage
virtual servers during an extended power
outage?
5. Does your power management software
integrate easily with your virtualization
platforms?
3.What voltage do you need?
Service
4.What runtime do you want?
1. Do you need immediate factory
response?
5.Are there any clearances or size
constraints?
6.Do you have bypass requirements?
7. What types of input and output
connections are required?
8.Is there a generator on site?
9.Does the UPS need to be scalable?
2. What kind of parts and labor coverage do
you need?
3. Do you want any type of preventive
maintenance?
4. When’s the last time you checked the
batteries in your existing UPS units?
10.Do you need redundancy?
EATON UPS and Power Management Fundamentals Handbook
5
Top UPS design
considerations
M Y IT P RO S AYS E ATON
H ELPS H IM T RIM T HE
FAT. F RANKLY, I 'M A
L ITTLE WORRIED.
The following factors outline the key design considerations to take into account when
analyzing your needs.
1. Power environment: single- and threephase
Understanding your existing power
infrastructure is a crucial step in the
qualification and sales process. While you
may focus on larger, three-phase power
systems, the majority of IT managers are
dealing primarily with single-phase
equipment, often at the rack level.
Many existing computer rooms and small
to mid-sized data centers have single-phase
loads at the rack level. Ground-up designs
are increasingly moving three-phase power
to the point of utilization to gain efficiencies
and reduce costs, creating great opportunity
for three-phase solutions in new
construction.
2. Installation environment
It’s imperative to understand how a
prospective UPS will be deployed. Since
most environments support several different
solutions, you may need to evaluate these
options.
6
3. Power load
The VA or watt rating of your power loads
is one of the most important factors in
identifying the right UPS. After identifying
the power environment (if the UPS needs
to be single- or three-phase), the size of the
UPS further narrows the selection. In
single-phase deployments especially, it
often makes sense to select a UPS that
exceeds current power requirements but
offers greater runtimes and allows for
future growth.
4. Availability and battery runtime
This is where you need to determine your
true runtime requirements. While runtime
may seem like a simple thing to quantify,
understanding the facts behind the numbers
help contribute to the development of
end-to-end solutions.
Generally, the amount of runtime required
can significantly affect the solution cost,
but many Eaton solutions are actually
more cost-effective in extended runtime
applications.
EATON UPS and Power Management Fundamentals Handbook
There are four basic battery runtime
configurations:
1. U
PS with 10 to 15 minutes of runtime and
no generator. You are covered for 90 to 95
percent of power outages. You can either
use UPS shutdown clients to save your
data or stay online as long as possible
before the system crashes.
2. U
PS with 10 to 15 minutes of runtime and
a generator. You have a very reliable setup
and most generators will startup within
one minute (five minutes maximum). You
are covered for most situations.
3. R
edundant UPSs, generator and two
power feeds for dual-corded servers. You
have a lot of money and/or are really
worried about the power failing. It's time
to get a consultative person on-site to
help you figure it out.
4. U
PS with two or more hours of battery
runtime. In some cases, generators may
not be practical and you must rely entirely
upon batteries.
I LOVE M AKING P LANS.
E VIL O NES!
5. Form factor
How much space are you willing to
designate to your UPS? Where do you
plan to install it? Answering these questions
will help you determine whether your
environment is better suited for a tower or
rackmount model. Some UPSs have a 2-in-1
form factor, allowing you to deploy the unit
either way.
6. Scalability
It’s always important to consider your future
expansion needs when evaluating solutions.
Eaton’s scalable UPS solutions provide a
competitive advantage by offering a
cost-effective way to increase capacity.
Virtually all Eaton UPSs with a 6 kVA or
greater power rating offer some form of
scalability, either through a simple firmware
upgrade, the addition of modular hardware
components or the paralleling of multiple
UPSs.
For cost-conscious or budget-constrained
customers, a UPS with inherent scalability
often proves to be the best value in the long
run, allowing you to increase capacity
without purchasing additional hardware. A
simple kVA upgrade is all that’s needed to
enable a UPS with inherent scalability to
operate at full capacity.
You may want to service the UPS yourself. If
that’s the case, look for a unit that allows
you to add capacity with power and/or
battery modules.
While modular solutions—including multiple,
paralleled systems—are often a more
affordable option initially, they can be a more
expensive solution over the long term due to
added hardware and installation costs.
Depending on your needs, a larger,
centralized, non-modular system with
inherent scalability might ultimately be the
most cost-effective solution.
7. Power distribution
It is important for you to consider how
power will be delivered to your critical
equipment. In some cases, you may simply
plug loads directly into the UPS. In others,
you may need large PDUs to distribute
power. You may also incorporate rack-based
power strips or ePDU units into your design.
8. Manageability
9. Operation and maintenance
While a UPS protects the attached load
during a power outage, power management
software is required to ensure that all
work-in-progress is saved and that sensitive
electronic equipment is gracefully shut
down if the power outage exceeds the
battery runtime of the UPS. Without
software, the UPS simply runs until its
batteries are depleted and then drops the
load. In addition to this basic functionality of
UPS software, you should consider the
following monitoring and manageability
capabilities:
While you may value the ability to service
your own equipment, the vast majority of IT
and facility management professionals
prefer the peace of mind that comes with
full factory support through on-site service
or an advanced UPS exchange agreement.
To make an informed decision on service
support, you must accurately assess your
own technical and service capabilities.
• Power event notifications, including
emails, pop-up alerts and text messages
to pre-designated recipients
• Logging of power events
• Advanced capabilities in virtual
environments, including integration into
VMware’s ESXi and vSphere and
Microsoft’s Hyper-V
• Dedicated battery monitoring and
advanced service notifications
Consider UPS and battery safety as there is
inherent danger when maintaining them.
The more complicated the equipment, the
more important it is to have experts perform
the maintenance.
10. Budget
Although the latest performance features of
a UPS may fit nicely with what you are
looking for, budget constraints may force
you to make trade-off decisions. Be
prepared to prioritize your needs for
redundancy, scalability, efficiency, software
management, modularity and serviceability.
• Remote monitoring by service personnel
from the UPS manufacturer.
EATON UPS and Power Management Fundamentals Handbook
7
Other UPS design considerations
The following design guidelines should be
reviewed and followed prior to ordering the
appropriate UPS solution.
1. Check to see if there’s an adequate
electrical supply near the UPS.
Compare UPS fuse ratings (amps) and
breaker types and whether any electrical
work may be needed (i.e., cabling to the
UPS terminal block input).
2. Find out the dimensions of the UPS
and include any battery cabinets.
Make sure your installation site has enough
space available.
3. Ensure the UPS can be placed in its
final position.
Will the UPS components fit through doors?
Are there any stairs? Do you have existing
racks that the UPS must fit into? Please
consult Eaton’s website for detailed UPS
dimensions and specifications:
powerquality.eaton.com.
8
4. Verify that the floor is strong enough to
support the UPS and battery cabinets.
7. Hardwired connections.
9. Using a UPS and a generator together.
Eaton UPS models use internal fans to cool
them. You shouldn’t install the UPS in a
sealed container or small, sealed room.
Hardwired outputs are generally useful if
you want the UPS output to be distributed
via electrical panels. Using an electrical
distribution panel allows for flexibility with
receptacles types. If there’s no other UPS
that fits your receptacle and power requirements, you may need to hardwire it.
Hardwired UPS models typically require the
use of a certified electrician to wire them to
the electrical distribution panel, which could
be a more costly option.
A UPS provides backup power and actively
conditions and regulates voltage. Similarly,
an auxillary generator provides backup
power, but typically takes 10-15 seconds to
start up, depending on its type. For longterm backup servers and IT equipment, this
isn’t an optimal situation, so during that
downtime the UPS kicks in. Basically, the
UPS bridges the power gap between loss of
power and generator coming online.
6. Always be sure which wall receptacle
is required to plug in the UPS.
8. Installing small UPS models behind
larger UPS models.
Only UPSs with power ratings up to 1500
VA plug into a standard 15-amp wall outlet.
All others require a larger receptacle, which
must be installed by an electrician. Things
go more smoothly if you aren’t waiting for
this to be done after all of the equipment
has arrived. Most small and rackmounted
computers run on normal 120 volt, 15-amp
electrical service. Some computers have
power cords that require a higher voltage of
208V or 240V, in which case you’ll need a
3000 VA or larger UPS.
If you’re installing a smaller UPS behind a
larger UPS, you must consider the total
potential power of the smaller UPS as well
as other loads that will be powered by the
larger UPS. For example, if you’re plugging a
1500 VA UPS into a 10,000 VA UPS, you
must consider the load of the smaller UPS
rather than just the load that’s plugged into
it. In addition, the larger UPS must be at
least five times larger than the smaller UPS.
This design guideline must be followed due
to charging capacity that may be required by
the smaller UPS; any anomalies associated
with the building power, and to avoid
overheating or potential over loading of the
larger UPS which may result in failure of the
all UPS models in the string.
The UPS and its battery cabinets can be
heavy, so make sure the site has the proper
floor loading capacity.
5. Confirm that the UPS will have
adequate ventilation.
EATON UPS and Power Management Fundamentals Handbook
When choosing your UPS solution, it’s
important to keep power ratings in mind;
you cannot size a generator in a 1:1 match
to the UPS and expect successful results.
There are two reasons for this: first, UPSs
aren’t 100 percent efficient and second,
generators need to account for step loads.
In addition, very small generators don’t often
provide enough kinetic energy to provide a
smooth transition. As a rule of thumb, for 20
kVA and above, auxiliary generators should
be sized 1.5 times the size of the output
rating of the UPS in kW, while for 20 kVA
and below, they should be two times larger.
It’s also important to note that gas-powered
generators should be sized a bit larger.
10. Building codes.
Verify that the final UPS solution meets local
building codes.
How to size a UPS
You have decided that you need a UPS.
What’s next? Well, you have to pick the
right one!
UPS sizing worksheet
Alternative #1:
Equipment
Visit Eaton.com/UPSselector
1
22
233
Amps
x
Volts
=
VA
x
Quantity
=
VA Subtotal
Alternative #2:
x =x
=
Call our knowledgeable inside sales team:
800.356.5794
x =x
=
x =x
=
x =x
=
x =x
=
x =x
=
x =x
=
x =x
=
x =x
=
x =x
=
x =x
=
x =x
=
Alternative #3:
Do it the old fashioned way. Completing
these steps is also very useful for the first
two alternatives.
1List all equipment to be protected by the
UPS. (Remember to include monitors,
external hard drives, routers, etc.)
2List the amps and volts for each device.
These ratings can typically be found on
the label on the back of the equipment.
Multiply amps by volts to determine
VoltAmps (VA). Some devices may list
their power requirements in watts. To
convert watts to VA, divide the watts by
power factor. For servers, the power
factor is often 0.9.
3Multiply the VA by the number of pieces
of equipment to get the VA subtotals.
4 Add the VA subtotals together.
5Multiply the total by 1.2 to get the grand
total. This step accounts for future
expansion.
6Use the grand total to select a UPS.
When choosing a UPS, be sure that the
total VA requirement of supported
equipment does not exceed the VA
rating of the UPS.
Alternative #4:
Eaton’s UPS Tool for iPhone , iPad and
iPod touch helps you find the best UPS
solution without being tied to your desk:
www.powerquality.eaton.com/upstools
®
®
4 Total
5x1.2
6
Grand Total
I C HAT W ITH T HE I NSIDE
S ALES T EAM A LL T HE
T IME. T HEY'RE COOL.
EATON UPS and Power Management Fundamentals Handbook
9
Head-to-head UPS comparison
for network closet and server room
applications
You’ve narrowed down your UPS choices to
two or three models. Now what? How can
you make sure that you’re making an
apples-to-apples comparison? Are you
considering all aspects related to total cost
of ownership (TCO)? We’ve created this
quick checklist so you can ask yourself the
right questions for network closet and
server room applications.
Factor
Voltage
Be sure the input and output voltages are the same. For example, a 208V UPS will cost more than a standard 120V UPS.
Power rating
UPSs are typically rated in volt-amperes (VA) and watts. Watts measures real power and is the key rating. For example a UPS rated at 1000 VA /
900 watts provides one third more power than one rated at 1000 VA / 600 watts.
Input plug
Do both UPSs have the same input plug? Does it match your wall socket? UPSs 1500 VA and below plug right into a standard wall socket. Larger
models may require you to hire an electrician to install a new wall socket.
Output receptacles
Does each UPS have the same quantity of output receptacles? The same type? Be sure the UPS has enough output receptacles and that they’ll
accommodate the power cords of your servers, etc.
Warranty
Are the warranties the same duration? How long does the warranty cover the batteries?
User interface
Do both UPSs utilize the same interface? Do both have an intuitive LCD or basic LEDs?
Network card
If you need/want a network card, does the UPS price include one? Some UPSs include a card while others do not and this can impact the price.
Software
Do both UPSs have equivalent software capabilities? For example, if integration into VMware vCenter is a priority, be sure the UPS software can
do it.
Mounting hardware
Do you plan to mount the UPS in a rack enclosure or 2-post rack? If the mounting is not included with the UPS, you’ll likely need to purchase
hardware separately.
Rack height
If you are evaluating rack mount UPSs, are they the same rack height (U)? For example, going with a 1U UPS over a 2U model may allow you to
fit another server in your rack.
Professor Wattson
has lessons on
demystifying sizing, ratings,
maintenance bypass and
network-class UPSs on
Maintenance bypass
Have you considered the price of a maintenance bypass module that will allow you to keep your IT equipment up and running if you ever need to
replace the UPS or if the UPS fails?
Batteries
Have you considered the cost of additional battery packs? The cost of replacing the batteries in the UPS?
Switchon.eaton.com/power101
10
EATON UPS and Power Management Fundamentals Handbook
UPS 1
UPS 2
UPS cost
justification
worksheet
This worksheet helps you determine the estimated dollar savings that a UPS can deliver.
Simply fill in the information to calculate the costs of one hour of downtime. Actual dollar
amounts will vary from company to company, location to location, and industry to industry.
1.Number of critical loads:
Critical loads = any equipment running or supporting your
applications (servers, routers, PCs, network devices, etc.)
2. Number of employees using critical loads:
3. Employees’ average hourly earnings:
4.Estimated cost of lost business per hour of downtime
($1,000, $5,000, $10,000…)
5. Cost of service calls per hour:
6. Cost of recreating or salvaging data (if applicable):
7. Cost of replacing hardware (if applicable):
8. Cost of reinstalling software (if applicable):
9. Lost employee time (line 2 x 3):
10.Lost business (line 4):
11.Service (line 5):
12.Recreating or salvaging data (line 6):
13.Replaced hardware and software (line 7 + 8):
14.Estimated total cost per hour of downtime:
$
This is only one hour. Imagine if your systems were down all day!
EATON UPS and Power Management Fundamentals Handbook
11
UPS form factors
With applications spanning from desktops to large data centers, UPSs come in a variety
of form factors.
1
2
a
b
3
4
5
6
a
12
b
c
EATON UPS and Power Management Fundamentals Handbook
1. Desktop and tower UPS
4. Two-in-one rackmount/tower UPS
a. The Eaton 3S UPS also fits easily
on top of or under a desk.
The Eaton 5PX UPS can be mounted in
a rack or installed as a tower model.
b. The Eaton 9130 tower UPS fits under
a desk or in a network closet.
5. Scalable UPS
2. Wall-mount UPS
a. The Eaton BladeUPS is a scalable,
redundant rackmount UPS.
The Eaton 5P rackmount UPS includes
hardware to mount it to a wall.
b. The Eaton 9170+ is also a scalable,
redundant UPS.
3. Rackmount UPS
c. The Eaton 93PM is a vertical or horizontal
scalable white or grey space solution.
The Eaton 9130 rackmount UPS occupies
only 2U of rack space (fits both 2- and
4-post racks).
6. Large tower UPS
The Eaton Power Xpert™ 9395 UPS is
designed to be a central backup for multiple
loads, including data centers.
A S OLUTION F OR
A NY S ITUATION.
I COULDN'T H AVE
D ESIGNED I T B ETTER.
Input plugs and
output receptacles
When you receive a UPS, you should be
able to plug it in right away. If a UPS can’t
be plugged into the wall socket, or their
equipment can't be plugged into it,
you’ve got a problem.
Any UPS with a rating of 1500 VA or below
can be plugged into a standard household
receptacle/socket. UPS models with ratings
higher than 1500 VA use input plugs that
can’t be plugged directly into a standard
receptacle. Many higher rated UPSs (above
1500 VA) may also be hardwired directly into
the electrical distribution panel at the installation location by a licensed electrician.
Many UPS models offer a fixed set of input
and output receptacles. Other UPS models
can be configured with a custom set of
input and output connections.
For reference we’ve included the following
chart to help you visually confirm input and
output plug/receptacle options:
W HEN I T COMES TO
E LECTRICAL P OWER,
T HERE'S N O R OOM F OR
M ONKEY B USINESS!
Input plug and output receptacle chart
5-15R 5-15P
5-20R5-20P
L5-30RL5-30P
6-15R 6-15P
Know your North American receptacles
L6-20R L6-20P
L5-20RL5-20P
IEC-320-C13 (female)
IEC-320-C19 (female)
IEC-320-C14 (male)
IEC-320-C20 (male)
In North American markets, most facilities
utilize plugs and receptacles conforming to
standards established by the National
Electrical Manufacturer’s Association
(NEMA), which uses a smart code to define
what each part number represents. If you
know the part number of your connector,
you can find its voltage and amperage
ratings. Always check with your local
electrician to verify proper wiring and
installation.
How big can I go?
L14-30R
L14-30P
IEC-309, 16A
*5-15P can plug into 5-20R
IEC-309, 32A
L 6 - 30 R
L – Locking
R = Receptacle, P = Plug, L = Locking
For the number before the hyphen:
5 = 125V, two-pole, three-wire (grounded)
6 = 250V, two-pole, three-wire (grounded)
14 = 125/250V, three-pole, four-wire (grounded)
The number after the hyphen indicates the amperage.
For example, the L5-30R is a 30A receptacle.
L6-30R
L6-30P
Terminal Block (Hardwired)
Value
5:
6:
14:
15:
21:
Amperage –
matches breaker
rating feeding the
plug/receptacle
Max Voltage
125V
250V
125/250V
250V
250V/125V
R – Receptacle
P – Plug
Wires in connector
L1, N, G
L1, L2, G
L1, L2, N, G
L1, L2, L3, G
L1, L2, L3, N, G
EATON UPS and Power Management Fundamentals Handbook
13
1. Fixed
4. Additional receptacles
Smaller UPS models like the Eaton
9130 UPS provide a fixed set of output
receptacles
Eaton ePDU products mount easily into
racks and provide additional receptacles
2. Customized
UPS models like the Eaton 9355 can be
customized with a variety of output
receptacles
A common question from IT managers is, “I have a receptacle at my facility; what is the
biggest UPS can I connect to it?” If you’re looking at UPSs 6 kVA or lower, it’s a pretty
straight forward question to answer as shown below:
208-240V
208-240V
120V
Local outlet
14
3. Hardwired
Large UPS models like the Eaton 93PM are
hardwired to incoming utility power though
some models leverage output receptacles
Typical largest UPS
rating per outlet
5-15R
1500VA 120V
5-20R
2200VA 120V
L5-30R
3000VA 120V
L6-20R
3000VA 208V
L6-30R
6000VA 208V
IEC C13
2200VA 230V
IEC C19
3000VA 230V
EATON UPS and Power Management Fundamentals Handbook
1
2
3
4
I T HINK I 'LL G O
W ITH A SSISTED
S TARTUP.
UPS
startup
Self-startup
Assisted startup
UPSs equipped with a standard input plug
(units 1500 VA and below) that fits into
standard wall sockets are very easy to
install. Units 2000 VA and above require a
different wall socket that may not already
exist in the location where the UPS will be
installed. In these cases, an electrician can
install the proper wall socket, after which
you should have little problem with UPS
installation.
You may not feel comfortable installing
electrical equipment—justifiably so. UPS
installation deals with electrical power and
batteries—both of which can be dangerous
if not handled properly. In addition, UPS
batteries can be very heavy and some units
require a hardwired connection. As a result,
UPS manufacturers usually offer a startup
service for an additional fee. You can also
hire a systems integrator, electrician or
third-party service organization for UPS
installation.
Manufacturer-required startup
Many three-phase UPS models (typically
>40 kVA) must be started up by the UPS
manufacturer to ensure they’re properly
installed and calibrated. In general,
electricians and contractors don’t have the
required in-depth knowledge of the UPS.
Manufacturer-trained field technicians
provide an overview of the equipment and a
tutorial of how to operate the UPS.
EATON UPS and Power Management Fundamentals Handbook
15
VA I S F OR W EAKLINGS.
I M EASURE M Y
S TRENGTH I N WATTS.
The difference
between VA
and watts
The engineering answer: To correctly size a
UPS, it’s important to understand the
relationship between watts and VA.
However, we must first have a brief
discussion about power terminology. Real
power (measured in watts) is the portion of
power flow that results in the consumption
of energy. The energy consumed is related
to the resistance in an electrical circuit. An
example of consumed energy is the filament
in a light bulb.
Reactive power (measured in VAR or voltamps reactive) is the portion of power flow
due to stored energy. Stored energy is
related to the presence of inductance and/or
capacitance in an electrical circuit. An
example of stored energy is a charged flash
bulb in a camera.
View the Professor
Wattson video on
VA vs Watts:
Apparent power (measured in VA or voltamps) is a mathematical combination of
real power and reactive power.
16
Reactive
Power
VAR
Real Power (Watts)
The geometric relationship between
apparent power, reactive power and real
power is illustrated in the power triangle
below:
Mathematically, real power (watts) is related
to apparent power (VA) using a numerical
ratio referred to as the power factor (PF),
which is expressed in decimal format and
always carries a value between 0 and 1.0.
For many newer types of IT equipment,
such as computer servers, the typical PF
is 0.9 or greater. For legacy personal
computers (PCs), this value can be
0.60 – 0.75.
EATON UPS and Power Management Fundamentals Handbook
The answer for the rest of us:
Watts = VA * Power Factor or VA = Watts /
Power Factor
Apparent Power (VA)
Switchon.eaton.com/power101
Using one of the following formulas, a
calculation can be made to determine the
missing quantity:
Since many types of equipment are rated in
watts, it’s important to consider the PF
when sizing a UPS. If you don't take PF into
account, you may under size your UPS. As
an example, a piece of equipment that’s
rated at 525 watts and has a power factor
of 0.7 results in a 750 VA load.
Apparent
power (VA);
Full capacity
{
}
Real power
(watts);
Actual usable
power
750 VA = 525 Watts / 0.7 PF
Converting amps to VA
Sizing the UPS to operate at 75 percent
capacity results in a UPS with a 1000 VA
rating (750 VA / 0.75 = 1000 VA).
Single phase: Multiply amps by voltage (120
volts in the U.S.). 10A x 120V = 1200 VA.
Three phase: Amps x volts x 1.732 = VA.
Decentralized
or central UPS?
Decentralized or central UPS?
Is a single, larger UPS better, or is it best to
have multiple, smaller UPSs? Naturally, the
answer is that it depends on a number of
factors. In a decentralized (also known as
distributed) UPS configuration (see Figure
2), multiple UPSs support a handful of
devices or perhaps only a single piece of
equipment. Decentralized UPSs typically use
plug and play connections and are usually
less than or equal to six kVA. In a central
UPS configuration (see Figure 1), a larger
UPS supports multiple devices. A centralized
UPS is typically hardwired into an electrical
panelboard. The following tables include a
number of factors to consider when making
a decision between a decentralized and
central UPS. In the end it's often best to
simply go with the strategy that you are
comfortable with.
Central UPS
Why you’d choose a
central UPS solution
Why you wouldn’t
Typically, the sales and service life of
the UPS is longer.
A single UPS can mean single point of
failure. You can overcome this
concern with an N+1 or N+X UPS for
redundancy.
A single UPS is easier to monitor,
service and maintain than lots of
smaller UPSs.
The single UPS may not be close
physically to the equipment it will
protect. A single electrical distribution
panel may not feed all equipment.
Larger UPSs will be three-phase and/
or 208V, 400V or 480V and often result
in more efficient operation and lower
operating costs.
There is no space for a large UPS.
A central UPS is often housed away
from high traffic areas. As a result,
it’s less easily disrupted, accidentally
damaged or maliciously interfered
with.
A central UPS generally requires a
trained service technician or
electrician to service, maintain or
install.
A central UPS can be located where
cooling is more tightly controlled.
Remember, heat is the enemy of the
batteries inside a UPS.
A central UPS may incur higher
installation and wiring costs.
Though a technician may need to
replace the batteries, you only have to
worry about a single UPS. A
distributed UPS configuration may
result in various models that require
different batteries. Do you want to
take the time to replace the batteries
on five to 20 UPSs?
Figure 1
EATON UPS and Power Management Fundamentals Handbook
17
Combining the configurations
It’s important to keep in mind that decentralized and
centralized power protection deployment strategies aren’t
necessarily mutually exclusive. The two strategies can be
used in combination to provide redundancy to missioncritical applications. For example, an entire facility may be
protected by a large, centralized UPS, but a specific department such as a 24x7 call center may have decentralized
UPSs as well to provide redundant protection and possibly
extend runtime for call center equipment.
T HAT O FFICE
F URNITURE I S
LOOKING R EALLY
O LD. I L IKE I T.
Decentralized UPS
Why you’d choose a
decentralized UPS configuration
Why you wouldn’t
No rewiring is required. Use existing
wall sockets. Easy plug and play
installation. Can also be redeployed
easily if IT systems are moved.
If a generator supports the building,
smaller standby and line-interactive
UPSs may not be able to function
while it’s running.
Requires lower capital outlay and
installation costs. Fits within IT
manager purchase limits. Generally
don’t need to approve a large capital
expense. Will most likely not require
additional installation costs from
electrician.
No central panelboard exists or
there’s no room for the UPS.
You have no idea how much your
company will grow and don’t want to
get locked into a particular UPS.
You don’t want to monitor or service a
bunch of UPS units. A decentralized
design may require more time and
focus to keep up with replacing
batteries and maintaining multiple
UPSs.
You already have a number of smaller
UPS units that are fairly new and you
don’t want to discard them. (Most
UPS manufacturers offer a trade-in
program.)
You want a single UPS that can be
shut down using emergency power
off. Also, a decentralized design may
not offer redundancy and other
capabilities provided by a larger,
central UPS.
Power conditioning is implemented at
the point of use, which mitigates any
electrical disturbances that may be
coupled into the distribution wiring of
a centralized system.
Adding redundancy, extended runtime
or maintenance bypass functionality
to multiple UPSs can be costly.
Diverse applications within a building
may require varying levels of power
protection and functionality. For
example, extended runtime can be
configured for specific applications,
eliminating the need to add additional
battery modules for less critical
equipment.
Multiple audible alarms/alerts may be
irritating.
18
EATON UPS and Power Management Fundamentals Handbook
Figure 2
What is
three-phase
power?
Three-phase power, the most efficient
way to distribute power over long
distances, allows for large industrial
equipment to operate more efficiently.
It’s characterized by three single-phase
waves that are offset in their phase angle
by 120 degrees, or one-third of the sine
wave period as illustrated in Figure 1.
Three-phase voltage can be measured from
each phase to neutral or from one phase to
any other. The voltage relation between
phase-to-neutral and phase-to-phase is a
factor of the square root of three (e.g., 120V
versus 208V).
Conversely, single-phase power is distributed through common household outlets to
power everyday equipment such as laptops,
lighting and televisions. When looking at an
oscilloscope image of the voltage coming
out of a single-phase outlet as illustrated in
Figure 2, there’s only a single wave. Singlephase power is obtained by simply using
only one phase of a three-phase system. Its
root mean square (RMS) voltage is 120V (for
North America) and it oscillates between its
peaks of ±170V at 60 Hz (or 60 times a
second).
90˚
270˚
360˚
270˚
360˚
Figure 1. Three-phase power
Single-phase or three-phase power?
Single-phase
advantages
180˚
90˚
180˚
Three-phase
advantages
The standard for
locations where threephase power is
unavailable.
Can help balance the
loads on the utility
power of the building.
Usually easier to
distribute power in low
kVA and low-density
applications.
Usually easier to
distribute power in
higher kVA and highdensity rack
applications.
Allows for smaller
amperage electrical
devices within the
solution (breakers,
wiring, panels, etc.).
Figure 2. Single-phase power
I L IKE T HE R HYTHM O F
T HREE-PHASE P OWER.
90˚
180˚
270˚
360˚
EATON UPS and Power Management Fundamentals Handbook
19
Increase server energy efficiencies by using
high-voltage power supplies and 208V UPSs
Maximizing energy efficiencies in today’s
data centers has become an important
factor in saving costs and reducing an
organization’s carbon footprint. While
there are new energy-saving tools and
technologies being introduced every day,
understanding existing methods and
systems can bring immediate efficiencies
and savings, often without an additional
investment.
One such method is to operate equipment
at high-line voltage and use 208V UPSs,
which maximizes energy efficiency and
uptime, and saves money. IT devices
equipped with a C14 plug are capable of
running on high voltage, which can
dramatically increase efficiency.
Even small increases in UPS efficiency can
quickly translate into tens of thousands of
dollars in savings. For example, assuming a
utility rate of 10 cents per kWh, a 60 kW
N+1 redundant configuration would save
more than $30,000 over five years. High
UPS efficiency also extends battery
runtimes and produces cooler operating
conditions, resulting in lower utility bills.
At first glance, high-voltage input power
seems counter-intuitive when thinking about
energy savings. However, in the real world,
power supplies operate more efficiently at
high voltage. The typical server switch-mode
power supply has an efficiency rating
between 65 and 80 percent, with some
special-purpose products able to reach 90
percent efficiency. Lower voltage causes
the power supply to operate at the lower
end of this range.
20
When operating at 208 volts, a 1 to 2
percent difference in efficiency can be
experienced for a 1000W power supply,
depending on the load level. When the loss
in the power distribution transformer (PDU)
needed to get to the 120V is added, there’s
an additional 1.5 to 2 percent savings.
Factor in cooling efficiencies and the savings
can add up to between 4 and 8 percent,
which translates to about $70 per power
supply. When multiplied by the number
of power supplies in the server rack, the
savings certainly justifies making the switch
to 208 volts, especially when expanding or
moving into a new location.
One of the main reasons that U.S.
customers have been reluctant to switch to
high voltage is that high voltage UPSs are
typically fitted with IEC outlets (or even
inlets) and customers don’t know how
to connect them to IT equipment with a
traditional NEMA plug. However, all IT
power supplies come with a detachable
input cord with a NEMA plug on one side
and an IEC plug on the other. By simply
changing the standard NEMA/C13 power
cord to an IEC C13/C14 power cord, these
additional IT equipment efficiencies can be
captured. IEC cables are fully UL-listed and
are the standard method of connection in
large mission-critical data centers across
the U.S.
EATON UPS and Power Management Fundamentals Handbook
Making the connections
H IGH VOLTAGE
M AKES M E S IZZLE!
Remove the standard 5-15P/C13 power cord that
shipped with your IT equipment and replace it with
one of the C13/C14 jumper cables that shipped
with your UPS. Your IT equipment is now
operating at 208V, running more efficiently and
saving you money.
Worldwide voltage map
50 Hz
60 Hz
*Mixed voltages are present in several countries, including Vietnam, South Korea, Philippines, Brazil, Peru and Saudi Arabia
Single-phase voltages*
110-127V; 60 Hz (also 208V; 60 Hz)
110-127V; 60 Hz
100V
220/230V; 50 Hz
240V; 50 Hz
I R OAMED T HE
WORLD B EFORE
T HERE W ERE
VOLTAGES.
EATON UPS and Power Management Fundamentals Handbook
21
Worldwide voltages
Country
Single-Threephase
phase voltage
voltageFrequency
(V)(V) )
(Hz)
Afghanistan 220 38050
Albania
230 40050
Algeria
127/220400 50
American Samoa
120/240
208
60
Andorra
230 40050
Angola
220 38050
Antigua
230 40060
Armenia
230 38050
Argentina 220 38050
Aruba
115/127220 60
Australia
240 41550
Austria
220-230400 50
Azerbaijan 220 38050
Azores (Portugal)
220
400
50
Bahamas
120 20860
Bahrain
220 40050
Balearic Islands
230
400
50
Bangladesh 220 38050
Barbados 115 20050
Belarus
220 38050
Belgium
220-230400 50
Belize
110
190/38060
Benin
220 38050
Bermuda
120 20860
Bhutan
230 40050
Bolivia
110-115/220400
50
Bosnia-Herzegovina220
400
50
Botswana 220 40050
Brazil
110-127 220/380/60
220 44060
Brunei
240 41550
Bulgaria
220 40050
Burkina Faso
220
380
50
Burundi
220 38050
Cambodia
120/220400 50
Cameroon
220-230380 50
Canada
120
208/240/60060
Canary Islands (Spain) 220
400
50
Cape Verde
220
400
50
Cayman Islands 120
208
60
Central African Republic220
380
50
Chad
220 38050
Channel Islands
240
400
50
Chile 220
380
50
China
220 38050
Colombia
110-220440 60
Congo
220 40050
Congo, Dem. Rep. of
220
380
50
(formerly Zaire)
Cook Islands
240 415
50
Costa Rica
120
240
60
Croatia
220 40050
Cuba
120 19060
Cyprus
240 40050
Czech Republic 220
400
50
22
Country
Single-Threephase
phase voltage
voltageFrequency
(V)(V) )
(Hz)
Country
Single-Threephase
phase voltage
voltageFrequency
(V)(V) )
(Hz)
Denmark 220-230
400
50
Laos
220 40050
Djibouti
220 38050
Latvia
220 40050
Dominica 230 40050
Lebanon
110-220400 50
Dominican Republic
110
120/208/
60
Lesotho
240 38050
227/480
Liberia
120 20860
Ecuador
120 19060
Libya
127-230 220/40050
Egypt
220 38050
Liechtenstein220 400 50
El Salvador
115
200
60
Lithuania
220 40050
England
240 40050
Luxembourg 220-230400 50
Estonia
220 40050
Macau
220 38050
Ethiopia
220 38050
Macedonia 230 40050
Faeroe Islands
230
400
50
Madagascar
220
220/38050
Falkland Islands
240
415
50
Madeira (Portugal)
220
400
50
Fiji
240 41550
Malawi
230 40050
Finland
220-230400 50
Malaysia
240 41550
France
220-230400 50
Maldives
230 40050
French Guiana
220
380
50
Mali
220 38050
Gabon
220 38050
Malta
240 40050
Gambia
220 40050
Martinique 220 38060
Gaza
230 40050
Mauritania 220 22050
Georgia
220 38050
Mauritius 230 40050
Germany
220-230400 50
Mexico
127
220/48050
Ghana
220 40050
Moldova
220 38050
Gibraltar
240 40050
Monaco
220 40050
Greece
220-230400 50
Mongolia
220 40050
Greenland 220 40050
Montserrat 230 40060
Grenada
230 40050
Morocco
220 38050
Guadeloupe 220 40050
Mozambique220 38050
Guam
110-120190 60
Myanmar 230 40050
Guatemala 120 20860
Namibia
220-250380 50
Guinea
220 20850
Nauru
240 41550
Guinea-Bissau220
380 50
Nepal
220 40050
Guyana
110
19050/60
Netherlands Antilles
120-127/220
220/380
50/60
Haiti
110-120 19050/60
Netherlands 220-230400 50
Honduras 110 19060
New Caledonia
220
380
50
Hong Kong
200
380
50
New Zealand
230
415
50
Hungary
220 40050
Nicaragua 120 20860
Iceland
220 40050
Niger
220 38050
India
220-250400 50
Nigeria
230 40050
Indonesia 220 40050
Northern Ireland
240
400
50
Iran
220 40050
Norway
220-230400 50
Iraq
220 40050
Okinawa
110-120 200/23060
Ireland
220 40050
Oman
240 41550
Isle of Man
240
400
50
Pakistan
230 40050
Israel
230 40050
Palau
120 20860
Italy
220-230400 50
Panama
110-120190 60
Ivory Coast
220
380
50
Papua New Guinea
240
415
50
Jamaica
110 19050
Paraguay
220 38050
Japan
100
20050/60
Peru
110/220 22050/60
Jordan
220 40050
Philippines 115 38060
Kazakhstan 220 38050
Poland
240 40050
Kenya
240 41550
Portugal
220 40050
Korea, South
220
380
50/60
Puerto Rico
220-230
208
50
Kuwait
240 41550
Qatar
240 41550
Kyrgyzstan 220 38050
EATON UPS and Power Management Fundamentals Handbook
Country
Single-Threephase
phase voltage
voltageFrequency
(V)(V) )
(Hz)
Réunion Island
230
400
50
Romania
220 40050
Russia
220 40050
Rwanda
220 40050
Saudi Arabia
127/220
190/380
50/60
Scotland
220 40050
Senegal
220 40050
Serbia
230 40050
Seychelles 240 24050
Sierra Leone
230
400
50
Singapore 230 40050
Slovakia
220 40050
Slovenia
230 40050
Somalia
110/220380 50
South Africa
220-230
400
50
Spain
220-230400 50
Sri Lanka
230
400
50
St. Kitts & Nevis
230
400
60
St. Lucia
240
400
50
St. Vincent
230
400
50
Sudan
240 40050
Surinam
115 22060
Swaziland 230 40050
Sweden
220-230400 50
Switzerland 220-230400 50
Syria
220 38050
Tahiti
220 38050
Taiwan
110 19060
Tajikistan
220 38050
Tanzania
230 40050
Thailand
220/230380 50
Togo
220 38050
Tonga
115 41560
Trinidad & Tobago
115/23
200
60
Tunisia
220 40050
Turkey
220 40050
Turkmenistan220 380 50
Uganda
240 41550
Ukraine
220 38050
United Arab Emirates
220/230
415
50
United Kingdom
240
400
50
United States
120
277/480
60
Uruguay
220 22050
Uzbekistan 220 38050
Venezuela 120 24060
Vietnam
120/220380 50
Virgin Islands
120
190
60
Wales
220 40050
Western Samoa
230
400
50
Yemen
220 40050
Zambia
220 40050
Zimbabwe 220 41550
The nine power problems
In an ideal world, your wall socket would provide an infinite stream of perfect power, at
constant voltage and cycling exactly the same number of times per second. Don’t count on it.
Power Problem Definition
1
Power Failure
2
Power Sag
3
Power Surge
(Spike)
Rush of energy following a double shot of espresso or short-term high voltage more
than 110 percent of normal.
4
Under-voltage
(Brownout)
When your amp’s too wimpy to handle the bass line or reduced line voltage for an
extended period of a few minutes to a few days. Often happens during the summer
months when everyone is cranking up their air conditioners.
5
Over-voltage
6
Electrical
Line Noise
Excuse you use to get off the phone quickly or a high power frequency power wave
caused by radio frequency interference (RFI) or electromagnetic interference (EMI).
7
Frequency
Variation
Fluctuation in how often you do laundry from week to week or a loss of stability in the
power supply’s normal frequency of 50 or 60 Hz.
8
Switching
Transient
Breaking up with your significant other only to get back together every six months or
instantaneous under-voltage in the range of nanoseconds.
9
Harmonic
Distortion
“Music” blaring from your nephew’s headphones or the distortion of the normal power
wave, generally transmitted by unequal loads.
When a superhero loses his ability to fly or a total loss of utility power.
Post-lunch sleepiness or short-term low voltage.
Inhuman cheerfulness exuded by aerobics instructors or increased line voltage for an
extended period of a few minutes to a few days.
A H, M ORE
M INIONS F OR
M Y E VIL P LAN!
EATON UPS and Power Management Fundamentals Handbook
23
DC to AC
Inverter
AC to DC
Rectifier
Battery
UPS topologies
There are several different UPS topologies that provide varying degrees of protection. Selecting
the best fit depends on several factors, including the level of reliability and availability desired,
the type of equipment being protected and the application/environment. While all four of the
most common UPS topologies outlined below meet the input voltage requirements for IT
equipment, there are key differences in how the result is achieved, as well as the frequency
and duration of demands on the battery.
Buck Boost
DC to AC
Inverter
Battery
Charger
Online UPSs provide the highest
level of protection by isolating equipment from raw utility
power—converting power from AC to DC andBattery
back to AC. Unlike other topologies, double
conversion provides zero transfer time to battery for sensitive equipment. This topology is best
applied to mission-critical equipment and locations where power generally is poor.
DC topower
AC
Standby UPSs allow equipment to run off utility
until the UPS
detects a problem, at
Capacitor
Inverter
which point it switches to battery power to protect against sags, surges or outages. This
Battery
topology is best suited for applications requiring simple backup such as small office/home office
and point-of-sale equipment.
Internal Static Bypass
AC to DC
Rectifier
DC to AC
Inverter
BatteryDC to AC
Inverter
AC to DC
Rectifier
DC to AC
Inverter
Battery
Capacitor
Battery
Line-interactive UPSs actively regulate voltage either by boosting or decreasing utility power
as necessary before allowing
it to pass to the DC
protected
equipment or by resorting to battery
to AC
AC to DCBuck Boost
Inverter
power. Line-interactive models
where protection from power
Rectifierare ideal for applications
anomalies is required, but the utility power is relatively clean. MDF and IDF communication
Battery
closets, non-centralized server and network
rooms, and general IT enclosures are ideally suited
for this topology.
DC to AC
Inverter
Battery
Charger
Buck Boost
Battery
Charger
Ferroresonant UPSs operate similarly to line-interactive models with the exception that a
ferroresonant transformer is used to condition the output and hold energy long enough to
cover the time between switching from line power to battery power which effectively means
a no-break transfer. Many ferroresonant UPSs are 82-88 percent efficient and offer excellent
isolation. Although no longer the dominant type of UPS, these robust units are still used in
industrial settings such as the oil and gas, petrochemical, chemical, utility and heavy
industry markets.
Battery
DC to AC
Inverter
Internal Static
Bypass
DC to AC
Inverter
Battery
Battery
AC to DC
Rectifier
Normal Operation
Battery Power
24
DC to AC
Inverter
Battery
Internal Static Bypass
AC to DC
DCFundamentals
to AC
EATON UPS and Power
Management
Handbook
Rectifier
Inverter
AC to DC
Rectifier
DC to AC
Inverter
Battery
Capacitor
UPS battery
overview
It’s well known that the battery is the most vulnerable part of a UPS. In fact, battery failure
is a leading cause of load loss. Understanding how to properly maintain and manage UPS
batteries can extend their service life and help prevent costly downtime.
Valve-regulated lead acid (VRLA) batteries,
also known as sealed or maintenance free
are most commonly used in UPSs. VRLA
batteries are sealed, usually within
polypropylene plastic, which offers the
advantage of not containing any sloshing
liquid that might leak or drip. Because water
can’t be added to VRLA batteries,
recombination of water is critical to their life
and health, and any factor that increases the
rate of evaporation or water loss—such as
temperature or heat from the charging
current—reduces battery life.
Frequently asked
questions: batteries
1. What is the “end of useful life”?
Valve
Positive Flag
Terminal
The IEEE defines “end of useful life” for a
UPS battery as the point when it can no
longer supply 80 percent of its rated
capacity in ampere-hours. When your
battery reaches 80 percent of its rated
capacity, the aging process accelerates and
the battery should be replaced.
Extruded Intercell
Welded Connection,
Low Resistance
Current Path
Cover/Lid
Strap Joining
Negative
Plates in
Parallel
2. Is there any difference between the
batteries used by smaller UPSs, from 250
VA to 3 kVA, and the ones used by larger
UPSs?
While basic battery technology and the risks
to battery life remain the same regardless of
UPS size, there are some inherent
differences between large and small
applications. Smaller UPSs typically have
only one VRLA battery that supports the
load and needs maintenance. As systems
get larger, increasing battery capacity to
support the load gets more complicated.
Larger systems may require multiple strings
of batteries, introducing complexity to
battery maintenance and support. Individual
batteries must be monitored to prevent a
single bad battery from taking down an
entire string, and putting the load at risk.
Also, as systems get larger, wet-cell
batteries become much more common.
National
Battery Day
happens every
year on
February 18th
Negative
Pasted Plate
Lead Alloy
Grid
Polypropylene
Container/Jar
Separator
Figure 2. Internal and external components of a valve-regulated lead acid (VRLA) battery.
Figure 1. VRLA batteries are frequently used in UPS or
other high-rate applications.
View the Professor
Wattson video on
Batteries:
Switchon.eaton.com/power101
EATON UPS and Power Management Fundamentals Handbook
25
3. My UPS has been in storage for over a
year. Are the batteries still good?
6. If I add more batteries to a UPS, can I
add more load?
As batteries sit unused, with no charging
regimen, their life will decrease. Due to the
self-discharge characteristics of lead-acid
batteries, it is imperative that they be
charged after every six to 10 months of
storage. Otherwise, permanent loss of
capacity will occur between 18 and 30
months. To prolong shelf life without
charging, store batteries at 10°C (50°F) or
less.
Adding more batteries to a UPS can
increase the battery runtime to support the
load. However, adding more batteries to the
UPS doesn’t increase the UPS capacity. Be
sure your UPS is adequately sized for your
load and then add batteries to fit your
runtime needs.
Hot-swappable batteries can be changed out
while the UPS is running. User-replaceable
batteries are usually found in smaller UPSs
and require no special tools or training to
replace. Batteries can be both hotswappable and user-replaceable.
Figure 4. Adding extended battery modules
increases runtime but doesn’t increase the power
rating or capacity of the UPS.
No, it’s important that you never mix
batteries by manufacturer, type or age.
Always remove and replace all the batteries
in the device at the same time, and follow
the manufacturer’s recommendations to
which to use. Remember to read the
warnings and small print before installing.
8. If my UPS is in storage, how often
The battery runtime will increase if the load
is reduced. As a general rule, if you reduce
the load by half, you triple the runtime.
26
This is done to ensure they’re in compliance
with Department of Transportation
regulations.
The UPS should have a minimum of
10 percent load to charge its batteries.
Once connected to a standard supply of
electricity (via input plug or hardwiring), your
UPS should charge its batteries regardless
of how much load, if any, is attached to it.
7. Can I mix batteries by type or age?
5. How is battery runtime affected if I
reduce the load on the UPS?
10. Why are batteries disconnected on
small, single-phase UPSs when they’re
shipped?
11. Does the UPS need to have a load on
it to charge its batteries?
4. What is the difference between
hot-swappable and user-replaceable
batteries?
Figure 3. UPS models like the Eaton 9130 feature
hot-swappable batteries for maximum uptime.
typical life of an Eaton UPS with ABM
technology is 50 percent longer than with
standard models.
should I charge the batteries?
The batteries should be charged every three
or four months to prevent loss of capacity.
9. What is the average lifespan of UPS
batteries?
The standard lifespan for VRLA batteries is
three to five years. However, expected life
can vary greatly due to environmental
conditions, number of discharge cycles, and
adequate maintenance. Have a regular
schedule of battery maintenance and
monitoring to ensure you know when your
batteries are reaching their end-of-life. The
EATON UPS and Power Management Fundamentals Handbook
12. How can you be sure UPS batteries
are in good condition and ensure they
have maximum holdover in the event
of a power failure? What preventive
maintenance procedures should be done
and how often?
The batteries used in the UPS and
associated battery modules and cabinets are
sealed, lead-acid batteries often referred to
as maintenance-free. While these types of
batteries are sealed and you don’t need to
check their fluid level, they do require some
attention to assure proper operation. You
should inspect the UPS a minimum of once
per year by initiating a self-test.
13. How long does it take for the UPS
batteries to recharge?
On average, it takes 10 times the discharge
time for the UPS batteries to recover. (A
30-minute battery discharge requires about
300 minutes to recharge.) After each power
outage, the recharge process begins
immediately. It’s important to note that the
load is fully protected while the batteries are
recharging, but if the batteries are needed
during that time, the holdover time available
will be less than it would have been if the
batteries were fully charged.
14. What are the risks associated with a
lack of battery maintenance?
The primary risks of improperly maintained
batteries are load loss, fire, property damage
and personal injury.
15. What is thermal runaway?
Thermal runaway occurs when the heat
generated in a lead-acid cell exceeds its
ability to dissipate it, which can lead to an
explosion, especially in sealed cells. The
heat generated in the cell may occur without
any warning signs and may be caused by
overcharging, excessive charging, internal
physical damage, internal short circuit or a
hot environment.
16. Why do batteries fail?
Batteries can fail for a multitude of reasons,
but common reasons are:
• High or uneven temperatures
• Inaccurate float charge voltage
• Loose inter-cell links or connections
• Loss of electrolyte due to drying out or damaged case
• Lack of maintenance, aging
17. How is battery performance generally
measured?
Batteries are generally rated for 100+
discharges and recharges, but many show a
marked decline in charging capacity after as
few as 10 discharges. The lower the charge
the battery can accept, the less runtime it
can deliver. Look for batteries with a highrate design that sustains stable performance
for a long service term.
Factors affecting
battery life
All UPS batteries have a limited service life,
regardless of how or where the UPS is
deployed. While determining battery life can
be tricky, there are four primary factors that
contribute to a battery’s overall lifespan.
1. Ambient temperature
The rated capacity of a lead acid battery is
based on an ambient temperature of 77°F.
It’s important to know that any variation
from this operating temperature can alter
the battery’s performance and shorten its
life. To help determine battery life in relation
to temperature, remember for every 15°F
average annual temperature above 77°F, the
life of the battery is reduced by 50 percent.
Ambient temperatures below 77°F may
reduce the battery backup time, similar to a
car battery on a cold morning.
2. Battery chemistry
Positive grid corrosion has been the most
common end-of-life factor for UPS batteries,
which is a result of the normal aging
process due to UPS battery chemistry
and involves the gradual breakdown of the
inner segments of the positive grid within
the battery.
3. Cycling
During a utility power failure, a UPS
operates on battery power. Once utility
power is restored, or a switch to generator
power is complete, the battery is recharged
for future use. This is called a discharge
cycle. At installation, the battery is at 100
percent of rated capacity. Each discharge
and subsequent recharge reduces its
relative capacity by a small percentage.
The length and quantity of discharge cycles
determine the reduction in battery capacity.
A good analogy is a loaf of bread. It can be
sliced into many thin slices, or a few thicker
slices. You still have the same amount of
bread either way. Similarly, a UPS battery’s
B ATTERIES A RE
H EAVY. T HEY G ET
M E P UMPED U P.
capacity can be used up over a large
number of short cycles or fewer cycles of
longer duration.
Lead-acid chemistry, like what’s used in
rechargeable batteries, can only undergo a
certain number of discharge/recharge cycles
before the chemistry is depleted. Once the
chemistry is depleted, the cells fail and the
battery must be replaced.
4. Maintenance
Battery service and maintenance are critical
to UPS reliability. A gradual decrease in
battery life can be monitored and evaluated
through voltage checks, load testing or
monitoring. Periodic preventive maintenance
extends battery string life by preventing
loose connections, removing corrosion and
identifying bad batteries before they can
affect the rest of the string.
Even though sealed batteries are sometimes
referred to as maintenance-free, they still
require scheduled maintenance and service.
Maintenance-free simply refers to the fact
that they don’t require added water.
Without regular maintenance, a UPS battery
can experience heat-generating resistance at
the terminals, improper loading, reduced
protection and premature failure. With proper
maintenance, the end of battery life can be
accurately estimated and replacements
scheduled without unexpected downtime or
loss of backup power.
5. Shelf life, storage and acceptance
testing
It’s important to ensure that batteries are
properly stored prior to being installed and
placed into service in order to improve
service life expectations and reliability.
Storage facilities should be climate
controlled with proper ventilation capabilities
so batteries can be kept cool and dry. Failure
to comply with proper storage can lead to
shortened runtimes and reduced capacity.
All battery manufacturers have shelf life and
storage parameters. In terms of time, a
good rule of thumb is no more than six
months of storage in a properly designed
storage facility.
To validate runtime and capacity
expectations, an acceptance test should be
performed. The acceptance test will be able
to determine if there are any flaws within
the manufacturing process, improper
storage or perhaps even hidden damage as
a result of shipping and handling. This test
might be the most important procedure any
operator can have performed to ensure
reliability of the battery systems.
To validate runtime and capacity
expectations, an acceptance test should be
performed. The acceptance test will be able
to determine if there are any flaws within
the manufacturing process, improper
storage or perhaps even hidden damage as
a result of shipping and handling. This test
might be the most important procedure any
operator can have performed to ensure
reliability of the battery systems.
For additional information on UPS batteries, to use
the Eaton battery replacement selector, or to request
a free copy of Eaton’s battery handbook, visit
Eaton.com/upsbatteries.
EATON UPS and Power Management Fundamentals Handbook
27
UPS software
overview
Operating UPS power without power
management software is like driving in the
rain without windshield wipers – you may
be protected from the downpour, but your
visibility is hindered. Together, a UPS
solution and monitoring and management
software is the perfect complement.
Once you’ve selected a power management
software solution that seamlessly integrates
into your major virtualization platform and
meets the needs of your environment, you
will be able to enjoy a number of
advantages.
Most businesses today are leveraging some
level of virtualization (whether it be
application, storage, network, or server
virtualization). Read the top two criteria to
consider when choosing software that
safeguards your equipment and expands the
capabilities of your virtual environment.
• Less hardware, power used, cooling, and
management
1. Establish which software integrates
with your virtualization platform
(VMware, Citrix, Microsoft, or Red Hat) and
other devices that support a network
interface (UPSs, environmental sensors,
ePDUs, etc.)
2. Identify what you want to accomplish
with the software.
•D
o you want it to plug directly into your
virtual dashboard?
•D
o you want to initiate planned
migrations?
• Do you want to perform load shedding?
•Do you want to remotely shut down a
host in a cluster without needing to install
shutdown agents on each host or each
virtual machine?
E VEN I COULD U SE
A L ITTLE M ORE
V ISIBILITY TO N ETWORK
P OWER CONDITIONS.
Cost savings
• Increased productivity – no need to
recreate your work-in-progress
Business continuity and disaster
recovery (BCDR)
• Data integrity and graceful shutdown in
the event of an extended outage
• Initiate planned migrations to a cloud
recover site
• Extended runtime to critical applications
with load shedding
Management ease
• A global view across the network on one
screen– often from any PC with an
Internet browsers A complete log of
events and UPS utility data
• Centralized alarms
Figure 1. Eaton’s Intelligent Power Manager facilitates easy and versatile remote monitoring and management of
multiple devices, keeping you apprised of power and environmental conditions.
• Organized data by customized views
• Event logs for preventive maintenance of
the entire installed equipment base
If you are interested in keeping a pulse on
your network’s health and secure the
availability on your data through software,
view an online demonstration of Eaton’s
power management software capabilities.
Visit: Eaton.com/intelligentpower
View the Professor
Wattson video on
virtualization:
Switchon.eaton.com/power101
28
EATON UPS and Power Management Fundamentals Handbook
Make health-checking your UPS
a top priority
In order to avoid an unexpected
breakdown, your vehicle needs regular
preventive maintenance, such as routine
oil changes and tune-ups. Likewise, an
annual visit to your physician’s office
helps identify any potential problems that
could become health concerns. Ensuring
the ongoing optimal performance of your
UPS is much the same.
The following checklist will help you keep it
in tip-top shape:
1.Make sure your batteries are in
good health.
Batteries are the No. 1 cause of UPS failure,
so it’s wise to do the following:
a. Note their age. UPS batteries can last
anywhere from 2-5 years, so if yours are
4 years old or older, you should probably
begin planning a replacement.
b.Run a UPS battery self-test. Most
network-class UPSs have the capability to
run a quick self-check from the front
menu.
c.Check under the hood. Remove the
front bezel and make sure there are no
signs of battery swelling or damage.
2.Perform an early spring cleaning.
3.Verify UPS communication.
4.Keep service information up-to-date.
Clutter, dust and general disorganization can
cause unwanted issues and decrease the
reliability of your system, so be sure to:
Properly oonfigured communications ensure
that IT managers can respond to alerts and
take corrective actions, so:
Nothing can be more frustrating than finding
out your UPS is no longer under warranty
after it fails. Be sure to:
a.Check the air flow. Make sure there is
nothing blocking air-flow in your IT
environment, since heat is one of the
biggest reducers of battery life. You
should have enough air flow to keep your
UPS at room temperature (77 degrees is
optimal).
a.Run a test email. If your UPS is
equipped with a Network Interface Card
(NIC), run a trial email. Sometimes
changing email servers or domains can
cause settings to be out
of date.
a.Double-check your service contract.
Review your coverage and consider
storing contract information in one place,
either physically or electronically.
b.Dust! Caked-on grime can damage fans
and cause electronics board damage.
A simple wipe down is often all you need.
If you have a larger, centralized UPS, you
may need to replace your air filter or
make sure that it is clean.
b. C
heck the software. Make sure the UPS
and NIC both have the most up-to-date
versions.
b. R
egister your product. If you do not
have a service contract, at least make
sure your UPS is registered with the
manufacturer. This helps you stay
informed on updates, and allows the
manufacturer to respond quickly if an
issue does arise.
These simple steps will go a long way
toward ensuring the ongoing reliability of
your UPS, and in turn, the critical equipment
and data it is protecting.
I H AVE A Q UESTION.
W HICH D ESERVES
N EW L IFE M ORE ? YOUR
IT I NFRASTRUCTURE
OR M E?
d.Consider a preventive maintenance
(PM) visit. For customers with larger,
centralized UPSs, consider having an
electrician or factory-authorized technician
test each individual battery, which provide
a much more detailed picture of your
system reliability.
EATON UPS and Power Management Fundamentals Handbook
29
Service overview
One of the best ways to protect your
investment is by including a service
plan. Scheduled preventive maintenance
can help detect a wide range of ailments
before they become serious and costly
issues.
Types of UPS service Types of service
There are several UPS service delivery
agreements
methods, including:
• Factory warranty – repair or replace.
You contact the UPS service provider and
ship your UPS to a repair facility. The
service provider returns the repaired unit
or a refurbished unit.
• Extended warranty – advance swap
depot exchange.
You contact your UPS service provider,
which ships a refurbished unit to you; the
original UPS unit is returned to a repair
facility. Typically this expedites a
replacement UPS by the next business
day and freight costs are paid both ways
by Eaton.
• Onsite repair. You contact your UPS
service provider and factory-trained field
technicians travel to your site to diagnose
and repair electronic or battery-related
problems.
Smaller UPS products (below 1000 VA)
generally can be repaired at a depot, while
products over 1000 VA and up to 18 kVA can
either be repaired at a depot or serviced
onsite. Larger UPSs that are either
hardwired (can’t be unplugged) or too heavy
to ship can only be serviced onsite by
trained technicians.
30
A variety of different UPS service options
are available, any of which will likely save
you time and money by minimizing business
interruption and the costs of downtime, as
well as enhancing overall return on
investment by extending the lifespan of
critical power equipment.
• Support agreements, or service
contracts, usually combine parts and
labor coverage (electronics, batteries or
both), one or more UPS preventive
maintenance inspections annually, and a
combination of coverage hours and arrival
response time. Plans can be tailored to
meet almost any need. Special features
like remote monitoring, battery
replacement insurance and spare part kits
may also be added.
• Extended warranty (or basic warranty)
may also be purchased for many UPS
products. A warranty commonly covers
specified parts and labor such as
electronic components for a fixed period
of time. Warranties may have limited
response times or exclude features like
scheduled preventive maintenance. The
more services added to a warranty, the
closer it becomes to a support
agreement.
EATON UPS and Power Management Fundamentals Handbook
Figure 1. Smaller UPS models are usually sent to a
repair facility.
Figure 3. Eaton is one of the UPS companies that
provides remote monitoring services.
• Time and material (T&M) service is a
pay-as-you-go approach through which the
service provider makes a repair only
when something breaks. T&M can be
done either via depot repair or onsite,
depending on the UPS. This method
can be an unacceptable service solution
for some customers, since it’s often
expensive, and there’s the uncertainty
of not knowing when a field technician
will arrive. Because support agreement
(contract) customers always take priority,
T&M response times can be up to five
days, based on the product and location.
The Eaton service
offering
Eaton offers power quality services for
its UPS products as well as for related
equipment such as power distribution units
(PDUs) and batteries. Eaton also services
products from legacy brands, including
Powerware, Exide Electronics, Best Power,
MGE Office Protection Systems, IPM,
Deltec and Lortec. Eaton has more than
40 years of experience designing and
servicing industry-leading UPSs for
government, healthcare, industrial and
data center applications.
For more information on UPS service, and to
access service-related white papers, please visit
Eaton.com/upsservices.
We compiled the following set
of questions based on our extensive
experience dealing with resellers and end
users. For frequently asked questions about
UPS batteries, please visit the UPS battery
overview section on page 25.
1. What’s the difference between a surge
protector and a UPS?
A surge protector provides just that—surge
protection. In addition to surge protection, a
UPS continually regulates incoming voltage
and provides battery backup in the event of
a power failure. You'll often see surge
protectors plugged into a UPS for added
surge protection and additional output
receptacles.
2. How much capacity of a UPS should
I use?
To allow for future expansion, we
recommend that you install a UPS at
approximately 75 percent capacity. In
addition, the batteries degrade over time;
by oversizing, you provide room for error.
In the online Eaton UPS sizing tool
(Eaton.com/UPSselector) we’ve included
a “capacity used” column.
3. How much UPS battery runtime do
I need?
During an outage, you need enough battery
runtime to gracefully shut down systems or
switch to backup generators. You may add
an optional external battery module (EBM)
to increase runtime.
4. How is battery runtime impacted if
I reduce the load on the UPS?
There can be a significant increase in
runtime. Generally speaking, a UPS that
provides five minutes at full load will provide
15 minutes at half load.
5. My business is too small for protective
measures. Do I really need a UPS?
Power problems are equal-opportunity
threats. Your PCs, servers and network are
just as critical to your business as a data
center is to a large enterprise. Downtime is
costly in terms of hardware and potential
loss of goodwill, reputation and sales. Also
add in the delays that inevitably occur when
rebooting locked-up equipment, restoring
damaged files and re-running processes that
were interrupted. A sound power protection
strategy is cost-effective insurance.
6. Why is power quality such a problem
today?
Today’s high-tech IT equipment and control
units are much more sensitive to electrical
disturbances and are more important to the
critical functions of many businesses than
in the past. As a result, power quality
problems today are more frequent and
more costly than ever.
7. Are power quality problems always
noticeable?
No. In many cases, disturbances can cause
imperceptible damage to circuits and other
components, a major cause of premature
equipment failure and problems like
computer lockups. Many power quality
problems go unresolved, resulting in lost
revenue and data.
8. How is reliability measured?
Power reliability is usually stated as a
percent of time the power is available. For
example, the power grid system in the U.S.
provides three nines of reliability—the
power is available for 99.9 percent of the
time. Because those 8.8 hours of downtime
translate into significant downtime and
expense, IT and telephone network services
require at least five nines of reliability.
Reliability average Non-availability per year
99%
88 hours
99.9%
8.8 hours
99.99%
53 minutes
99.999%
5.3 minutes
99.9999%
32 seconds
99.99999%+
3.2 seconds
Frequently
asked
questions
9. How are phone systems and IT
equipment affected by inconsistent
power?
Fluctuating power is a waste of valuable
time and money. If customers expose their
telephone systems (and any other electronic
equipment) to inconsistent utility power,
they’re vulnerable to hardware and software
damage, data corruption and communication
breakdown. The time and cost of replacing
equipment, as well as the business lost
during breakdown and replacement, can
greatly affect a company’s bottom line.
10. I have a UPS. Am I really protected by
lightning?
No UPS or any other form of surge
protection device can provide total
protection against lightning-induced power
surges. A good UPS will suppress the
majority of surges without itself suffering
damage. For larger surges, it will also offer
one-off protection, where the surge
protection device does its job of protecting
the connected equipment, but is destroyed
in the process and can, therefore, provide
no further protection. While a well specified
EATON UPS and Power Management Fundamentals Handbook
31
good quality UPS will provide a very useful
level of surge protection, it will do an even
better job if it is used as part of a
comprehensive surge protection system
with several levels of protection with highenergy protection devices installed at the
point where the supply enters the building,
and smaller devices installed at other critical
points throughout the building’s power
distribution system.
11. We have a generator. Do I still need
a UPS?
A generator will NOT protect your
equipment against power problems. You
need a UPS to guarantee that the
equipment stays up until the generator
kicks on and stabilizes—which often requires
several minutes.
12. How much UPS capacity do I need?
C.Local outlet level surge protector. A
simple surge strip; small plug-and-play UPSs
often have this as well. Brings voltage down
to levels that will not permanently damage
connected equipment (typically ~380V).
Lightning strikes have such an incredible
amount of energy that only an expensive
lightning arrestor would protect you from a
direct hit and they often don't guarantee
complete protection. For the best protection
against lightning strikes, you want to
develop a two-stage defense with
something at your panel and something at
the outlet level. Visit Eaton.com/spd for
some informative videos and additional
information.
14. What happens if the UPS is
overloaded, for example, if the protected
equipment and/or load draws more
current than it can provide?
Determine the total load (in watts) of
the equipment you want to protect.
Add 10–20 percent for future growth and
decide the minimum amount of runtime
you need. Use the online sizer at
(powerquality.eaton.com) to identify
the right solution for your application.
The UPS transfers the load to bypass (for a
few minutes) until the overload condition is
reversed. If the overload condition
continues, some UPS models automatically
shut down. Some models can run at 110V
indefinitely in bypass.
13. What are the different levels of surge
protection?
There are two possible answers: (1) the UPS
was undersized (e.g., the load is rated at
1200 VA, but a 1000 VA UPS was provided),
or (2) you plugged more equipment into the
UPS than it was designed to handle.
There are three typical levels:
A.Lightning arrestors. Big and mean, usually
found in large facilities located in high-risk
areas. Takes an extremely high voltage and
clamps it down.
B.Surge Protective Devices (SPD or TVSS).
Mounted on your panelboard or load center;
sometimes larger UPS models may have
some level of this, but typically not a great
amount. Clamps voltage down two even
lower tolerances (~1 kV or less).
32
15. What causes a UPS to be overloaded?
16. I have a 3000 VA UPS. Can I just plug
the unit into a standard 15A wall outlet?
Only UPSs with power ratings up to 1500
VA plug into a standard 15A wall outlet. All
others require a larger receptacle, which
must be installed by an electrician.
EATON UPS and Power Management Fundamentals Handbook
17. Why is power management software
important?
19. My data center only went down for a
couple of minutes. What’s the big deal?
Although UPSs are typically rugged and
reliable, they do require ongoing monitoring
and support. Power management software
continuously monitors and diagnoses the
state of the grid, batteries and power
sources, together with the condition of the
UPS’s internal electronics. Eaton UPS
software and connectivity cards enable
remote monitoring and management
capability, including graceful shutdown and
load segment control.
When a data center goes down and then
back up during a power outage without a
managed shut down, it doesn't come up
nicely. Storage arrays initialize after servers
that try to mount their shares, while some
servers boot without access to DNS servers
that are also booting and thus have other
problems. Although the outage was short, it
can take hours to get everything back
online. In addition, data corruption is a
serious concern.
18. Will my current UPS software
monitor my new Eaton UPS?
20. Where can I get technical help?
Yes, you can monitor your Eaton UPS with
any UPS or facility management software
that supports the industry standard
Management Information Base (MIB, RFC
1628) as long as you install the optional
connectivity card. Most UPS vendors
support this MIB and all good facility
management software, including
OpenManage, OpenView and Tivoli also
support it. Extended Eaton Advanced MIBs
are available for greater levels of detail.
You can remotely control your Eaton UPS
using the Eaton UPS management software
or through a secure web interface if you
choose the optional connectivity card, which
also allows for automated email alerts for
power events without needing to install any
software.
Contact your territory representative or call
the Eaton UPS hotline at 1-800-356-5794 for
pre-sales support and 1-800-356-5737 for
technical support. You can also visit
www.powerquality.eaton.com.
A G ENERATOR?
I A LREADY H AVE
M Y O WN!
Electric transmission
distribution system
The flow of electricity begins at the
utility company, where it’s created at the
generating station. A generator transformer at the station switchyard then
steps up the voltage to minimize cable
size and electrical losses.
The transmission substation then increases
the voltage, which depends on the distance
the power needs to travel and the amount
desired. Electricity then enters the
transmission system, traveling at nearly the
speed of light, over heavy cables strung
between tall towers. A step-down
transformer located at a substation near the
final destination reduces the voltage to
between 22,000 and 69,000 volts, so the
electricity can be carried on smaller
distribution lines that carry it to the end
user. Transformers that adjust the voltages
down to the proper level for use are located
at or near each end user facility. For
commercial use, the load can range from
416 volts to 480 volts, while residential use
is typically 208/120 volts in the U.S. and
Canada.
EATON UPS and Power Management Fundamentals Handbook
33
Substation
Overhead
Transmission
Lines
Overhead
Main
Feeder
Transformer
Breaker
Switchgear
Residential
Small Business
Customer Service
Static
8
Lateral
Fuse
Commercial Customer
Service Equipment
Residential Load
120V and 280V
Lightning
Arrestors
2
9
4
3
5
Powers Poles
Conduits
12,470
Volts
10
11
13
Pad Mounted
Transformer
14
15
6
12
1
Underground
Transmission
Lines
230,000 Volts
Underground
Main Feeder
Underground
Service
7
Commercial Load
480/277 volts
380/220 volts
416/240 volts
Threats to the system
At each stage, there are a number of threats
that can interrupt the flow and distribution of
electricity. Everything from lightning strikes
to failed equipment can severely affect the
end user and disrupt important and vital
processes.
1 Fire sparked by weak wire
burns through line
6 Squirrels and raccoons chew through
a wire or wander into the wrong area
10 Mylar balloons drift into power lines
2 Lightning strike damages
transmission line
7 Underground explosion causes cable
failure
12 Failure of underground cable
3 Bird flies in causing short circuit
8 Storm blows branches and limbs down
that crash into power lines
4 Thieves steal copper
5 Blown fuse at substation transformer
T REES, R OADS, G RASS A ND
P OWER L INES. W HERE A M I
S UPPOSED TO L AND?
34
EATON UPS and Power Management Fundamentals Handbook
9 Equipment malfunction
11 Three-car collision strikes utility pole
13 Equipment failure
14 The power goes out and no one
knows why
15 Utilities conduct a planned outage for
repairs or upgrades
Eaton’s
Blackout
Tracker
Eaton’s Blackout Tracker monitors power outages across the U.S. and Canada to
provide a snapshot of reported power outages. The Blackout Tracker is an interactive
and educational way to share information about the causes, frequencies and impact
of power outages. You can view a region or individual state or province to see specific
information about power outages, including their cause, duration and number of
people affected. Visit Eaton.com/blackouttracker to see this interactive tool and order
the latest Blackout Tracker annual report.
Impact of power
outages
Every day, an interruption to electrical
service in homes, businesses and public
sector organizations occurs, and the losses
from these power outages can be extensive
and of great consequence. For a business,
the recovery time is significant and the
costs are high. According to Price
Waterhouse research, after a power
outage disrupts IT systems:
• >33 percent of companies take more than
a day to recover
• 10 percent of companies take more than
a week
• It can take up to 48 hours to reconfigure
a network
• It can take days or weeks to re-enter
lost data
• 90 percent of companies that experience
a computer disaster and don't have a
survival plan go out of business within
18 months
Power outages can cause substantial losses
for the companies affected. According to
the U.S. Department of Energy, when a
power failure disrupts IT systems:
• 33 percent of companies lose $20,000$500,000
• 20 percent lose $500,000 to $2 million
• 15 percent lose more than $2 million
EATON UPS and Power Management Fundamentals Handbook
35
Overview
of 2014
US national
power outage
data
The following data was compiled by
Eaton based on reported power outages
during 2014.
Total number of people affected by outages
14,268,989
(This is the sum of the number of people affected by reported power outages in the
U.S. for 2014.)
Total duration of outages
151,366 minutes (approximately
2,522 hours or 105 days)
(This is the sum of the durations of the reported power outages.)
Total number of outages
3,634
(This is the sum of the number of reported power outages.)
Average number of people affected per outage
3,996
(This number is determined by dividing the “Total number of people affected by
outages” by the number of outages that reported the number of people affected.
Not all reports of outages included number of people affected. The number of outages
used for this calculation can be found in the note following this table.)
Average duration of outage
43 minutes
(This number is determined by dividing the “Total duration of outages” by the number
of outages that reported durations. Not all reports of outages included the duration.
The number of outages used for this calculation can be found in the note following
this table.)
Notes:
A. Note: Total number of people affected (and average) is based on 2,404 (66%) of the total reported outages.
Total duration of outages (and average) is based on 671(18%) of the total reported outages. These are
the number of outages that had reports that included data for number of people affected and duration,
respectively.
B. Reports from news services, newspapers, websites, etc. used as sources, sometimes give statistics using
different terms. For example, some reports may be based on “people” while others may be based on
“addresses,” “homes and businesses” or “utility customers.” For purposes of this report, all of these are
assumed to be and counted as people.
36
EATON UPS and Power Management Fundamentals Handbook
Reported power outages by cause in 2014
T HEY H AVE A
C ATEGORY F OR
A NIMALS?
T HAT'S H ARSH.
Reported
power outages by cause in 2014
Reported power outages by cause
Note: Each power outage was grouped into one of eight possible causes. The number adjacent to the pie
Note: Each
power
grouped
into one
of seven
piece
is the outage
number was
of outages
attributable
to that
cause.possible causes. The outages by cause were totaled
and the results displayed in the chart above. The number adjacent to the pie piece is the number of outages
attributable to that cause.
Reported power outages by month/year
Reported power outages by month
Reported power outages by animal type
Note: Data collection began February 16, 2008.
EATON UPS and Power Management Fundamentals Handbook
37
Commonly used acronyms
UPS and electrical acronyms
AAmpere
AC
Alternating Current
AFCI
Arc Fault Circuit Interrupter
AH
Ampere Hour
ANSI
American National Standards
Institute
HVAC Heating, Ventilating and
Air Conditioning
PDU
Power Distribution Unit
VA
Volt Ampere
PE
Protective Earth (also Physical
Education)
Vac
Volts Alternating Current
HzHertz
PF
Power Factor
Vdc
Volts Direct Current
IEC
International Electrotechnical
Commission (IEC)
PFC
Power Factor Correction
VRLA
Valve Regulated Lead Acid
IEEE
Institute of Electrical And
Electronics Engineers
PM
Preventive maintenance
PoE
Power over Ethernet
IGBT
Insulated Gate Bi-polar
Transistor
ISO
International Standards
Organization
ITIC
Information Technology
Industry Council
HWHardwired
ASCII
American Standard Code for
Information Interchange
AVR
Automatic Voltage Regulation
BBM
Break-Before-Make (Bypass
Switch)
BDM
Bypass Distribution Module
BTU
British Thermal Unit
CRAC
Computer Room Air
Conditioning
kAIC
CRAH Computer Room Air Handler
CSA
Canadian Standards
Association
DC
Direct Current
DCIE
Data Center Infrastructure
Efficiency
EBC
Extended Battery Cabinet
EBM
Extended Battery Module
EMC
Electromagnetic Compatibility
EMF
ABM
Advanced Battery
Management
PPE
Personal Protective
Equipment
AFC
American Football Conference
PUE
Power Usage Effectiveness
AM
Advanced Monitored (ePDU)
REPO
ARG
Amphibious Ready Group
Kiloampere Interrupting
Capacity
Remote Emergency Power
Off
BA
Basic (ePDU)
RFI
Radio Frequency Interference
CSE
Customer Service Engineer
kVA
Kilovolt ampere
RM
EOSL
End of Service Life
LAN
Local Area Network
Rackmount (also Rectifier
Magazine)
EMS
Energy Management System
RMS
Root Mean Square
ESS
Energy Saver System
RoHS
Restriction of Hazardous
Substances
ME
Metered (ePDU)
SCR
Silicon-Controlled Rectifier
MI
Ethernet Monitored (ePDU)
SLA
Service Level Agreement
NFC
National Football Conference
PDR
Power Distribution Rack
RMA
Return Material Authorization
LCD
Liquid Crystal Display
LED
Light-Emitting Diode
LV
Low Voltage
MBB
Make-Before-Break (bypass
switch)
Management Information
Base
Electromagnetic Force
MOV
Metal Oxide Varistor
EMI
Electromagnetic Interference
MTBF Mean Time Between Failure
FCC
Federal Communications
Commission
MTTR Mean Time To Repair
Ground-Fault Circuit
Interrupter
GNDGround
HV
38
High Voltage
Eaton acronyms
PPDM PowerPass Distribution
Module
MIB
GFCI
WWatt
NEC
National Electrical Code
NEMA National Electrical
Manufacturers Association
NIC
Network Interface Card
PDM
Power Distribution Module
EATON UPS and Power Management Fundamentals Handbook
SNMP Simple Network Management
Protocol
SPD
Surge Protection Device
RPM
Rack Power Module
THD
Total Harmonic Distortion
ROO
Remote On/Off
TVSS
Transient Voltage Surge
Suppressor
RPO
Remote Power Off
RPP
Remote Power Panel
UL
Underwriters Laboratory
SEAL
Sea Air Land
UPS
Uninterruptible Power System
(or Supply)
SW
Switched (ePDU)
T&M
Time and Material
USB
Universal Serial Bus
VVolt
VMMS Variable Module Management
System
Other acronyms
BCDR Business Continuity and
Disaster Recover
BYOD Bring Your Own Device
CI
Converged Infrastructure
CPU
Central Processing Unit
DCIM
Data Center Infrastructure
Management
DISA
Defense Information Systems
Agency
DNS
Domain Name System
DR
Disaster Recovery
DSL
Digital Subscriber Line
DVV or Data, Voice, Video
DV2
E911
Enhanced 911
ELT
Emergency Locator
Transmitter
EMEA Europe, Middle East, Africa
FMC
Fixed/Mobile Convergence
FTP
File Transfer Protocol
GUI
Graphical User Interface
GoT
Game of Thrones
HDD
Hard Disk Drive
HPC
High-Performance Computer
HTML HyperText Markup Language
IP
Internet Protocol
ISP
Internet Service Provider
KVM
Keyboard, Video, Mouse
LEED Leadership in Energy and
Environmental Design
MSP
Managed Service Platform
MTDC Multi-Tenant Data Center
M2MI Machine-to-Machine Interface
Serial Advanced Technology
Attachment
SOA
Service-Oriented Architecture
SQL
Structured Query Language
SSL
Secure Socket Layer
SVGA
Super Video Graphics Array
TCP/IP Transmission Control Protocol/
Internet Protocol
TDM
Time-division Multiplexing
UC
Unified Communications
URL
Uniform Resource Locator
VDI
Virtual Desktop Infrastructure
VGA
Video Graphics Array
VLAN
Virtual LAN
Private Branch Exchange
VoIP
Voice over Internet Protocol
Personal Computer
VM
Virtual Machine
VPN
Virtual Private Network
WAN
Wide Area Network
NAS
Network Attached Storage
NIC
Network Interface Card
NOC
Network Operations Center
PABX
Private Automatic Branch
Exchange
PaaS
Platform as a Service
PBX
PC
PEBKACProblem Exists Between
Keyboard and Computer
PHI
SATA
Personal Health Information
AT O UR O FFICE, W E
A LLOW BYOD. M Y I T
P RO B ROUGHT M E .
PICNIC Problem in chair not in
computer
PMDC Portable Modular Data Center
POTS
Plain Old Telephone System
PSAP
Public Safety Answering Point
PSTN
Public Switched Telephone
Network
HTTP
HyperText Transfer Protocol
IOT
Internet of Things
P2V
Physical to Virtual
MDF
Main Distribution Frame
RAM
Random Access Memory
NNM
Network Node Manager
ROBO Romote Office/Branch Office
IaaS
Infrastructure as a Service
SasS
Software as a Solution
IDF
Intermediate Distribution
Frame
SAN
Storage Area Network
EATON UPS and Power Management Fundamentals Handbook
39
Glossary of power terms
In the following glossary, we’ve
attempted to capture the common terms
related to UPS and power distribution
products. If you look closely, you might
see us trying to have a little fun!
Advanced Battery Management
A three-stage charging technique that
automatically tests battery health.
Provides advance notification when
preventive maintenance is needed,
allowing ample time to hot-swap batteries
without ever having to shut down
connected equipment significantly
extending the life of your UPS's battery
(and, quite possibly, your contract).
Alternating Current (AC)
An electric current that reverses its
direction at regularly recurring intervals,
as opposed to direct current, which is
constant. Usually in a sine wave pattern,
for optimal transmission of energy.
Ampere (A or Amp)
The unit of measure for the rate of flow
of electricity, analogous to gallons per
minute. VA x 0.7 (power factor) = watts
Apparent Power
Applied voltage multiplied by current in an
AC circuit which doesn’t take the power
factor into account. Unit is volt amperes
(VA).
Arc
Sparking that results when undesirable
current flows between two points of
differing potential due to leakage through
the intermediate insulation or a leakage
path due to contamination. In astronomy,
an arc is the part of a circle representing
the apparent course of a heavenly body.
Audible Noise
A measure of the noise emanating from a
device at audible frequencies.
Backup Time
The amount of time the battery in a UPS
is designed to support the load.
Balanced Load
(1) AC power system using more than
two wires, where the current and voltage
are of equal value in each energized
conductor. (2) Laundry with equal parts of
light and dark clothes.
Battery String
A group of batteries connected together
in a series.
Blackout
A zero-voltage condition lasting for more
than two cycles. Also known as a power
outage or failure.
British Thermal Unit (BTU)
Used to measure heat dissipation and is
the amount of energy required to raise
one pound of water one degree
Fahrenheit. One pound of water at 32°F
requires the transfer of 144 BTUs to
freeze into solid ice.
Brown Field
An existing data center—often with
limited possibilities for sustainable and
energy-efficient designs.
Cloud Computing
(1) Internet- (cloud-) based development
and use of computer technology. This
new supplement, consumption and
delivery model for IT services typically
involves the provision of dynamically
scalable, and often virtualized, resources
as a service over the Internet. (2) Work
done while traveling on a plane.
Common Mode Noise
An undesirable voltage that appears
between the power conductors and
ground.
Commercial Power
The power supplied by local utility
companies which can vary drastically in
quality throughout the U.S. depending on
location, weather and other factors.
Communication Bay
Also known as an option slot, a UPS
feature that enables the addition of various
connectivity cards for Web, SNMP,
Modbus or serial connectivity interface
capabilities.
Brownout
A steady state of low voltage, but not
zero voltage. Brownouts often occur
during summer months when energy use
is high.
Canadian Standards Association (CSA)
An independent Canadian organization
that tests for public safety, similar to the
function of Underwriters Laboratories
(UL) in the U.S. As far as we know, it
doesn’t set the rules for hockey.
Capacitor
An electronic component that can store
an electrical charge on conductive plates.
40
Charger
(1) An electronic component in a UPS that
provides regulated DC voltage to recharge
batteries. (2) An inferior mascot for an
inferior team in the AFC West.
EATON UPS and Power Management Fundamentals Handbook
Converged Infrastructure
The combination of server, storage,
networking, virtualization and sometimes
other resources into an integrated
solution that is managed as a whole
rather than through separate
management systems.
Converter
A device that delivers DC power when
energized by a DC source. It’s also a
section of a switching power supply that
performs the actual power conversion
and final rectification.
Crest Factor
Usually refers to current. It’s the
mathematical relationship between RMS
and peak current. A normal resistive load
will have a crest factor of 1.4142, which is
the normal relationship between peak and
RMS current. A typical PC will have a
crest factor of 3. Unrelated to toothpaste.
Critical Equipment
Equipment such as computers,
communications systems or electronic
process controls, which must be
continuously available.
Delta Connection
A circuit formed by connecting three
electrical devices in series to form a
closed loop; most often used in threephase connections. If you fly Delta
Airlines, this most likely takes place in
Atlanta, Salt Lake City or Cincinnati.
Derating
A reduction of some operating
parameters to compensate for a change
in one or more other parameters. In
power systems, the output power rating
is generally reduced at elevated
temperatures.
Eaton 9130 equipped with a communication bay.
Direct Current (DC)
An electric current in which the flow of
electrons is in one direction, such as
supplied by a battery.
DC Distribution (DCD)
A module in a DC power system that distributes DC power to the loads. It also
provides protection for the load cables.
DC Power System
An AC to DC power supply with
integrated control and monitoring, and
standby batteries designed to supply
no-break DC power (usually 24V or 48V)
to telecommunications and IT network
equipment.
Double Conversion
A UPS design in which the primary power
path consists of a rectifier and inverter. It
isolates the output power from all input
anomalies such as low voltage surges and
frequency variations.
Downtime
The time during which a functional unit
can’t be used because of a fault within it
or the environment.
Dry Contacts
Dry contact refers to a contact of a relay
which does not make or break a current.
Efficiency
The ratio of output to input power.
Generally measured at full-load and
nominal line conditions. If the power
efficiency of a device is 90 percent, you
get back 90 watts for every 100 you put
in, and the rest is mainly dissipated as
heat from the filtration process. To think
of it another way, this would be
equivalent to a bartender pouring off
about an ounce and a half of your beer
before handing you the remaining 14.5
ounces!
Electrical Line Noise
Radio frequency interference (RFI),
electromagnetic interference (EMI) and
other voltage or frequency disturbances.
Electromagnetic Interference (EMI)
Electrical interference that can cause
equipment to work improperly, EMI can
be separated into conducted EMI
(interference conducted through cables
out of the UPS) and radiated EMI
(interference conducted through the air).
Energy Saver System (ESS)
Innovative technology from Eaton that
enables select UPS models to operate at
99 percent efficiency without
compromising reliability—not to be
confused with inferior “eco” modes.
ePDU
A power distribution unit that mounts to
rack enclosures and distributes power to
connected devices via a wide variety of
output receptacles.
Federal Communications Commission
(FCC)
A U.S. federal regulating body whose new
EMI limitations are affecting the design
and production of digital electronics
systems and their related subassemblies.
Flooded Batteries
A form of battery where the plates are
completely immersed in a liquid
electrolyte.
Frequency
The number of complete cycles of AC
voltage that occur during one second
(Hz). In North America, electrical current
is supplied mainly at 60 Hz, or 60 cycles
per second.
Green Field
A new data center with many possibilities
for sustainable and energy-efficient
designs.
Ground
A conducting connection, whether
intentional or accidental, by which an
electric circuit or equipment is connected
to the earth, or to some conducting body
of relatively large extent that serves in its
place.
Earth ground symbol
Harmonics
A sinusoidal component of an AC voltage
that’s multiple of the fundamental
waveform frequency. Certain harmonic
patterns may cause equipment problems
Harmonic Distortion
Regularly appearing distortion of the sine
wave which is converted into a complex
waveform at a multiple of the
fundamental frequency.
Hertz (Hz)
A unit of frequency equal to one cycle per
second.
High Efficiency Mode
A mode of UPS operation that cuts
energy usage and operating costs.
High Voltage (HV)
In the context of UPS products, high
voltage is anything ≥200V: 200V, 208V,
220V, 230V, 240V, 250V, 480V and 600V.
High Voltage Spike
Rapid voltage peaks up to 6,000 volts.
Hot Swappable
The ability to change a module without
taking the critical load off the UPS. Also
see “user replaceable.”
The batteries on this Eaton 9130 UPS are hot
swappable.
Insulated Gate Bipolar Transistor (IGBT)
A three-terminal power semiconductor
device, noted for high efficiency and fast
switching. It switches electric power in
many modern appliances such as electric
cars, trains and UPSs.
Impedance
The total opposition to alternating current
flow in an electrical circuit.
Input Voltage Range
The voltage range within which a UPS
operates in “normal” mode and doesn’t
require battery power.
Inrush Current
The maximum, instantaneous input
current drawn by an electrical device
when first turned on. Some electrical
devices draw several times their normal
full-load current when initially energized.
Kilovolt Ampere (kVA)
A common measurement of equipment
capacity equaling 1000 volt-amperes. An
approximation of available power in an AC
system that does not take the power
factor into account.
Kinetic Energy
The energy an object possesses because
of its motion.
Line Conditioner
A device intended to improve the quality
of the power that’s delivered to electrical
load equipment. A line conditioner is
generally designed to improve power
quality (e.g., proper voltage level, noise
suppression, transient impulse protection,
etc.).
Line Interactive
An offline UPS topology in which the
system interacts with the utility line to
regulate the power to the load. Provides
better protection than a standby system
but isn’t as fully prepared against
irregularities as a full double-conversion
system, making it the "Goldilocks" of UPS
topologies.
Linear Load
AC electrical loads where the voltage and
current waveforms are sinusoidal. The
current at any time is proportional to
voltage.
Load
The equipment connected to and
protected by a UPS. Pretty rockin’
Metallica album.
Load Segment
UPS configuration with separate
receptacle groups, enabling scheduled
shutdowns and maximum backup power
time for critical devices.
Inverter
UPS assembly that converts internal DC
power to output AC power to run the
user’s equipment. When the inverter is
supporting 100 percent of the load at all
times, as with an online UPS, there is no
break from utility to battery power.
IT Mulllet or Business Mullet
Blazer on the top, jeans on the bottom.
This Eaton 9130 UPS is equipped with two load
segments, each with three 5-15R
EATON UPS and Power Management Fundamentals Handbook
41
Low Voltage (LV)
In the context of UPS products, low
voltage is anything <200V (100V and
120V).
Ohm’s Law
The voltage (E) is equal to the current (I)
times the resistance (R). The formula is
written: E=IR.
Maintenance Bypass
An external wiring path to which the load
can be transferred to upgrade or perform
service on the UPS without powering
down the load.
Online
(1) A UPS that provides power to the load
from its inverter 100 percent of the time,
regulating BOTH voltage and frequency,
usually using double-conversion topology.
(2) The most convenient way to shop,
bank, get news, etc.
Make-Before-Break
Operational sequence of a switch or relay
where the new connection is made prior
to disconnecting the existing connection,
that’s also know as soft-load-transfer
switching.
Modbus
A serial communications protocol that’s
the most commonly available means of
connecting industrial electronic devices. It
allows for communication between many
devices connected to the same network.
Network Transient Protector
UPS feature that isolates networks,
modems and cables from power threats,
including surges and spikes.
Noise
(1) A disturbance that affects a signal; it
can distort the information carried by it.
(2) Random variations of one or more
characteristics of any entity, such as
voltage, current or data. (3) Loosely, any
disturbance tending to interfere with
normal operation of a device. (4) What
parents with children deal with every day.
Nominal Output Voltage
The intended, ideal voltage of any given
output.
Non-linear Load
AC electrical loads where the current is
not proportional to the voltage. Non-linear
loads often generate harmonics in the
current waveform that lead to distortion
of the voltage waveform.
Offline
Any UPS that doesn’t fit the definition of
online. Line-interactive and standby
topologies are offline, as are minor
skirmishes that take place just outside
the boardroom.
Ohm
The unit of measurement for electrical
resistance or opposition to current flow.
42
Orderly Shutdown
The sequenced shutdown of units
comprising a computer system to prevent
damage to it and subsequent corruption
or loss of data.
Output Waveform (UPS)
The shape of the graph of alternating
current on the output side of a UPS. The
highest quality of an output waveform
from a UPS is the sine wave, but, some
UPSs provide step waves or modified
sine waves.
90˚
180˚
270˚
360˚
Sine Wave
Parallel Operation
The ability of UPSs to be connected
so the current from corresponding
outputs can be combined into a
single load.
90˚
180˚
270˚
communication cables. Cable that runs
between floors in non-plenum areas is
rated as riser cable.
Plug and Play
An electrical device that doesn’t require
extensive setup to operate.
Power Factor (PF)
(1) The ratio of real power to apparent
power. Watts divided by VA. Most power
supplies used in communication and
computer equipment have a power factor
of 0.9.
(PF = 0.9)
VA x PF = W
W/PF = VA
(2) Why DeNiro can get immediate
seating in any restaurant he wants, and
you can’t.
Power Sag
Low voltage (below nominal 120 volts).
Power Surge
High voltage (above nominal 120 volts).
Pulse Width Modulation (PWM)
A circuit used in switching regulated
power supplies where the switching
frequency is held constant and the width
of the power pulse is varied, controlling
both lines and load changes with minimal
dissipation.
360˚
Partition
A logical division of a hard disk created
to have different operating systems on
the same hard disk or to create the
appearance of having separate hard
drives for file management, multiple
users, or other purposes.
Rackmount
Ability to mount an electrical assembly
into a standardized rack. Generally
stacked up to 42U and 19 inches wide
— about the size of a pizza box but not
as greasy.
Rack Unit (U)
A unit of height measurement in a rack
enclosure. A U is equivalent to 1.75
inches.
Peak Demand
The highest 15- or 30-minute demand
recorded during a 12-month period.
Phase
The time relationship between current
and voltage in AC circuits.
Plenum Cable
Cable that’s laid in the plenum spaces of
buildings to facilitate air circulation for
heating and air conditioning systems. The
plenum space is typically used to house
computer and telephone network
EATON UPS and Power Management Fundamentals Handbook
Four-post rail kit
The Eaton 5PX UPS occupies 2U of rack space and
the optional extended battery module also
occupies 2U.
Rail Kit
A set of metal brackets that allows the
installation of a UPS or extended battery
module in a 2- or 4-post rack.
UPS in a two-post rack
Rectifier
A UPS component that converts incoming
AC power to DC power for feeding the
inverter and charging the battery.
Rectifier Magazine (RM)
A module in the DC power system used
to connect the rectifiers in the power
system.
Redundancy
The ability to connect units in parallel so if
one fails the other(s) will provide
continual power to the load. This mode
is used in systems when power failure
can’t be tolerated.
Relay Communication
Communication between a UPS and
a computer through the opening and
closing of solid-state relays that are
pre-defined to indicate UPS status.
Root Mean Square (RMS)
A modified average. Averaging a sine
wave would give a zero, so to obtain
meaningful values, the wave is first
squared (S), then averaged over one
period (M) and finally the square root
taken (R). In a sine wave, the factor
between RMS and peak is the square
root of two. If you know what that
means, you’re pretty smart!
RS-232
(1) The standard for serial interfaces
(serial refers to the eight bits of each
character successively sent down one
wire) used by most computers, modems
and printers. (2) A little known droid in the
Star Wars trilogy.
Server room
Dedicated computer room with some
power and cooling, typically within an
office environment. Minimal redundancy
for power and cooling distribution.
Singular source of power and cooling.
(451 Research)
Server closet
Small room or closet with little to no
redundancy power and cooling
distribution. Singular source of power
and cooling. (451 Research)
Simple Network Management Protocal
(SNMP)
A User Datagram Protocol (UDP)-based
network protocol. It’s used mostly in
network management systems to
monitor network-attached devices for
conditions that warrant administrative
attention.
Sine Wave
A mathematical function that plots three
qualities of an electrical signal over time:
amplitude, frequency and phase. Clean,
uninterrupted power is represented by a
sine waves, which can also resemble
ocean waves, though they're rarely
perfect.
Single Phase
(1) Power system with one primary
waveform. Lower-capacity distribution of
power using only one portion of a power
source that’s three-phase, like what's
supplied by most electric utilities. Used
for heating and lighting, no large motors
or other heavy-drain devices. (2) That part
of junior high school in which you briefly
but fiercely embrace an unusual hobby or
interest, like lawn bowling, never to return
to it.
Sliding Demand
Calculating average demand by averaging
demand over several successive time
intervals, advancing one interval at a time.
Split-phase UPS
A UPS with two output phases
referenced to a neutral connection with a
specific phase displacement between
phases, which allows flexibility in load
configuration while maintaining the
availability of bypass. A split-phase UPS
can provide 120V and 208V on the output
simultaneously without the use of an
external transformer. The capabilities for
output are:
•P
hase to neutral 100, 110, 120 or
127 Vac
•P
hase to phase 200, 208, 220, 230, 240
Vac
Standby
(1) UPS type that "stands by," waiting for
a power problem from the utility company
and rapidly switching to UPS battery
power to protect equipment against
power failures, sags and surges. (2) The
person you call after your hot date falls
through, and the two of you go out for
milkshakes in your sweatpants instead.
Static Switch
An electrical component in a UPS that
turns power flow on and off on command
without moving or mechanical
components.
Step Load
An instantaneous change in the loading
conditions presented to the output of
a UPS.
Switching Frequency
The rate at which the source voltage
is switched in a switching regulator
or chopped in a DC-to-DC converter.
Technischer Uberwachungs-Verein (TUV)
An independent non-profit organization
that tests and certifies electrical
equipment for public safety in the U.S.
and worldwide.
The Far Side
The greatest cartoon strip ever. Created
by Gary Larson.
Thermal Regulation
Monitoring the temperature of the
batteries to ensure proper charging.
Three Phase
(1) Power supplied through at least three
wires, each carrying power from a
common generator but offset in its cycle
from the other two. Used for heavy-duty
applications. (2) The universal healing
process after buying inferior power
protection:
1. Denial
2. Anger
3. Calling Eaton
Topology (UPS)
The core technology of a UPS. Typically, a
UPS is either standby, line interactive or
online though other hybrid technologies
have been introduced.
Total Harmonic Distortion (THD)
(1) How much the circuit voltage deviates
from a perfect sine wave. When viewed
on a meter, a poor voltage THD is most
often manifested in a flat-topped
waveform that comes from the inability
of a power source to respond to the
demands of highly nonlinear loads. (2)
The parts of a difficult lecture that didn't
quite make it into your brain, but rather
united in a "blahblahblah" cacophony of
scratchy-sounding jargon and esoteric
corollaries.
Transfer Time
The length of time it takes a UPS to
transfer to battery power. Typically
measured in milliseconds (ms).
Transformer
(1) A magnetic device that converts AC
voltages to AC voltages at any level. An
ideal transformer is a lossless device in
which no energy is stored that requires
no magnetic current. (2) An alien robot
that can disguise itself by transforming
into everyday machinery.
Transient
(1) A temporary and brief change in a
given parameter, typically associated with
input voltage or output loading
parameters. (2) Transient killer whale pods
are generally comprised of an adult
female and two or three of her offspring.
Among the differences between residents
and transients are that while resident
orcas of both sexes stay within shouting
distance of their mothers their entire
lives, only first-born male transients
maintain such intense fidelity to their
mothers.
Unbalanced Load
(1) An AC power system using more than
two wires, where the current is not equal
due to an uneven loading of the phases.
(2) A load that makes your washing
machine go, “whump, whump, whump.”
Underwriters Laboratories (UL)
An independent non-profit organization
that tests for public safety in the U.S. UL
recognition is required for equipment
used in some applications.
Uninterruptible Power System (UPS)
(1) An electrical system designed to
provide instant, transient-free backup
power during power failure or fault. Some
UPSs also filter and/or regulate utility
power (line conditioning). (2) A Device
whose sole purpose is to save your
equipment, your data and your job.
User Replaceable
Capable of being replaced by an end user.
Connected equipment may need to be
shut down first. Also see “hot
swappable.”
Variable Module Management System
(VMMS)
Innovative technology from Eaton that
maximizes UPS efficiencies at low load
levels while supplying the load with
continuous double-conversion power.
Virtualization
The creation of a virtual (rather than
actual) version of something, such as an
operating system, server, storage device
or network resource. Operating system
virtualization is the use of software to
allow a piece of hardware to run multiple
operating system images at the same
time.
Volt/Voltage (V)
Electrical pressure that pushes current
through a circuit. High voltage in a
computer circuit is represented by 1,
while low (or zero) voltage is represented
by 0.
Volt Amps (VA)
(1) The voltage applied to a given piece of
equipment, multiplied by the current it
draws. Not to be confused with watts,
which are similar but represent the actual
power drawn by the equipment, and can
be somewhat lower than the VA rating.
(2) Legendary Brigadier General from
Planet Zap.
Watts (W)
The measure of real power. It’s the rate of
doing electrical work. W x 1.3 = VA.
Wye Connection
A connection of three components made
in such a manner that one end of each
component is connected. It’s generally
used to connect devices to a three-phase
power system.
EATON UPS and Power Management Fundamentals Handbook
43
For more information, please visit
Eaton.com/powerquality
Eaton
1000 Eaton Boulevard
Cleveland, OH 44122
United States
Eaton.com
© 2015 Eaton
All Rights Reserved
Printed in USA
COR172FYA / GG
April 2015
Eaton is a registered trademark .
All other trademarks are property
of their respective owners.
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