Lab 2 Basic Clock Module + ReadMeFirst

Lab 2 Basic Clock Module + ReadMeFirst
Lab 2 Basic Clock Module +
ReadMeFirst
Lab Folder Content
1) ReadMeFirst
2) BasicClockModulePlus – Lecture material
3) IOModule
4) PinOutSummary
5) Use_RigolPowerSupply_wt_Launchpad
Overview
Like all sequential circuits, microcontrollers (MCUs) need a clock to keep different
parts of the system synchronized. Modern day microcontrollers contain a number of clocks;
each clock can be sourced from external sources (that lie outside of the microcontroller
chip) or from internal sources which are integrated within the MCU. In former days the
clock of a microcontroller was mostly sourced from a single crystal or an RC oscillator with
limited flexibility to change the speed of the clock. Modern day microcontrollers generally
provide more than one choice for the source of the clocks which allows users to achieve the
best balance between performance and power consumption.
Select Clock Source
In general, clock sources can be divided into two groups: fast clocks and slow clocks.
Fast clock sources, typically in the MHz range with a short start-up time and are used for
driving the CPU and some peripherals. For example, how much time your coded
instructions take to execute is counted in terms of the number of CPU clock cycles
consumed by your code. The faster the clock, the faster your instructions will execute.
However the aim is not always to have the fastest CPU, the power consumed by the MCU is
also an important factor to consider. We will give you some idea about this balance in this
lab. The slow clock, usually with a frequency in the range of tens of kHz, is used to drive
peripherals or to run continuously to monitor real time. Therefore the slow clock needs to
be low in power consumption and stable over time, temperature and other external
influences; after all you do not want your cell phone to spend all its battery power in a few
hours while you are not using it, neither would you want your watch to run faster in
summer than in winter and mess up your time schedule.
RC oscillators are cheap sources for clocks that can be integrated within the MCU.
They are not very accurate but can be started quickly. Crystals are accurate sources for
clocks. They are stable over time and temperature. However crystals are relatively
expensive and delicate. They draw relatively large amount of current at high frequencies
and takes a long time to start, about 105 cycles
MSP430G2553 Clock Module – Basic Clock Module +
The clock module provided in the MSP430G2553 microcontroller (or the family of
MSP430x2xx family in general) is called the “Basic Clock Module+”. This clock module
addresses the conflicts between high performance, low power consumption and precision
in frequency by introducing three different possible clocks to choose from:

Master Clock (MCLK) – used by the CPU and some peripherals

Subsystem Master Clock (SMCLK) – used by peripherals

Auxiliary Clock (ACLK) – also used by peripherals
The G2553 provides three possible clock sources users can choose from to source the
clocks:

Very Low-Frequency Oscillator (VLO) – Very low frequency (about 12kHz)
and low power consumption (μW range)

Digitally Controlled Oscillator (DCO) – High frequency (MHz range), versatile
in frequency selection, fast start-up and suitable to be used to drive the CPU.

External Crystal Oscillator (LFXT1CLK)
IMPORTANT:
Below is a block diagram of the Basic Clock Module+. Block diagrams try to detail all
possible settings and which bits in control registers the settings corresponds to. The bits
are given easy to understand names such as the ones marked out in yellow in the diagram
using header files. For example, at the top right hand side corner of the diagram, “DIVAx”
means divide Auxiliary clock (ACLK) frequency. Possible dividing values are 1, 2, 4 and 8.
What the block diagram in the data sheet does not specify is that these bits (which are
controlling how much to divide by) are the 4-5th bits in an 8 bit special function register
named BCSCTL1 (Basic Clock System Control Register 1, located at 0x0057). If you are
programming a microcontroller you would not need to know this information in most of
the cases. All you really care is which register you need to set and the name of the function
bits. Setting 4-5th bit to (00)2 allows you to divide ACLK by 1, setting to (01)2 gives you a
divide by 2 etc. As you can see, block the diagram is very important as a reference to how to
setup a complicated microcontroller.
There are two different naming convention for MSP430. Take divide ACLK as an
example, you can access this function by
a) Set DIVA0 and DIVA1, which is equivalent to setting bit 4 and bit 5 of BCSCTL1
e.g.
To divide ACLK by 4
bis.b #DIVA1, &BCSCTL1
bic.b #DIVA0. &BCSCTL1
b) Or if the function is set by more than 1 bits and less than 5 bits, you can use
DIVA_0, DIVA_1, DIVA_2, DIVA_3 to set the 4-5th bits to (00)2, (01)2, (10)2 or
(11)2
e.g.
To divide ACLK by 4
bis.b #DIVA_2, &BCSCTL1
**************************************************************************************
Reading block diagrams is very important because block diagrams provides you
with valuable information about the peripheral modules and how to configure them at a
glance.
**************************************************************************************
**************************************************************************************
One more thing to point out is that “modules” are not device specific. For example,
Basic Clock Module is available in MSP430x2xxx series (where G2553 belongs to),
MSP430x1xxx. Some other clock module for MSP430 are Unified Clock System, Real Time
Clock System and Clock System etc. Each of them can be found in various devices or
families.
**************************************************************************************
Please watch the screencast – Basic Clock Module Plus
Proceed after watching screencast:
Here we provide a basic summary for setting up the clock module.
1) Decide what frequencies are needed
a. What clock frequency and power consumption requirements are needed
is determined by your application’s specifications.
b. DCO can be configured to be from about 90kHz to 20MHz. VLO frequency
and crystal frequency are non-configurable. VLO is about 12kHz with
variation from device to device. The frequency of the Low Frequency
crystal is fixed at 32,768 Hz = 215.
c. Each clock source before connecting to a clock can be further divided by
1,2,4 and 8 in frequency.
2) Configure DCO (if you decide to use the DCO)
a. Please refer to the handout Basic Clock Module Plus for more details on
selecting the DCO frequency
b. You can use pre-calibrated frequencies: 1MHz, 8MHz, 12MHz and 16MHz
c. Otherwise, select DCO frequency and range via DCOx and RSELx. This
gives you 8*16 different clock frequency to choose from.
d. For fine tuning DCO frequency, select modulation of DCO frequency via.
MODx bits to generate (effective) frequencies in between the options
provided in the previous step.
3) Decide what clocks are needed and what source to use for each clock
a. MCLK, SMCLK and ACLK are used for different purposes
b. Consider the feature of each clock source if they are good enough to use
c. For a slow clock source used in the system, you can select between VLO
or the crystal via LFXT1Sx.
d. Note that for some microcontrollers (but not the G2553) there is room for
a second crystal to be used as a clock source. The 2nd crystal is not
available for the G2553 so you can have either VLO or a crystal but not
both.
e. ACLK is connected to the slow clock source selected. MCLK and SMCLK
can be configured via SELM and SELS bits respectively to connect to
either DCO or the selected slow clock source.
Note that some peripherals that require clock input may have their own dividers to
further reduce the frequency of the clock.
MCLK and SMCLK clock sources are selected via associated multiplexers separately.
The clock source selection multiplexers as marked by blue color in the block diagram are
controlled via SELM (select MCLK) and SELS(select SMCLK) respectively.

Please make sure you understand the content of the document
BasicClockModulePlus before proceeding with lab experiments.

Please attach the code you write in this lab at the end of your lab report. The
code should be nicely commented for you to use in later labs. We encourage
you to write modular programs by using subroutines. Missing course code will
cost you points in your lab report grades.
Lab Experiments
In this lab we are going to inspect the specifications of each of the clocks, how to
setup the clock sources, how to connect the source to the clocks and how to measure and
inspect the clock waveforms and their power consumption behavior. In order to have
control to adjust the supply voltage, we are going to use the power supply on the lab bench
to supply power to your MCU in some of the lab procedures.
We can think of the LaunchPad as being composed of two sections; one side that
contains the USB port which connects the PC to the debugger, and the other side which
contains the microcontroller’s socket. These sections are separated by a dashed white line
on the PCB board. The connections between the debugger section and the MCU section are
via five jumpers shown in the figure below (yellow rectangle)
MCU Side
Jumpers
Debuger Side
Connecting
VCC Jumper
TEST, RST
Zoomed in view of the connecting jumpers
The debugger programs the LaunchPad via the RST and TEST pins and supplies
power to the MCU side of the board via the VCC pin. In order to provide external power to
the MCU using the power supply on your lab bench you should remove the jumper labeled
VCC (see the figure above) and then connect V+ and gnd from the power supply directly to
the VCC and GND pin on the MCU side of the LaunchPad as shown in the figures below.
To VCC Pin
To GND Pin
Please read through the document:
Use_RigolPowerSupply_wt_Launchpad
Experiment 1 – Very Low Frequency Clock (VLO)
The internal very low power, low-frequency oscillator (VLO) approximately
provides a frequency of 12 kHz (see device-specific data sheet for parameters). In this
experiment you are going to measure your device VLO frequency, and inspect basic
properties of the VLO clock.
Power the MCU from the USB connector
Select VLO to be used by the system
Select LFXT1 to be low-frequency mode (XTS, bit 6 in
register BCSCTL1)
Set Low Frequency Clock Select (LFXT1S, bit 5-4 in register
BCSCTL3) to be sourced from VLO (10)2
Output ACLK via GPIO pins
ACLK is at pin 1.0 (Pin #2)
Configure P1.0 to output ACLK by setting bit0 in register
P1DIR, P1SEL and clear bit0 in register P1SEL2
1) Measure and record the ACLK frequency using the oscilloscope.
o Provide a oscilloscope screenshot of ACLK frequency (1pt)
2) Use the power supply to power the MCU. Set over current protection to 0.1A.
Change the power supply voltage of the MCU.
o Compare the frequency of VLO at 2.5 V and 3.5V. (No screenshots required)
o Compare the ACLK frequency you obtained with the results of two other
groups.
o Comment on the results you found.
(1pt)
Experiment 2 – Digitally Controlled Oscillator (DCO Clock)
After a PUC (Power Up Clear), the default settings are: RSELx = 7 and DCOx = 3,
allowing the DCO to start at a mid-range frequency. You can get the PUC setting by click on
the button in CCS and look at the registers before running any code. We are going to use
3V external power for this experiment. Set over current protection to 0.1A.
1) Verify the PUC setting in the debugger.
Provide a screenshot in your lab report (DCO, RSEL and MOD). (0.5pt)
2) Use calibration to set DCO frequency to 12MHz.
Move content of CALBC1_12MHZ to BCSCTL1
Move content of CALDCO_12MHZ to DCOCTL
Pay attention that MHZ are all upper case
Measure the actual DCO frequency under this calibrated setting.
o Provide a screenshot of the 12MHz calibration settings from the debugger (DCO,
RSEL and MOD). (0.5pt)
o Find the two frequencies mixed into this calibration. Provide screenshots of the
oscilloscope clearly showing the two frequencies. Record the two frequencies.
(1pt)
o Provide an oscilloscope screenshot measuring 10 period of DCO frequency using
markers. You can measure more than 10 period if need to.
o Justify what is your calibrated DCO frequency. Provide any calculation if
necessary. (1pt)
o Justify the calibration equation. Comment on your result (1pt)
32t = (32 – MOD) x tDCO, RSEL + MOD x tDCO+1, RSEL
f = 1/t is the effective frequency.
3) Find the minimum and maximum frequency of your DCO clock,
o record your result (1pt)
Set DCO Range Select (RSELx, bit3-0 in register BCSCTL1)
and DCO Frequency Select (DCOx, bit7-5 in register DCOCTL)
to 0 for minimum frequency
Set RSEL to 15 and DCO to 7 for maximum frequency
To measure DCO clock, configure P1.4 for SMCLK
Experiment 3 – External Clock Source
Besides the on-chip VLO and DCO, Basic Clock Module also supports external
oscillators. The module connecting to external oscillators is called LFXT1 Oscillator.
Diagram below is taken from the Basic Clock Module Plus block diagram showing the
LFXT1 Oscillator:
To use LFXT1, you can solder external crystals or resonators onto the Launchpad.
The location of external crystal/resonator in the block diagram and on the Launchpad is
marked out in the diagrams below:
Another use of LFXT1 is to connect an external clock source, from a signal generator
for example. The signal generator can be another MCU, DSP, or a bench top signal
generator.
*******************************************************************************************
By default our ACLK is connected to the LFXT1 Oscillator. When missing a source,
you will observe almost noise on ACLK. A special bit called oscillator-fault (LFXT1OF) will
be set if the LFXT1 oscillator is connected but not operating. An interrupt enable (OFIE)
and interrupt flag (OFIFG) is associated with this false condition as well.
*******************************************************************************************
In this experiment we are going to use our Rigol signal generator to supply 1MHz
clocking signal via LFXT1 to ACLK. Couple of settings need to be made:
Select high frequency mode by setting XTS (bit 6 in BCSCTL1)to 1
Select digital external clock source by setting LFXT1Sx (bits 5-4
in BCSCTL3) to (11)b
Select oscillator capacitor to be the minimum ~1pF by setting
XCAPx (Bits 3-2 in BCSCTL3) to (00)b
Configure XIN (P2.6) to be input pin
Use USB to power the microcontroller. Use the waveform generator to generate a
square wave with amplitude from 0V to 3V at frequency 1MHz.
o Output and measure this external clock source via ACLK. Comment on the result.
(1pt)
Short Answer Questions
1. Among DCO, VLO and Crystal, which one is the least precise? Which one starts the
fastest? Which one has the lowest power consumption? (1pt)
2. What is the lowest and highest frequency you can generate internally using G2553?
Recall that the frequencies can be further divided before being sent to the clocks.
(0.5pt)
3. Check the datasheet, which low power mode has only ACLK clock running? What
will happen to your system if you set to this low power mode? (0.5pt)
(Optional) Experiment 4 – Design: 1 Hz Square Wave Generation
(Bonus 2 pts for successful completion)
In this experiment you will be using software to produce a 1sec delay.
Set your DCO to 1MHz calibrated frequency and divide it by 8. By default your DCO
clock is sourcing your MCLK. Follow the pseudo code below:
Outer loop
{
Initialize a counter
While (counter > 0)
{
Decrement counter
}
Toggle LED
}
If we consider the code in red should consume 1 sec. What counter value should you
use? To find your counter value, you should use the clock tool in Code Composer Studio to
determine how many clock cycles each iteration of your loop is consuming.
To enable the clock tool, go to debug view and click on Run -> Clock -> Enable
Toggle an LED every time you have wasted 1 second as shown in the pseudo-code
above. How many LED blinks do you get in 10 seconds? Is the result consistent with the red
code producing a 1 sec delay?
Try to get as close to 1Hz as possible by tweaking your clock frequency and counter
value. Probe your pin out using the digital probe of oscilloscope. Include a screenshot of the
waveform in the report.
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