Agilent Technologies Hints for making Better Network

Agilent Technologies Hints for making Better Network
Agilent Technologies
Hints for making Better
Network Analyzer Measurements
Application Note 1291-1
Contents
Introduction
HINT 1. Measuring high-power
amplifiers
This application note contains a variety
of hints to help you understand and
improve your use of network analyzers,
along with a quick summary of network
analyzers and their capabilities.
HINT 2. Compensating for
time delay in cable
measurements
HINT 3. Improving reflection
measurements
HINT 4. Using frequency-offset
for mixer, converter and
tuner measurements
HINT 5. Increasing the accuracy
of noninsertible device
measurements
HINT 6. Aliasing in phase or
delay format
HINT 7. Quick VNA calibration
verification
HINT 8. Making your measure
ments real-time, accurate
and automated
Overview of network analyzers
Network analyzers characterize active
and passive components, such as
amplifiers, mixers, duplexers, filters,
couplers, and attenuators. These
components are used in systems as
common and low-cost as pagers, or in
systems as complex and expensive as
communications or radar systems.
Components can have one port (input
or output) or many ports. The ability
to measure the input characteristics
of each port, as well as the transfer
characteristics from one port to
another, gives designers the knowledge to configure a component as part
of a larger system.
Types of network analyzers
Vector network analyzers (VNAs)
are the most powerful kind of network
analyzer and can measure frequencies
from 5 Hz up to 110 GHz. Designers
and final test in manufacturing use
VNAs because they measure and
display the complete amplitude and
phase characteristics of an electrical
network. These characteristics include
S-parameters, magnitude and phase,
standing wave ratios (SWR), insertion
loss or gain, attenuation, group delay,
return loss, reflection coefficient, and
gain compression.
VNA hardware consists of a sweeping
signal source (usually internal), a test
set to separate forward and reverse
test signals, and a multi-channel,
phase-coherent, highly sensitive
receiver. In the RF and microwave
bands, typical measured parameters
are referred to as S-parameters, and
are also commonly used in computeraided design models.
Scalar network analyzers
A scalar network analyzer (SNA)
measures only the amplitude portion
of the S-parameters, resulting in
measurements such as transmission
gain and loss, return loss, and SWR.
Once a passive or active component
has been designed using the total
measurement capability of a VNA,
an SNA may be a more cost-effective
measurement tool for the production
line to reveal out-of-specification
components. While SNAs require an
external or internal sweeping signal
source and signal separation
hardware, they only need simple
amplitude-only detectors, rather
than complex (and more expensive)
phase-coherent detectors.
Network/spectrum analyzers
A network/spectrum analyzer eliminates the circuit duplication in a
benchtest setup of a network and
spectrum analyzer. Frequency coverage ranges from 10 Hz to 1.8 GHz.
These combination instruments can
be economical alternatives in design
and test of active components like
amplifiers and mixers, where analysis
of signal performance is also needed.
Incident
Transmitted
DUT
SOURCE
Reflected
SIGNAL
SEPARATION
INCIDENT
(R)
REFLECTED
(A)
TRANSMITTED
(B)
RECEIVER / DETECTOR
PROCESSOR / DISPLAY
Network Analyzer Block Diagram
2
HINT 1.
How to boost and attenuate
signal levels when measuring
high-power amplifiers
Testing high-power amplifiers can
sometimes be challenging since the
signal levels needed for test may be
beyond the stimulus/response range
of the network analyzer. High-power
amplifiers often require high input
levels to characterize them under
conditions similar to actual operation.
Often these realistic operating conditions also mean the output power of
the amplifier exceeds the compression
or burn-out level of the analyzer’s
receiver.
When you need an input level higher
than the network analyzer’s source
can provide, a preamplifier can be
used to boost the power level prior
to the amplifier under test (AUT).
By using a coupler on the output of
the preamplifier, a portion of the
boosted input signal can be used for
the analyzer’s reference channel. This
configuration removes the preamplifier’s frequency response and drift
errors (by ratioing), which yields an
accurate measurement of the AUT
alone.
When the output power of the AUT
exceeds the input compression level
of the analyzer’s receiver, some type
of attenuation is needed to reduce the
output level. This can be accomplished
by using couplers, attenuators, or a
combination of both. Care must be
taken to choose components that can
absorb the high power from the AUT
without sustaining damage. Most loads
designed for small-signal use can only
handle up to about one watt of power.
Beyond that, special loads that can
dissipate more power must be used.
The frequency-response effects of the
attenuators and couplers can be
removed or minimized by using the
appropriate type of error-correction.
One concern when calibrating with
extra attenuation is that the input
levels to the receiver may be low
during the calibration cycle. The
power levels must be significantly
above the noise floor of the receiver
for accurate measurements. For this
reason, network analyzers that have
narrowband, tuned-receivers are
typically used for high-power applications since their noise floor is typically
≤ 90 dBm, and they exhibit excellent
receiver linearity over a wide range
of power levels.
Some network analyzers with full
two-port S-parameter capability
enable measuring of the reverse
characteristics of the AUT to allow
full two-port error correction. If
attenuation is added to the output
port of the analyzer, it is best to use
a higher power in the reverse
direction to reduce noise effects in
the measurement of S22 and S12.
Many VNAs allow uncoupling of the
test-port power to accommodate
different levels in the forward and
reverse directions.
8753E
ACTIVE CHANNEL
ENTRY
RESPONSE
INSTRUMENT STATE
STIMULUS
R
L
T
R CHANNEL
Ref In
S
HP-IB STATUS
H
PROBE POWER
FUSED
8753D
30 KHz-3GHz
NETWORK ANALYZER
PORT 1
PORT 2
Coupler
AUT
Preamp
High-power
load
3
HINT 2.
Compensate for time delay for
better cable measurements
A network analyzer sweeps its source
frequency and tuned receiver at the
same time to make stimulus-response
measurements. Since the frequency
of a signal coming from a device under
test (DUT) may not be exactly the
same as the network analyzer
frequency at a given instant of time,
this can sometimes lead to confusing
measurement results. If the DUT is a
long cable with time delay T and the
network analyzer sweep rate is df/dt,
the signal frequency at the end of
the cable (input to the vector network
analyzer’s receiver) will lag behind
the network analyzer source
frequency by the amount F=T*df/dt.
If this frequency shift is appreciable
compared to the network analyzer’s IF
detection bandwidth (typically a few
kHz), then the measured result will be
in error by the rolloff of the IF filter.
Figure 1 shows this effect when
measuring the transmission response
of a 12-foot cable on an 8714ET
network analyzer. The upper trace
shows the true response of the cable,
using a 1-second sweep time. The
lower trace uses the default sweep
time of 129 msec, and the data is in
error by about –0.5 dB due to the
frequency shift through the cable.
This sweep time is too fast for this
particular DUT.
1:Transmission
dB
&M
Log Mag
0.5 dB/
The lower trace of figure 2 shows an
even more confusing result when
measuring the same cable on an
8753E with 100-msec sweep time.
Not only is there an error in the data,
but the size of the error makes some
sharp jumps at certain frequencies.
These frequencies are the band-edge
frequencies in the 8753E, and the
trace jumps because the network
analyzer’s sweep rate (df/dt) changes
in different bands. This leads to a
different frequency shift through the
cable, and hence, a different amount
of error in the data. In this case,
instead of increasing the sweep time,
the situation can be corrected by
removing the R-channel jumper on
the front panel of the 8753E and
connecting a second cable of about
the same length as the DUT cable.
This balances the delays in the
reference and test paths, so that the
network analyzer’s ratioed transmission measurement does not have the
frequency-shift error. The upper trace
of figure 2 shows a measurement of
the DUT using the same 100-msec
sweep time, but with the matching
cable in R channel.
Ref 0.00 dB
2:Off
CH1
8714C 1SEC VS 0.129SEC
*
PRm
2
S21 &M Log MAG
0.5 dB/
Ref 0.00 dB
8753C 100mSEC WITH & WITHOUT EXTENSION
Cor
1.5
1
Hld
.5
1:
-.5
-1
-1.5
M1
-2
1
Start 10.000 MHz
Figure 1
Stop 3 000.000 MHz
Start .300 000 MHz
Stop 3 000.000 MHz
Figure 2
4
HINT 3.
Proper termination—
Key to improving reflection
measurements
Making accurate reflection measurements on two-port devices with
transmission/reflection (T/R)-based
analyzers (such as the 8712ET and
8714ET RF analyzers) requires a good
termination on the unmeasured port.
This is especially true for low-loss,
bidirectional devices such as filter
passbands and cables. T/R-based
analyzers only offer one-port calibration for reflection measurements,
which corrects for errors caused
by directivity, source match and
frequency response, but not load
match.
One-port calibration assumes a good
termination at port 2 of the device
under test (the port not being
measured), since load match is not
corrected. One way to achieve this
is by connecting a high-quality load
(a load from a calibration kit, for
example) to port 2 of the device.
This technique yields measurement
accuracy on a par with more expensive S-parameter-based analyzers that
use full two-port calibration.
However, if port 2 of the device is
connected directly to the network
analyzer’s test port, the assumption
of a good load termination is not valid.
In this case, measurement accuracy
can be improved considerably by
placing an attenuator (6 to 10 dB, for
example) between port 2 of the device
and the test port of the analyzer. This
improves the effective load match of
the analyzer by twice the value of the
attenuator.
Figure 1 shows an example of how
this works. Let’s say we are measuring
a filter with 1 dB of insertion loss and
16 dB of return loss (figure 1A). Using
an analyzer with an 18 dB load match
and 40 dB directivity would yield a
worst-case measurement uncertainty
for return loss of –4.6 dB, +10.4 dB.
This is a rather large variation that
might cause a filter that didn’t meet
its specifications to pass, or a good
filter to fail. Figure 1B shows how
adding a high-quality (for example,
VSWR = 1.05, or 32 dB match) 10-dB
attenuator improves the load match of
the analyzer to 29 dB [(2 x 10 + 18 dB)
combined with 32 dB]. Now our worstcase measurement uncertainty is
reduced to +2.5 dB, –1.9 dB, which is
much more reasonable.
An example where one-port calibration can be used quite effectively
without any series attenuation is
when measuring the input match of
amplifiers with high-reverse isolation.
In this case, the amplifier’s isolation
essentially eliminates the effect of
imperfect load match.
Analyzer port 2 match:
18 dB (0.126)
Directivity:
40 dB (0.010)
DUT
16 dB return loss (0.158)
1 dB loss (0.891)
0.158
0.891*0.126*0.891 = 0.100
Measurement uncertainty:
–20 * log (.158 + 0.100 + 0.010)
= 11.4 dB (–4.6dB)
–20 * log (0.158 – 0.100 – 0.010)
= 26.4 dB (+10.4 dB)
Figure 1A
Load match:
18 dB (.126)
Directivity:
40 dB (.010)
10 dB attenuator (0.316)
SWR = 1.05 (0.024)
DUT
0.158
16 dB return loss (0.158)
1 dB loss (0.891)
(0.891)(0.316)(0.126)(0.316)(0.891) = 0.010
(0.891)(0.024)(0.891) = 0.019
Worst-case error = 0.01 + 0.01 + 0.019 = 0.039
Measurement uncertainty:
-20 * log (0.158 + 0.039)
= 14.1 dB (-1.9 dB)
-20 * log (0.158 - 0.039)
= 18.5 dB (+2.5 dB)
Figure 1B
5
HINT 4.
Use frequency-offset mode
for accurate measurements of
mixers, converters and tuners
Frequency-translating devices such as
mixers, tuners, and converters present
unique measurement challenges since
their input and output frequencies
differ. The traditional way to measure
these devices is with broadband
diode detection. This technique allows
scalar measurements only, with
medium dynamic range and moderate
measurement accuracy.
For higher accuracy, vector network
analyzers such as the 8753E and
8720D offer a frequency-offset mode
where the frequency of the internal
RF source can be arbitrarily offset
from the analyzer’s receivers. Narrowband detection can be used with this
mode, providing high dynamic range
and good measurement accuracy, as
well as the ability to measure phase
and group delay.
For high-dynamic-range amplitude
measurements, a reference mixer
must be used (see figure 1B). This
mixer provides a signal to the R
channel for proper phase lock, but
does not affect measurements of the
DUT since it is not in the measurement path. For phase or delay
measurements, a reference mixer
must also be used. The reference
mixer and the DUT must share a
common LO to guarantee phase
coherency.
When testing mixers, either technique
requires an IF filter to remove the
mixer’s undesired mixing products as
well as the RF and LO leakage signals.
FREQ
ON off
LO
MENU
Ref IN
There are two basic ways that
frequency-offset mode can be used.
The simplest way is to take the output
from the mixer or tuner directly into
the reference input on the analyzer
(see figure 1A). This technique offers
scalar measurements only, with up to
35 dB of dynamic range; beyond that,
the analyzer’s source will not phase
lock properly. For mixers, an external
LO must be provided. After specifying
the measurement setup from the
front panel, the proper RF frequency
span is calculated by the analyzer to
produce the desired IF frequencies,
which the receiver will tune to during
the sweep. The network analyzer will
even sweep the RF source backward if
necessary to provide the specified IF
span.
1
DOWN
CONVERTER
2
|
UP
CONVERTER
RF > LO
|
RF < LO
start:
stop:
900 MHz
650 MHz
start:
stop:
100 MHz
350 MHz
VIEW
MEASURE
RETURN
FIXED LO: 1 GHz
LO POWER: 13 dBm
Figure 1A
ACTIVE CHANNEL
ENTRY
RESPONSE
8753E
INSTRUMENT STATE
STIMULUS
R
L
T
R CHANNEL
Ref In
S
HP-IB STATUS
H
8753D
Ref Out
PROBE POWER
FUSED
30 KHz-3GHz
NETWORK ANALYZER
PORT 1
PORT 2
Reference Mixer
RF
10 dB
IF
LO
10 dB
CH1 CONV MEAS
log MAG
10 dB/
REF 10 dB
10 dB
Lowpass
Filter
LO
DUT
3 dB
Signal Generator
START 640.000 000 MHz
STOP 660.000 000 MHz
Figure 1B
6
HINT 5.
Increasing the accuracy of
noninsertible device
measurements
Full two-port error correction provides
the best accuracy when measuring
RF and microwave components. But
if you have a noninsertible device (for
example, one with female connectors
on both ports), then its test ports
cannot be directly connected during
calibration. Extra care is needed when
making this through connection,
especially while measuring a device
that has poor output match, such as
an amplifier or a low-loss device.
There are four basic ways to handle
the potential errors with a through
connection for a noninsertible device:
1. Use a very short through. This
allows you to disregard the potential
errors. When you connect port 1 to
port 2 during a calibration, the analyzer calculates the return loss of the
second port (the load match) as
well as the transmission term. When
the calibration kit definition does
not contain the correct length of
the through, an error occurs in the
measurement of the load match. If a
barrel is used to connect port 1 to
port 2, the measurement of the port 2
match will not have the correct phase,
and the error-correction algorithm will
not remove the effects of an imperfect
port 2 impedance.
2. Use swap-equal-adapters.
In this method you use two matched
adapters of the same electrical length,
one with male/female connectors and
one that matches the device under
test.
Suppose your instrument test ports
are both male, such as the ends of
a pair of test-port cables, and your
device has two female ports. Put
a female-to-female through adapter,
usually on port 2, and do the
transmission portion of the calibration.
After the four transmission measurements, swap in the male-to-female
adapter (now you have two male test
ports), and do the reflection portion of
the calibration. Now you are ready to
measure your device. All the adapters
in the calibration kits are of equal
electrical length (even if their physical
lengths are different).
;;
Swap-Equal-Adapters Method
Port 1
Port 1
Adapter
A
DUT
Port 2
Adapter
B
Non-insertible device
1. Transmission cal using
adapter A.
Port 2
Adapter
B
Port 1
Port 1
This approach will work well enough
if the through connection is quite
short. However, for a typical network
analyzer, “short” means less than onehundredth of a wavelength. If the
through connection is one-tenth of a
wavelength (at the frequency of interest), the corrected load match is no
better than the raw load match. As
the through length approaches a
one-quarter wavelength, the residual
load match can actually get as high as
6 dB worse than the raw load match.
For a 1-GHz measurement, one-hundredth of a wavelength means less
than 3 mm (about 0.12 inches).
DUT
Port 2
Port 2
3. Modify the through-linestandard. If your application is
manufacturing test, the “swap-equaladapters” method’s requirement
for additional adapters may be a
drawback. Instead, it is possible to
modify the calibration kit definition to
include the length of the through line.
If the calibration kit has been modified
to take into account the loss and delay
of the through, then the correct value
for load match will be measured.
It’s easy to find these values for the
male-to-male through and the femaleto-female through. First, do a swapequal-adapter calibration, ending up
with both female or both male test
ports. Then simply measure the
“noninsertible” through and look at
S21 delay (use the midband value)
and loss at 1 GHz. Use this value to
modify the calibration kit.
4. Use the adapter-removal
technique. Many Agilent vector
network analyzer models offer an
adapter-removal technique to eliminate all effects of through adapters.
This technique yields the most
accurate measurement results, but
requires two full two-port calibrations.
2. Reflection cal using
adapter B. Length of
adapters must be equal.
3. Measure DUT using
adapter B.
7
HINT 6.
Check for aliasing in phase
or delay format
When measuring a device under test
(DUT) that has a long electrical
length, use care to select appropriate
measurement parameters. The VNA
samples its data at discrete frequency
points, then “connects the dots” on
the display to make it more visually
appealing. If the phase shift of the
DUT changes by more than 180
degrees between adjacent frequency
points, the display can look like the
phase slope is reversed! The data is
undersampled and aliasing occurs.
This is analogous to filming a wagon
wheel in motion, where typically too
few frames are shot to accurately portray the motion and the wheel appears
to spin backward.
In addition, the VNA calculates group
delay data from phase data. If the
slope of the phase is reversed, then
the group delay will change sign. A
surface acoustic wave (SAW) filter
may appear to have negative group
delay—clearly not a correct answer.
If you suspect aliasing in your measurements, try this simple test. Just
decrease the spacing between frequency points and see if the data on
the VNA’s display changes. Either
increase the number of points, or
reduce the frequency span.
1: Transmission
2: Transmission
Delay
Phase
500 ns/
100
/
Ref
Ref
0s
0.00
Meas1:Mkr1 140.000 MHz
–1.1185
51 POINT TRACE
s
Ref = 0 seconds
1:
1
Delay
Appears
Negative
2:
Start 130.000 MHz
Stop 150.000 MHz
Figure 1
1: Transmission
2: Transmission
Delay
Phase
500 ns/
100
/
201 POINT TRACE
1
Ref
Ref
0s
0.00
Meas1:Mkr1 140.000 MHz
–1.3814
s
Delay
Known
Positive
Ref = 0 seconds
1:
2:
Start 130.000 MHz
Stop 150.000 MHz
Figure 2
Figure 1 shows a measurement of a
SAW bandpass filter on an 8714ET
RF economy network analyzer, with
51 points in the display. The indicated
group delay is negative—a physical
impossibility. But if the number of
points increases to 201 (figure 2), it
becomes clear that the VNA settings
created an aliasing problem.
8
HINT 7.
Quick calibration verification
If you’ve ever measured a device and
the measurements didn’t look quite
right, or you were unsure about a particular analyzer’s accuracy or performance, here are a few “quick check”
methods you can use to verify an
instrument’s calibration or performance. All you need are a few calibration standards.
Verifying reflection measurements
To verify reflection (S11) measurements on the source port (port 1),
perform one or more of the following
steps:
1. For a quick first check, leave port 1
open and verify that the magnitude of
S11 is near 0 dB (within about ±1 dB).
To verify transmission (S21)
measurements:
1. Connect a through cable from port
1 to port 2. The magnitude of S21
should be close to 0 dB (within a few
tenths of a dB).
2. To verify S21 isolation, connect two
loads: one on port 1 and one on port 2.
Measure the magnitude of S21 and
verify that it is less than the specified
isolation (typically less than –80 dB).
To get a more accurate range of
expected values for these measurements, consult the analyzer’s specifications. You might also consider doing
these verifications immediately after a
calibration to verify the quality of the
calibration
2. Connect a load calibration standard
to port 1. The magnitude of S11
should be less than the specified
calibrated directivity of the analyzer
(typically less than –30 dB).
3. Connect either an open or short
circuit calibration standard to port 1.
The magnitude of S11 should be close
to 0 dB (within a few tenths of a dB).
9
HINT 8.
Making your measurements
real-time, accurate and
automated
Tuning and testing RF devices in a
production environment often requires
speed and accuracy from a network
analyzer. However, at fast sweep
speeds an analyzer’s optimum accuracy may be unavailable. For those analyzers that do not provide “fast sweptlist mode,” the use of save/recall registers can enable both fast and accurate
measurements.
Using save/recall registers
For example, when adjusting the passband and stopband rejection of a
bandpass filter, first set up the basic
measurement on the analyzer (the
start and stop frequencies, power
level, etc.).
Instrument automation
For more complex testing such as
final test, an analyzer with IBASIC
programming capability (8712/
Agilent 8714 family, E5100, and 8751)
provides complex computation and
control so you can easily automate
measurements.
Using the IBASIC program doesn’t
require programming experience.
You can easily customize each test or
combination of tests and activate them
by a softkey or footswitch to automatically set up system parameters for
each device you test.
Then increase the IF bandwidth and
reduce the number of data points
(to speed up the trace) and save this
as State 1.
Next, reduce the IF bandwidth
and increase the number of data
points (to get a more accurate
measurement).
Add the final limit lines and save
this as State 2. Now, by alternately
recalling these two states you can
adjust the filter in real time and then
accurately verify its specifications.
Hands-free toggling between
instrument states
Some network analyzers like the
8712/8714 family include a BNC input
that can be connected to a footswitch
for toggling between two (or more)
states.
10
Guide to Agilent network analyzers
4396B Network/spectrum/
impedance analyzer
The 4396B provides excellent
RF vector network, spectrum, and
optional impedance measurements for
lab and production applications. Measure and evaluate, with one instrument, the gain, phase, group delay,
distortion, spurious, carrier-to-noise
ratio, and noise of your components
and circuits. As a vector network
analyzer, the 4396B operates from
100 kHz to 1.8 GHz with 1 MHz
resolution for network analyzer
measurements. When combined with a
test set, the 4396B provides reflection
measurements, such as return loss,
and SWR and S-parameters.
E5100A/B High-speed
network analyzers
The E5100A/B network analyzers
have been designed for resonator
and filter manufacturers who need
high throughput. Numerous options
tailor these analyzers with a minimum
investment. The frequency range
is from 10 kHz to 300 MHz. With
0.04 ms/point measurement speed,
waveform analysis capability, very low
noise circuitry, and IBASIC automation
capability, the E5100 will improve
your manufacturing productivity.
8712 and 8714 RF Economy
network analyzers
The 8712 and 8714 family of RF
economy network analyzers is
optimized for cost-conscious, highvolume manufacturing by delivering
the best combination of speed,
accuracy, productivity features and
low cost. Depending on your application, choose between the optimum
performance of an S-parameter
analyzer, and the lower cost of a T/R
analyzer. The frequency range of these
analyzers is 300 kHz to 1.3 or 3 GHZ,
and they are available in both 50- and
75-ohm versions. All models are
loaded with powerful features,
including a synthesized source,
narrowband and broadband detectors,
a large display, an internal disk drive,
IBASIC, and LAN capability.
8751A Precision
network analyzer
For highly accurate measurements at
lower frequencies (5 Hz to 500 MHz),
the 8751A network analyzer provides
0.001 Hz, and 10 ps resolution using
full two-port calibrations. The 8751A
also offers unique features such as
conjugate matching analysis. With
IBASIC automation and built-in disk
drive, the 8751A is also ready for
manufacturing applications.
11
Agilent network analyzers
(cont’d)
For more information about Agilent
Technologies test and measurement products,
applications, services, and for a current sales
office listing, visit our web site:
http://www.agilent.com/find/tmdir
You can also contact one of the following centers and ask for a test and measurement sales
representative.
United States:
Agilent Technologies
Test and Measurement Call Center
P.O. Box 4026
Englewood, CO 80155-4026
(tel) 1 800 452 4844
8752C RF network analyzers
The 8752C is ideal for small spaces,
but is a powerful, affordable performer
offering productivity features to speed
your measurements in the 300 kHz to
6 GHz range. Tailor it to your specific
needs through a comprehensive set of
options.
8753E RF network analyzers
The high-performance 8753E accurately measures the linear and nonlinear behavior of active and passive RF
components up to seven times faster
than its popular predecessor, the
8753D. Operating from 30 kHz to
6 GHz, the Agilent 8753E family will
reduce your design time and increase
your throughput. The analyzers
simultaneously display all four
S-parameters while tuning devices.
The 8753E interfaces to Agilent’s RF
electronic calibration products.
8720D Microwave network
analyzers
The newly enhanced 8720D network
analyzers (up to seven times faster
than before) offer high performance
at an affordable price. A faster CPU
and wider bandwidth IF filters
provide exceptional sweep speed,
error correction, register recall and
data-transfer rates. Compact and easy
to use, this family has the same
control and interface as the 8753E
RF network analyzer, but provides
frequency-response coverage from
50 MHz to 13.5, 20, or 40 GHz.
Options include four-sampler architecture for full TRL/LRM calibrations
for on-wafer and other noncoaxial
measurements, a high-power test set,
direct sampler access, and time
domain.
8510C Microwave network
analyzer
Since their introduction in 1985, the
8510 series of microwave network
analyzers have set the standard for
performance. These analyzers provide
a complete solution for characterizing
the linear behavior of active or passive
networks from 45 MHz to 50 GHz.
On-wafer, millimeter-wave measurements, pulsed-RF measurements,
broadband bias, calibration and
control—the 8510 does it all. With
options for electronic calibration,
frequency to 110 GHz, frequency
converters for mixer measurements
and multiple-test-set support, the
8510 family meets every need.
Canada:
Agilent Technologies Canada Inc.
5150 Spectrum Way
Mississauga, Ontario, L4W 5G1
(tel) 1 877 894 4414
Europe:
Agilent Technologies
European Marketing Organization
P.O. Box 999
1180 AZ Amstelveen
The Netherlands
(tel) (31 20) 547 9999
Japan:
Agilent Technologies Japan Ltd.
Measurement Assistance Center
9-1, Takakura-Cho, Hachioji-Shi,
Tokyo 192-8510, Japan
(tel) (81) 426 56 7832
(fax) (81) 426 56 7840
Latin America:
Agilent Technologies
Latin American Region Headquarters
5200 Blue Lagoon Drive, Suite #950
Miami, Florida 33126, U.S.A.
(tel) (305) 267 4245
(fax) (305) 267 4286
Australia/New Zealand:
Agilent Technologies Australia Pty Ltd
347 Burwood Highway
Forest Hill, Victoria 3131
(tel) 1-800 629 485 (Australia)
(fax) (61 3) 9272 0749
(tel) 0 800 738 378 (New Zealand)
(fax) (64 4) 802 6881
Asia Pacific:
Agilent Technologies
24/F, Cityplaza One, 1111 King’s Road,
Taikoo Shing, Hong Kong
(tel) (852) 3197 7777
(fax) (852) 2506 9284
Technical data is subject to change
Copyright © 2000
Agilent Technologies
Printed in U.S.A. 2/00
5965-8166E
12
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