Yeast Dough Production
SECTION 28-2
Yeast Dough Production
"OBJECTIVES
After reading this section, you will be able to:
¢ Explain proper methods of preparing yeast breads and rolls.
« Describe the process of fermentation in yeast doughs.
* Identify common causes of failure in yeast bread production.
. * Prepare quality yeast breads.
Se
THE production of quality yeast breads and rolls requires good
technique, patience, and creativity. To produce a good yeast
product, you will need to learn different dough mix-
ing methods. The process of making yeast breads
and rolls is a fascinating one. This section will help fas
you understand that process. Practice will help you [3
produce quality yeast dough products.
4 YEAST DOUGH PREPARATION
Yeast breads and rolls can be prepared by tradi- 3. Fermentation.
tional “hand” methods. However, larger quanti- 4. Dividing dough. ;
E ties and faster turnover times are often required. 5. Rounding douch ;
Yeast breads and rolls can also be prepared + Founding douga. |
through an automated process known as continu- 6. Bench rest. |
ous bread making. 7. Shaping dough. |
The steps involved in making yeast breads vary 8. Panning dough. |
_ depending on the type of dough used and the 9. Final proofing. ;
item being produced. However, the same general 10. Baking d
stages apply to all yeast dough products. - Baking dough.
1. Scaling ingredients. 11. Cooling dough.
2. Mixing and kneading. 12. Packaging dough.
CHAPTER 28 Yeast Breads & Roils- —-837- Les ces | |
Keep the following quality guidelines in mind
when producing yeast breads and rolls:
« Maintain personal cleanliness at all times.
» Keep utensils, materials, and machinery clean
and in good working order.
« Use the best quality ingredients.
« Read all formulas carefully and measure ingre-
dients properly.
* Maintain the appropriate environmental
temperatures.
* Regulate dough temperatures.
* Serve only freshly baked and properly stored
yeast products.
PA MIXING METHODS
There are three basic methods of mixing yeast
dough ingredients: the straight-dough method,
the modified straight-dough method, and the
sponge method. Each of these methods gives its
own characteristics to the finished product. Each
method also affects the activity of the yeast and
the formation of the gluten.
Fig. 28-6. A bench mixer is used to mix the ingredients of
yeast breads and rolis.
638 UNIT 5 Baking & Pastry Applications
Straight-Dough Method
You will use the straight-dough method to mix
the ingredients for most basic breads. The
straight-dough method calls for mixing all the
ingredients together in a single step. Ingredients
may be mixed by hand or with a bench mixer. See
Fig. 28-6.
In doughs mixed by the straight-dough method,
the yeast begins acting on all the ingredients
immediately. As you continue mixing or working
the dough, the gluten develops.
Modified Straight-Dough Method
The modified straight-dough method breaks the
straight-dough method into steps. These steps
allow for a more even distribution of sugars and
fats throughout the dough. This modification is
commonly used when preparing rich doughs.
1. Dissolve the yeast in part of the water.
2. Combine the fat, sugar, salt, milk solids, and
flavorings.
3. Mix well, but do not whip.
4. Add eggs one at a time, as they are absorbed
into the mixture.
5. Add the rest of the liquids and mix briefly.
6. Add the flour and the dissolved yeast last.
7. Mix until a smooth dough forms.
Sponge Method
Some yeast products, such as crusty hearth
breads or sweeter doughs, benefit from the
sponge method. The sponge method allows the
yeast to develop separately before it is mixed with
the other ingredients. This method results in a
more intense flavor and a lighter, airy texture. The
sponge method makes a very soft, moist, and
absorbent dough. Here are the basic steps:
* Combine 50% water with 50% flour.
* Add the yeast. Sugar or malt may also be
added to this mixture to promote faster yeast
growth.
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USING THE “240 FACTOR”
Ideally, achieving and maintaining the
desired dough temperature would be a simple
matter of controlling the room temperature.
Because the desired dough temperature for
yeast doughs is 80°F and 80 X 3 = 240, the
correct water temperature is often called the
“240 factor.” You can control water tempera-
ture by adding ice to cool the water until it
reaches 240°E Several factors affect dough
temperature, including:
* Flour temperature.
* Room temperature.
* Friction temperature of the mixer speed.
This is 10-20°F for first speed, 20-30°F for
second speed, and 30~40°F for third speed.
In most cases, the friction temperature used
1s 30%
* Water temperature.
Of these, only the water temperature can be Е |
easily modified by the baker. Commercial bak-
other temperatures may be.
have developed a formula for cole Ta 2 808X3= 240. ЗА
ers have developed a formula for calculating ; -
the correct water temperature to achieve the SH 3. 66°F + 707. + 30°F = - 1667 un
desired dough temperature, no matter what the >
> The ideal v water r temperature is STA
The following example shows how the
desired dough temperature is used to calculate
the ideal water temperature:
Step 1. Check the desired dough temperature
in the formula.
Step 2. Multiply the desired dough tempera-
ture by 3.
Step 3. Add together the flour, room, and fric-
tion temperatures.
Step 4. Subtract the result of Step 3 from
240°F in Step 2.
Step 5. The result of Step 4 is the correct
water temperature for achieving the
desired dough temperature.
For © example:
1 Desired dough’ temperature = 80°F
- Flour temperature = 66°F
~ Room temperature = 70°F
“Friction: température = 307
4.240 ~ 16°F = 74°F
* Cover the sponge. Let it rise in a warm place
for two to three hours or until it doubles in
bulk.
* Combine the sponge with the remaining ingre-
dients either by hand or in a mixer.
One modification of the sponge method is
sometimes called the preferment method.
Preferment is the process of removing a portion
of the dough. It is kept dormant for 8-24 hours
and then added to the next day’s bread products.
This method enhances the fermentation, color,
and taste of the final baked products.
CHAPTER 28 Yeast Breads & Rolls—-639
4 MIXING & KNEADING
When you mix dough ingredients thoroughly, it
ensures even yeast distribution, gluten develop-
ment, and a uniform mixture. Once the ingredi-
ents are mixed, the dough must be kneaded to
further develop the gluten. Kneading means to
work the dough until it is smooth and elastic.
1. Grasp the dough and bring it toward you. See
Fig. 28-8A below.
RL,
to successful yeast dough products.
2. Form a fist and push the dough away with
your knuckles. See Fig. 28-8B below.
Le
79 SCALING INGREDIENTS
Accurate measurement, or scaling, of all ingre-
dients is critical in the preparation of yeast
doughs. Successful formulas are based on propor-
tional mixtures of ingredients. Too much or too lit-
tle of an ingredient will affect yeast activity,
gluten formation, and product quality.
Use a baker’s scale to weigh all ingredients that
are denser than milk or water. This includes flour,
yeast, shortening, eggs, honey, molasses, malt,
and oil. Milk and water may be measured with
volume measures. See Fig. 28-7.
Scale each ingredient separately. Make sure the
weight of each ingredient corresponds to the
weights called for in the formula. In some formu-
las, ingredients are given as a percentage of the
total weight of the flour. Foodservice operations
usually post procedures for converting percent-
ages to weights and weights to percentages.
E o CF
3. Repeat the process until the dough is smooth
and elastic. See Fig. 28-8C below.
|-———640-—UNIT 5 Baking & Pastry Applications
—
In continuous bread making or commercial bak-
ing, mixing and kneading are done in a spiral
mixer. There are four stages to this process.
m Pickup. Use a low speed to mix the water and
yeast. If oil is used, add it immediately after the
liquid ingredients. Then incorporate the dry ingre-
dients, and add solid fats or shortenings last.
Once all ingredients have been added to the
mixer, turn the speed to medium.
m Cleanup. During this stage the ingredients
come together into a ball around the dough hook.
The bottom of the mixing bowl can be clearly
seen. At this stage all liquid is absorbed into the
flour.
m Development. During this longest stage of mix-
ing and kneading, oxygen is incorporated into the
dough and gluten is developed. The dough will be
uneven in color and will tear easily.
m Final clear. This stage is reached when proper
gluten has developed. To verify gluten formation,
cut off a small piece of dough and stretch it apart
with your fingers. It should stretch to such a thin-
ness that light can be seen through the dough. You
should also be able to stretch the dough several
times without it breaking. At this point, remove
the dough from the mixer.
OVERMIXING—If you overmix or ov:
a regular yeast dough, you will cause the
ingredients in the dough to “let down.” A
let down is a condition in which the ingre-
dients in a dough completely break down.
Overmixed dough is warm and sticky and
falls apart easily. Adding flour can help off-
set overmixing to a certain extent. J
Fig. 28-9. This is a
dough thermometer.
54 FERMENTATION
Once a regular yeast dough has been kneaded
thoroughly by hand or has reached the final clear
stage in a mixer, the dough is ready for fermenta-
tion. Fermentation (fuhrmuhn-TAY-shuhn) is the
process by which yeast converts the sugars in
dough into alcohol and carbon dioxide. Gases that
are trapped in the gluten cause the dough to rise.
For fermentation to take place in dough, do the
following:
* Shape the kneaded dough into a ball.
* Coat it with a thin film of oil.
* Cover the dough to keep it from drying out.
Avoid popping any bubbles that may appear
beneath the dough surface.
* Place the dough in a proofing cabinet, or
proofer, which shields the dough from drafts
and temperature changes.
Use a probe thermometer to measure the dough
temperature before placing it in the proofer. See
Fig. 28-9. Tf youre not using a proofer, regularly
measure dough temperature throughout fermen-
tation. Remember that allowing dough to become
too cool will slow yeast action, while heat over
90°F will cause fermentation-to accelerate.
Fermentation is complete when the dough has
approximately doubled in size. You can test
whether fermentation is complete by inserting
two fingers into the dough up to the knuckles and
then removing them. If the finger pressure leaves
a slight impression around which the dough clos-
es very slowly, fermentation is complete. The
dough is then ready to be punched.
Breads 8: Rolls—641 ——— _
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rows PC
Fig. 28-10. To punch down dough, press your fist into the
middle of the dough. Then fold the outer edges to the
middle.
Punching
The action of turning the sides of the dough
into the middle and turning the dough over is
called punching. See Fig. 28-10. This is done by
pressing gently and firmly, not by hitting or
kneading the dough. Punching accomplishes four
important actions.
» Maintaining the dough temperature. By effec-
tively turning the dough inside out, punching
moves the cooler exterior surfaces to the middle.
This evens the dough temperature.
» Releasing carbon dioxide. If too much of the
gas developed during this first stage of fermenta-
tion remains within the dough, it will become
concentrated and slow the later stages of fermen-
tation.
a Introducing oxygen. Punching the dough
incorporates oxygen from the air.
m Developing gluten. Any handling of the dough
strengthens the gluten.
Dividing Dough
Once the dough has been punched, it must be
divided for baking. Commercial bread formulas
give portions by weight. To divide dough, use a
bench scraper to cut the dough into uniform
pieces. See Fig. 28-11. Weigh the pieces on a
baker's scale, as when scaling ingredients.
642 —UNIT 5 Baking & Pastry Applications
You will need to work quickly when portioning
dough. Fermentation continues during this
process. The last pieces portioned may become
overfermented if there is any delay. Keep the large
mass of dough covered as you work so its surface
does not dry out. If any small pieces of dough are
left, divide them evenly and add them to the larg-
er pieces. Tuck them under each portion so they
will be well incorporated. Otherwise the smaller
pieces will ferment too fast.
Rounding Dough
Divided dough must be rounded, or shaped,
into smooth balls. To do this, scale the dough with
a dough cutter. Put the dough on the bench. With
the palm of your hand, cup the dough with a cir-
cular motion, working the dough with your fin-
gertips. This will cause the dough to form into a
smooth, firm, round ball.
Rounding dough provides it with a skin to pre-
vent the loss of too much carbon dioxide. Some
formulas call for the dough to be folded over dur-
ing rounding. This provides a kind of secondary
punching after dividing. If the dough is not round-
ed, it will rise and bake unevenly, with a lumpy or
rough surface.
Fig. 28-11. Use a bench scraper to divide dough.
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When rounding, perform each of the subse-
quent actions, such as shaping and panning, in
the same order, so the dough ferments consistent-
ly. The first portion rounded should also be the
first piece to be shaped, and so on.
Bench Rest
Depending on the formula, at this time the
rounded portions may need to be placed in bench
boxes or left covered on the work bench. A bench
box is a covered container in which dough can be
placed before shaping. This short, intermediate
proofing stage, called a bench rest, allows the
gluten to relax. The dough becomes lighter, soft-
er, and easier to shape.
Shaping Dough
Once the portions have been properly rounded
and, if necessary, rested, they must be shaped.
Shaping forms the dough into the distinctive
shapes associated with yeast products. Some gen-
eral principles apply to the shaping process.
= Work quickly. Fermentation continues during
shaping. Cover the portions you are not working
with to prevent them from drying out.
® Shape pieces in order. Start with the first piece
you rounded. Maintain the same order to ensure
consistency.
a Use very little flour. A dusting of flour on your
hands and the work surface will keep the dough
from sticking. Too much will dry it out.
m Place any seam at the bottom. Seams, or the
places where edges of the dough meet, should be
straight and tight. The seam is the weakest part of
the piece. Seams can open during baking and ruin
the product’s shape.
m Shaping loaves. Although bread loaves come in
a wide variety of textures and tastes, there are
essentially two ways to shape dough into loaves.
Pan loaves are rolled and placed, seam down, into
prepared loaf pans. In baking, loaves receive their
characteristic shape from the support offered by
the high sides of the loaf pans. Free-form loaves,
such as braided loaves, are shaped by hand. They
are baked, seam side down, on flat pans or pad-
dies, or directly on a hearth. Use the following
steps to make braided loaves:
1. Divide dough into three parts. Roll into three
equal strips. See Fig. 28-12A below:
2. Cross strip 2 over strip 3. Cross strip 1 over
strip 2. Cross strip 2 over strip 1. Repeat until
half the bread is braided. See Fig. 28-12B
below.
3. Flip the bread over so the three unbraided
strips are facing you. Repeat step 2 until the
‘whole loaf is braided. See Fig. 28-12C below.
CHAPTER 28 Yeast Breads & Rolls——643
Juste TECHNIQUE: S O ft Ro Il S
See the Method of Preparation.
YIELD: 26 LBS., 15 OZ. (18 DOZEN) SERVING SIZE; ONE, 2-0OZ. ROLL
NUTRITION:
Calories; 141
Fat: 4.35 g INGREDIENTS
Protein: 2.62 q
9 Ibs. Water
Variations: 1 Ib. Dry milk solids
1. Rolls 1 1b 5 lated
2. Pecan rolls - ugal granurate
3. Cinnamon rolls 8 oz. Yeast, compressed _
4.Coffee cakes 14 Ibs. Flour, bread
4% oz. Salt
1 16. Shortening, vegetable
METHOD OF PREPARATION:
1. Gather the equipment and ingredients.
2. Scale the ingredients.
3. Soften the compressed yeast in part of the water. The water tem-
perature should be 78°-82°F.
4. Use the straight-dough method for mixing the dough. Combine all
of the ingredients in the bench mixing bowl.
5. Mix until proper gluten development occurs. To test the gluten
development, cut a small piece of dough from the mass in the
bowl. Stretch the dough to a thinness that allows light to clearly
shine through. If the dough can be stretched a few times without
tearing, it is ready for fermentation.
6. Lightly coat the dough with oil before putting it into the proof box.
7. Ferment the dough.
8. Punch the dough down when it is almost double in bulk. To test the
dough for punching readiness, insert two fingers into the dough. If
the indentation remains, the dough is ready for punching.
9. Divide the dough using a bench scraper.
10. Round the dough.
11. Allow the dough to rest for a short time to relax the gluten.
12. Shape the rolls.
13. Place the rolls in parchment-lined or lightly-greased pans.
14. Put the panned rolls into the proofing cabinet to ferment prior to
baking. The rolls are properly proofed when almost double in bulk,
or when the dough closes around a finger indentation without
collapsing.
15. Bake the rolls at 375°F for 20 minutes or until evenly browned.
ee 644 -—UNIT 5 Baking & Pastry Applications
;
» Shaping rolls. Yeast rolls are like individually
portioned loaves. Shape rolls with the same care
used to shape loaves. This will produce items with
an attractive, even surface and uniform size.
Depending on the formula, rolls may be shaped
and baked on flat sheets, like free-form loaves.
They may also be placed in special pans that offer
additional structure during baking. Cloverleaf and
butterflake rolls, for example, are baked in
greased muffin pans. Brioche (bree-OSH) rolls,
like brioche loaves, are baked in special fluted
tins. Pan rolls, Parker House rolls, and knots are
baked on flat sheets or in shallow baking pans.
When panning rolls, allow enough room
between the rolls to ensure even browning. Avoid
crowding. Most formulas indicate how many rolls
will fit on a sheet and how they should be placed.
See Fig, 28-13.
Panning Dough
Shaped dough is ready for panning, or placing
in the correct type of pan. Some items should be
shaped directly on the pan such as baguettes and
hearth-style breads. Each formula specifies the
size and type of pan to be used and indicates how
the pan should be prepared. In general, perforat-
ed pans dusted with cornmeal are used for baking
lean doughs. Sheet pans lined with parchment or
lightly greased are used for soft medium doughs.
54 FINAL PROOFING
The final fermentation stage for regular yeast
dough items is called final proofing. Proofing
allows the leavening action of yeast to achieve its
final strength before yeast cells are killed by hot
oven temperatures. Yeast dough items are proofed
once they have been shaped and panned.
Final proofing requires higher temperatures and
humidity levels than fermentation—temperatures
of 85°F-95°F and humidity levels of 80-90%.
The use of a proofer is essential to maintain these
conditions.
Fig. 28-13. A variety of rolls can be made by shaping
dough, ranging from simple pan rolls to more elaborate
Brioche, Parker house, clover leafs, and knots.
The length of the final proofing time depends
on the type of dough. Most doughs are fully
proofed when finger pressure leaves an indenta-
tion that closes slowly around the center but does
not collapse. Fully proofed items are slightly less
than double in size.
Proofing time is shortened for rich and sweet
doughs. This is done to keep the weight of the
heavier dough from collapsing during baking.
Some other items, such as rye breads, are also
deliberately underproofed. Underproofed dough
is known as young dough. Overproofed dough—
dough that has more than doubled in size during
final proofing—is called old dough.
74 WASHING, SLASHING &
DOCKING
Many yeast dough products require special
additional preparations before baking. These
preparations, called washing, slashing, and dock-
ing, affect the baking quality and eye appeal of
the finished items.
CHAPTER 28 Yeast Breads & Rolls—— 645
M TL
в Washing. Applying a thin glaze of liquid to
the dough’s surface before baking is called
adding a wash. Depending on the type of item
and the wash used, washing can lighten or
darken the crust’s color, and make the surface
shiny and glossy. See Fig. 28-14.
Apply the wash with a pastry brush, either
before or after proofing. Check the formula for
timing. If you apply the wash after proofing,
be careful not to puncture the surface and
deflate the dough. Use a small amount of
wash for each item. Avoid puddling or drip-
ping egg washes, which cause uneven brown-
ing. Excess washing can burn or cause items
to stick to the pan.
AVOIDING CONTAMINATION—Never apply an
egg wash to a product that has already been
baked. The egg will remain uncooked, pre-
senting the risk of salmonella bacteria.
в Slashing. Making shallow cuts in the surface of
the item, done just before baking, is called slash-
ing. Slashing, also called stippling, helps gases
escape from hard-crusted breads during baking.
This allows for higher rising and the development
of a more tender crumb. Improperly slashed
breads will burst or break along the sides during
baking. The patterns made by slashing, which
leave a scarred or cross-hatched impression in the
baked crust, also add visual appeal. See Fig. 28-
15. To slash dough, follow these guidelines:
* Use both hands, steadying the item with one
hand while you cut with the other.
* Use a utility blade; a sharp, unserrated knife;
or a clean, sharp razor. Blunt or serrated edges
bruise or tear the surface of the dough.
* Make shallow, slightly angled cuts, just under
the surface of the dough.
* Make all cuts of equal length, overlapping cuts
by one-third of their length.
* Make the slashes on the full surface of the
dough in a symmetrical pattern.
—— — 646 — У Мм1Т 5 Baking & Pastry Applications
нон
A crisp crust
A glossy, firm crust
A deep-colored, glossy crust
A deep-colored, soft, glossy - Whole egg & milk
crust | E
A deep-colored, soft crust “Milk
Fig. 28-14.
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bd
DESIRED
EFFECT
Water
“Egg white & water
‘Whole egg & water
x= Docking. The process of making small holes in
the surface of an item before baking is called
docking. Used primarily with rich doughs or
rolled-in doughs, docking allows steam to escape
and promotes even baking. Docking also keeps
rich doughs from rising too much during baking.
Follow the formula’s directions for docking. Use a
sharp-tined fork or a skewer to dock the dough.
bd BAKING YEAST DOUGH
Baking is the process that changes dough into
breads or rolls through the application of heat.
Oven temperature and baking time are deter-
mined by five factors.
m Dough type. Young, underfermented doughs
require cooler oven temperatures, higher humidi-
ty, and longer baking times than fully proofed
doughs. Old, overfermented doughs require high-
er oven temperatures, less humidity, and shorter
baking times.
m Dough richness. Lean doughs require higher
oven temperatures and shorter baking times. Rich
doughs require lower oven temperatures and
longer baking times.
w Portion size. Smaller items, such as rolls,
require shorter baking times than larger items,
such as loaves.
® Desired color. The desired color of the crust
often depends on the tastes of the customer.
Higher oven temperatures and longer baking
Fig. 28-15. Use a utility blade or sharp knife to make
slashes. Why are many breads slashed before baking?
times generally yield a darker crust color than
lower temperatures and shorter baking times. An
egg wash can add color to a crust that must be
baked at a low temperature or for a short time.
* Weather. Oven temperatures may need to be
adjusted to compensate for less-than-ideal
temperature and humidity conditions during
dough preparation. Altitude (AL-tuh-tood), or
the location of the baking site above sea level,
affects baking, too. The moisture in dough
evaporates more slowly at higher altitudes,
such as those found in mountainous areas.
Oven temperatures may be increased slightly
to prevent the dough from expanding too
much and breaking down the cell structure in
the bread.
Formulas will list the ideal oven temperature
and baking time. Slight adjustments may be nec-
essary. Appropriate placement of pans in the oven
is also important. Air and heat must be allowed to
circulate freely around the pans. This can be
accomplished by placing pans at the appropriate
distance from the heating element. Crowding the
oven slows baking time and results in unevenly
baked items.
a bread’s surface.
Baking with Steam
Breads with thin, crispy crusts, such as French
and Italian loaves, benefit from the addition of
steam to the oven during baking. The steam keeps
the crumb soft while adding a glossy shine to the
surface. As the sugars in the crust caramelize, a
thin, crispy crust is formed. See Fig. 28-16.
Some bakery ovens are equipped to inject a
desired amount of steam into the oven for several
seconds depending on the type of bread and the
formula. In ovens without steam injectors, a pan
can be added with just enough water so the water
evaporates during the early stages of baking.
Stages of Baking
As yeast dough products bake, their internal
temperatures rise. Each of the four stages of the
baking process contributes to the final product:
1. Oven spring. During the first five minutes of
baking, the dough suddenly rises and expands
as the yeast reacts to the heat of the oven.
This final leavening effort, occurring before
internal temperatures become hot enough to
kill the yeast cells, is called oven spring.
Steam injection helps achieve oven spring.
Oven spring will not occur if there is too much
salt or not enough yeast in the dough or if the
dough was overproofed. At this early stage,
the dough is very soft and will collapse if
touched.
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CHAPTER 28 Yeast Breads & Rolls-—#647 ———
2. Structure develops. As the
internal temperature rises
from 130°E, starch granules in
the dough begin to absorb
moisture and swell up. At
150% the starches gel and
become the final structure of
the bread. At 165% the
gluten begins to dry out and
coagulate as the starch gel
replaces it. The crumb is
formed during this stage.
3. Crust forms. At 165% the
crust begins to form as the
starches and sugar on the sur-
face of the dough brown and
thicken. The product will
appear done at this stage, but
additional baking time is
needed to evaporate the alco-
hol given off by the yeast.
Yeast products removed from
the oven too early will not
taste right.
4. Finished product. By the time the internal
temperature has reached 176% the alcohol
will have evaporated. Finished products have
an internal temperature of approximately
220%
Fig. 28-17.
Poor shape
Poor flavor
Testing for Doneness
Appearance is not the best test for doneness. A
better gauge of whether a product is done is the
thump test. Tap the top of the loaf. If the loaf gives
off a hollow sound, indicating that it is filled with
air and not moisture, it's done. If the bottom of
the loaf is damp or heavy, it probably requires
additional baking. Watch rolls and small loaves
carefully, as their bottom surfaces may burn
before the crust color develops fully.
Another way to test for doneness is to look at
the crust. If it is evenly brown on top and bottom,
it's done. With practice, you will come to recog-
nize the appropriate degree of browning and crust
formation. Fig. 28-17 explains some causes of
problems with yeast dough.
———648 UNIT 5 Baking & Pastry Applications
PRODUCT
FAILURE
Blisters on crust | * Too much liquid in dough.
Top crust separates ~» Loaf poorly shaped.
from the loaf
Large N * Too much yeast.
POSSIBLE CAUSE
* Too much liquid in dough.
Improper shaping of dough.
-» Incorrect proofing.
* Too much steam in oven.
—* Improper fermentation.
—* Top not slashed.
~* Dough dried out during proofing.
| + Lack of moisture in oven.
* Overkneaded dough.
—* Inadequate punching of dough.
Improper fermentation.
* Inferior, spoiled, or rancid ingredients.
$4 COOLING & STORING
YEAST PRODUCTS
Once a yeast dough product is removed from
the oven, it must be cooled and stored properly to
maintain the highest possible quality.
* Remove yeast products from their pans
immediately.
* Place them on cooling racks or screens at room
temperature. One exception is rolls baked on
sheets. These may be left on the sheets to cool,
if they are well spaced.
* Cool yeast products completely before slicing
or wrapping.
m Glazing. In some cases, you will brush melted
butter or shortening or a glaze onto a hot yeast
dough product immediately after removing it
from the oven. Sweet dough products such as cot-
fee cake and Danish pastry may be glazed with a
mixture of water and sugar or corn syrup while
they are still warm.
u Staling prevention. Yeast dough products
begin the process of staling as soon as they are
baked. Staling causes yeast dough products to
pile hl T= TAE
lose their freshness. During staling, the crust
becomes moist and tough, while the interior
crumb of the bread becomes dry and crumbly.
Staling also causes breads to lose flavor. There are
several procedures for slowing the staling process.
1. Additions to dough. Depending on the for-
mula, ingredients such as malt syrup may be
added to the dough at the mixing process to
help slow staling. Commercial bakeries may
also add chemicals such as monoglycerides
(MAH-noh-glih-suh-ryds) and calcium propi-
onate (PRO-pee-uh-nate) to lengthen shelf
life,
2. Adequate proofing. Underproofed items stale
more quickly than those that have received
proper proofing.
3. Avoid refrigeration. Refrigeration speeds up
the staling process of yeast breads.
® Proper packaging and storage. Do not wrap
products while they are still warm. Most breads
should not be kept for more than one day in a
foodservice operation. If you're keeping them
longer than one day, wrap them tightly in mois-
ture-proof wrapping and store them in a freezer to
prevent staling. Wrap items with thin, crisp crusts,
such as French baguettes, in paper. They will lose
their characteristic crunchiness and become soggy
if wrapped in plastic. Soft dough products can be
packaged in paper or plastic. Sweet dough prod-
ucts can be packaged in a pastry box or wrapped
in plastic. See Fig. 28-18.
4 SERVING BREADS & ROLLS
Yeast breads and rolls can be served at break-
fast, lunch, or dinner. They can be part of or
served with every course of a meal, from appetiz-
ers to salads to desserts.
A variety of spreads can be used with yeast
breads and rolls. In addition to butter, other com-
mon spreads include cream cheese, flavored but-
ter, jellies and jams, and olive oil.
Fig. 28-18. Properly “un 7 of
wrapping and storing Le
yeast products is essential for
maintaining quality products.
1. List, in à order, the s stages involved din making
| regulary yeast dough products, e
| MINI LAB
Prepare the Soft Rolls formula on page
CHAPTER 28 Yeast Breads & Rolls--—649 ———
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