RD-0039-0201 - Silicon Labs

RD-0039-0201 - Silicon Labs
UG120: Zigbee® Capacitive Sense Dimmer
Switch Reference Design (RD-0039-0201)
Kit User's Guide
The Silicon Labs Zigbee HA (Home Automation) 1.2-based capacitive sense dimmer
switch reference design uses the EM3587 wireless microcontroller (MCU), which reduces development costs and enables faster time to market for customers. This document contains instructions and guidelines for the following: a quick-start demonstration
and next steps, system overview and operations, hardware and firmware considerations, and engineering and manufacturing testing.
KEY POINTS
• Zigbee On-Off Dimmer Switch
• HA 1.2 and FCC Certifiable
• Hardware and Firmware Considerations
• Engineering and Manufacturing Testing
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UG120: Zigbee® Capacitive Sense Dimmer Switch Reference Design (RD-0039-0201) Kit User's Guide
Introduction
1. Introduction
This document describes the Silicon Labs Zigee HA 1.2-based capacitive sense dimmer switch reference design (Figure 1.1 Zigbee
Capacitive Sense Dimmer Switch Reference Design on page 2) using the EM3587 wireless microcontroller (MCU) which reduces
development costs and enables faster time to market for customers. This reference design can be directly integrated into a connected
zigbee home automation lighting application shown in Figure 1.2 Connected Capacitive Sense Dimmer Switch Application Example on
page 2. The capacitive sense dimmer switch comes preprogrammed and ready to demonstrate out of the box. All hardware design
files and firmware application source code are available.
Figure 1.1. Zigbee Capacitive Sense Dimmer Switch Reference Design
ZigBee HA 1.2
Gateway
ZigBee Capacitive Sense
Dimmer Switch
ZigBee Connected Lighting
Figure 1.2. Connected Capacitive Sense Dimmer Switch Application Example
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UG120: Zigbee® Capacitive Sense Dimmer Switch Reference Design (RD-0039-0201) Kit User's Guide
Quick Start Demonstration
2. Quick Start Demonstration
A video showing the quick start demonstration is available at https://www.silabs.com/zigbeedimmer.
1. Setup an HA 1.2 zigbee gateway.
To use the dimmer switch in a zigbee network, it needs to connect to a zigbee coordinator (gateway). Silicon Labs offers the
RD-0002-0201 Zigbee Wi-Fi/Ethernet Gateway (sold separately) for the purpose of evaluating the zigbee capacitive sense dimmer
switch reference design. A commercially available Home Automation (HA) 1.2 compliant gateway that supports a level control
switch with device profile ID = 0x0001 will also work for this purpose.
2. Supply power to the zigbee capacitive sense dimmer switch.
a. If present, remove the white battery tab that separates the battery from its battery connector.
b. Verify switch SW1 is set to BAT.
3. Connect the zigbee capacitive sense dimmer switch to the zigbee network.
a. Follow the directions provided with the zigbee gateway to enable the capacitive sense dimmer switch reference design to join
its zigbee network.
b. Depress and hold S3 join button for two seconds to begin the network join procedure.
c. The demo board has joined the zigbee network when the green LED, D2, blinks six times.
d. The gateway should connect with a zigbee lightbulb.
e. The gateway should have a rule to bind the dimmer to the lightbulb.
4. Demonstrate zigbee capacitive sense dimmer switch functionality.
a. To turn ON a light, tap the top capacitive sense pad outlined in black.
b. To turn OFF a light, tap the bottom capacitive sense pad outlined in black.
c. While the light is on, hold the bottom capacitive sense pad to decrease light intensity.
d. To increase light intensity, hold the top capacitive sense pad.
e. To demonstrate color hue and temperature control with a connected color bulb, refer to Section 5.2 Capacitive Sense Behavior.
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UG120: Zigbee® Capacitive Sense Dimmer Switch Reference Design (RD-0039-0201) Kit User's Guide
Recommended Next Steps
3. Recommended Next Steps
A video showing the recommended next steps is available at http://www.silabs.com/zigbeedimmer.
3.1 Evaluate the Dimmer Switch
The ZigBee capacitive sense dimmer switch reference design has been developed to support most capacitive sense dimmer switch
application requirements. Typical areas for evaluation include:
1. ZigBee network behavior, such as network join and leave.
2. User control of lighting behavior.
3. RF performance, such as range.
3.2 Evaluate the Firmware
If firmware modification is needed to support your application:
1. Visit the ZigBee Getting Started page and order a development kit.
2. Refer to Section 7. EM3587 ZigBee Firmware of this document to learn how to easily modify features, such as LED behavior and
RF power levels.
3.3 Build a Proof of Concept
Out of the box, the capacitive sense dimmer switch reference design can be used for a rapid proof of concept. The front graphic is
merely a clear sticker and can easily be replaced with any sort of company logo/design. The sticker dimensions are shown in the figure
below. Refer to Section 7. EM3587 ZigBee Firmware to change behavior of the capacitive sense functionality.
1 1/8
1/8
19/32
1 3/32
19/32
1/8
Reference measurements in inches.
Blue outline is for reference and not meant
to be part of the sticker.
Figure 3.1. Sticker Dimensions
3.4 System Integration
Section 6. Hardware of this document describes the considerations for integrating the reference design into a typical application. Often
the reference design can be designed into a system without modification. In cases where a change is required, the hardware section of
this document also offers modification guidelines.
3.5 Engineering and Manufacturing Test
Section 9. Engineering Tests of this document provide engineering test results, such as FCC and HA 1.2.
Section 10. Manufacturing Tests of this document offers considerations for simplified manufacturing tests.
3.6 Manufacturing
Please contact Silicon Labs if you would like access to our manufacturing partner network for the reference design or a modified version of the design.
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UG120: Zigbee® Capacitive Sense Dimmer Switch Reference Design (RD-0039-0201) Kit User's Guide
Overview
4. Overview
4.1 Part Numbers
The part number convention is RD-XXXX-YYYY, where:
RD
Reference Design
XXXX
Reference Design Number
YYYY
Reference Design Component
This document will call out the reference design number (i.e., RD-XXXX) when describing the complete design and the reference design component (i.e., RD-XXXX-YYYY) when describing a specific component.
The table below provides a description and PCB marking for each part number.
Note: Some cases lack sufficient space on the PCB, and an internal “IST” marking appears on the PCB instead of the “RD” part number.
Table 4.1. Part Numbers and Description
Part Number
PCB Marking
RD-0039-0201
N/A
RD-0039-0101
IST-A39 Rev 2.0
Description
ZigBee Capacitive Sense Dimmer Switch Reference Design Kit with
EM3587, EFM8SB1, and PCB Antenna.
ZigBee Capacitive Sense Dimmer Switch Reference Design Evaluation
Board with EM3587, EFM8SB1, and PCB Antenna.
4.2 ZigBee Capacitive Sense Dimmer Switch Reference Design Kit
Kit Contents:
• ZigBee Capacitive Sense Dimmer Switch Reference Design with CR2032 battery and battery tab.
• Quick start card to obtain the latest reference design collateral.
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Overview
4.3 ZigBee Capacitive Sense Dimmer Switch Reference Design
This reference design contains many features for the evaluation of the capacitive sense dimmer switch, including:
Table 4.2. ZigBee Capacitive Sense Dimmer Switch Reference Design Features
Reference Design Features
Benefit
Six capacitive sense pads
Senses user taps, holds and lateral swipes.
Two status LEDs
Provides capacitive sense feedback and dimmer status.
10-pin ISA3 compatible connector
Facilitates ZigBee wireless packet trace debugging.
Join button
Eases network commissioning (join/leave).
Test points
Simplifies hardware-level debugging.
CR2032 battery holder
Supports low-cost, small footprint battery.
Micro-USB connector
Connects to the capacitive sense profiler in Simplicity Studio.
EFM8SB1 Programming Pins
Used for capacitive sense development with Simplicity Studio.
Figure 4.1. Reference Design Printed Circuit Board Diagram (Front and Back)
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Overview
4.4 Feature List
Microcontroller and Transceiver Features:
• EM3587 with 32-bit ARM® Cortex®-M3 processor.
• 2.4-GHz IEEE 802.15.4-2003 transceiver & lower MAC.
• AES-128 encryption accelerator.
• Flexible ADC, UART/SPI/TWI serial communications, and general purpose timers.
• Highly efficient Thumb-2 instruction set.
• EFM8SB1 capacitive sense MCU.
ZigBee Capacitive Sense Dimmer Switch Reference Design Hardware Features:
• Integrated PCB antenna.
• Pushbutton for network join.
• Network/status and capacitive sense feedback LEDs.
• Full packet trace port for RF communications debugging.
• 2.1 V to 3.6 V operation.
• Fully qualified BOM for 0 to 55 ºC operation.
• Up to +8dBm TX power.
• 512 kB user programmable flash with 64 kB RAM.
• Pre-certified FCC Part 15.
ZigBee Capacitive Sense Dimmer Switch Reference Design Firmware Features:
• Precompiled and source application firmware.
• Over-the-Air (OTA) upgradable.
• ZigBee HA 1.2 pre-certifiable clusters: basic, power configuration, identify, on/off, level control, OTA upgrade, diagnostics.
• Application firmware (source code) available in the EmberZNet™ PRO stack library.
• Application firmware (source code) available for EFM8SB1 capacitive sense available in Simplicity Studio.
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UG120: Zigbee® Capacitive Sense Dimmer Switch Reference Design (RD-0039-0201) Kit User's Guide
Operation
5. Operation
5.1 ZigBee Network Behavior
This section will describe the various operational states a powered capacitive sense dimmer switch reference design is able to occupy
as it joins and leaves a ZigBee network. The input mechanism for operation utilizes a join button, S3. A button assertion for at least a
second and releasing equates to an input button press. The green LEDs operate as output signaling information as the reference design traverses or occupies a functional state. Refer to the figure below for a pictorial representation of this process.
IDENTIFY
Two LED flashes per
two seconds for three minutes
Mode time out
Two button presses
OFF NETWORK
ON NETWORK
No LED Flashes
No LED flashes
No joinable network
found for three minutes
Three button presses
Six LED flashes
Mode time out
Button press,
or power cycle
ACTIVE NTWK SEARCH
NETWORK JOIN
w
et
N
Six LED flashes
No response from network
-or4 button presses
-orpower cycle
d
un
fo
Joinable network
found
k
or
One LED flash per
two seconds
NETWORK STATUS
No response from
network, wait
15 minutes
One button
press >1 second
A button press resets
three minute timer
Blink cycle ends
LEAVE NETWORK
Three LED flashes per
two seconds
REJOIN NETWORK
One button
press >1 second
No LED flashes
Figure 5.1. Device Operation State Diagram
5.1.1 First Time Demo Board Power-up
After the hardware has been powered for the first time, the device will be in a factory default mode and will be placed in the ACTIVE
NTWK SEARCH state. If the dimmer switch successfully joins a network and is powered off at a later time, upon re-powering, it will
enter the REJOIN NETWORK state instead of the ACTIVE NTWK SEARCH state.
5.1.2 OFF NETWORK State
This state is a condition where the design is not connected to a network and is not searching for a network. To leave this state and
enter the ACTIVE NTWK SEARCH state, press the S3 button once.
5.1.3 ACTIVE NTWK SEARCH State
This state is a condition where the dimmer switch is actively searching for a network but has not joined a network. While in this mode,
the D2 LED will flash once per two seconds. This operation of actively searching for a network will remain for up to three minutes. If no
network is found by that time limit, the dimmer switch will enter the OFF NETWORK state. Power-cycling or an S3 button press in this
state will reset the three minute timer, while keeping the reference design in this state. If a network is found, it will leave this state and
enter the NETWORK JOIN state.
5.1.4 NETWORK JOIN State
After a dimmer switch leaves the ACTIVE NTWK SEARCH state and enters this state, the D2 LED will flash six times to indicate successfully finding and joining a network. This state is temporary and will place the dimmer switch into the ON NETWORK state once the
LEDs complete their flash sequence.
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Operation
5.1.5 ON-NETWORK State
This state is a condition where the dimmer switch is connected to a ZigBee HA 1.2 network and is not searching for another network.
While in this state, the green LEDs on the dimmer switch will not be illuminated unless in a color tab mode. This state contains multiple
entry and exit paths depending on various factors, such as the number of S3 button presses that are within 0.5 second of each consecutive press.
If the power to the dimmer switch is removed and later restored, the reference design will enter the REJOIN NETWORK state and will
not seek other networks unless the user forces the design to leave its joined network (as will be described later within this section).
If S3 is pressed once for longer than one second, the reference design will enter the LEAVE NETWORK state.
If S3 is pressed two times, the reference design will temporarily enter the IDENTIFY state while remaining on its joined network.
If S3 is pressed three times, the reference design will temporarily enter the NETWORK STATUS state while remaining on its joined
network.
If S3 is pressed four times, the reference design will enter the REJOIN NETWORK state.
5.1.6 IDENTIFY State
The purpose of this state is to help an installer (or user) identify which device is being communicated to by visually flashing the D2 LED
in a specified pattern to locate the targeted device. After a dimmer switch leaves the ON-NETWORK state and enters this state, the D2
LED will flash twice per second if on a network then pause for a full second, repeating the pattern for up to three minutes. This state is
temporary and will return the reference design into the ON NETWORK state once the state’s timer reaches its time limit, or if one of the
capacitve sense pads is pressed at least once.
If not on a network, it will enter the ACTIVE NTWK SEARCH state.
If power cycled while in this state, the design will enter the REJOIN NETWORK state.
5.1.7 NETWORK STATUS State
This state helps an installer (or user) to identify if a device is successfully connected to a network. After a dimmer switch leaves the ONNETWORK state and enters this state, the D2 LED will flash six times if on a network. This state is temporary and will return the dimmer switch into the ON-NETWORK state once the state’s timer reaches its time limit, or if one of the capacitive sense pads is pressed
at least once.
If not on a network, it will enter the ACTIVE NTWK SEARCH state.
If power cycled while in this state, the design will enter the REJOIN NETWORK state.
5.1.8 REJOIN NETWORK State
The purpose of this state is to ensure the design can successfully rejoin a previously joined network with little user intervention, while
minimizing battery drain when searching for the network on both its original connected channel as well as searching on all channels for
the network. Upon locating its original joined network, the design will enter the ON NETWORK state where it will rejoin the network. No
LED flashes will occur during this transition.
For battery savings, if it receives no response from the network, the device will wait 15 minutes before attempting to search for the
network.
If S3 is pressed once for longer than one second, the reference design will enter the LEAVE NETWORK state.
5.1.9 LEAVE NETWORK State
Upon entering this state, the dimmer switch will leave the joined network and will indicate this process is in action by flashing the D2
LED three times within a two second period. This state is temporary and will place the dimmer switch into the ACTIVE NTWK SEARCH
state once the LEDs complete their flash sequence.
5.2 Capacitive Sense Behavior
ZigBee Capacitive Sense Dimmer Switch Reference Design utilizes capacitive sense points and LEDs to guide a user through controlling a ZigBee lightbulb that is bound to the switch.
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Operation
5.2.1 Capacitive Sense Features
The inputs are based on a user depressing capacitive sense areas on the reference design. This design has six capacitive sense points
(CS1, CS2, CS3, CS4, CS5, CS6). CS1, CS2, and CS3 are grouped and located along the top area of the PCB design next to the two
LEDS. CS4, CS5, and CS6 are grouped and located on the bottom area of the PCB design.
In the basic functionality of this design, if the switch is bound to a ZigBee light, tapping any of the CS1, CS2, or CS3 sense points will
turn a light on. Tapping any CS4, CS5, or CS6 sense points will turn a light off. A static hold on C1, C2, or C3 will increase the intensity
of an already lit light bulb. A static hold on C4, C5, or C6 will decrease the intensity on an already lit light bulb.
Note: If a dimmed bulb reaches a visually off state, use hold on C1, C2, or C3 to reactivate the light.
To access advanced features, swiping across sense points CS1 to CS3 (or in reverse) or CS4 to CS6 (or in reverse) will set the dimmer
into new tab states with the LEDs providing visual feedback to a user on which mode they are in.
Swiping across the three sense points should occur for a duration of at least 500 milliseconds, and will ensure the swipe is validated by
the reference design.
User features are visually shown in the figure below.
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Operation
Switch Pages
Swipe left or right
to change page.
Page selection is
indicated by LEDs.
Normal Page (Default)
Tap to turn on.
Hold to dim up.
Tap to turn off.
Hold to dim down.
Color Temperature Page (Swipe Right-to-Left)
Hold to move
color temp down.
Hold to move
color temp up.
Hue Page (Swipe Left-to-Right)
Hold to cycle
color to the right.
Hold to cycle
color to the left.
Figure 5.2. ZigBee Capacitive Sense Dimmer Switch Advanced Features
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Operation
The two LEDs provide network status, indicate valid capacitive sense command from a user was received, and which tab mode the
sense points are current set.
Table 5.1. LED Features
No Network
State
LED D1
LED D2
Active Network Scan
OFF
Slow Blink
Network Join
OFF
Rapid Blink
Normal Tab
OFF
Blink = valid capacitive sense
Network Connected
OFF = no valid capacitive sense
Color Temperature Tab
Static ON
Blink = valid capacitive sense
OFF = no valid capacitive sense
Color Hue Tab
Blink = valid capacitive sense
Static ON
OFF = no valid capacitive sense
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Hardware
6. Hardware
This section describes the key aspects of the reference design.
6.1 ZigBee Capacitive Sense Dimmer Switch Reference Design RD-0039
This section describes the key hardware specifics of the RD-0039 module.
Key Highlights:
• EM3587 ZigBee Pro radio with embedded flash.
• EFM8SB1 capacitive sense MCU.
• Two-layer 0.062” printed circuit board with all components on primary side.
• 6-pin 0.050” board header with VDD, GND and four PWM output pins.
Chip balun +
PCB antenna
EM3587 with ARM Cortex M3
Ember ZNET
PRO ZigBee
Stack
XTAL
Optional
Flash
Contact
Sensor
Firmware
EFM8SBI
Capacitive
touch MCU
Packet trace
+ debug
header
Capacitive
touch points
LEDs +
pushbutton
Figure 6.1. Reference Design Block Diagram
LED D1
LED D2
EFM8SB1
capsense
profiler port
S3 button
Optional flash
CS3
CS2
CS1
UART-to-USB
for capsense
profiler
Packet trace port
LEDs
EFM8SB1
programming
header
Switch for Normal
(BAT) or packet
trace mode (EXT)
EFM8SB1 MCU
EM3587
CR2032 holder
CS4
CS6
PCB trace antenna
CS5
Figure 6.2. Reference Design Front and Back
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Hardware
Figure 6.3. PCB Test Points
Table 6.1. Connector Pin Assignments
Packet Trace Port
Pin Number
PCB Pin Name
ISA3 Pin Name
Pin Functions
Description
1
3.3_ISA
VBRD
2
JTDO
PC2
JTDO/ SWO
JTAG Data Out, Serial Wire Out
3
JRST
PC0
nJRST
JTAG Reset
4
JTDI
PC3
JTDI
JTAG Data In
5
GND
GND
6
JTCK
SWCLK
JTCK/SWCLK
JTAG Clock, Serial Wire Clock
7
JTMS
PC4
JTMS/SWDIO
JTAG Mode Select, Serial Wire
Data In/Out
8
NRESET
nRESET
9
PTI_EN
PA4
PTF
Packet Trace Enable
10
PTI_DATA
PA5
PTD
Packet Trace Data
Supply Voltage
Ground
EM3xx Reset
Note:
1. The debug connector is compatible with the ISA3 packet trace port connector when placed on the bottom side of the PCB.
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Hardware
6.2 Hardware Modification Guidelines
For users who wish to modify the reference design, we offer guidelines below for what to expect in the modification process.
6.2.1 Alternate Footprint Parts
For a slightly longer battery life and only supporting ZigBee, the EM357 can be used instead of EM3587.
Note: The EM357 cannot support the upcoming Thread protocol.
6.2.2 Avoid Modification
All changes listed here may have serious impacts on performance:
• Modifying the spacing between the EM3587 and balun
• Changing the PCB antenna length/shape
• Changing any part of the ground pour area
6.2.3 Bill of Material Cost-saving Options
To further reduce overall bill of material (BOM) cost of this dimmer switch, see the schematic for complete information on which components can be depopulated in mass production.
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EM3587 ZigBee Firmware
7. EM3587 ZigBee Firmware
This section describes the capacitive sense dimmer switch reference design's ZigBee application firmware.
7.1 Obtaining the Firmware Application
The firmware application in pre-compiled binary form is available for download from https://www.silabs.com/zigbeedimmer. The firmware application source code is available as part of EmberZNet PRO, which is available to registered users of a development kit. For
more information visit the ZigBee Getting Started page.
7.2 Programming the EM3587
The reference design provides two methods to reprogram the EM3587:
• Using the ISA3 header with an .s37 or .hex image file.
• Using the over-the-air (OTA) upgrade feature with an .ota image file.
7.2.1 Board Header Reprogramming
The dimmer switch can be reprogrammed with an available .s37 or .hex file and an ISA3 programmer. Please refer to Silicon Labs’
UG110: Ember® EM35x Development User’s Guide on ISA3 for more information on how to successfully program the demo board with
the ISA3 programmer. The ISA3 connector on the demo board is the J1 header. Notice the orientation of the connector, where the
keyed side of the connector corresponds to the ISA3 key marking found with the silkscreen drawing surrounding the J1 header.
7.2.2 Over-the-Air Reprogramming
The demo board can be reprogrammed with an available .ota file and a device that can perform OTA upgrades such as the
RD-0002-0101 ZigBee USB Gateway Reference Design Kit with EM3588 supported by Silicon Labs. Refer to the gateway documentation for more information on how to reprogram via OTA upgrade.
7.3 Build Instructions
The instructions below describe how to build the EM3587 firmware.
1. Install EmberZNet PRO™ 5.4.4.
Note: You must have installed Ember Desktop version 3.3 build 1913 or later for this stack release to work.
2. Create a new Application Framework Configuration in AppBuilder and select the 5.4.4 stack release.
3. Create a project using HaContactSensor sample application.
4. In AppBuilder under the “hal configuration tab”, select the EM3587 chip.
5. Generate and note the directory in which the project files were created.
6. Save the Ember Desktop project file into the directory you just created.
7. Compile in IAR version 7.30.1 or later.
At this point, users can load the image into the capacitive sense dimmer switch reference design.
7.4 Cluster Support
This section details clusters that were developed as part of this project.
• Basic
• Power Configuration
• Identify
• On/Off
• Level Control
• OTA boot-loading
• Diagnostics
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EFM8SB1 Firmware
8. EFM8SB1 Firmware
This section describes the capacitive sense dimmer switch reference design application firmware. The EFM8SB1 firmware responds to
valid inputs on its six capacitive sense pads. The firmware communicates the following eight types of gestures to the EM3587, which
hosts the main application:
• Top Row: tap, hold, swipe-left, swipe-right.
• Bottom Row: tap, hold, swipe-left, swipe-right.
These gestures allow for application flexibility. If more complex gesture recognition is needed, the EFM8SB1 firmware can be modified.
8.1 Obtaining the Firmware Application
The firmware application in pre-compiled binary form is available for download from: http://www.silabs.com/zigbeedimmer. The firmware
application source code is available as part of Simplicity Studio’s v3.1 or higher. For more information, visit the Simplicity Studio page:
http://www.silabs.com/simplicity-studio.
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EFM8SB1 Firmware
8.2 Programming the EFM8SB1
The reference design provides board headers to re-program the EFM8SB1 with an available .hex file and a USB Debug Adapter for
EFM8 MCUs. Information regarding the USB Debug Adapter can be found here: http://www.silabs.com/products/mcu/Pages/USBDebug.aspx. In addition, a micro-USB to USB cable will be needed as both a power source and for using the Capacitive Sense Profiler
tool found in Simplicity Studio. Two connectors on the reference design are used to program the EFM8SB1 (shown in the figure below):
• J8 micro USB power port, which is also used for the EFM8SB1 Capacitive Sense Profiler.
• The GND, RST, and P2.7/C2D metallic hooks labeled SB1 DEBUG.
Figure 8.1. EM3587 Programming Headers
The USB Debug Adapter and SB1 DEBUG hooks will require individual wiring connectors to complete the connection. To mate these
signals, refer to the table below:
Table 8.1. EFM8SB1 Programming Connection
USB Debug Adapter
SB1 DEBUG
Pin 4
P2.7/C2D
Pin 7
RST
Pin 9
GND
The programming steps are listed below:
1. Attach the USB Debug Adapter to the GND, RST, and P2.7/C2D test hooks.
2. Plug the micro USB cable into J8, and the other end of this cable to a USB power source. When using the Capacitive Sense Profiler this USB connection should be connected to the computer with Simplicity Studio.
3. Once all cables are connected to the reference design, open Simplicity Studio.
4. In the "Enter Product Name" box on the left panel, type: "EFM8SB10F8G" and select it in the pop-up window.
5. "EFM8SB10F8G" should be listed in the favorites and expanded.
6. Click the "Flash Programmer" tile.
7. If the "Device Detection" menu appears, click the entry for "EFM8SB10F8G-QFN20 (EC30001D236)" and click "OK". If this entry is
not available, hold one of the cap sense pads and press the refresh button, which will prevent the EFM8SB1 from entering a sleep
state, and thus ensure that it is detected by Simplicity Studio.
8. Click the "Browse" button, then browse to the location of the .hex binary.
9. Click the "Program button.
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EFM8SB1 Firmware
8.3 Build Instructions
The instructions below describe how to build the EFM8SB1 firmware:
1. Once downloaded as found in Section 8.1 Obtaining the Firmware Application, open Simplicity Studio.
2. In the "Enter Product Name" box on the left panel, type: "EFM8SB10F8G" and select it in the pop-up window. "EFM8SB10F8G"
should be listed in the favorites and expanded.
3. On the right panel, select the "Application Notes" tile.
4. Scroll to UG120: "Zigbee Capacitive Sense Dimmer Switch Reference Design (RD-0039-0201)" and click on it.
5. Click on the “Import Project ..” button on the lower portion of the visible window.
6. In the “Choose a Project” window, select the "EFM8SB1_RD0039.slsproj" project and click "OK".
7. This will open the "Development Project Explorer".
a. From here either select various files in the left panel, which will open in the right panel.
b. Edits to files can be made in the right panel on selected files.
8. To build the project, in the menu select "Project" → "Build Project".
At this point, users can load the image into the capacitive sense dimmer switch reference design.
8.4 Source Code Description
The following sections describe the CapTouchGestureDetect and CapTouchProfiler directory source files and how it relates to specific
capacitive sense functional behavior within the reference design. The CapTouchGestureDetect are the files associated with the reference design application. The CapTouchProfiler is used in conjunction with the Capacitive Sense Profiler to optimize the responsiveness
of the reference design's capacitive sense pads and power use.
8.4.1 Low Power Management
lib/efm8sb1/cslib/device_layer/hardware_routines.c
• Function executeConversion() should contain an if statement, checking if disableSleepandStall is set or not. This makes sure
that the SB1 stays awake during an I2C send.
• Function executeConversion() also contains: CS0THH = 0 and CS0THL = 0. This sets the SB1 to enter suspend mode during a
conversion, so that the SB1 is not awake and consuming 3 mA during the entire 600 μs conversion while it checks for a touch every
several hundred milliseconds.
src/device_init.c
• This sets CLKSEL = 0x04, which specifies using the low power oscillator.
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EFM8SB1 Firmware
8.4.2 Adjusting Sensitivity
Inc/config/cslib_config.h
DEF_AVERAGE_TOUCH_DELTA
This sets the expected delta change on a capacitive sense pad. If the expected delta is significantly smaller than the actual average, then the device will try to compensate for noise which
consumes more power. If this needs to be modified, use the cap sense profiler to help choose
an appropriate modified value.
DEF_ACTIVE_SENSOR_DELTA
Sets the threshold for an active touch. Currently set to 200 to improve sensitivity, which is reasonably low even with the 1/16th inch overlay included within the hardware reference design.
DEF_INACTIVE_SENSOR_DELTA
Sets the threshold for an inactive touch. Currently set at a high threshold to ensure the device
quickly returns to a low power state.
DEF_BUTTON_DEBOUNCE
Sets the number of readings which must be above the active threshold to count as an active
touch. Currently set to two readings, which is ideal for picking up fast or light touches.
DEF_ACTIVE_MODE_PERIOD
Active mode sleep time is the amount of time between each read while at least one of the buttons is active. It is currently set to 30, which is very low, making it more likely that an entire
swipe will be caught. This can be lowered to lower power consumption, but the risks fast
swipes not being registered.
DEF_SLEEP_MODE_PERIOD
Sleep mode time is 400 which corresponds to the SB1 checking if any buttons are being
touched approximately every 90 milliseconds. This setting is the lowest that sleep mode period
that can be set to achieve approximately three years life time on the reference design. This frequent checking for touches is necessary to pick up light, fast swipes and taps. If it becomes
okay to respond to only the most deliberate swipes and require slightly slower taps, then increasing sleep mode period is the best way to gain additional lower power savings.
DEF_COUNTS_BEFORE_SLEEP
Number of inactive reads before the part returns to sleep. Set low to preserve power.
DEF_FREE_RUN_SETTING
Free run mode collects data quickly during active mode and directly affects gesture timing and
device power consumption.
DEF_SLEEP_MODE_ENABLE
Set to 1 to allow the device to enter sleep mode when not active.
Inc/config/cslib_hwconfig.h
GAIN_VALUE_ARRAY
All values currently set to 7’s. Gain controls the magnitude of an active touch on a button.
8.4.3 I2C
This section describes changing I2C interface behaviors.
i2c/I2CRoutines.c
InterruptPin
Changes Interrupt GPIO.
SMB_FREQUENCY
Changes clock speed.
src/device_init.c
• PORT_init() edit P0SKIP to change SDA and SCL pins on the cross bar. Refer to the EFM8SB1 datasheet for more information.
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EFM8SB1 Firmware
8.5 Capacitive Sense State Behavior
This section describes the state functional behavior on how it interprets capacitive sense readings found in the "main.c" source file.
No touch detected
INACTIVE
Touch along
bottom pads detected
Touch along
top pads detected
START_TOP
START_BOT
Top Dim
Detected
Bottom Dim
Detected
DIM_SEND
Top Tap
Detected
Dim wait
time expired,
touch still detected
Wait time
between dim
commands
Bottom Tap
Detected
DIM_WAIT
END_TAP
Wait time in
progress
Wait time
expired
Dim wait
time expired,
No touch detected
GESTURE_WAIT
Figure 8.2. Capacitive Sense State Diagram
8.5.1 INACTIVE
This state is a condition when no touch has been detected. If a touch is detected on the top capacitive sense pads, the device will enter
the START_TOP state. If a touch is detected on the bottom, the device will enter the START_BOT state. If a gesture is being recognized, it will save the state of which buttons are currently active as it transitions to the next state.
8.5.2 START_TOP/STOP_BOT
Upon entry, these two states will increment a timer to determine the duration of a valid capacitive sense touch. When a touch ends, it
will enter the END_TAP state. If timer exceeds its threshold of 25 milliseconds, the gesture is determined to be a hold and thereby a
dimming command, causing the device to enter the DIM_SEND state. Depending on whether the state is START_TOP or STOP_BOT,
the SB1 will emit the corresponding commands based on those states as described in Section 5.2.1 Capacitive Sense Features.
8.5.3 END_TAP
This state is entered once a touch has ended. If this is determined to be a gesture, the SB1 will register the action as a swipe gesture. If
it does not meet the requirements for a swipe, then the action is counted as a tap. Once completed, it will enter the GESTURE_WAIT
state.
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EFM8SB1 Firmware
8.5.4 DIM_SEND/DIM_WAIT
This state is used to send a dim command when a dimming gesture is detected. If the touch is still active, it will enter the DIM_WAIT
state which increments a counter. Once the counter reaches a threshold (12.5 milliseconds) it will re-enter the DIM_SEND state. This
process will continue until a no touch is registered by the device. If no touch is detected, then the gesture has determined to have
ended and the device will enter the GESTURE_WAIT state.
8.5.5 GESTURE_WAIT
This state is used as a wait state to add a specified time between gestures to avoid flooding a network with multiple gesture commands.
Once the gesture wait time has reached 2.5 milliseconds, it will then enter the INACTIVE state.
8.6 Using the Capacitive Sense Profiler
This section describes how to use Simplicity Studio's Capacitive Sense Profiler with the reference design.
1. Connect the reference design as shown in the programming instructions in Section 8.2 Programming the EFM8SB1, which includes the USB Debug Adapter and micro-USB cable.
2. Program the design using the .hex from the CapTouchProfiler project.
3. Open Simplicity Studio, Enter Product Name "EFM8SB10F8G" and select it.
4. On the right panel, click on the "Capacitive Sense Profiler" tile to launch this tool.
5. Click the "Use Device..." button and select "EFM8SB10F8G-QFN20 (EC30001D236)" when the Device Detection window appears.
Click "OK".
6. From the dropdown menu, select the COM port labeled "Silicon Labs CP210x USB to UART Bridge (COM<x>)", where <x> is the
COM port allocated for the dimmer switch. Click "OK".
7. Data should now be streaming from the device. If an error is generated stating that no data has been received within five seconds,
click "OK" and reset the SB1 by pressing the SB1 RST button S1 on the back of the dimmer switch.
For more information on how to use Simplicity Studio's Capacitive Sense Profiler, read: AN0829: "Capacitive Sensing Library Configuration Guide".
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Engineering Tests
9. Engineering Tests
This reference design has undergone the following product testing for pre-certification purposes:
• Zigbee Home Automation (HA) v1.2
• FCC Emissions
• Antenna Radiation Patterns
9.1 Zigbee Home Automation (HA) v1.2
The dimmer switch went through a preliminary HA 1.2 testing to verify compliance with the zigbee standard.
9.2 FCC Emissions Testing
This reference design has gone through a preliminary FCC pre-scan testing to verify compliance with FCC Part 15 restrictions. Such
testing is done to ensure that customers are given a design that can pass FCC, however, FCC compliance does not transfer to modules
built according to this reference design, even if the design is copied exactly.
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UG120: Zigbee® Capacitive Sense Dimmer Switch Reference Design (RD-0039-0201) Kit User's Guide
Manufacturing Tests
10. Manufacturing Tests
This section describes how a user can develop a low cost manufacturing test methodology in order to test products that utilize this reference design. It will outline recommended test equipment and test procedure.
10.1 Test Coverage
By following these guidelines, the following items will be tested and verified for functionality:
• RF TX/RX performance
• Current consumption
• Capacitive sense functionality
• Common zigbee operations
• Frequency offset (with optional spectrum analyzer)
10.2 Test Equipment List
The test system is composed of the following components:
• Desktop PC
• RF Shielded Box
• Power Supply (Agilent E3646A) + Ammeter
• PoE Hub (Netgear Prosafe 108P)
• 2x ISA3 programming/packet trace adapters (Silicon Labs ISA3)
• Golden Node (Silicon Labs zigbee coordinator device)
• Spectrum Analyzer (Agilent E4407B)
• Device under test (DUT)
10.3 Test System Diagram
PC
Shielded Box
ISA3
PoE Hub
ISA3
DUT
Golden Node
Spectrum
Analyzer
Power Supply
Figure 10.1. Test System Diagram
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Manufacturing Tests
10.4 Test System Connection Procedure
Wire the system as indicated above. Both ISA3 adapters and the PC will be connected to the PoE hub. One ISA3 adapter will connect
to the DUT to both reprogram and interact with the DUT, while the second ISA3 adapter will connect to the Golden Node for testing
network functionality. The ISA3 Adapters connected to the DUT should never be turned off. Instead, the DUT will be powered from the
Power Supply for live current measurements.
The only thing in the shielded box should be connectors linked to the DUT, and connectors for 50 Ω antennas. If desired, a spectrum
analyzer may be integrated into the system to measure frequency offset. Some tests, such as verification of the capacitive sense pad
functionality may require operator interaction.
10.5 Configuring the ISA3 Adapters
For this setup, the PC will communicate to the ISA3 Adapter with an Ethernet connection over Telnet. To do this, first the ISA3 adapters
need to be configured to use a static IP address. Instructions on how to setup static IPs, reference Chapter 6.3 and 6.4 in Silicon Labs’
UG110: Ember® EM35x Development User’s Guide. Use the Admin interface over USB to set up the ISA3 adapters.
10.6 Communicating with Targets
For testing purposes, nodetest will be used. Through the telnet interface, both the ISA3 adapters and their respective connected targets
can be communicated with, simultaneously. To communicate with the ISA3 adapters, a telnet session should be opened to its static IP
at port 4902. To communicate with a target connected to the ISA3 adapter though virtual UART, connect to the ISA3’s static IP at port
4900.
Once connected, pressing Enter, or sending a ‘\r\n’ sequence will result in a prompt ending with a ‘>’ character.
10.7 Additional Details
For a more thorough checklist, refer to application note, AN700: "Manufacturing Test Guidelines for the Ember EM250, EM260, and
EM35x", or contact Silicon Labs (http://www.silabs.com) for additional information.
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intending to use the Silicon Labs products. Characterization data, available modules and peripherals, memory sizes and memory addresses refer to each specific device, and "Typical"
parameters provided can and do vary in different applications. Application examples described herein are for illustrative purposes only. Silicon Labs reserves the right to make changes
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