Laser Technology Smoke Detector
A P P L I C A T I O N S
G U I D E
Laser Technology
Smoke Detector
A P P L I C A T I O N S
G U I D E
Laser Technology
Smoke Detector
Contents
Section 1
Introduction.....................................................................................................................................................................2
Section 2
Benefits............................................................................................................................................................................2
Section 3
Applications ....................................................................................................................................................................2
Ideal Applications ..........................................................................................................................................................2
Applications to Avoid ....................................................................................................................................................2
Section 4
How it Works ..................................................................................................................................................................3
The Principles of Laser Detection...............................................................................................................................3
Section 5
Performance ...................................................................................................................................................................4
Section 6
Codes and Standards................................................................................................................................................4–6
Section 7
Testing of Pinnacle ........................................................................................................................................................6
Quality Assurance..........................................................................................................................................................6
UL Gasoline Fire Test.....................................................................................................................................................7
UL Heptane Fire Test .....................................................................................................................................................7
Section 8
Pinnacle vs. Aspirating .................................................................................................................................................7
Section 9
Myth vs. Reality ..............................................................................................................................................................8
Section 10
Specifications .................................................................................................................................................................8
Foreword
The purpose of this guide is to provide information concerning the proper application of
smoke detectors used in conjunction with fire alarm systems. It outlines basic principles
that should be considered in the application of early warning fire and smoke detection
devices. Operating characteristics of detectors and environmental factors, which may aid,
delay or prevent their operation, are presented.
Fire protection engineers, mechanical and electrical engineers, fire service personnel, fire
alarm designers and installers should find the contents both educational and informative.
Though this information is based upon industry expertise and many years of experience,
it is intended to be used only as a technical guide. The requirements of applicable codes
and standards, as well as directives of the Authorities Having Jurisdiction (AHJ’s) should
be followed. In particular, NFPA 72 for installation and testing of systems is a key element
in the effectiveness of smoke detection systems.
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Section 1
The Pinnacle™ Laser Smoke
Detector senses the earliest
particles of combustion.
And that provides early warning of fire. Its high sensitivity
is balanced with high stability to minimize false alarms.
Like an ionization detector, Pinnacle quickly senses a fastflaming fire. Like a photoelectric detector, it quickly senses
a slow-smoldering fire. But unlike these detectors, Pinnacle
can quickly identify both types of fire.
Introduction
Laser technology gives you fast response detection
in high sensitivity applications such as clean
rooms, telecommunications centers or computer
rooms — areas where any damage is too much.
Its early warning performance is comparable to aspiration technology. In fact,
independent tests have
shown
that
Pinnacle
responds as good as or better than traditional aspirating systems, without the cost of
pipe installation. Unlike an aspirating system, Pinnacle can
pinpoint the location of the fire. Faster response and pinpoint accuracy can make the difference between a minor
emergency and a major catastrophe.
A laser diode and precision optics make this detector
super-sensitive to smoke — as much as 100 times more
sensitive than a standard photoelectric sensor — with minimal potential for false alarms.
One might expect such a sensitive smoke detector to be
subject to false alarms. Not so with Pinnacle. It uses
patented on-board algorithms to check for the presence of
smoke before alarming. The results: super-sensitivity with
solid stability.
Section 2
Benefits
Sensitivity.
Extremely high sensitivity with superior early warning
performance.
Stability.
Algorithms for proven resistance to false alarms.
Section 3
The rapid growth in
telecommunications and
computer technology and
manufacturing has fueled a need for extremely early warning fire detection. Today a major fire is not required to create a major catastrophe.
Applications
Telecommunications facilities, data processing and computer rooms, clean rooms, traffic control centers — all can
be easily shut down even in the presence of small amounts
of smoke. And, in some of these environments, even a little downtime can mean a big disaster.
The sooner the fire can be detected, the lower the potential
loss. That makes archives and museums where irreplaceable documents and artifacts are housed ideal candidates
for early warning systems.
Laser technology makes good sense in any environment
where there is a substantial cost of downtime or a signifi-
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Pinnacle works on the same principle as a photoelectric
detector. When a particle of combustion crosses the light
beam, it causes the light to scatter — which signals the
alarm. But the difference between an LED (light emitting
diode) beam and a laser beam is like the difference
between a butter knife and a razor. The 100x sensitivity of
this product means heads up to the first particle of combustion. This in itself is not enough to convince Pinnacle
to signal an alarm.
That’s where the patented algorithms come into play, distinguishing between transient signals caused by airborne
dust...and the first puff of smoke. Before these special algorithms were developed, laser detectors were useful only in
extremely clean environments. No longer. By selecting the
sensitivity of the detector in the control panel, Pinnacle can
protect many environments where rapid response and pinpoint accuracy are critical.
Full adjustability means Pinnacle can be finely tuned to
suit each local environment within a global system.
• Day/night sensitivity
• Dust/smoke discrimination
• Automatic test
• Maintenance alert
Rapid • Reliable • Reasonable cost
Versatility.
One detector can be used for detection of fast-flaming
and slow-smoldering fires.
Pinpoint accuracy.
Identifies the precise location of the fire, reducing time
to extinguish it.
Lower overall cost.
Reduced cost in installation and maintenance.
cant investment in installed equipment. To cut response
time even further, this technology is best used where
human interface is available.
Application Note: Pinnacle is listed as an open area smoke
detector. Unless specific codes or standards exist to the
contrary, standard guidelines for spacing and placement
should be followed.
Ideal Applications
Applications to avoid
Telecommunications
switching stations
Cigar/cigarette smoke
Computer rooms
Clean rooms
Condensed water vapor,
steam or fog
Hospitals
High levels of airborne dust
Museums, archives and
historic buildings
Motor vehicle exhaust
Cooking fumes
Welding or other
processes that cause
combustion particles
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Section 4
The principles of laser
detection are similar to
those of photoelectric technology. In a photoelectric smoke detector, an LED emits
light into a sensing chamber that is designed to keep out
ambient light while allowing smoke to enter. Any particles
of smoke (or dust) entering the chamber will scatter the
light and trigger the photodiode sensor.
How It Works
Pinnacle works on the same light-scattering principle, but
with 100x greater sensitivity. This ultra-sensitivity is due to
the nature of the laser itself, which is literally amplified
light (the word “laser” is an acronym for “Light
Amplification by Stimulated Emission of Radiation”).
Using an extremely bright, controlled laser diode, the laser
beam is transmitted through the chamber to a light trap
which eliminates any reflection. If a particle of smoke (or
dust) enters the chamber, light from the laser is scattered
and the detector, using its patented algorithms, checks the
nature of the scattered light to determine whether the
source is dust or smoke. If a determination of smoke is
made, the alarm is signaled. Smoke particles, especially
Section 5
Currently there are two
smoke sensing technologies
in wide use: ionization and
photoelectric. Both technologies have different strengths.
Ionization detectors detect fast-flaming fires well — but are
not so quick with slow-smoldering fires. On the other hand,
photoelectric detectors detect slow-smoldering fires well —
but are not so quick with fast-flaming fires. Pinnacle is
highly sensitive to both types of fire.
Performance
In order to improve the ability of photoelectric detectors to
detect fast-flaming fires, engineers focused on two goals:
boosting the signal and reducing noise, i.e., increasing the
signal-to-noise ratio. More signal allows earlier warning
and increases the ability to detect the extremely small
smoke particles of an incipient fire, particles so small they
cannot be easily detected by conventional photoelectric
detectors. Meanwhile, reducing noise helps reduce the
probability of a false alarm.
Pinnacle achieves these dual goals of high sensitivity and
high stability by using an extremely bright laser diode —
10,000 times brighter than a standard LED — coupled with
an optical amplifier that further concentrates the light into
the photo sensor. This combination allows Pinnacle to
detect both small and large particles — which allows it to
quickly detect both fast-flaming and slow-smoldering fires.
The narrow focus of the laser beam reduces the reflected
light in the sensing chamber and results in a high signalto-noise ratio (with noise defined as reflected light). The
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those by-products of an
early fire, are extremely
small, hence the need for
the high sensitivity of the
laser.
Optical Amplifier
Dust particles, on the other
hand, are a different story.
In some smoke detectors,
dust can settle in the darkened chamber. Over time
this dust creates a light-colored floor that gradually
increases the amount of
reflected light in the chamber — making the detector
more prone to false alarms.
Since Pinnacle uses a
Photo Receiver
focused beam of laser light,
reflections are minimized
in the chamber. This means that gradual dust accumulation is not as much of a problem.
Laser Diode
Laser Beam
reflector captures scattered light up to 180 degrees around
the beam, at a very low scattering angle. This low angle
enhances the detection of smoke by improving the detection signal. It also allows a reduction in electronics gain in
order to obtain better electrical interference performance
while rejecting ambient interference.
Chamber Designed to Eliminate Background Noise
In a typical photoelectric detector, which uses a widely dispersed light beam from an LED, noise levels can be high.
The laser beam, conversely, is extremely focused, concentrated and small (see Figure 1). When this light is received
by a specially-designed light trap, Pinnacle achieves an
even lower noise level.
Software Algorithms to Enhance Performance
In order to achieve rock-steady stability, Pinnacle incorporates extensive on-board software processing including
multi-alert drift compensation, internal self diagnostics,
and superior transient signal rejection algorithms.
With the use of sophisticated algorithms, the system can
reject false alarm signals caused by large airborne particles
such as dust, moisture, and small insects — even when set
to extremely high sensitivity.
Dust Spike Rejection
If an individual detector
registers a large signal
spike, the algorithm recalls
the values of the two previ-
Regardless of the industry or application, the ideal
smoke detection system will provide high sensitivity for the earliest warning of fire, combined with
high stability to reduce false alarms.
Figure 1. Pinnacle’s sensing chamber is designed to reduce noise.
Pinnacle™
Standard Photoelectric Detector
Photo
Receiver
Laser
LED
Sensing Chamber
Settled Dust Particles
Noise
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ous sensor readings. Using a “lowest of three” analysis system, the algorithm chooses the lowest value of the present
and two previous readings. It would therefore ignore one
or two transient data spikes.
On-board Drift Compensation
Laser algorithms include drift compensation that adjust for
gradual dust accumulation to maintain sensitivity and
resistance to false alarm. Eventually, so much compensation may be required that the detector must be cleaned.
Three fault modes accompany the drift compensation algorithm in order to provide advance warning of required
maintenance. The first two are “Alert” signals. One “Alert”
signal is to be used for high sensitivity setpoints (alarm levels 1-7) and the other is to be used with the lower sensitivity setpoints (alarm levels 7-9). These faults indicate that
the sensor has accumulated sufficient amounts of dust and
should be cleaned in the near term. Separate signals are
provided for high and low sensitivities so that the sensor
may be cleaned before the dust that is accumulated in the
chamber compromises stability resulting in a false alarm.
The third fault, “Urgent”, indicates that the sensor has
Table 1. Pinnacle Sensitivity Settings
Alarm level 1
0.02%/ft. smoke (0.06 %/m)
Alarm level 2
0.03%/ft. smoke (0.10 %/m)
Alarm level 3
0.05%/ft. smoke (0.16 %/m)
Alarm level 4
0.10%/ft. smoke (0.33 %/m)
Alarm level 5
0.20%/ft. smoke (0.66 %/m)
Alarm level 6
0.50%/ft. smoke (1.65 %/m)
Alarm level 7
1.00%/ft. smoke (3.24 %/m)
Alarm level 8
1.50%/ft. smoke (4.85 %/m)
Alarm level 9
2.00%/ft. smoke (6.41 %/m)
NFPA 318, Standard for the
Protection of Clean Rooms
This standard applies to all
semiconductor facilities containing a cleanroom or clean
zone.
Section 6
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reached the end of its dynamic compensation range. At this
point, drift compensation is still operational. However, if
the sensor continues to become dirty it will no longer be
able to compensate. Its sensitivity thresholds will become
more sensitive and it may falsely alarm.
Signal Smoothing
Laser algorithms are designed to take note of any sudden
jump in the signal. Because local environments in the system will vary, the signals can be “smoothed” to adjust the
sensitivity setting and prevent false alarms.
Pre-Alarm and Alarm Decisions
Users can select from nine different sensitivities in the
range of 0.02–2% per foot for either pre-alarm or alarm settings. This gives the user enormous flexibility in configuring a system to a range of different conditions. See Table 1.
Local Use
Certain installations require high sensitivity only in a local
area. For example, an office building may require high sensitivity detection in computer and document storage areas,
but standard protection would suffice in offices or the
lobby. Pinnacle integrates well with other types of smoke
detection systems, including photoelectric, ionization,
multi-criteria, and thermal detectors. All of these detectors
use the same type of wiring and mounting bases and are
maintained in similar ways.
Since ultra high sensitivity spot type detection is relatively
new to the fire protection industry, there are few codes and
standards that reference the technology directly. In many
cases, NFPA 72, The National Fire Alarm Code, will need
to be referenced for appropriate spacing and placement
considerations. The following are some excerpts of applicable standards for high sensitivity detection.
The standard defines three levels of protection.
Codes and Standards
2-3.1
A listed or approved smoke detection system
shall be provided in the cleanroom return
airstream at a point before dilution from make-up
air occurs. The system shall have a minimum
sensitivity of 0.03 percent per ft. obscuration.
Smoke detection systems which are non-air-sampling shall be listed for the airflow rate of the
return airstream. Where the system is of the lightscattering type, it shall have a minimum sensitivity of 0.03 percent per ft. obscuration.
NFPA 76, Standard for the Protection of Telecommunication
Facilities
This standard provides minimum requirements for fire protection of telecommunications facilities, where telephone,
data, cellular, internet, and video services are rendered.
Note: As this application guide goes to print NFPA 76 is
only a “recommended practice.”
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6-5.1
6-5.2.1
For telecommunications facilities, fire detection
systems shall be designed, installed and maintained to provide one of three levels of protection:
(1) very early warning fire detection (VEWFD),
(2) early warning fire detection (EWFD), (3) standard fire detection (SFD). This section establishes requirements for each level of protection, and
provides suggested design and installation
requirements for meeting the objectives of this
standard.
EWFD and VEWFD smoke detection systems
shall utilize sensors or ports with spacing which
is less than that normally required by NFPA 72,
National Fire Alarm Code.
Very Early Warning Fire Detection is defined.
6-5.3.1
Very Early Warning Fire Detection (VEWFD).
6-5.3.1.2 Every type of sensor and port installed in a space
shall be limited to a maximum coverage area of
200 sq. ft.
6-5.3.1.3 The sensors or ports need not be located directly
in the center of the bay but shall be located so
that they are exposed to the movement of smoke.
The sensor or port shall not be located within 3
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feet of supply duct registers. Locations selected
shall be visible from the floor and accessible for
maintenance.
6-5.3.1.4 Sensors or ports shall be installed to monitor
return air from the space. Spacing of sensors or
ports shall be installed such that each covers no
greater than 4 sq. ft. of the air grille.
6-5.3.1.5 Minimum sensitivity settings above ambient airborne particulate levels for the VEWFD systems
used shall be as follows:
Alert Condition: 0.2% per ft. obscuration
Alarm Condition: 1.0% per ft. obscuration
Early Warning Fire Detection is defined.
6-5.3.2
Early Warning Fire Detection (EWFD)
6-5.3.2.1.2 The area of coverage for a single sensor or port
shall be limited to 400 sq. ft.; spacing at 20 ft. by
20 ft.
6-5.3.2.1.3 The sensors or ports need not be located directly
in the center of the bay but shall be located so
that they are exposed to the movement of smoke.
The sensor or port shall not be located within 3
feet of supply duct registers. Locations selected
shall be visible from the floor and accessible for
maintenance.
6-5.3.2.1.4 The minimum alarm sensitivity setting at the sensor or port used for EWFD in telecommunications
equipment spaces shall be 1.5% per ft.
The fire detection requirements vary depending upon the
size of the telecommunications facility.
Chapter 4 Large Telecommunication Facilities
4-1
General. A large telecommunications facility
includes operations such as switching, transmission, and routing of voice, data and/or video signals within an enclosed area greater than 2500
sq. ft.
4-5.6.1
General. Telecommunications equipment spaces
shall be provided with very early warning smoke
detection system in accordance with Chapter 6
requirements for detection and alarm processing.
4-6.6.1
General. Cable entrance facilities shall be provided with early warning fire detection systems in
accordance Chapter 6 requirements for detection
and alarm processing.
4-7.6.1
General. Power areas shall be provided with an
early warning smoke detection system in accordance with Chapter 6 requirements for detection
and alarm processing.
4-8.6.1
General. Main distribution frame spaces shall be
provided with an early warning smoke detection
system in accordance with Chapter 6 requirements for detection and alarm processing.
Chapter 5 Small Telecommunication Facilities
5-1
General. A small telecommunications facility
includes operations such as switching, transmission, and routing of voice, data or video signals
within an enclosed area of 500-2500 sq ft. Where
the performance-based approach of Chapter 3 is
not used, the prescriptive requirements of this
chapter shall apply.
5-5.6
Fire Detection. Small facilities shall be provided
with an early warning fire detection systems, in
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accordance with Chapter 6, requirements for
detection and alarm processing. Installation and
maintenance shall be in accordance with NFPA
72, National Fire Alarm Code.
NFPA 76 allows for the use of performance based
approaches in the design of fire detection systems. When
these performance based designs are used, system performance shall be verified by testing. Separate tests are
defined for the Very Early Warning Fire Detection and Early
Warning Fire Detection systems.
Very Early Warning Fire Detection
The purpose of this test procedure is to prove the performance of very early warning smoke detection systems in a
smoldering fire scenario of much less than 1 kW. The test
is intended to simulate a small amount of smoke, barely
visible, that would be created in the early stages of an electrical overload in electronic equipment or cables. The test
is intended to provide quantitative information useful for a
performance-based specification. Prescriptive requirements, such as detector chamber sensitivity and detector/port spacing, do not reliably equate to detection
response time and do not assure the ability to detect fires
during early stages. This test is also intended to meet the
following general objectives:
• It is intended to be repeatable, so that multiple tests can
be used to accurately measure the effect of changes in
the test environment or changes in the detection system
design.
• It is intended to use low cost test equipment that can be
quickly set up in actual telecommunications facilities if
desired.
• It is intended to prevent or minimize the potential of
smoke damage to the equipment in the room under test.
It should create little or no corrosive products of combustion and no flames.
• It is intended to avoid the creation of large amounts of
smoke and gas that could pose a health threat to personnel in the test area.
The described test using an electrically overloaded PVCcoated wire is intended to simulate the early stages of a
fire. Although a PVC wire is used, hydrogen chloride vapor
is unlikely to be produced due to the relatively low temperatures reached. The off-gases produced by this test are
not sufficient to drive off the chlorine in the PVC formulations. If the current is applied for a longer time, or if the
wire sample is shorter than stated, small quantities of HCl
may be generated. In either event, a clearly perceptible
odor that should dissipate in short time is produced by the
test. The test is essentially identical to the test specified in
section A.3 of British Standard BS 6266: 1992, Fire
Protection for Electronic Data Processing Installations.
Early Warning Fire Detection
EWFD systems should be designed, installed, and maintained to detect the products of combustion from the lactose/chlorate test described in the following sections. The
lactose/chlorate test used here is one of the test methods
specified in BS 6266, with modifications. This method produces a controlled fire that produces both flame and
smoke.
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British Standard BS 6266: 1992, Fire Protection for Electronic
Data Processing Installations
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A.3
A.3.1
This British Standard makes recommendations for the protection from fire of electronic data processing (EDP) installations. The standard does not outline specific requirements for particular types of sensing technologies or sensitivities, but does detail the considerations involved in the
design of automatic fire detection systems in these types of
facilities. The appendix of the standard outlines several
system performance test methods. High sensitivity point
type detectors, such as Pinnacle, are not addressed.
A.1
A.1.1
A.1.4
A.2
A.2.1
A.2.4
System performance test method using
lactose/chlorate mixture
General
This method is suitable for the testing of standard
sensitivity fire detection systems. A controlled fire
producing both flame and smoke is initiated by
ignition of a mixture of lactose and potassium
chlorate.
Requirement
The fire detection system should respond within
120 seconds of ignition.
System performance test method using
polyurethane mat(s)
General
This method is suitable for the testing of standard
sensitivity fire detection systems. A controlled fire
is produced by ignition of flexible polyurethane
foam mat(s).
Requirement
The fire detection system should respond within
180 seconds of ignition.
Section 7
Laser tests have been conducted at several telephone
switching stations in the
United States and Europe to determine performance levels
under a variety of conditions.
Testing of Pinnacle
When first introduced, the laser-based photoelectric smoke
detector was revolutionary. No one else had successfully
developed a spot-type smoke detector using laser technology. Since the product was so new, extra steps were taken
to assure that it met its design objectives — ultra-high sensitivity with false alarm immunity.
The product met all of the necessary regulatory agency
requirements worldwide, but the question remained: how
would it work in a real world fire scenario? So the product
was tested in clean rooms and telecommunications facilities. The tests were performed and observed by independent fire industry professionals. Some of the tests were conducted as head-to-head comparisons with the prevailing
technologies of the day for those types of facilities. To date,
dozens of tests have been conducted, on different days, in
different facilities all around the world.
The conclusion is always the same. Spot type laser detection performs as good or better than competing technologies in these types of facilities, but it provides significant
additional benefits to the end user.
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A.3.4
A.4
A.4.1
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System performance test method using electrically overloaded PVC-coated wire (2m)
General
This method is suitable for the testing of high
sensitivity fire detection systems. To simulate the
early stages of a fire, a length of wire is electrically overloaded so that smoke or vapours are
driven off. Unlike the test described in A.4,
hydrogen chloride vapour is unlikely to be produced due to the relatively low temperatures
reached. This test may be undertaken in underfloor spaces or ceiling voids.
NOTE: The wire is subject to cooling if positioned
in direct contact with air flows and may need to
be shielded.
Requirement
The fire detection system should respond within
120 seconds of the cessation of energization.
System performance test method using electrically overloaded PVC-coated wire (1m)
General
This method is suitable for the testing of high
sensitivity fire detection systems.
To simulate the early stages of a fire, a length of
wire is electrically overloaded so that smoke or
vapors are driven off.
Warning: This test produces sufficiently high temperatures to generate small quantities of hydrogen
chloride but may be undertaken in underfloor
spaces or ceiling voids where rapid air flow may
render the test described in A.3 unsuitable.
Beyond responding quickly to real fires, a detector also
needs to be problem free. That means that it must be false
alarm free. Simply creating a highly sensitive smoke detector is not enough, if that means it will create unwanted
alarms. We have addressed this concern through the development of sophisticated algorithms and on-going, long
term stability tests.
The Pinnacle laser smoke detector has been and will continue to be tested for fire test response and false and nuisance alarm avoidance. Ongoing quality assurance testing
is the key to the success of this and all smoke detection
products.
Laser has been rigorously tested for:
Radio frequency interference
Lightning simulation
Corrosion
Mechanical integrity
Detection performance
Dust immunity
Humidity extremes and variations
Temperature extremes and variations
Static discharge
Radiated radio frequency emissions
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Sample responses of different detection technologies
UL Gasoline Fire Test
Pinnacle™
This graph shows the performance
of Pinnacle compared to a standard
photoelectric and ionization smoke
detector in a UL gasoline fire.
Pinnacle reaches its full alarm level
well before the other types of detection.
Photo
Detector Signal
Ion
Time
UL Heptane Fire Test
Pinnacle™
This graph shows the performance
of Pinnacle compared to a standard
photoelectric and ionization smoke
detector in a UL Heptane fire, an
example of a flaming fire. Pinnacle
reaches its full alarm level well before
the other types of detection.
Photo
Detector Signal
Ion
Time
In the past, aspirating systems were accepted as the
standard for high sensitivity and early warning. These tubular networks draw air
from fire protection areas to a central sensor, which is typically a single enclosure containing high-sensitivity optics.
Filters remove large particles and thus reduce false alarms.
The system must be continuously aspirating in order to
sample air. For many years, these systems were the only
detection solution available.
Section 8
Pinnacle vs. Aspirating
Aspirating
Tubular networks can have
a lag time for the delivery of
smoke to the detection
enclosure,
dilution
of
smoke, and removal of
smoke in the tubes.
Pinnacle
Smoke-assessing
optics
reside at each sampling
location — drastically
reducing lag times, dilution,
and smoke removal.
Aspirating
The system cannot identify
which sampling port delivered smoke to the detector.
Pinnacle
Addressable system identifies exact location of fire.
Aspirating
Limited supervision means
system cannot always detect
leaks in piping or blockage
of a port.
Pinnacle
Continuously supervises
each detector and wire run
in the system.
Aspirating
Tubing requires unconventional installations and
does not allow other types of
detectors within its system.
Pinnacle
Because it is a plug-in spot
type detector, Pinnacle can
easily be mixed with standard photoelectric or ionization detectors on the
same loop or system.
Aspirating
In the case of a small localized fire, most sampling
ports draw in clean air,
diluting smoke levels in
measuring chamber.
Pinnacle
Measurement points away
from the fire do not degrade
response time, regardless of
fire size.
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Section 9
Myth vs. Reality
Myth
An aspirating system must be used in areas where regular
maintenance cannot be done.
Reality
The National Fire Protection Association (NFPA 72, Chapter 7) requires regular maintenance of both the ports in an
aspirating system and the detectors in the laser system.
Myth
The pinpoint location of the fire is not necessary.
Reality
Pinnacle detects smoke at extremely low levels, sometimes
before the smoke is visible to the human eye. By knowing
which detector is in alarm, you can easily locate the source
of the smoke. Thus, the fire can be extinguished quickly to
avoid major damage.
Myth
An extremely sensitive spot type detector such as Pinnacle
will be prone to false alarms.
Reality
Pinnacle continually runs sophisticated stability and
immunity routines to virtually eliminate false alarms.
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Specifications
Pinnacle Low-Profile Plug-in Intelligent Laser Smoke Detector
Voltage Range
LED Current (max.)
230µA @ 24 VDC (without communication)
330µA (one communication every 5 seconds with LED enabled)
6.5mA @ 24 VDC (on)
1.66″ (4.2 cm)
Diameter
4.0″ (10.2 cm)
Shipping Weight
5.6 oz. (159 g)
Operating Temperature Range
North America: 32° to 100°F (0° to 38°C)
Europe: –10°C to 55°C
Velocity Range
0 – 4000 fpm (0 to 20.3 m/s)
Relative Humidity
10% – 93% noncondensing
Self Diagnostics
Smoke Sensitivity
Drift Compensation
Pinnacle with Flanged Mounting Base
8
15 – 32 volts DC peak
Height
T
E
C
T
O
R
Myth
Pinnacle is more expensive to install than an aspirating system.
Reality
The total installed cost of a laser system can be less than
an aspirating system. The cost to install a laser system is
comparable to the cost to install any spot type detection
system. An aspirating system, however, requires the installation of pipe and fittings by a qualified installer.
Myth
A spot type detection system, such as Pinnacle, could never
be as sensitive as an aspirating system.
Reality
Since an aspirating system senses smoke at one central
unit, the smoke becomes diluted by the time it reaches the
detector. Pinnacle is actually more sensitive than an aspirating system. A recent draft of proposed changes to NFPA
76 explicitly recognizes this dilution effect by requiring the
sensitivity at the central unit in an aspirating system be
multiplied by the number of ports. For example, 0.002%/ft.
sensitivity at the central unit with 20 ports is really
0.04%/ft. sensitivity.
Section 10
Standby Current (max. avg.)
E
Initiated by control panel; activated by test magnet
9 levels: 0.02, 0.03, 0.05, 0.20, 0.20, 0.50, 1.00, 1.50, 2;00%/ft. obscuration
(0.06, 0.10, 0.16, 0.33, 0.66, 1.65, 3.24, 4.85, 6.41%/m obscuration)
High sensitivity maintenance alert signal
Low sensitivity maintenance alert signal
Maintenance urgent signal
Pinnacle with Flangeless Mounting Base
©2001 System Sensor. The company reserves the right to change specifications at any time.
A05-1028-001
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