How to use breadboard
THE BREADBOARD
The breadboard consists of two terminal strips and two bus strips (often broken in the center). Each
bus strip has two rows of contacts. Each of the two rows of contacts are a node. That is, each
contact along a row on a bus strip is connected together (inside the breadboard). Bus strips are used
primarily for power supply connections, but are also used for any node requiring a large number of
connections. Each terminal strip has 60 rows and 5 columns of contacts on each side of the center
gap. Each row of 5 contacts is a node.
You will build your circuits on the terminal strips by inserting the leads of circuit components into
the contact receptacles and making connections with 22-26 gauge wire. There are wire
cutter/strippers and a spool of wire in the lab. It is a good practice to wire +5V and 0V power
supply connections to separate bus strips.
Figure 1. Breadboard
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lines indicate
connected holes
Figure 2. Breadboard strips
The 5V supply MUST NOT BE EXCEEDED since this will damage the ICs (Integrated circuits)
used during the experiments. Incorrect connection of power to the ICs could result in them
exploding or becoming very hot - with the possible serious injury occurring to the people working
on the experiment! Ensure that the power supply polarity and all components and connections
are correct before switching on power.
Figure 3. Circuit wired on the breadboard
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BUILDING THE CIRCUIT
Throughout these experiments we will use TTL chips to build circuits. The steps for wiring a
circuit should be completed in the order described below:
1.
Turn the power (Trainer Kit) off before you build anything!
2.
Make sure the power is off before you build anything!
3.
Connect the +5V and ground (GND) leads of the power supply to the power and ground
bus strips on your breadboard.
4.
Plug the chips you will be using into the breadboard. Point all the chips in the same
direction with pin 1 at the upper-left corner. (Pin 1 is often identified by a dot or a notch
next to it on the chip package)
5.
Connect +5V and GND pins of each chip to the power and ground bus strips on the
breadboard.
6.
Select a connection on your schematic and place a piece of hook-up wire between
corresponding pins of the chips on your breadboard. It is better to make the short
connections before the longer ones. Mark each connection on your schematic as you go,
so as not to try to make the same connection again at a later stage.
7.
Get one of your group members to check the connections, before you turn the power on.
8.
If an error is made and is not spotted before you turn the power on. Turn the power off
immediately before you begin to rewire the circuit.
9.
At the end of the laboratory session, collect you hook-up wires, chips and all equipment
and return them to the demonstrator.
10.
Tidy the area that you were working in and leave it in the same condition as it was
before you started.
COMMON CAUSES OF PROBLEMS
1.
2.
3.
4.
5.
6.
Not connecting the ground and/or power pins for all chips.
Not turning on the power supply before checking the operation of the circuit.
Leaving out wires.
Plugging wires into the wrong holes.
Driving a single gate input with the outputs of two or more gates
Modifying the circuit with the power on.
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EXAMPLE IMPLEMENTATION OF A LOGIC CIRCUIT
Build a circuit to implement the Boolean function
Quad 2 Input 7400
̅̅̅̅̅̅
̅ ̅ . You need the following IC chips:
Hex 7404 Inverter
Wired circuit on the breadboard should look similar to:
Figure 4. The complete designed and connected circuit
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Sometimes the chip manufacturer may denote the first pin by a small indented circle above the first
pin of the chip. Place your chips in the same direction, to save confusion at a later stage. Remember
that you must connect power to the chips to get them to work.
References:
1. Datasheets of 7400 series chips:
http://faculty.unlv.edu/eelabs/index.html?navi=main_icdatasheets
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