K53 Light Motor Vehicle Combinations

K53 Light Motor Vehicle Combinations
Module 27:
Following other vehicles
1.
2.
Obtain and where possible, maintain a minimum 3 second following distance.
Under adverse conditions such as rain, slippery surface, poor visibility or when being
followed too closely, the following distance shall be increased.
Note A:
Should the applicant fail to maintain the minimum following distance of three (3) seconds, he/she
shall then be penalised every 5 - 8 seconds for:
SPEED CONTROL
(5)
Fol. dist ......................................................
46
Module 28:
Lane changing
1.
2.
3.
4.
5.
6.
Obey all road traffic signs, signals, rules and markings.
Check rear-view mirror(s) and appropriate blind spot.
Signal intention.
Check appropriate blind spot.
Steer to selected lane, if safe.
Cancel signal.
Note A:
Changing lanes within an intersection should be avoided.
Note B:
Where more than one lane is changed in one movement, the appropriate blind spot shall be checked
prior to crossing each lane-line.
Note C:
In the sketches below:
Vehicle “A” shall be required to do a lane change.
Vehicle “B” shall be required to do a blind spot check to the appropriate side.
Should the driver of vehicle “B” fail to do a blind spot check, he/she shall be penalised for:
STEERING
(5)
Obs ...........................................................
B
B
A
A
47
Module 29:
Stopping - in traffic
(manual transmission)
1.
2.
3.
4.
5.
6.
7.
8.
9.
Check rear view mirror(s).
Decelerate.
Brake timeously smoothly and progressively without locking wheels and in complete control,
keeping both hands on the steering wheel.
Select a lower gear, if required.
Disengage clutch just before vehicle is brought to a complete standstill, without laboring or
stalling the engine.
Obtain and/or maintain clear space behind or alongside obstruction or road user, where
applicable. (Approximately 4 - 5 metres behind the vehicle ahead)
Stop in accordance with road traffic signs, signals, rules and markings.
Apply parking brake, if necessary.
Select neutral, if necessary.
Note A:
The parking brake should be applied when stationary for any length of time or where there is a
possibility of rolling, but may not be necessary depending upon traffic signs, stop/start progress of
traffic and gradient of the road.
Note B:
Neutral should be selected when stationary for any length of time, but this may not be necessary
depending on traffic signals and stop/start progress of traffic.
Should the applicant stop for a shorter period than it would take to apply the parking brake and select
neutral, he/she shall not be penalised for failing to apply the parking brake and selecting neutral.
Note C:
If the vehicle is equipped with a foot-operated parking brake, the sequence shall be to select neutral,
with the service brake depressed and then to apply the parking brake.
Note D:
When coming to a stop, the brake pedal shall be depressed before disengaging the clutch in order to
prevent coasting. This is not a requirement in stop-start traffic or when stopping on an incline.
48
Module 30:
Stopping - in traffic
(automatic transmission)
1.
2.
3.
4.
5.
6.
7.
Check rear-view mirror(s).
Decelerate.
Brake timeously, smoothly and progressively without locking wheels and in complete control,
keeping both hands on the steering wheel.
Obtain and/or maintain a clear space behind or alongside obstructions or other road user,
where applicable. (Approximately 4 - 5 metres behind the vehicle ahead)
Stop in accordance with road traffic signs, signals, rules and markings.
Maintain pressure on brake pedal.
Apply parking brake, if necessary.
Note A:
The parking brake should be applied when stationary for any length of time or where there is a
possibility of rolling but may not be necessary depending upon traffic signals, stop/start progress of
traffic and the gradient of the road.
Note B:
If the vehicle is equipped with a foot-operated parking brake, the sequence shall be to select neutral,
with service brake depressed and then to apply the parking brake.
49
Module 31:
Stopping - for parking
(manual transmission)
1.
2.
3.
4.
5.
6.
7.
8.
9.
10.
11.
12.
13.
14.
15.
16.
17.
Check rear view mirror(s) and appropriate blind spot.
Signal intention.
Check appropriate blind spot, if applicable.
Position vehicle, if necessary.
Check rear view mirror(s).
Decelerate.
Brake.
Select a lower gear, if required.
Disengage clutch just before vehicle is brought to a complete standstill, without laboring or
stalling the engine.
Obtain and/or maintain a clear space behind or alongside obstruction or other road user,
where applicable.
Stop in accordance with road traffic signs, signals, rules and markings.
Apply parking brake.
Select neutral.
Release clutch pedal.
Cancel signal and switch off accessories, if applicable.
Switch off engine.
Check rear view mirror(s) and blind spots before opening doors.
Note A:
Turn the front wheels in the direction of the kerb as a precautionary measure to prevent the vehicle
from moving, depending upon the gradient of the road.
Note B:
Having switched off engine, an appropriate gear should be selected as a precautionary measure to
prevent the vehicle from moving, depending upon the gradient of the road.
This procedure is not recommended in the case of a diesel vehicle.
Note C:
If a turbo is fitted, refer to operators manual.
Note D:
A combination of vehicles may be “cranked” when parking, in order to limit clutch slipping and wear
when moving off, as long as this action can be done with complete safety.
Note E:
If the vehicle is equipped with a foot-operated parking brake the sequence shall be to select neutral,
with service brake depressed and then to apply the parking brake.
50
Module 32:
Stopping - for parking
(automatic transmission)
1.
2.
3.
4.
5.
6.
7.
8.
9.
10.
11.
12.
13.
14.
Check rear view mirror(s) and appropriate blind spot.
Signal intention.
Check appropriate blind spot, if applicable.
Position vehicle, if necessary.
Check rear view mirror(s).
Decelerate.
Brake.
Obtain and/or maintain a clear space behind or alongside obstruction or other road user.
Stop in accordance with road traffic signs, signals, rules and markings.
Apply parking brake.
Select “P” position.
Cancel signal and switch off accessories, if applicable.
Switch off engine.
Check rear view mirror(s) and blind spots before opening doors.
Note A:
Turn the front wheels in the direction of the kerb as a precautionary measure to prevent the vehicle
from moving, depending upon the gradient of the road.
Note B:
If a turbo is fitted, refer to operators manual.
Note C:
A combination of vehicles may be “cranked” when parking, in order to limit clutch slipping and wear
when moving off, as long as this action can be done with complete safety.
Note D:
If the vehicle is equipped with a foot-operated parking brake the sequence shall be to select neutral,
with service brake depressed and then to apply the parking brake.
51
Module 33:
Traffic control signal
1.
2.
3.
4.
5.
6.
7.
8.
9.
10.
Check rear view mirror(s) and appropriate blind spot, if applicable.
Signal intention, if necessary.
Obey traffic control signal.
Check rear view mirror(s), if necessary.
Decelerate or brake, if necessary.
Select gear, if necessary.
Stop, if necessary.
Select gear, if necessary.
Observe, if necessary.
Move off/proceed, if safe.
Note A:
Traffic control signals are directions given by police or traffic officers in uniform, members of a
scholar patrol, road work-men, persons leading, riding or driving bovine animals, signal-men at level
crossings and drivers of emergency vehicles sounding a device or bell.
Note B:
For traffic lights, see Modules 40 - 44.
Note C:
For scholar patrols, see Module 37.
52
Module 34:
Intersections - turning left
1.
2.
3.
4.
5.
6.
7.
8.
9.
10.
11.
12.
13.
14.
15.
16.
17.
18.
19.
Check rear-view mirror(s) and blind spot to left.
Signal intention.
Obey all road traffic signs, signals, rules and markings.
Check blind spot to the left, if applicable.
Position vehicle in lane, if necessary.
Check rear-view mirror(s).
Decelerate, if necessary.
Brake, if necessary.
Select gear, if necessary.
Yield to pedestrians, if necessary.
Stop, if necessary.
Select gear, if necessary.
Observe, if applicable.
Move off/proceed, if necessary.
Check blind spot to left, if applicable.
Steer into appropriate lane, obeying all road traffic signs, signals, rules and markings.
Check rear view mirror(s) whilst turning to ensure safe follow through of vehicle.
Accelerate, as necessary.
Cancel signal.
Note A :
A blind spot check shall be made just before changing direction. Should the applicant have steered
to the left before stopping, it is unnecessary to check the blind spot again after moving off. The
observation for moving off shall be sufficient.
53
Module 35:
Intersections - turning right
1.
2.
3.
4.
5.
6.
7.
8.
9.
10.
11.
12.
13.
14.
15.
16.
17.
18.
19.
Check rear-view mirror(s) and blind spot to the right.
Signal intention.
Obey all road traffic signs, signals, rules and markings.
Check blind spot to the right, if applicable.
Position vehicle in lane, if necessary.
Check rear-view mirror(s).
Decelerate, if necessary.
Brake, if necessary.
Select gear, if necessary.
Yield to approaching traffic and/or pedestrians, if necessary.
Stop, if necessary.(Ensure that wheels are straight where possible or applicable)
Select gear, if necessary.
Observe, if applicable.
Move off/proceed, if necessary.
Check blind spot to right, if applicable.
Steer into appropriate lane, obeying road traffic signs, signals, rules and markings.
Check rear view mirror(s) whilst turning to ensure safe follow through of vehicle.
Accelerate, as necessary.
Cancel signal.
Note A:
Position vehicle as close as possible towards centre of intersection prior to turning with due safety
and consideration for approaching vehicles.
Note B:
Should the traffic signal change, the vehicle waiting within such intersection shall be given the
opportunity to leave, when safe to do so.
Note C:
A blind spot check shall be made just before changing direction after moving off. Should the
applicant have steered to the right before stopping, it is unnecessary to check the blind spot again
after moving off. The observation for moving off shall be sufficient.
54
Module 36:
Intersections - proceeding straight
1.
2.
3.
4.
5.
Check rear view mirror(s).
Obey all traffic signs, signals, rules and markings.
On approach, look right, left and ahead for cross traffic, approaching traffic and/or
pedestrians.
Select gear, if necessary.
Proceed.
Note A:
It is not necessary for the driver to turn his/her head to look right and left when he/she has a clear
view of the intersection or when approaching public entrances and exits, such as filling stations and
shopping centres.
Note B:
The applicant shall be penalised should he/she only check to the right and left after entering the
intersection or passing public entrances and exits, such as filling stations and shopping centres.
55
Module 37:
Intersections - stop signs
1.
2.
3.
4.
5.
6.
7.
Check rear view mirror(s).
Decelerate.
Brake.
Select gear, if necessary.
Stop.
Apply parking brake, if necessary.
Select neutral, if necessary.
Note A:
At a four way stop, yield to pedestrians and vehicles, which arrived at the intersection first.
Note B:
At a scholar patrol crossing, only proceed when the stop sign has been removed and if safe to do so.
56
Module 38:
Intersections - yield signs
1.
2.
3.
4.
5.
6.
7.
8.
9.
10.
11.
12.
13.
Check rear-view mirror(s).
On approach, look right, left and ahead for cross traffic, approaching traffic and/or
pedestrians.
Decelerate, if necessary.
Brake, if necessary.
Select appropriate gear, if necessary.
Proceed, if safe.
Stop, if necessary.
Apply parking brake, if applicable.
Select neutral, if applicable.
Select gear, if necessary.
Observe, if applicable.
Release parking brake, if applicable.
Move off, if safe.
57
Module 39:
Intersections - uncontrolled
1.
2.
3.
4.
5.
6.
7.
8.
9.
10.
11.
12.
13.
Check rear-view mirror(s).
On approach, look right, left and ahead for cross traffic, approaching traffic and/or
pedestrians.
Decelerate, if necessary.
Brake, if necessary.
Select appropriate gear, if necessary.
Proceed, if safe.
Stop, if necessary.
Apply parking brake, if applicable.
Select neutral, if applicable.
Select gear, if necessary.
Observe, if applicable.
Release parking brake, if applicable.
Move off, if safe.
58
Module 40:
Intersections - traffic lights
(flashing red)
1.
2.
3.
4.
5.
6.
7.
Check rear view mirror(s).
Decelerate.
Brake.
Select gear, if necessary.
Stop.
Apply parking brake, if necessary.
Select neutral, if necessary.
Note A:
A flashing red arrow indicates that traffic may proceed in that direction after having stopped and
ensuring that it is safe to do so, subject to the right of way of pedestrians and vehicular traffic lawfully
within the intersection.
59
Module 41:
Intersections - traffic lights
(steady red)
1.
2.
3.
4.
5.
6.
7.
Check rear view mirror(s).
Decelerate.
Brake.
Select gear, if necessary.
Stop.
Apply parking brake, if necessary.
Select neutral, if necessary.
Note A:
A flashing green arrow in conjunction with a steady red, indicates that traffic may proceed in the
direction of the arrow, subject to the right of way of pedestrians and vehicular traffic lawfully within
the intersection.
60
Module 42:
Intersections - traffic lights
(green)
1.
2.
3.
4.
5.
6.
7.
8.
9.
10.
Check rear-view mirror(s).
On approach, look right, left and ahead for cross traffic, approaching traffic and/or
pedestrians.
Check blind spot, if applicable.
Position vehicle, if necessary.
Check rear-view mirror(s), if necessary.
Brake, if necessary.
Select gear, if necessary.
Stop, if necessary.
Observe, if applicable.
Move off/proceed, if safe.
Note A:
A flashing green arrow in conjunction with a steady red, indicates that traffic may proceed in the
direction of the arrow, subject to the right of way of pedestrians and vehicular traffic lawfully within
the intersection.
Note B:
A steady green arrow indicates that traffic may proceed in that direction subject to the right of way of
pedestrians and vehicular traffic lawfully within the intersection.
61
Module 43:
Intersections - traffic lights
(flashing amber)
1.
2.
3.
4.
5.
6.
7.
8.
9.
10.
11.
12.
13.
Check rear-view mirror(s).
On approach, look right, left and ahead for cross traffic, approaching traffic and/or
pedestrians.
Decelerate, if necessary.
Brake, if necessary.
Select appropriate gear, if necessary.
Proceed, if safe.
Stop, if necessary.
Apply park brake, if applicable.
Select neutral, if applicable.
Select gear, if necessary.
Observe, if applicable.
Release parking brake, if applicable.
Move off, if safe.
Note A:
Right of way shall be given to traffic which was first to stop.
62
Module 44:
Intersections - traffic lights
(steady amber)
1.
2.
3.
4.
5.
6.
7.
Check rear view mirror(s).
Decelerate.
Brake.
Select gear, if necessary.
Stop.
Apply parking brake, if necessary.
Select neutral, if necessary.
Note A:
The vehicle shall be brought to a controlled stop unless it is so close to the stop line when the amber
light appears that it cannot safely be brought to a stop behind the stop line or if stopping would
endanger other road users.
63
Module 45:
Intersections - roundabout
(traffic circle)
1.
2.
3.
4.
5.
6.
7.
8.
9.
10.
11.
12.
13.
14.
Check rear-view mirror(s).
Obey all road traffic signs, signals, rules and markings.
Yield to traffic from the right and/or pedestrians, unless otherwise directed by road traffic
signs or signals.
Decelerate, if necessary.
Brake, if necessary.
Select appropriate gear, if necessary.
Proceed, if safe.
Stop, if necessary.
Apply parking brake, if necessary.
Select neutral, if necessary.
Select gear, if necessary.
Observe, if applicable.
Release parking brake, if applicable.
Move off, if safe.
Note A:
If intending to take the first exit from the roundabout, the signal (left) shall be activated on the
approach to the roundabout. When intending to leave the roundabout at any subsequent exit, the
signal (left) shall be activated in good time prior to such exit.(When the signal has been activated,
the first exit shall be taken)
Unless otherwise required by road traffic signs, all combination of motor vehicles shall remain in the
left lane of a roundabout to eliminate blind spots to the left.
Note B:
MINI-CIRCLE
(i)
In the case of a mini-circle in an intersection, a signal to the left or to the right,
depending on the intended direction of travel, shall be given. When no change of
direction is intended, no signal is necessary.
(ii)
Right of way shall be given to traffic crossing the yield line first.
Note C:
Check rear view mirror(s) whilst turning to ensure safe follow through of vehicle(s).
64
Module 46:
Block pedestrian crossing uncontrolled
1.
2.
3.
4.
5.
6.
7.
8.
9.
10.
11.
12.
13.
Check rear-view mirror(s).
On approach, look left and right for pedestrians crossing or intending to cross.
Decelerate, if necessary.
Brake, if necessary.
Select appropriate gear, if necessary.
Proceed, if safe.
Stop, if necessary.
Apply parking brake, if necessary.
Select neutral, if necessary.
Select gear, if necessary.
Observe, if applicable.
Release parking brake, if applicable.
Move off, if safe.
65
Module 47:
Level crossings - guarded
1.
2.
3.
4.
5.
6.
7.
8.
9.
10.
11.
12.
13.
Check rear-view mirror(s).
On approach, look right and left for rail traffic.
Decelerate, if necessary.
Brake, if necessary.
Select appropriate gear, if necessary.
Proceed, if safe.
Stop, if necessary.
Apply parking brake, if necessary.
Select neutral, if necessary.
Select gear, if necessary.
Observe, if applicable.
Release parking brake, if applicable.
Move off, if safe.
66
Module 48:
Level crossing - unguarded
1.
2.
3.
4.
5.
6.
7.
8.
9.
10.
11.
12.
13.
Check rear-view mirror(s).
On approach, look right and left for rail traffic.
Decelerate, if necessary.
Brake, if necessary.
Select appropriate gear, if necessary.
Proceed, if safe.
Stop, if necessary, at a safe distance or at least 5 metres from the nearest rail.
Apply parking brake, if necessary.
Select neutral, if necessary.
Select gear, if necessary.
Observe, if applicable.
Release parking brake, if applicable.
Move off, if safe.
67
Module 49:
Overtaking to the left of a hazard
1.
2.
3.
4.
5.
6.
7.
8.
9.
10.
11.
12.
13.
14.
Obtain a safe following/approaching distance.
Obey all road traffic signs, signals, rules and markings.
Check blind spot to the left, if applicable.
Steer and position vehicle towards the left without moving any further than necessary for
maximum visibility, if applicable.
Check rear-view mirror(s) and blind spot to the left.
Signal intention.
Check rear-view mirror(s), if applicable.
Brake, if necessary.
Select gear, if necessary.
Check blind spot to the left.
Steer further to the left, if safe, to allow safe clear space between vehicle and hazard.
Cancel signal.
Accelerate, if necessary.
Check mirror(s) and blind spot to the right before signalling if intending to return to the right.
Note A:
Adequate clear space shall be obtained before returning.
68
Module 50:
Overtaking to the right of a hazard
1.
2.
3.
4.
5.
6.
7.
8.
9.
10.
11.
12.
13.
14.
Obtain a safe following/approaching distance.
Obey all road traffic signs, signals, rules and markings.
Check blind spot to the right, if applicable.
Steer and position vehicle towards the right without moving any further than necessary for
maximum visibility, if applicable.
Check rear-view mirror(s) and blind spot to the right.
Signal intention.
Check rear-view mirror(s), if applicable.
Brake, if necessary.
Select gear, if necessary.
Check blind spot to the right.
Steer further to the right, if safe, to allow safe clear space between vehicle and hazard.
Cancel signal.
Accelerate, if necessary.
Check mirror(s) and blind spot to the left before signalling if intending to return to the left.
Note A:
Adequate clear space shall be obtained before returning.
69
Module 51:
Being overtaken on the left hand side
1.
2.
3.
Check rear-view mirror(s) and blind spot to the right.
Steer and position vehicle in centre of traffic lane or as far right as is safe.
Do not accelerate whilst being overtaken.
Note A:
An applicant shall not be penalised should he/she fail to drive in the left lane of a multi-lane road, (in
one direction) except on a freeway.
70
Module 52:
Being overtaken on the right hand side
1.
2.
3.
Check rear-view mirror(s) and blind spot to the left.
Steer and position vehicle in centre of traffic lane or as far left as is safe.
Do not accelerate whilst being overtaken.
Note A:
Should the applicant cause his/her vehicle to increase speed, whilst being overtaken on the right
hand side, on a roadway with two-way traffic, a circle shall be drawn around the black block
“VIOLATION OF TRAFFIC LAW” and the test discontinued.
71
Module 53:
Freeways - entering
1.
2.
3.
4.
5.
6.
7.
8.
9.
10.
11.
12.
13.
14.
15.
Select appropriate lane of the on-ramp.
Check rear-view mirror(s) and appropriate blind spot.
Signal intention, if applicable.
Accelerate, if necessary.
Check rear-view mirror(s), if applicable.
Decelerate, if necessary.
Brake, if necessary.
Yield in accordance with traffic pattern, road traffic signs, signals, rules and markings.
Stop, if necessary.
Select gear, if necessary.
Observe, if applicable.
Move off/proceed, if necessary.
Check the necessary blind spots.
Merge with traffic and obtain sufficient clear space.
Cancel signal.
Note A:
Drive between edge lines of the on-ramp.
Note B:
Do not overtake on a single lane on-ramp.
Note C:
A left and right blind spot check shall be done upon entering a freeway.
Note D:
Additional blind spot checks for a safe gap may be necessary.
72
Module 54:
Freeways - exiting
1.
2.
3.
4.
5.
6.
7.
8.
Obey all road traffic signs, signals, rules and markings.
Check rear-view mirror(s) and appropriate blind spot.
Signal intention.
Check blind spots to the right and left.
Maintain speed where possible and enter off-ramp.
Cancel signal.
Check rear-view mirror(s).
Decelerate, if necessary.
Note A:
Drive between edge lines of the off-ramp.
Note B:
Do not overtake on a single lane off-ramp.
73
Module 55:
Freeways passing off and on ramps
Off - ramp:
1.
2.
On approach, check rear-view mirror(s).
Check appropriate blind spot(s).
On - ramp:
1.
2.
3.
On approach, check rear-view mirror(s).
Check appropriate blind spot(s).
Adjust speed and position to facilitate entry of vehicles about to join freeway, if necessary.
Note A:
Should the applicant not check the blind spot when passing an off-ramp or on-ramp, the error shall
be marked for:
FREEWAYS
(5)
Ent
Ex
Bl. Sp ................... ...... .......... .........
10
74
7. GLOSSARY
75
Feature
Definition
Qualification
Acceleration
Act of causing the vehicle to
gain speed by depressing the
accelerator.
Accelerator should be depressed
smoothly and progressively to avoid
sudden and harsh acceleration which
results in uneven jerky movements.
Actual time
This is the actual time of the
day in hours and minutes, when
the yard and/or the road test
commenced.
The examiner shall enter this time on the
test report in the applicable block.
Approaching
distance
The distance from which the
over-taking procedure is
commenced in order to pass a
stationary or moving hazard.
The higher the speed, the greater the
distance required from the stationary or
moving hazard, when the overtaking
procedure is commenced.
Attempt
A single effort in one direction
starting from an indicated
position moving completely into
another indicated area.
In the case of parallel parking, two
additional movements shall be allowed,
once the vehicle is at least partially within
a parking bay, but without leaving the
parking bay completely during these two
movements.
Blind spots
Areas on either side of a vehicle
not visible to a driver, even with
the aid of rear-view mirror(s).
Blind spots can only be eliminated by
turning the head sufficiently in order to
observe areas not otherwise visible - i.e.
by looking over the shoulder to the left or
right.
Blind spot to the
left
Area on the left side of a vehicle
not visible to a driver, even with
the aid of the left rear-view
mirror.
In the case of an enclosed cab, the left
blind spot can only be eliminated by
leaning forward when looking into the left
rear-view mirror.
Braking
Act of causing a vehicle to
reduce speed by application of
the service-brake. (Foot-brake)
The service/foot brake should be applied
timeously, smoothly and progressively
using the right foot, without locking
wheels while keeping both hands on the
steering wheel in order that the vehicle is
kept under control. Braking should,
where possible, be applied on a straight
course. A lower gear shall not be
selected in order to replace or assist
braking to reduce the speed of the
vehicle. When braking is necessary it
shall be completed before selecting a
lower gear.
Bumps kerb
When a wheel, tyre or any part
of a vehicle comes into contact
with the kerb.
Cancel signal
See Signal
... cancel
Clear space
Areas surrounding the vehicle
which allow manoeuvering
room in which to take evasive
action, if necessary.
76
Clear space should be ensured around
the vehicle when passing, overtaking,
following, merging or stopping behind or
alongside vehicles or objects.
Feature
Definition
Qualification
Clutch
... control
Using the clutch pedal to obtain
clutch contact point, also known
as friction point.
This is when the fly-wheel, clutch/driven
plate and pressure plate meet, which
transfers engine power to the rest of the
transmission in order to move. The clutch
pedal shall be released smoothly in order
to obtain contact point without jerking.
Clutch control shall be obtained for
moving off and when changing gears.
Clutch
...coasting
See Coasting
...disengage
See Disengage
...rides
Resting the foot on the clutch
pedal whilst vehicle is in motion
or keeping the clutch depressed
whilst the vehicle is stationary
for any length of time.
Since it causes excessive wear it should
be restricted to situations requiring
extremely slow speed such as for
parking, stop-start traffic or where it
could be justified.
...slips
Holding the clutch at the friction
point so that the power from the
engine is only partially
transmitted to the wheels.
Since it causes abnormal wear it should
be restricted to situations requiring
extremely slow speed such as for
parking, stop-start traffic or where it
could be justified.
Coasting
Driving a vehicle with the clutch
depressed or in neutral,
disconnecting the engine from
the driving wheels.
Since it reduces control of the vehicle
and could cause undue wear of the
clutch release bearing, it should be
restricted to short distances just before
coming to a standstill, where it could be
justified. Neutral shall never be selected
whilst the vehicle is in motion.
Collision
Touching any moving or
stationary hazard with a vehicle.
Should any obstacle/object be touched,
other than that for the specific
manoeuvre being conducted, it shall be
regarded as a collision.
Counter steer
See Steering
... counter steer
Cranked
To crank (bend) a combination
of vehicles at the coupling.
Cutting
See Steering
... cutting
Dangerous actions
See Uncontrolled/Dangerous
action
Decelerate
Causing a vehicle to reduce
speed by releasing the
accelerator only.
77
The combination of vehicles is bent at
the coupling, so that the full weight of the
trailer is not immediately taken up by the
drawing vehicle when moving off, so as
to limit clutch slipping and wear.
The accelerator should be released
timeously and gradually to ensure
smooth reduction of speed.
Feature
Definition
Qualification
Disengage
Depressing the clutch pedal to
disconnect the engine from the
transmission.
The clutch pedal should be depressed
timeously and completely in order to
select a gear or bring the vehicle to a
standstill without stalling or laboring the
engine.
Driving position
The position directly behind the
steering wheel which enables a
driver to operate the controls of
a vehicle safely and efficiently.
The distance from the steering wheel
should preferably enable the knee to be
slightly bent when the clutch is fully
depressed. The arms should be slightly
bent when the hands are placed in the
twelve o'clock position on the steering
wheel.
Duration
The rounded off time of the
“Stopwatch” time, to full minutes
for both the Yard and Road
Tests.
•
Examiner
An examiner for driving licences
as contemplated in the Road
Traffic Act.
A person who has been appropriately
trained, graded, registered and
appointed as an examiner for driving
licences.
Fast
See Too fast
Following distance
The safe space to be
maintained between one
vehicle following another.
•
Yard Test - The time in seconds
recorded in the “Stopwatch” block
shall be ignored.
Road Test - The time in seconds
recorded in the “Stopwatch” block
shall be rounded off to the next full
minute.
It is determined when the rear of the
vehicle ahead passes a fixed reference
point - e.g.: lamp post, road sign, mark
on the road etc., by the driver of the
vehicle directly behind counting "2001,
2002, 2003". The front of the vehicle
should not reach the same point of
reference before this count is completed.
Under adverse conditions such as rain,
slippery surface, poor visibility etc. the
distance should be increased.
78
Feature
Definition
Qualification
Gear changing
Selecting of the gear which will
allow the engine to operate at
efficient R.P.M. whilst the road
speed of the vehicle suits the
situation.
The appropriate gear should be selected
before moving off and before negotiating
a hazard in order that the necessary
acceleration can be applied. A lower
gear should be selected to minimise the
increase of vehicle speed on a decline or
to maintain a suitable speed on an
incline. The appropriate gear should be
selected smoothly without grating and in
accordance with engine speed, whilst
keeping the eyes on the road. Having
completed gear selection, the hand shall
be returned to the steering wheel, and
the foot then removed from the clutch
pedal. Where possible gears should be
selected whilst the vehicle is on a
straight course. If braking is necessary it
should be completed before selecting a
lower gear.
Gear...
automatic
transmission
A motor vehicle not fitted with a
device known as a clutch to
enable the vehicle to be put into
motion from a stationary
position.
Gear...
manual
transmission
A motor vehicle fitted with a
device known as a clutch, in
order to put the vehicle into
motion from a stationary
position.
Hazard
Vehicles, persons, animals,
objects or substances which
could cause damage or injury
and could necessitate changing
speed and/or direction.
In good time
See Signal
... in good time.
Intersection
A junction of two or more
streets or roads meeting one
another at any angle, whether
or not one road crosses the
other.
A road, meeting a roundabout or roads
meeting one another at any angle are
regarded as intersections.
Lane changing
Changing position of a vehicle
on a roadway from one lane to
another by means of streering.
Lanes should only be changed after
observation and the appropriate signal
has been given.
Loss of control
A situation when a driver has no
influence over the speed or
direction of a vehicle.
Excessive speed, erratic or harsh
steering, braking or acceleration causing
a vehicle to deflect from a straight course
or the wheels to skid without corrective
action being effective.
79
Moving hazards constitute vehicles,
persons, animals etc.
Fixed hazards constitute intersections,
roundabouts, lamp posts, trees, curves,
potholes, rain, dust, smoke etc.
Feature
Definition
Qualification
Maximum rearview vision
Optimum vision directly to the
rear and to the left and right
rear of a vehicle.
Rear vision shall be optimised by
adjusting the interior rear view mirror to
give the most complete picture of the
traffic situation to the rear through the
rear window. The exterior mirrors shall
be adjusted so that a small portion of the
rear-most part of the body of the vehicle
is visible in the inner side of the mirror.
Minor defects
Defects which occurred to the
vehicle whilst on route to the
driving licence testing centre.
Tyres, brakes and steering defects shall
not be regarded as minor defects.
Mirror(s)
A device to assist the driver to
have a view to the rear.
Should a vehicle have a centrally
situated interior rear view mirror with a
clear view to the rear, it will not be
necessary to look into the outside
mirror(s).
Should the driver not have a clear view
in the centrally fitted interior rear view
mirror or has no such mirror fitted, the
exterior side rear view mirror(s) shall be
used.
Mounts kerb
When at least one or more
wheels of the vehicle is not in
contact with the road surface
but is on the kerb or sidewalk.
Moving off
To set a vehicle into motion
from a stationary position.
Needless
See Stopping
...needless
Observe
To look in all directions for
hazards and potential hazards.
Only when safe and in accordance with
road traffic signs, signals, rules and
markings, move the vehicle from a
stationary position smoothly and
progressively and without engine
laboring. Ensure there is clear space
beyond the intersection before moving
off. Ensure an intersection is clear before
entering.
Observation includes the use of mirror(s)
and blind spot checks to determine
whether it is safe to the rear, front and
sides. An observation can commence
from either the left or right blind spot.
Eyes shall not be taken from the road
unnecessarily.
Obstacles
Equipment being used to demarcate
manoeuvre.
Obstructions
Vehicles, persons, animals, objects or
substances which may cause damage or
injury and may necessitate changing
speed and/or direction. Obstructions
could be inside or outside a vehicle.
80
Feature
Definition
Qualification
Overtaking
Passing a stationary or moving
hazard traveling in the same
direction.
Passing oncoming traffic is not regarded
as overtaking.
Parking brake
Known as the handbrake or a
device used in the ordinary
course of events to keep a
vehicle stationary.
To be applied using the release
mechanism when parked or stopped for
any length of time, or where there is a
possibility of rolling. The parking brake
should not be applied while the vehicle is
in motion except in the case of a service
brake failure. To determine whether the
vehicle will remain stationary with the
parking brake applied, the service brake
should be released slowly.
Physical disability
A physical feature of a driver
which may prevent the safe
control of a vehicle.
A disability necessitating a vehicle to be
specially adapted, or the driver to make
use of an aid in order that the controls
can be operated efficiently and the
vehicle driven safely.
Positioning of
vehicle
Placing a vehicle in the safest
location on a roadway in
relation to an actual or potential
hazard and in compliance with
road traffic signs, signals, rules
and markings.
When changing from one longitudinal
position to another where there are no
road traffic markings, the same
procedure as for lane changing shall be
followed.
Release
mechanism
A device whereby the parking
brake or the seat belt buckle of
a vehicle can be released.
The release mechanism shall be used
when applying the parking brake to avoid
wear or strain.
Riding clutch
See Clutch ... riding
Roll
Uncontrolled motion of the
vehicle from a stationary
position.
Seat
See Driving position
Signal
... cancel
Discontinuing a driving signal
once a manoeuvre has been
completed or presence has
been established.
... driving
Means of warning other road
users of intention or presence.
Driving signals are direction indicators,
horn, stop lights, headlamps, and hand
signals. Rear-view mirror(s) and/or blind
spots, when applicable, shall be checked
before activating the signal.
... in good time
Sufficient time to enable other
road users to react, if
necessary, to the given signal
before the manoeuvre is carried
out.
Signals shall not be given too early which
could result in them being misinterpreted
or misleading.
81
By roll, it is meant, the movement of the
vehicle in the direction opposite to that
which was intended.
Feature
Definition
Qualification
...sufficient
duration
A period long enough to enable
other road users to react to the
signal if necessary.
Slipping clutch
See Clutch
... slipping
Slow
See Too slow
Steering
...counter steer
Turning the steering wheel in a
direction opposite to the
direction of travel so that the
wheels are at least straight
immediately prior to coming to a
standstill.
Counter steering shall be applied to
avoid wear to tyres and the steering
mechanism, and to complete a
manoeuvre with greater ease. The
steering wheel shall not be turned whilst
the vehicle is stationary.
...cutting
Steering of a vehicle in such a
manner when negotiating a
bend or corner that it may,
unless unavoidable, result in
touching the kerb, shoulder of
the roadway or lane marking
when turning to the left or
encroaching onto the right-hand
portion of the roadway when
turning to the right.
In the case of an articulated or
combination of vehicles, this is not
always unavoidable.
...position
See Positioning of vehicle
...method
(push-and-pull)
Turning the steering wheel
without crossing hands.
Procedure for steering to the left:
Position hands on steering wheel in a
ten-to-two or quarter-to-three position
with palms of hands and thumbs on
circumference of steering wheel, the left
hand grips and pulls the wheel smoothly
downwards whilst the right hand moves
downwards along the circumference of
steering wheel but not further than the
six-thirty position. The right-hand then
grips and pushes upwards, while the lefthand slides upwards not beyond the
twelve o'clock point, in order to grip and
pull downwards, if necessary. It may be
necessary to repeat these movements
until the desired turn is achieved.
Procedure for steering to the right:
The same method is used but the first
steering movement will be the right hand
pulling down, as described in steering to
the left.
Counter steering should be used where
necessary. The steering wheel shall not
be turned whilst the vehicle is stationary.
82
Feature
Definition
Qualification
...straddles
Driving a vehicle without reason
with the wheels upon, over or
on either side of the road traffic
markings which demarcate any
side of a traffic lane.
...wanders
Allowing a vehicle to deviate
from a straight course or to
move unnecessarily to the left
or right on the roadway.
...wide
Steering of a vehicle in such a
manner when negotiating a
bend or corner that it may,
unless unavoidable, result in
touching the kerb, shoulder of
the roadway or lane marking
when turning to the right, or
encroaching onto the right-hand
portion of the roadway when
turning left.
In the case of an articulated or
combination of vehicles, this is not
always unavoidable.
Stopping
Act of bringing a vehicle to a
complete standstill.
Stopping should be smooth and
progressive and in accordance with road
traffic signs, signals, rules and markings.
Obtain and/or retain a clear space
behind or alongside obstruction or other
road user. Both hands shall remain on
the steering wheel until stationary.
...needless
Bringing a vehicle to a standstill
in the absence of any road
traffic sign, signal, instruction,
hazard or potential hazard.
Stopwatch
A timing device to determine
the duration of the test.
(Cellphones may not be used
for this purpose)
Straddles
See Steering
... straddles
Sufficient duration
See Signal
...sufficient duration
Too fast
Driving at a speed which is too
high to be safe for conditions.
83
“Stopwatch time” means, the total time
recorded in minutes and seconds on the
stopwatch for both the yard and the road
tests.
The examiner shall enter this time on the
test report in the applicable blocks.
Speed shall be in accordance with
potential hazards and not necessarily in
accordance with the traffic pattern or
speed limits. Speed lower than the speed
limit can also, in some cases, be too fast.
Feature
Definition
Qualification
Too slow
Driving at a speed so as to
hinder or obstruct the safe flow
of traffic.
Speed, which might be slower than
speed limits, could however be in
accordance with potential hazards and
not necessarily in accordance with the
traffic pattern.
Traffic control
signals
Traffic control signals are
directions given by police or
traffic officers, in uniform,
members of a scholar patrol,
road work men, persons
leading, riding or driving bovine
animals, signal-men at level
crossings and drivers of
emergency vehicles sounding a
device or bell.
Trailer brake
A hand controlled valve
normally situated on the
steering column of the hauling
vehicle.
The trailer brake controls the application
of the trailer’s brake independent of the
vehicle’s service brake. It could be used
to induce more braking on the trailer if
the trailer runs in on the hauling vehicle
on a decline. Excessive use of the trailer
brake could reduce its braking
effectiveness. The trailer brake’s
effectiveness would reduce quicker than
that of the towing vehicle and if the
combinations brakes are applied, the
towing vehicle would stop quicker than
the trailer, which could cause a jack
knife.
Trailer parking
brake
A device used to keep a parked
trailer in a stationary position.
This device is normally not
operated from the cab of the
towing vehicle.
It is either in the shape of a
valve or a lever found on the
chassis of the trailer. The
parking brake forms part of the
spring brake which comes into
operation as the air pressure in
the trailer’s braking system
decreases or when the hauling
vehicle’s parking brake is put
into operation.
The trailer parking brake shall only be
applied when the combination is parked
or when the trailer is being uncoupled.
Ensure that the trailer brake is in the “off”
position or that the lever has been fully
released before moving off.
Uncontrolled /
Dangerous action
Any act which results or could
result in damage, injury or loss
of control of the vehicle.
The driver shall be in full control of the
vehicle at all times.
Vehicle position
See Position of vehicle
Waits too long
Not utilising safe opportunities
to proceed, merge with crosstraffic or enter intersections.
84
Feature
Definition
Qualification
Wanders
See Steering
... wanders
Warning lights and
gauges
Devices used to monitor various
engine functions and vehicle
systems.
Wide
See Steering
... wide
85
Operation of warning lights and gauges
to be checked for malfunction with
ignition switched on, before starting
engine. After starting engine, operation
shall be re-checked for malfunction of
systems which are monitored.
8. TECHNICAL DATA
86
REQUIREMENTS RELATING TO THE TECHNICAL DATA
1.
A 1 metre clear-space shall be required around each yard test manoeuvre.
2.
All positions for obstacles shall be clearly marked.
87
1m
INCLINE START
STOP SIGN AND STOP
LINE (300mm WIDE)
1m FROM THE CREST
A
MINIMUM GRADIENT FOR INCLINE
1:15 AND NOT EXCEEDING 1:10
a
STOP SIGN AND STOP
LINE (300mm WIDE)
1m FROM THE CREST
b
EXAMPLE
IF b = 10m AND a = 666mm
IF b = 10m AND a = 1000mm
GRADIENT = 1:15
GRADIENT = 1:10
NOTE:
1. PAINTED LINES - COLOUR OF CHOICE.
2. STOP LINE TO BE 300mm WIDE.
3. ALL OTHER PAINTED LINES TO BE 100mm.
PARALLEL PARKING
0.1m
0.1m
0.1m
2.5m
PROVIDE 6x OBSTACLES
5m
(INSIDE DIMENSION)
OBSTACLES PLACED VERTICALLY
ON THE LINE
NO PART OF THE OBSTACLE
OR BASE ALLOWED IN THE
MARKED AREA
MINIMUM HEIGHT 1.5m
0.1m
DIAMETER OF OBSTACLE
50-150mm NON METAL
0.6m
1m
0.5m
(INSIDE DIMENSION)
7m
OBSTACLE
NOTE:
1. PAINTED LINES - COLOUR OF CHOICE.
2. ALL PAINTED LINES TO BE 100mm.
0.1m
2.6m
1.3m
0.4m
PAINTED LINES
100mm WIDE
5.2m
KERB FACE
HEIGHT
MINIMUM 50mm
MAXIMUM 200mm
1.3m
2.7m
MARKED STARTING
BLOCK LINES 100mm
WIDE
ALLEY DOCKING
1.1m
30m
14m
NOT PAINTED
A
(INSIDE DIMENSION)
25m
IMAGINARY LINE
PAINTED LINE
100mm WIDE
STARTING POINT LINE
100mm WIDE AND
14m IN LENGTH
E
L IN
RY
A
N
D
GI
TE
IM A
A IN
TP
O
N
1m
NOTE:
17.5m
(INSIDE DIMENSION)
5.833m
1. “A” - NO OBSTRUCTIONS IN THE
DEMARCATED AREA
2. PAINTED LINES - COLOUR OF CHOICE.
5.833m
5.833m
3. ALL PAINTED LINES TO BE 100mm.
3.5m
(INSIDE
DIMENSION)
PROVIDE 8x OBSTACLES
OBSTACLES PLACED VERTICALLY
ON THE LINE
NO PART OF THE OBSTACLE
OR BASE ALLOWED IN THE
MARKED AREA
MINIMUM HEIGHT 1.8m
DIAMETER OF OBSTACLE
50-150mm NON METAL
LEFT TURN
34.05m
18m
o
8m
45
USE TWO DIFFERENT
COLOURS OF PAINT
FOR THESE LINES
KERB
50mm MINIMUM
200mm MAXIMUM
OR PAINTED
LINE 100mm
WIDE
(INSIDE DIMENSION)
5.
72
8m
12m
90
o
R = 8m
KERB OR
PAINTED LINE
100mm WIDE
NOTE:
1. PAINTED LINES - COLOUR OF CHOICE.
2. ALL PAINTED LINES TO BE 100mm.
4m
(INSIDE
DIMENSION)
REVERSE IN A STRAIGHT LINE
NOTE:
1. PAINTED LINES - COLOUR OF CHOICE.
5m
(INSIDE
DIMENSION)
40m
PAINTED LINE
100mm WIDE
(STOP ZONE)
4m
(INSIDE
DIMENSION)
(INSIDE DIMENSION)
2. ALL PAINTED LINES TO BE 100mm.
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