Guideline on good pharmacovigilance practices (GVP) Module VI

Guideline on good pharmacovigilance practices (GVP) Module VI
8 September 2014
EMA/873138/2011 Rev 1*
Guideline on good pharmacovigilance practices (GVP)
Module VI – Management and reporting of adverse reactions to medicinal
products (Rev 1)
Date for coming into effect of first version
2 July 2012
Draft Revision 1* finalised by the Agency in collaboration with Member States
28 May 2013
Draft Revision 1 agreed by ERMS FG
29 May 2013
Draft Revision 1 adopted by Executive Director
6 June 2013
Released for public consultation
7 June 2013
End of consultation (deadline for comments)
5 August 2013
Revised draft Revision 1 finalised by the Agency in collaboration with Member
16 July 2014
States
Revised draft Revision 1 agreed by ERMS FG
31 August 2014
Revised draft Revision 1 adopted by Executive Director as final
8 September 2014
Date for coming into effect of Revision 1
16 September 2014
Note: New requirements for non-interventional post-authorisation studies will become
mandatory for any new study started after 1 January 2015. Implementation for new or
ongoing studies started before that date is optional.
* Note: Revision 1 contains the following:
- Revisions in VI.A.2.1.1. (Causality), VI.A.2.4. (Seriousness), VI.B.1.2. (Solicited reports), VI.B.3.
(Follow-up of reports), VI.B.6.3. (Reports of overdose, abuse, off-label use, misuse, medication error
or occupational exposure), VI.C.1. (Reporting rules for clinical trials and post-authorisation studies in
the EU), VI.C.2.2.2. (Solicited reports), VI.C.6.2.3.7. (Reports of suspected adverse reactions
originating from organised data collection systems and other systems);
- Clarifications on the clock start for the reporting of valid ICSRs in VI.B.7.;
- Clarifications on the handling of ICSRs when reported in an official language in VI.C.6.2.2.9.;
- Replacements of tables highlighting interim arrangements applicable to marketing authorisation
holders in VI.App.3.1.1.;
- Correction in VI.C.2.2.9. (Period during a public health emergency).
See websites for contact details
European Medicines Agency www.ema.europa.eu
Heads of Medicines Agencies www.hma.eu
The European Medicines Agency is
an agency of the European Union
© European Medicines Agency and Heads of Medicines Agencies, 2014.
Reproduction is authorised provided the source is acknowledged.
TABLE OF CONTENTS
VI.A. Introduction ....................................................................................... 5
VI.A.1. Scope ............................................................................................................. 5
VI.A.2. Terminology .................................................................................................... 5
VI.A.2.1. Adverse reaction ........................................................................................... 5
VI.A.2.1.1. Causality ................................................................................................... 5
VI.A.2.1.2. Overdose, off-label use, misuse, abuse, occupational exposure ........................ 6
VI.A.2.2. Medicinal product .......................................................................................... 6
VI.A.2.3. Primary source .............................................................................................. 7
VI.A.2.4. Seriousness .................................................................................................. 7
VI.A.2.5. Individual case safety report (ICSR) ................................................................ 8
VI.B. Structures and processes.................................................................... 8
VI.B.1. Collection of reports ......................................................................................... 8
VI.B.1.1. Unsolicited reports ......................................................................................... 8
VI.B.1.1.1. Spontaneous reports ................................................................................... 8
VI.B.1.1.2. Literature reports ....................................................................................... 9
VI.B.1.1.3. Reports from other sources .......................................................................... 9
VI.B.1.1.4. Information on suspected adverse reactions from the internet or digital media . 10
VI.B.1.2. Solicited reports .......................................................................................... 10
VI.B.2. Validation of reports ....................................................................................... 11
VI.B.3. Follow-up of reports ....................................................................................... 12
VI.B.4. Data management ......................................................................................... 13
VI.B.5. Quality management ...................................................................................... 13
VI.B.6. Special situations ........................................................................................... 14
VI.B.6.1. Use of a medicinal product during pregnancy or breastfeeding .......................... 14
VI.B.6.2. Use of a medicinal product in a paediatric or elderly population ......................... 15
VI.B.6.3. Reports of overdose, abuse, off-label use, misuse, medication error or occupational
exposure ................................................................................................................. 15
VI.B.6.4. Lack of therapeutic efficacy .......................................................................... 16
VI.B.7. Reporting of Individual case safety reports (ICSRs) ............................................ 16
VI.B.7.1. Reporting time frames ................................................................................. 17
VI.B.8. Reporting modalities ....................................................................................... 17
VI.C. Operation of the EU network............................................................. 18
VI.C.1. Reporting rules for clinical trials and post-authorisation studies in the EU .............. 18
VI.C.1.1. Reporting rules for clinical trials .................................................................... 19
VI.C.1.2. Reporting rules for non-interventional post-authorisation studies, compassionate
use and named patient use ........................................................................................ 20
VI.C.1.2.1. Non-interventional post-authorisation studies .............................................. 21
VI.C.1.2.2. Compassionate use and named patient use.................................................. 22
VI.C.2. Collection of reports ....................................................................................... 23
VI.C.2.1. Responsibilities of Member States.................................................................. 23
VI.C.2.2. Responsibilities of the marketing authorisation holder in the EU ........................ 24
VI.C.2.2.1. Spontaneous reports ................................................................................. 25
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VI.C.2.2.2. Solicited reports ....................................................................................... 25
VI.C.2.2.3. Case reports published in the scientific literature .......................................... 25
VI.C.2.2.4. Suspected adverse reactions related to quality defect or falsified medicinal
products .................................................................................................................. 26
VI.C.2.2.5. Suspected transmission via a medicinal product of an infectious agent ............ 27
VI.C.2.2.6. Emerging safety issues .............................................................................. 28
VI.C.2.2.7. Period between the submission of the marketing authorisation application and
the granting of the marketing authorisation ................................................................. 28
VI.C.2.2.8. Period after suspension, revocation or withdrawal of marketing authorisation .. 29
VI.C.2.2.9. Period during a public health emergency ..................................................... 29
VI.C.2.2.10. Reports from class action lawsuits ............................................................ 29
VI.C.2.2.11. Reports from patient support programmes and market research programmes 29
VI.C.3. Reporting time frames .................................................................................... 30
VI.C.4. Reporting modalities ....................................................................................... 30
VI.C.4.1. Interim arrangements .................................................................................. 30
VI.C.4.2. Final arrangements ...................................................................................... 31
VI.C.5. Collaboration with the World Health Organization and the European Monitoring
Centre for Drugs and Drug Addiction ........................................................................... 32
VI.C.6. Electronic exchange of safety information in the EU ............................................ 32
VI.C.6.1. Applicable guidelines, definitions, international formats, standards and
terminologies ........................................................................................................... 32
VI.C.6.2. Electronic reporting of individual case safety reports ........................................ 33
VI.C.6.2.1. EudraVigilance Database Modules ............................................................... 33
VI.C.6.2.1.1. Adverse reaction data collected in the EudraVigilance Post-Authorisation
Module .................................................................................................................... 33
VI.C.6.2.1.2. Adverse reaction data collected in the EudraVigilance Clinical Trial Module .... 34
VI.C.6.2.2. Preparation of individual case safety reports ................................................ 34
VI.C.6.2.2.1. General principles .................................................................................. 34
VI.C.6.2.2.2. Information on suspect, interacting and concomitant medicinal products ...... 35
VI.C.6.2.2.3. Suspected adverse reactions ................................................................... 36
VI.C.6.2.2.4. Case narrative, causality assessment and comments .................................. 37
VI.C.6.2.2.5. Test results ........................................................................................... 38
VI.C.6.2.2.6. Supplementary information ..................................................................... 38
VI.C.6.2.2.7. Follow-up information............................................................................. 38
VI.C.6.2.2.8. What to take into account for data privacy laws ......................................... 40
VI.C.6.2.2.9. Handling of languages ............................................................................ 40
VI.C.6.2.2.10. Nullification of cases ............................................................................. 40
VI.C.6.2.3. Special situations ..................................................................................... 41
VI.C.6.2.3.1. Use of a medicinal product during pregnancy or breastfeeding .................... 41
VI.C.6.2.3.2. Suspected adverse reaction reports published in the scientific literature ....... 41
VI.C.6.2.3.3. Suspected adverse reactions related to overdose, abuse, off-label use, misuse,
medication error or occupational exposure ................................................................... 42
VI.C.6.2.3.4. Lack of therapeutic efficacy ..................................................................... 42
VI.C.6.2.3.5. Suspected adverse reactions related to quality defect or falsified medicinal
products .................................................................................................................. 43
VI.C.6.2.3.6. Suspected transmission via a medicinal product of an infectious agent ......... 43
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VI.C.6.2.3.7. Reports of suspected adverse reactions originating from organised data
collection systems and other systems .......................................................................... 43
VI.C.6.2.3.8. Receipt of missing minimum information .................................................. 45
VI.C.6.2.4. Data quality of individual case safety reports transmitted electronically and
duplicate management .............................................................................................. 45
VI.C.6.2.5. Electronic re-transmission of ICSRs between multiple senders and receivers .... 46
VI.C.6.2.6. Electronic reporting through company’s headquarters ................................... 47
VI.C.6.3. Electronic submission of information on medicinal products .............................. 47
VI. Appendix 1 Identification of biological medicinal products .................. 48
VI. Appendix 2 Detailed guidance on the monitoring of scientific literature
.................................................................................................................. 51
VI.App2.1. When to start and stop searching in the scientific literature ............................ 51
VI.App2.2. Where to look ........................................................................................... 51
VI.App2.3. Database Searches ................................................................................... 52
VI.App2.3.1. Precision and recall ................................................................................ 52
VI.App2.3.2. Search construction ................................................................................ 52
VI.App2.3.3. Selection of product terms ...................................................................... 52
VI.App2.3.4. Selection of search terms ........................................................................ 53
VI.App2.3.5. Limits to a search ................................................................................... 53
VI.App2.4. Record keeping ......................................................................................... 54
VI.App2.5. Outputs ................................................................................................... 54
VI.App2.6. Review and selection of articles .................................................................. 54
VI.App2.7. Day zero .................................................................................................. 55
VI.App2.8. Duplicates ................................................................................................ 55
VI.App2.9. Contracting out literature search services .................................................... 55
VI.App2.10. Electronic submission of copies of articles published in the scientific literature 55
VI. Appendix 3 Modalities for reporting ..................................................... 60
VI.App3.1. Interim arrangements ............................................................................... 60
VI.App3.1.1. Interim arrangements applicable to marketing authorisation holders ............ 66
VI.App3.1.2. Interim arrangements applicable to competent authorities in Member States . 67
VI.App3.2. Final arrangements ................................................................................... 68
VI.App3.2.1. Final arrangements applicable to marketing authorisation holders ................ 71
VI.App3.2.2. Final arrangements applicable to competent authorities in Member States..... 71
VI.App3.3. Transmission and rerouting of ICSRs to competent authorities in Member States
.............................................................................................................................. 72
VI. Appendix 4 Transmission of ICSRs to World Health Organization (WHO)
.................................................................................................................. 76
VI. Appendix 5 Nullification of cases ......................................................... 80
VI. Appendix 6 Data quality monitoring of ICSRs transmitted electronically
.................................................................................................................. 84
VI. Appendix 7 Duplicate detection and management of ICSRs ................. 87
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VI.A. Introduction
VI.A.1. Scope
This Module of GVP addresses the legal requirements detailed in Title IX of Directive 2001/83/EC [DIR]
and chapter 3 of Regulation (EC) No 726/2004 [REG], which are applicable to competent authorities in
Member States, marketing authorisation holders and the Agency as regards the collection, data
management and reporting of suspected adverse reactions (serious and non-serious) associated with
medicinal products for human use authorised in the European Union (EU). Recommendations regarding
the reporting of emerging safety issues or of suspected adverse reactions occurring in special
situations are also presented in this Module. The requirements provided in chapters IV, V and IX of the
Commission Implementing Regulation (EU) No 520/2012 [IR] shall be applied in this Module.
The guidance provided in this Module does not address the collection, management and reporting of
events or patterns of use, which do not result in suspected adverse reactions (e.g. asymptomatic
overdose, abuse, off-label use, misuse or medication error) or which do not require to be reported as
individual case safety report or as emerging safety issues. This information may however need to be
collected and presented in periodic safety update reports for the interpretation of safety data or for the
benefit risk evaluation of medicinal products. In this aspect, guidance provided in Module VII applies.
All applicable legal requirements detailed in this Module are referenced in the way explained in the GVP
Introductory Cover Note and are usually identifiable by the modal verb “shall”. Guidance for the
implementation of legal requirements is provided using the modal verb “should”.
VI.A.2. Terminology
The definitions provided in Article 1 of Directive 2001/83/EC shall be applied for the purpose of this
Module; of particular relevance are those provided in this Section. Some general principles presented
in the ICH-E2A and ICH-E2D guidelines (see GVP Annex IV) should also be adhered to; they are
included as well in this Section (see GVP Annex I for all definitions applicable to GVP).
VI.A.2.1. Adverse reaction
An adverse reaction is a response to a medicinal product which is noxious and unintended [DIR Art 1].
This includes adverse reactions which arise from:
•
the use of a medicinal product within the terms of the marketing authorisation;
•
the use outside the terms of the marketing authorisation, including overdose, off-label use,
misuse, abuse and medication errors;
•
occupational exposure.
VI.A.2.1.1. Causality
In accordance with ICH-E2A (see GVP Annex IV), the definition of an adverse reaction implies at least
a reasonable possibility of a causal relationship between a suspected medicinal product and an adverse
event. An adverse reaction, in contrast to an adverse event, is characterised by the fact that a causal
relationship between a medicinal product and an occurrence is suspected. For regulatory reporting
purposes, as detailed in ICH-E2D (see GVP Annex IV), if an event is spontaneously reported, even if
the relationship is unknown or unstated, it meets the definition of an adverse reaction. Therefore all
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spontaneous reports notified by healthcare professionals 1 or consumers2 are considered suspected
adverse reactions, since they convey the suspicions of the primary sources, unless the reporters
specifically state that they believe the events to be unrelated or that a causal relationship can be
excluded.
VI.A.2.1.2. Overdose, off-label use, misuse, abuse, occupational exposure
a. Overdose
This refers to the administration of a quantity of a medicinal product given per administration or
cumulatively, which is above the maximum recommended dose according to the authorised product
information. Clinical judgement should always be applied.
b. Off-label use
This relates to situations where the medicinal product is intentionally used for a medical purpose not in
accordance with the authorised product information.
c. Misuse
This refers to situations where the medicinal product is intentionally and inappropriately used not in
accordance with the authorised product information.
d. Abuse
This corresponds to the persistent or sporadic, intentional excessive use of a medicinal product, which
is accompanied by harmful physical or psychological effects [DIR Art 1].
e. Occupational exposure
This refers to the exposure to a medicinal product (as defined in [DIR Art 1]), as a result of one’s
professional or non-professional occupation.
VI.A.2.2. Medicinal product
A medicinal product is characterised by any substance or combination of substances,
•
presented as having properties for treating or preventing disease in human beings; or
•
which may be used in or administered to human beings either with a view to restoring, correcting
or modifying physiological functions by exerting a pharmacological, immunological or metabolic
action, or to making a medical diagnosis [DIR Art 1].
In accordance with Article 107 of Directive 2001/83/EC, the scope of this module is not only applicable
to medicinal products authorised in the EU but also to any such medicinal products commercialised
outside the EU by the same marketing authorisation holder (see VI.C.2.2.). Given that a medicinal
product is authorised with a defined composition, all the adverse reactions suspected to be related to
any of the active substances being part of a medicinal product authorised in the EU should be managed
in accordance with the requirements presented in this module. This is valid independently of the
strengths, pharmaceutical forms, routes of administration, presentations, authorised indications, or
trade names of the medicinal product.
The guidance provided in this Module also applies, subject to amendments where appropriate, to
medicinal products supplied in the context of compassionate use (see VI.C.1.2.2.) as defined in Article
1
See VI.A.2.3. for definition of primary source
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83(2) of Regulation (EC) No 726/2004. As the case may be, this guidance may also apply to named
patient use as defined under Article 5(1) of Directive 2001/83/EC.
VI.A.2.3. Primary source
The primary source of the information on a suspected adverse reaction(s) is the person who reports
the facts. Several primary sources, such as healthcare professionals and/or a consumer, may provide
information on the same case. In this situation, all the primary sources’ details, including the
qualifications, should be provided in the case report, with the “Primary source(s)” section repeated as
necessary in line with ICH-E2B(R2) (see GVP Annex IV) 2.
In accordance with the ICH-E2D (see GVP Annex IV),
•
a healthcare professional is defined as a medically-qualified person such as a physician, dentist,
pharmacist, nurse, coroner or as otherwise specified by local regulations;
•
a consumer is defined as a person who is not a healthcare professional such as a patient, lawyer,
friend, relative of a patient or carer.
Medical documentations (e.g. laboratory or other test data) provided by a consumer that support the
occurrence of the suspected adverse reaction, or which indicate that an identifiable healthcare
professional suspects a reasonable possibility of causal relationship between a medicinal product and
the reported adverse event, are sufficient to consider the spontaneous report as confirmed by a
healthcare professional.
If a consumer initially reports more than one reaction and at least one receives medical confirmation,
the whole report should be documented as a spontaneous report confirmed by a healthcare
professional and be reported accordingly. Similarly, if a report is submitted by a medically qualified
patient, friend, relative of the patient or carer, the case should also be considered as a spontaneous
report confirmed by a healthcare professional.
VI.A.2.4. Seriousness
As described in ICH-E2A (see GVP Annex IV), a serious adverse reaction corresponds to any untoward
medical occurrence that at any dose results in death, is life-threatening, requires inpatient
hospitalisation or prolongation of existing hospitalisation, results in persistent or significant disability or
incapacity, or is a congenital anomaly/birth defect.
The characteristics/consequences should be considered at the time of the reaction to determine the
seriousness of a case. For example, life-threatening refers to a reaction in which the patient was at risk
of death at the time of the reaction; it does not refer to a reaction that hypothetically might have
caused death if more severe.
Medical judgement should be exercised in deciding whether other situations should be considered as
serious reactions. Some medical events may jeopardise the patient or may require an intervention to
prevent one of the above characteristics/consequences. Such important medical events should be
considered as serious 3. The EudraVigilance Expert Working Group has co-ordinated the development of
an important medical event (IME) terms list based on the Medical Dictionary for Regulatory Activities
(MedDRA) (see GVP Annex IV). This IME list aims to facilitate the classification of suspected adverse
reactions, the analysis of aggregated data and the assessment of the individual case safety reports
(ICSRs) in the framework of the day-to-day pharmacovigilance activities. The IME list is intended for
2
3
See VI.C.6 as regards the electronic reporting of ICSRs in the EU.
Examples are provided in section II.B of ICH-E2A (see GVP Annex IV).
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guidance purposes only and is available on the EudraVigilance web site 4 to stakeholders who wish to
use it for their pharmacovigilance activities. It is regularly updated in line with the latest version of
MedDRA.
VI.A.2.5. Individual case safety report (ICSR)
This refers to the format and content for the reporting of one or several suspected adverse reactions in
relation to a medicinal product that occur in a single patient at a specific point of time. A valid ICSR
should include at least one identifiable reporter, one single identifiable patient, at least one suspect
adverse reaction and at least one suspect medicinal product.
VI.B. Structures and processes
Section B of this Module highlights the general principles in relation to the collection, recording and
reporting of reports of suspected adverse reactions associated with medicinal products for human use,
which are applicable to competent authorities and marketing authorisation holders. The definitions and
recommendations provided in VI.A. should be followed. EU requirements are presented in VI.C..
VI.B.1. Collection of reports
Competent authorities and marketing authorisation holders should take appropriate measures in order
to collect and collate all reports of suspected adverse reactions associated with medicinal products for
human use originating from unsolicited or solicited sources.
For this purpose, a pharmacovigilance system should be developed to allow the acquisition of sufficient
information for the scientific evaluation of those reports.
The system should be designed so that it helps to ensure that the collected reports are authentic,
legible, accurate, consistent, verifiable and as complete as possible for their clinical assessment.
All notifications that contain pharmacovigilance data should be recorded and archived in compliance
with the applicable data protection requirements (see VI.C.6.2.2.8. for EU requirements).
The system should also be structured in a way that allows for reports of suspected adverse reactions to
be validated (see VI.B.2.) in a timely manner and exchanged between competent authorities and
marketing authorisation holders within the legal reporting time frame (see VI.B.7.1.).
In accordance with the ICH-E2D (see GVP Annex IV), two types of safety reports are distinguished in
the post-authorisation phase; reports originating from unsolicited sources and those reported as
solicited.
VI.B.1.1. Unsolicited reports
VI.B.1.1.1. Spontaneous reports
A spontaneous report is an unsolicited communication by a healthcare professional, or consumer to a
competent authority, marketing authorisation holder or other organisation (e.g. Regional
Pharmacovigilance Centre, Poison Control Centre) that describes one or more suspected adverse
reactions in a patient who was given one or more medicinal products and that does not derive from a
study or any organised data collection systems where adverse events reporting is actively sought, as
defined in VI.B.1.2..
4
http://eudravigilance.ema.europa.eu/human/textforIME.asp.
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Stimulated reporting that occurs consequent to a direct healthcare professional communication (see
Module XV), publication in the press, questioning of healthcare professionals by company
representatives, communication from patients’ organisations to their members, or class action lawsuits
should be considered spontaneous reports.
Unsolicited consumer adverse reactions reports should be handled as spontaneous reports irrespective
of any subsequent “medical confirmation”.
The reporting modalities and applicable time frames for spontaneous reports are described in VI.B.7.
and VI.B.8..
VI.B.1.1.2. Literature reports
The scientific and medical literature is a significant source of information for the monitoring of the
safety profile and of the risk-benefit balance of medicinal products, particularly in relation to the
detection of new safety signals or emerging safety issues. Marketing authorisation holders are
therefore expected to maintain awareness of possible publications through a systematic literature
review of widely used reference databases (e.g. Medline, Excerpta Medica or Embase) no less
frequently than once a week. The marketing authorisation holder should ensure that the literature
review includes the use of reference databases that contain the largest reference of articles in relation
to the medicinal product properties 5. In addition, marketing authorisation holders should have
procedures in place to monitor scientific and medical publications in local journals in countries where
medicinal products have a marketing authorisation, and to bring them to the attention of the company
safety department as appropriate.
Reports of suspected adverse reactions from the scientific and medical literature, including relevant
published abstracts from meetings and draft manuscripts, should be reviewed and assessed by
marketing authorisation holders to identify and record ICSRs originating from spontaneous reports or
non-interventional post-authorisation studies.
If multiple medicinal products are mentioned in the publication, only those which are identified by the
publication's author(s) as having at least a possible causal relationship with the suspected adverse
reaction should be considered by the concerned marketing authorisation holder(s).
Valid ICSRs should be reported according to the modalities detailed in VI.B.7. and VI.B.8..
One case should be created for each single patient identifiable based on characteristics provided in
VI.B.2.. Relevant medical information should be provided and the publication author(s) should be
considered as the primary source(s).
EU specific requirements, as regards medicinal products and scientific and medical publications, which
are not monitored by the Agency and for which valid ICSRs shall be reported by marketing
authorisation holders, are provided in VI.C.2.2.3.
VI.B.1.1.3. Reports from other sources
If a marketing authorisation holder becomes aware of a report of suspected adverse reactions
originating from a non-medical source, for example the lay press or other media, it should be handled
as a spontaneous report. Every attempt should be made to follow-up the case to obtain the minimum
information that constitutes a valid ICSR. The same reporting time frames should be applied as for
other spontaneous reports.
5
See VI. Appendix 2. for the detailed guidance on the monitoring of medical and scientific literature.
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VI.B.1.1.4. Information on suspected adverse reactions from the internet or digital media
Marketing authorisation holders should regularly screen internet or digital media 6 under their
management or responsibility, for potential reports of suspected adverse reactions. In this aspect,
digital media is considered to be company sponsored if it is owned, paid for and/or controlled by the
marketing authorisation holder 7. The frequency of the screening should allow for potential valid ICSRs
to be reported to the competent authorities within the appropriate reporting timeframe based on the
date the information was posted on the internet site/digital medium. Marketing authorisation holders
may also consider utilising their websites to facilitate the collection of reports of suspected adverse
reactions (see VI.C.2.2.1.).
If a marketing authorisation holder becomes aware of a report of suspected adverse reaction described
in any non-company sponsored digital medium, the report should be assessed to determine whether it
qualifies for reporting.
Unsolicited cases of suspected adverse reactions from the internet or digital media should be handled
as spontaneous reports. The same reporting time frames as for spontaneous reports should be applied
(see VI.B.7.).
In relation to cases from the internet or digital media, the identifiability of the reporter refers to the
existence of a real person, that is, it is possible to verify the contact details of the reporter (e.g., an
email address under a valid format has been provided). If the country of the primary source is missing,
the country where the information was received, or where the review took place, should be used as the
primary source country.
VI.B.1.2. Solicited reports
As defined in ICH-E2D (see GVP Annex IV), solicited reports of suspected adverse reactions are those
derived from organised data collection systems, which include clinical trials, non-interventional studies,
registries, post-approval named patient use programmes, other patient support and disease
management programmes, surveys of patients or healthcare providers, compassionate use or name
patient use, or information gathering on efficacy or patient compliance. Reports of suspected adverse
reactions obtained from any of these data collection systems should not be considered spontaneous.
This is with the exception of:
•
suspected adverse reactions in relation to those adverse events for which the protocol of noninterventional post-authorisation studies provides differently and does not require their systematic
collection (see VI.C.1.2.1.),
•
suspected adverse reactions originating from compassionate use or named patient use conducted
in Member States where the active collection of adverse events occurring in these programmes is
not required (see VI.C.1.2.2.).
For the purpose of safety reporting, solicited reports should be classified as study reports, and should
have an appropriate causality assessment, to consider whether they refer to suspected adverse
reactions and therefore meet the criteria for reporting.
6
Although not exhaustive, the following list should be considered as digital media: web site, web page, blog, vlog, social
network, internet forum, chat room, health portal.
7
A donation (financial or otherwise) to an organisation/site by a marketing authorisation holder does not constitute
ownership, provided that the marketing authorisation holder does not control the final content of the site.
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General reporting rules for suspected adverse reactions occurring in organised data collection systems
conducted in the EU under the scope of Directive 2001/83/EC, Regulation (EC) No 726/2004 or
Directive 2001/20/EC, are presented in VI.C.1..
VI.B.2. Validation of reports
Only valid ICSRs qualify for reporting. All reports of suspected adverse reactions should therefore be
validated before reporting them to the competent authorities to make sure that the minimum criteria
for reporting are included in the reports (see ICH-E2D (see GVP Annex IV)). These are:
one or more identifiable reporter (primary source), characterised by qualification (e.g. physician,
•
pharmacist, other healthcare professional, lawyer, consumer or other non-healthcare professional)
name, initials or address 8. Whenever possible, contact details for the reporter should be recorded
so that follow-up activities can be performed. However, if the reporter does not wish to provide
contact details, the ICSR should still be considered as valid providing the organisation who was
informed of the case was able to confirm it directly with the reporter. All parties providing case
information or approached for case information should be identifiable, not only the initial reporter.
one single identifiable patient characterised by initials, patient identification number, date of birth,
•
age, age group or gender. The information should be as complete as possible 9.
•
one or more suspected substance/medicinal product (see VI.A.2.2.).
•
one or more suspected adverse reaction (see VI.A.2.1.). If the primary source has made an explicit
statement that a causal relationship between the medicinal product and the adverse event has
been excluded and the receiver (competent authority or marketing authorisation holder) agrees
with this, the report does not qualify as a valid ICSR since the minimum information is
incomplete 10. The report does not also qualify as a valid ICSR if it is reported that the patient
experienced an unspecified adverse reaction and there is no information provided on the type of
adverse reaction experienced. Similarly, the report is not valid if only an outcome (or consequence)
is notified and (i) no further information about the clinical circumstances is provided to consider it
as a suspected adverse reaction, or (ii) the primary source has not indicated a possible causal
relationship with the suspected medicinal product. For instance a marketing authorisation holder is
made aware that a patient was hospitalised or died, without any further information. In this
particular situation, medical judgement should always be applied in deciding whether the notified
information is an adverse reaction or an event. For example, a report of sudden death would
usually need to be considered as a case of suspected adverse reaction and reported.
The lack of any of these four elements means that the case is considered incomplete and does not
qualify for reporting. Competent authorities and marketing authorisation holders are expected to
exercise due diligence in following up the case to collect the missing data elements. Reports, for which
the minimum information is incomplete, should nevertheless be recorded within the pharmacovigilance
system for use in on-going safety evaluation activities. Recommendations on the electronic reporting of
valid ICSRs, when missing information has been obtained, are provided in VI.C.6.2.3.8.
When collecting reports of suspected adverse reactions via the internet or digital media, the term
“identifiable” refers to the possibility of verification of the existence of a reporter and a patient (see
VI.B.1.1.4.).
8
9
Local data privacy laws regarding patient’s and reporter’s identifiability might apply.
See Footnote 9.
There is no suspected adverse reaction.
10
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When one party (competent authority or a marketing authorisation holder) is made aware that the
primary source may also have reported the suspected adverse reaction to another concerned party,
the report should still be considered as a valid ICSR. All the relevant information necessary for the
detection of the duplicate case should be included in the ICSR 11.
A valid case of suspected adverse reaction initially submitted by a consumer cannot be downgraded to
a report of non-related adverse event if the contacted healthcare professional (nominated by the
consumer for follow-up information) disagrees with the consumer’s suspicion (see VI.A.2.1.1.). In this
situation, the opinions of both the consumer and the healthcare professional should be included in the
ICSR. Guidance on the reporting of the medical confirmation of a case, provided in ICH-E2B(R2)
Section A.1.14 (“Was the case medically confirmed, if not initially from a healthcare professional?”)
(see GVP Annex IV), should be followed.
For solicited reports of suspected adverse reactions (see VI.B.1.2.), where the receiver disagrees with
the reasonable possibility of causal relationship between the suspected medicinal product and the
adverse reaction expressed by the primary source, the case should not be downgraded to a report of
non-related adverse event. The opinions of both, the primary source and the receiver, should be
recorded in the ICSR.
The same principle applies to the ICSR seriousness criterion, which should not be downgraded from
serious to non-serious if the receiver disagrees with the seriousness reported by the primary source.
VI.B.3. Follow-up of reports
When first received, the information in suspected adverse reactions reports may be incomplete. These
reports should be followed-up as necessary to obtain supplementary detailed information significant for
the scientific evaluation of the cases. This is particularly relevant for monitored events of special
interest, prospective reports of pregnancy, cases notifying the death of a patient, cases reporting new
risks or changes in the known risks. This is in addition to any effort to collect missing minimum
information (see VI.B.2.). Any attempt to obtain follow-up information should be documented.
Follow-up methods should be tailored towards optimising the collection of missing information. This
should be done in ways that encourage the primary source to submit new information relevant for the
scientific evaluation of a particular safety concern. The use of targeted specific forms in the local
language should avoid requesting the primary source to repeat information already provided in the
initial report and/or to complete extensive questionnaires, which could discourage future spontaneous
reporting. Therefore, consideration should be given to pre-populating some data fields in those followup report forms to make their completion by the primary source easy.
When information is received directly from a consumer suggesting that an adverse reaction may have
occurred, if the information is incomplete, attempts should be made to obtain consent to contact a
nominated healthcare professional to obtain further follow-up information. When such a case, initially
reported by a consumer, has been confirmed (totally or partially) by a healthcare professional, this
information should be clearly highlighted in the ICSR 12.
For suspected adverse reactions relating to biological medicinal products, the definite identification of
the concerned product with regard to its manufacturing is of particular importance. Therefore, all
appropriate measures should be taken to clearly identify the name of the product and the batch
11
For further guidance on reporting of other duplicate ICSRs, refer to section A.1.11 “Other case identifiers in previous
transmission” of ICH-E2B(R2) (see GVP Annex IV).
12
For further guidance on reporting this information, refer to ICH-E2B(R2), section A.1.14 (“Was the case medically
confirmed, if not initially from a healthcare professional?”) (see GVP Annex IV).
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number. A business process map in relation to the mandatory follow-up of information for the
identification of suspected biological medicinal products is presented in VI.Appendix 1..
For cases related to vaccines, GVP P.I. should also be followed as appropriate.
VI.B.4. Data management
Electronic data and paper reports of suspected adverse reactions should be stored and treated in the
same way as other medical records with appropriate respect for confidentiality regarding patients’ and
reporters’ identifiability and in accordance with local data privacy laws. Confidentiality of patients'
records including personal identifiers, if provided, should always be maintained. Identifiable personal
details of reporting healthcare professionals should be kept in confidence. With regards to patient’s and
reporter’s identifiability, case report information should be transmitted between stakeholders
(marketing authorisation holders or competent authorities) in accordance with local data privacy laws
(see VI.C.6.2.2.8. for the processing of personal data in ICSRs in the EU).
In order to ensure pharmacovigilance data security and confidentiality, strict access controls should be
applied to documents and to databases to authorised personnel only. This security extends to the
complete data path. In this aspect, procedures should be implemented to ensure security and noncorruption of data during data transfer.
When transfer of pharmacovigilance data occurs within an organisation or between organisations
having concluded contractual agreements, the mechanism should be such that there is confidence that
all notifications are received; in that, a confirmation and/or reconciliation process should be
undertaken.
Correct data entry, including the appropriate use of terminologies, should be verified by quality
assurance auditing, either systematically or by regular random evaluation. Data entry staff should be
instructed in the use of the terminologies, and their proficiency confirmed.
Data received from the primary source should be treated in an unbiased and unfiltered way and
inferences as well as imputations should be avoided during data entry or electronic transmission. The
reports should include the verbatim text as used by the primary source or an accurate translation of it.
The original verbatim text should be coded using the appropriate terminology as described in VI.B.8. In
order to ensure consistency in the coding practices, it is recommended to use, where applicable, the
translation of the terminology in the local language to code the verbatim text.
Electronic data storage should allow traceability (audit trail) of all data entered or modified, including
dates and sources of received data, as well as dates and destinations of transmitted data.
A procedure should be in place to account for identification and management of duplicate cases at data
entry and during the generation of aggregated reports (see VI.C.6.2.4.).
VI.B.5. Quality management
Competent authorities and marketing authorisation holders should have a quality management system
in place to ensure compliance with the necessary quality standards at every stage of case
documentation, such as data collection, data transfer, data management, data coding, case validation,
case evaluation, case follow-up, ICSR reporting and case archiving (see VI.C.6.2.4. and Module I).
Conformity of stored data with initial and follow-up reports should be verified by quality control
procedures, which permit for the validation against the original data or images thereof. In this aspect,
the source data (e.g., letters, emails, records of telephone calls that include details of an event) or an
image of the source data should be easily accessible.
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Clear written standard operating procedures should guarantee that the roles and responsibilities and
the required tasks are clear to all parties involved and that there is provision for proper control and,
when needed, change of the system. This is equally applicable to activities that are contracted out to
third parties, whose procedures should be reviewed to verify that they are adequate and compliant
with applicable requirements.
Staff directly performing pharmacovigilance activities, should be appropriately trained in applicable
pharmacovigilance legislation and guidelines in addition to specific training in report processing
activities for which they are responsible and/or undertake. Other personnel who may receive or
process safety reports (e.g. clinical development, sales, medical information, legal, quality control)
should be trained in adverse event collection and reporting in accordance with internal policies and
procedures.
VI.B.6. Special situations
VI.B.6.1. Use of a medicinal product during pregnancy or breastfeeding
a. Pregnancy
Reports, where the embryo or foetus may have been exposed to medicinal products (either through
maternal exposure or transmission of a medicinal product via semen following paternal exposure),
should be followed-up in order to collect information on the outcome of the pregnancy and
development of the child after birth. The recommendations provided in the Guideline on the Exposure
to Medicinal Products during Pregnancy: Need for Post-Authorisation Data (see GVP Annex III) should
be considered as regard the monitoring, collection and reporting of information in these specific
situations in order to facilitate the scientific evaluation. When an active substance (or one of its
metabolites) has a long half-life, this should be taken into account when assessing the possibility of
exposure of the embryo, if the medicinal product was taken before conception.
Not infrequently, pregnant women or healthcare professionals will contact either competent authorities
or marketing authorisation holders to request information on the teratogenicity of a medicinal product
and/or experience of use during pregnancy. Reasonable attempts should be made to obtain
information on any possible medicinal product exposure to an embryo or foetus and to follow-up on the
outcome of the pregnancy.
Reports of exposure to medicinal products during pregnancy should contain as many detailed elements
as possible in order to assess the causal relationships between any reported adverse events and the
exposure to the suspected medicinal product. In this context the use of standard structured
questionnaires is recommended.
Individual cases with an abnormal outcome associated with a medicinal product following exposure
during pregnancy are classified as serious reports and should be reported, in accordance with the
requirements outlined in VI.B.7. 13.
This especially refers to:
•
reports of congenital anomalies or developmental delay, in the foetus or the child;
•
reports of foetal death and spontaneous abortion; and
•
reports of suspected adverse reactions in the neonate that are classified as serious.
13
See VI.C.6.2.3.1 for electronic reporting recommendations in the EU.
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Other cases, such as reports of induced termination of pregnancy without information on congenital
malformation, reports of pregnancy exposure without outcome data or reports which have a normal
outcome, should not be reported since there is no suspected adverse reaction. These reports should
however be collected and discussed in the periodic safety update reports (see Module VII).
However, in certain circumstances, reports of pregnancy exposure with no suspected reactions may
necessitate to be reported. This may be a condition of the marketing authorisation or stipulated in the
risk management plan; for example pregnancy exposure to medicinal products contraindicated in
pregnancy or medicinal products with a special need for surveillance because of a high teratogenic
potential (e.g. thalidomide, isotretinoin).
A signal of a possible teratogen effect (e.g. through a cluster of similar abnormal outcomes) should be
notified immediately to the competent authorities in accordance with the recommendations presented
in VI.C.2.2.6.
b. Breastfeeding
Suspected adverse reactions which occur in infants following exposure to a medicinal product from
breast milk should be reported in accordance with the criteria outlined in VI.B.7. 14.
VI.B.6.2. Use of a medicinal product in a paediatric or elderly population
The collection of safety information in the paediatric or elderly population is important. Reasonable
attempts should therefore be made to obtain and submit the age or age group of the patient when a
case is reported by a healthcare professional, or consumer in order to be able to identify potential
safety signals specific to a particular population.
As regards the paediatric population, the guidance published by the Agency 15 on the conduct of
pharmacovigilance in this population should be followed.
VI.B.6.3. Reports of overdose, abuse, off-label use, misuse, medication
error or occupational exposure
For the purpose of this Module, medication error refers to any unintentional error in the prescribing,
dispensing, or administration of a medicinal product while in the control of the healthcare professional
or consumer.
Reports of overdose, abuse, off-label use, misuse, medication error or occupational exposure with no
associated adverse reaction should not be reported as ICSRs. They should be considered in periodic
safety update reports as applicable. When those reports constitute safety issues impacting on the riskbenefit balance of the medicinal product, they should be notified to the competent authorities in
accordance with the recommendations provided in VI.C.2.2.6.
Reports associated with suspected adverse reactions should be subject to reporting in accordance with
the criteria outlined in VI.B.7. and with the electronic reporting requirements described in VI.C.6.2.3.3.
They should be routinely followed-up to ensure that the information is as complete as possible with
regards to the symptoms, treatments, outcomes, context of occurrence (e.g., error in prescription,
administration, dispensing, dosage, unauthorised indication or population, etc.).
14
15
See Footnote 16.
Guideline on conduct of pharmacovigilance for medicines used by the paediatric population.
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VI.B.6.4. Lack of therapeutic efficacy
Reports of lack of therapeutic efficacy should be recorded and followed-up if incomplete. They should
not normally be reported, but should be discussed in periodic safety update reports as applicable.
However, in certain circumstances, reports of lack of therapeutic efficacy may require to be reported
within a 15-day time frame (see VI.C.6.2.3.4. as regards electronic reporting in the EU). Medicinal
products used in critical conditions or for the treatment of life-threatening diseases, vaccines,
contraceptives are examples of such cases. This applies unless the reporter has specifically stated that
the outcome was due to disease progression and was not related to the medicinal product.
Clinical judgement should be used when considering if other cases of lack of therapeutic efficacy
qualify for reporting. For example, an antibiotic used in a life-threatening situation where the medicinal
product was not in fact appropriate for the infective agent should not be reported. However, a lifethreatening infection, where the lack of therapeutic efficacy appears to be due to the development of a
newly resistant strain of a bacterium previously regarded as susceptible, should be reported within 15
days.
For vaccines, cases of lack of therapeutic efficacy should be reported, in particular with the view to
highlight potential signals of reduced immunogenicity in a sub-group of vaccinees, waning immunity,
or strain replacement. With regard to the latter, it is considered that spontaneously reported cases of
lack of therapeutic efficacy by a healthcare professional may constitute a signal of strain replacement.
Such a signal may need prompt action and further investigation through post-authorisation safety
studies as appropriate. General guidance regarding the monitoring of vaccines failure, provided in the
Report of CIOMS/WHO Working Group on Vaccine Pharmacovigilance 16, may be followed.
VI.B.7. Reporting of Individual case safety reports (ICSRs)
Only valid ICSRs (see VI.B.2.) should be reported. The clock for the reporting of a valid ICSR starts as
soon as the information containing the minimum reporting criteria has been brought to the attention of
the national or regional pharmacovigilance centre of a competent authority or of any personnel of the
marketing authorisation holder, including medical representatives and contractors. This date should be
considered as day zero. It is the first day when a receiver gains knowledge of a valid ICSR, irrespective
of whether the information is received during a weekend or public holiday. Reporting timelines are
based on calendar days.
Where the marketing authorisation holder has set up contractual arrangements with a person or an
organisation, explicit procedures and detailed agreements should exist between the marketing
authorisation holder and the person/organisation to ensure that the marketing authorisation holder can
comply with the reporting obligations. These procedures should in particular specify the processes for
exchange of safety information, including timelines and regulatory reporting responsibilities and should
avoid duplicate reporting to the competent authorities.
For ICSRs described in the scientific and medical literature (see VI.B.1.1.2.), the clock starts (day
zero) with awareness of a publication containing the minimum information for reporting. Where
contractual arrangements are made with a person/organisation to perform literature searches and/or
report valid ICSRs, detailed agreements should exist to ensure that the marketing authorisation holder
can comply with the reporting obligations.
16
Council for International Organizations of Medical Sciences (CIOMS). Definition and application of terms of vaccine
pharmacovigilance (report of CIOMS/WHO Working Group on Vaccine Pharmacovigilance). Genève: CIOMS; 2012.
http://www.cioms.ch/
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When additional significant information is received for a previously reported case, the reporting time
clock starts again for the submission of a follow-up report from the date of receipt of the relevant
follow-up information. For the purpose of reporting, significant follow-up information corresponds to
new medical or administrative information that could impact on the assessment or management of a
case or could change its seriousness criteria; non-significant information includes updated comments
on the case assessment or corrections of typographical errors in the previous case version. See also
VI.C.6.2.2.7. as regards the distinction between significant and non-significant follow-up information.
VI.B.7.1. Reporting time frames
In general, the reporting of serious valid ICSRs is required as soon as possible, but in no case later
than 15 calendar days after initial receipt of the information by the national or regional
pharmacovigilance centre of a competent authority or by any personnel of the marketing authorisation
holder, including medical representatives and contractors. This applies to initial and follow-up
information. Where a case initially reported as serious becomes non-serious, based on new follow-up
information, this information should still be reported within 15 days; the reporting time frame for nonserious reports should then be applied for the subsequent follow-up reports.
Information as regards the reporting time frame of non-serious valid ICSRs in the EU is provided in
VI.C.3.
VI.B.8. Reporting modalities
Taking into account the international dimension of adverse reactions reporting and the need to achieve
harmonisation and high quality between all involved parties, ICSRs should be submitted electronically
as structured data with the use of controlled vocabularies for the relevant data elements where
applicable. In this aspect, with regard to the content and format of electronic ICSRs, competent
authorities and marketing authorisation holders should adhere to the following internationally agreed
ICH 17 guidelines and standards:
•
ICH M1 terminology - Medical Dictionary for Regulatory Activities (MedDRA) (see GVP Annex IV);
•
MedDRA Term Selection: Points to Consider Document - The latest version of the ICH-endorsed
Guide for MedDRA Users (see GVP Annex IV);
•
ICH M2 EWG - Electronic Transmission of Individual Case Safety Reports Message Specification
(see GVP Annex IV);
•
ICH E2B(R2) - Maintenance of the ICH Guideline on Clinical Safety Data Management: Data
Elements for Transmission of Individual Case Safety Reports (see GVP Annex IV);
•
ICH E2B Implementation Working Group - Questions & Answers (R5) (March 3, 2005) (see GVP
Annex IV).
As technical standards evolve over time, the above referred documents may require revision and
maintenance. In this context, the latest version of these documents should always be taken into
account.
Information regarding EU specific reporting modalities is provided in VI.C.4.
17
http://www.ich.org/
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VI.C. Operation of the EU network
Section C of this Module highlights the EU specific requirements, as defined in Directive 2001/83/EC
and Regulation (EC) No 726/2004, in relation to the collection, management and reporting of reports
of suspected adverse reactions (serious and non-serious) associated with medicinal products for
human use authorised in the EU, independently of their condition of use. They are applicable to
competent authorities in Member States and/or to marketing authorisation holders. Section C should
be read in conjunction with the definitions and general principles detailed in VI.A and VI.B of this
Module and with the requirements provided in chapters IV, V and IX of the Commission Implementing
Regulation (EU) No 520/2012 [IR].
VI.C.1. Reporting rules for clinical trials and post-authorisation studies in
the EU
The pharmacovigilance rules laid down in Directive 2001/83/EC and Regulation (EC) No 726/2004 do
not apply to investigational medicinal products and non-investigational medicinal products 18 used in
clinical trials conducted in accordance with Directive 2001/20/EC 19.
Post-authorisation safety or efficacy studies requested by competent authorities in Member States or
the Agency in accordance with Directive 2001/83/EC or Regulation (EC) No 726/2004, or conducted
voluntarily by marketing authorisation holders, can either be clinical trials or non-interventional postauthorisation studies as shown in Figure VI.1. The safety reporting falls therefore either under the
scope of Directive 2001/20/EC for any clinical trials or under the provisions set out in Directive
2001/83/EC and Regulation (EC) No 726/2004 for any non-interventional post-authorisation studies.
Suspected adverse reactions should not be reported under both regimes, that is Directive 2001/20/EC
as well as Regulation (EC) No 726/2004 and Directive 2001/83/EC as this creates duplicate reports.
Further guidance on post-authorisation safety studies is provided in Module VIII.
The different types of studies and clinical trials which can be conducted in the EU are illustrated in
Figure VI.1. The safety reporting for clinical trials corresponding to sections A, B, C and D of Figure
VI.1. follows the requirements of Directive 2001/20/EC. The safety reporting for non-interventional
post-authorisation studies corresponding to section E and F follows the requirements of Directive
2001/83/EC and Regulation (EC) No 726/2004. The reporting rules of reports of suspected adverse
reactions to the EudraVigilance database modules are dependent on the types of organised collection
systems where they occurred; recommendations provided in VI.C.6.2.1 should be followed.
18
For guidance on these terms, see The Rules Governing Medicinal Products in the European Union, Volume 10, Guidance
Applying to Clinical Trials, Guidance on Investigational Medicinal Products and Non-Investigational Medicinal Products
(NIMPs) (Ares(2011)300458 - 18/03/2011).
19
See DIR Art 3(3), Art 107(1) third subparagraph.
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Figure VI.1. Diagram illustrating different types of clinical trials and studies in the EU
Pre-authorisation
Post-authorisation
Clinical trials
C
A
B
D
Safety &
Efficacy
E
F
Section A:
Section B:
Section C:
Section D:
Section E:
Section F:
Non-interventional
post-authorisation studies
Clinical trials, which fall under the scope of Directive 2001/20/EC and which are conducted when no
marketing authorisation exists in the EU.
Clinical trials, which fall under the scope of Directive 2001/20/EC and which are conducted in the postauthorisation period, e.g. for new indication.
Post-authorisation clinical trials conducted in accordance with the summary of product characteristics (SmPC)
indication and condition of use, but which fall under the scope of Directive 2001/20/EC due to the nature of
the intervention.
Post-authorisation safety or efficacy clinical trials requested in accordance with Directive 2001/83/EC or
Regulation (EC) No 726/2004 or conducted voluntarily by marketing authorisation holders, but which fall
under the scope of Directive 2001/20/EC due to the nature of the intervention.
Non-interventional post-authorisation safety or efficacy studies requested in accordance with Directive
2001/83/EC or Regulation (EC) No 726/2004 or conducted voluntarily by the marketing authorisation holders
and which follow the same legal requirements.
Non-interventional post-authorisation studies conducted in accordance with SmPC indication and condition of
use and which fall under the scope of Directive 2001/83/EC or Regulation (EC) No 726/2004.
VI.C.1.1. Reporting rules for clinical trials
A suspected adverse reaction to an investigational medicinal product occurring in a clinical trial which
falls under the scope of Directive 2001/20/EC is only to be addressed by the sponsor based on the
requirements detailed in that Directive. It is therefore excluded from the scope of this Module even if
the clinical trial where the suspected adverse reaction occurred is a post-authorisation safety or
efficacy study, requested in accordance with Directive 2001/83/EC or Regulation (EC) No 726/2004, or
conducted voluntarily.
If a clinical trial, conducted under the scope of Directive 2001/20/EC, yields safety concerns which
impact on the risk-benefit balance of an authorised medicinal product, the competent authorities in the
Member States where the medicinal product is authorised and the Agency should be notified
immediately in accordance with the modalities detailed in VI.C.2.2.6. This applies as well if a safety
concern arises from a clinical trial conducted exclusively outside the EU.
The safety data from clinical trials to be presented in the relevant sections of the periodic safety
update report of the authorised medicinal product are detailed in Module VII.
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Where an untoward and unintended response originating from a clinical trial conducted in accordance
with Directive 2001/20/EC, is suspected to be related only to a non-investigational medicinal product
(or another medicinal product, which is not part of the clinical trial protocol) and does not result from a
possible interaction with the investigational medicinal product, it does not follow the expedited
reporting requirements of Directive 2001/20/EC, which apply only to the investigational medicinal
product. The investigator or the sponsor is encouraged to report the case to the competent authority in
the Member State where the reaction occurred or to the marketing authorisation holder of the
suspected medicinal product, but not to both to avoid duplicate reporting 20. Where made aware of such
case, the competent authority or the marketing authorisation holder should apply the reporting
requirements described in VI.C.3, VI.C.4 and VI.C.6. As regards electronic reporting, the
recommendations detailed in VI.C.6.2.3.7 should be followed.
VI.C.1.2. Reporting rules for non-interventional post-authorisation studies,
compassionate use and named patient use
This Section applies to non-interventional post-authorisation studies, compassionate use and named
patient use. For these organised data collection schemes, a system should be put in place to record
and document complete and comprehensive case information on solicited adverse events 21 which need
to be collected as specified in VI.C.1.2.1. and in VI.C.1.2.2.. These adverse events should be
systematically assessed to determine whether they are possibly related to the studied (or supplied)
medicinal products (see ICH-E2D (see GVP Annex IV)). A method of causality assessment should be
applied for assessing the causal role of the studied (or supplied) medicinal products in the solicited
adverse events (for example, the WHO-UMC system for standardised case causality assessment). An
adverse event should be classified as an adverse reaction, if there is at least a reasonable possibility of
causal relationship. Only valid ICSRs (see VI.B.2.) of adverse reactions, which are suspected to be
related to the studied (or supplied) medicinal product by the primary source or the receiver of the
case, should be reported in accordance with the requirements provided in VI.C.3., VI.C.4. and
VI.C.6.2.3.7.. Other reports of adverse events should be summarised as part of any interim safety
analysis and in the final study report, where applicable. In situations where adverse reactions are
suspected to be related to medicinal products other than the studied (or supplied) medicine, these
reports should be managed, classified and reported as spontaneous ICSRs. They should be notified by
the primary source to the competent authority in the Member State where the reactions occurred or to
the marketing authorisation holder of the suspected medicinal product, but not to both (to avoid
duplicate reporting).
Where made aware, in the frame of these organised data collection schemes, of events which affect
the known risk-benefit balance of the studied (or supplied) medicinal product and/or impact on public
health, the marketing authorisation holder should notify the concerned competent authorities and the
Agency in accordance with the modalities detailed in VI.C.2.2.6..
Further guidance on post-authorisation studies conducted by marketing authorisation holders is
provided in VI.C.2.2.2..
The requirements provided in this Module do not apply to non-interventional post-authorisation studies
conducted by organisations such as academia, medical research charities or research organisations in
the public sector. These organisations should follow local requirements as regards the reporting of
cases of suspected adverse reactions to the competent authority in the Member State where the
20
See The Rules Governing Medicinal Products in the European Union, Volume 10, Detailed guidance on the collection,
verification and presentation of adverse event/reaction reports arising from clinical trials on medicinal products for human
use (‘CT-3’), (2011/C 172/01).
21
See GVP Annex I for definition of adverse event.
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reaction occurred. However, where a study conducted by one of these organisations is directly
initiated, managed, financed, or where its design is controlled by a marketing authorisation holder
(voluntarily or pursuant to obligations imposed in accordance with Articles 21a or 22a of Directive
2001/83/EC and Articles 10 or 10(a) of Regulation 726/2004), the requirements provided in this
Module are applicable 22. In this context, contractual agreements should be in place to clearly define
the role and responsibilities for implementing these requirements (see Module I).
VI.C.1.2.1. Non-interventional post-authorisation studies
Non-interventional post-authorisation studies 23 should be distinguished between those with primary
data collection directly from healthcare professionals or consumers and study designs which are based
on the secondary use of data. Depending on the study design, the requirements provided hereafter
apply 24. In case of doubt, the reporting requirements should be clarified with the concerned competent
authorities in Member States. National legislation should be followed as applicable regarding the
obligations towards local ethics committees.
a. Non-interventional post-authorisation studies with primary data collection
Information on all adverse events should be collected from healthcare professionals or consumers in
the course of the study unless the protocol provides differently with a due justification for not collecting
certain adverse events. For all collected adverse events, comprehensive and high quality information
should be sought in a manner which allow for valid ICSRs to be reported within the appropriate
timeframes (see VI.C.3.).
For all collected adverse events, cases of adverse reactions, which are suspected to be related to the
studied medicinal product by the primary source or the receiver of the case, should be reported in
accordance with the requirements provided in VI.C.3. and VI.C.4.. Valid ICSRs should be classified as
solicited reports (see VI.C.2.2.2. and VI.C.6.2.3.7.). See summary in Table VI.1..
All fatal outcomes should be considered as adverse events which should be collected. In certain
circumstances, suspected adverse reactions with fatal outcome may not be subject to expedited
reporting as ICSRs, for example because they refer to study outcomes (efficacy end points), because
the patients included in the study have a disease with high mortality, or because the fatal outcomes
have no relation to the objective of the study. For these particular situations, the rational for not
reporting certain adverse reactions with fatal outcomes should be clearly described in the protocol.
All collected adverse events should be summarised as part of any interim safety analysis and in the
final study report.
22
This does not concern donation of a medicinal product for research purpose if the marketing authorisation holder has no
control on the study.
23
See GVP Annex I for definition of non-interventional study.
24
For combined study designs with primary and secondary data collection, the same requirements as for studies with
primary data collection should be followed.
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Table VI.1. Non-interventional post-authorisation studies with primary data collection: Requirements
concerning adverse events collection and suspected adverse reactions reporting.
Adverse events for which the protocol does not provide differently
and those with fatal outcomes
Collection requirements
• Collect comprehensive and high quality information.
• Perform causality assessment.
Reporting requirements
• Cases of adverse reactions, which are suspected to be related to
for suspected adverse
the studied medicinal product by the primary source or the
reactions
receiver of the case, should be reported in the form of valid ICSRs
in line with the appropriate timeframes (See VI.C.3)
• In certain circumstances, fatal outcome may not be subject to
expedited reporting as ICSRs. A justification should always be
provided in the protocol.
Reporting requirements
for adverse events
• Summarise all collected adverse events as part of any interim
safety analysis and in the final study report.
For adverse events for which the protocol provides differently and does not require their systematic
collection, healthcare professionals and consumers should be informed in the protocol (or other study
documents) of the possibility to report adverse reactions (for which they suspect a causal role of a
medicine) to the marketing authorisation holder of the suspected medicinal product (studied or not) or
to the concerned competent authorities via the national spontaneous reporting system. Valid ICSRs
should be managed, classified and reported as spontaneous by the receiver of the reports. When made
aware of them, these reports should also be summarised in the relevant study reports.
b. Non-interventional post-authorisation studies based on secondary use of data
The design of such studies is characterised by the secondary use of data previously collected from
consumers or healthcare professionals for other purposes. Examples include medical chart reviews
(including following-up on data with healthcare professionals), analysis of electronic healthcare
records, systematic reviews, meta-analyses.
For these studies, the reporting of suspected adverse reactions in the form of ICSRs is not required.
Reports of adverse events/reactions should be summarised as part of any interim safety analysis and
in the final study report unless the protocol provides for different reporting.
VI.C.1.2.2. Compassionate use and named patient use
The guidance provided in this Module applies, subject to amendments where appropriate, to medicinal
products supplied in the context of compassionate use as defined in Article 83(2) of Regulation (EC) No
726/2004. As the case may be, this guidance may also apply to named patient use as defined under
Article 5(1) of Directive 2001/83/EC. Local requirements should be followed as applicable.
Where an organisation 25 or a healthcare professional, supplying a medicinal product under
compassionate use or named patient use, is notified or becomes aware of an adverse event, it should
be managed as follows depending on the requirements in the concerned Member State:
•
For compassionate use and named patient use conducted in Member States where the active
collection of adverse events occurring in these programmes is required, reports of adverse
25
E.g. sponsor, applicant, marketing authorisation holder, hospital or wholesaler.
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reactions, which are suspected to be related to the supplied medicinal product by the primary
source or the receiver of the case, should be reported. They should be considered as solicited
reports (see VI.C.2.2.2. and VI.C.6.2.3.7.).
•
For compassionate use and named patient use conducted in Member States where the active
collection of adverse events occurring in these programmes is not required, any notified noxious or
unintended response to the supplied medicinal product should be reported. It should be considered
as a spontaneous report of suspected adverse reaction.
VI.C.2. Collection of reports
VI.C.2.1. Responsibilities of Member States
Each Member State shall have in place a system for the collection and recording of unsolicited and
solicited reports of suspected adverse reactions that occur in its territory and which are brought to its
attention by healthcare professionals, consumers, or marketing authorisation holders 26 [DIR Art 101(1)
and 107a(1)]. In this context, competent authorities in Member States shall establish procedures for
collecting and recording all reports of suspected adverse reactions that occur in their territory [IR Art
15 (2)]. The general principles detailed in VI.B, together with the reporting modalities presented in
VI.C.3, VI.C.4 and VI.C.6 should be applied to those reports. Pharmacovigilance data and documents
relating to individual authorised medicinal products shall be retained as long as the product is
authorised and for at least 10 years after the marketing authorisation has expired. However, the
documents shall be retained for a longer period where Union law or national law so requires [IR Art
16(2)].
Each Member State shall take all appropriate measures to encourage healthcare professionals and
consumers in their territory to report suspected adverse reactions to their competent authority. In
addition, the competent authority in a Member State may impose specific obligations on healthcare
professionals. To this end, competent authorities in Member States shall facilitate in their territory the
reporting of suspected adverse reactions by means of alternative straightforward reporting systems,
accessible to healthcare professionals and consumers, in addition to web-based formats [DIR Art 102].
Information on the different ways of reporting suspected adverse reactions related to medicinal
products, shall be made publicly available including by means of national medicines web-based portals
[DIR 106(e)]. To increase awareness of the reporting systems, organisations representing consumers
and healthcare professionals may be involved as appropriate [DIR Art 102].
Standard web-based structured forms for the reporting of suspected adverse reactions by healthcare
professionals and consumers shall be developed by the Agency in collaboration with Member States in
order to collect across the EU harmonised information relevant for the evaluation of suspected adverse
reactions, including errors associated with the use of medicinal products [REG Art 25]. In this context,
core data fields for reporting will be made available by the Agency to the competent authorities in
Member States for use in their national reporting systems as applicable.
The reports of suspected adverse reactions received from healthcare professionals and consumers
should be acknowledged where appropriate and further information should be provided to the reporters
as requested and when available.
For reports submitted by a marketing authorisation holder, Member States on whose territory the
suspected adverse reaction occurred may involve the marketing authorisation holder in the follow-up
of the reports [DIR Art 107a(2)].
26
Marketing authorisation holders shall report ICSRs to the competent authorities in Member States in accordance with the
transitional provisions set out in Article 2(4) and Article 2(5) of Directive 2010/84/EU and further detailed in VI.C.4.1.
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Each Member State shall ensure that the competent authority responsible for medicinal products within
that Member State is informed of any suspected adverse reaction, brought to the attention of any
other authority, body, institution or organisation responsible for patient safety within that Member
State, and that valid ICSRs are made available to the EudraVigilance database. Therefore, where
reports of suspected adverse reactions are sent directly to other authorities, bodies, organisations
and/or institutions within a Member State, the competent authority in that Member State shall have
data exchange agreements in place so that these reports are brought to its attention and are made
available to EudraVigilance in a timely manner[DIR Art 107a(5)]. This applies as well to reports of
suspected adverse reactions arising from an error associated with the use of a medicinal product.
Those error reports of suspected adverse reactions for which a competent authority in a Member
State is made aware of, including those received from the EudraVigilance database in accordance with
Article 24(4) of Regulation (EC) No 726/2004, shall also be brought to the attention of other
authorities, bodies, organisations and/or institutions responsible for patient safety within that Member
State [DIR Art 107a(5)].
Unless there are justifiable grounds resulting from pharmacovigilance activities, individual Member
States shall not impose any additional obligations on marketing authorisation holders for the reporting
of suspected adverse reactions [DIR Art 107a(6)].
VI.C.2.2. Responsibilities of the marketing authorisation holder in the EU
Each marketing authorisation holder shall have in place a system for the collection and recording of all
reports of suspected adverse reactions which are brought to its attention, whether reported
spontaneously by healthcare professionals or consumers or occurring in the context of a postauthorisation study [DIR Art 104(1), Art 107(1)]. Marketing authorisation holders shall not refuse to
consider reports of suspected adverse reactions received electronically or by any other
appropriate means from patients and healthcare professionals [Art 107(2)]. All those reports shall
be accessible at a single point within the Union [Dir Art 107(1)].
Marketing authorisation holders shall establish mechanisms enabling the traceability and follow-up of
adverse reaction reports while complying with the data protection legislation [IR Art 12 (1)].
Pharmacovigilance data and documents relating to individual authorised medicinal products shall be
retained as long as the product is authorised and for at least 10 years after the marketing
authorisation has ceased to exist. However, the documents shall be retained for a longer period where
Union law or national law so requires [IR Art 12 (2)].
With regard to the collection and recording of reports of suspected adverse reactions, marketing
authorisation holders responsibilities apply to reports related to medicinal products (see VI.A.2.2.) for
which ownership cannot be excluded on the basis of one the following criteria: medicinal product
name, active substance name, pharmaceutical form, batch number or route of administration.
Exclusion based on the primary source country or country of origin of the adverse reaction is possible if
the marketing authorisation holder can demonstrate that the suspected medicinal product has never
been supplied or placed on the market in that territory or that the product is not a travel medicine
(e.g., anti-malarial medicinal product).
The marketing authorisation holder shall ensure that any information on adverse reactions, suspected
to be related to at least one of the active substances of its medicinal products authorised in the EU, is
brought to its attention by any company outside the EU belonging to the same mother company (or
group of companies) 27. The same applies to the marketing authorisation holder when having
27
As outlined in the Commission Communication on the Community Marketing Authorization Procedures for Medicinal
Products (98/C 229/03).
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concluded a commercial agreement with a company outside the EU for one of its medicinal product
authorised in the EU. The clock for reporting (see VI.B.7.) starts when a valid ICSR is first received by
one of these companies outside the EU.
In addition to the requirements presented in this Section, the general principles detailed in Section
VI.B., together with the reporting modalities presented in VI.C.3., VI.C.4. and VI.C.6. should be
applied by marketing authorisation holders to all reports of suspected adverse reactions.
VI.C.2.2.1. Spontaneous reports
Marketing authorisation holders shall record all reports of suspected adverse reactions originating from
within or outside the EU, which are brought to their attention spontaneously by healthcare
professionals, or consumers. This includes reports of suspected adverse reactions received
electronically or by any other appropriate means [DIR Art 107(1), Art 107(2)]. In this context,
marketing authorisation holders may consider utilising their websites to facilitate the collection of
reports of suspected adverse reactions by providing adverse reactions forms for reporting, or
appropriate contact details for direct communication (see VI.B.1.1.4.).
VI.C.2.2.2. Solicited reports
In accordance with Art 107(1) of Directive 2001/83/EC, marketing authorisation holders shall record all
reports of suspected adverse reactions originating from within or outside the EU, which occur in postauthorisation studies, initiated, managed, or financed by them 28. For non-interventional postauthorisation studies, this requirement applies to study designs based on primary data collection and
the guidance provided in VI.C.1.2.1. should be followed. For all solicited reports (see VI.B.1.2.),
marketing authorisation holders should have mechanisms in place to record and document complete
and comprehensive case information and to evaluate that information, in order to allow meaningful
assessment of individual cases and reporting of valid ICSRs (see VI.B.2.) related to the studied (or
supplied) medicinal product. Marketing authorisation holders should therefore exercise due diligence in
establishing such system, in following-up those reports (see VI.B.3.) and in seeking the view of the
primary source as regard the causal role of the studied (or supplied) medicinal product on the notified
adverse event. Where this opinion is missing, the marketing authorisation holder should exercise its
own judgement based on the information available in order to decide whether the report is a valid
ICSR, which should be reported to the competent authorities. This requirement does not apply to study
designs based on secondary use of data since reporting of ICSRs is not required (see VI.C.1.2.1.).
Safety data from solicited reports to be presented in the relevant sections of the periodic safety update
report of the authorised medicinal product are detailed in Module VII.
VI.C.2.2.3. Case reports published in the scientific literature
General principles in relation to the monitoring for individual cases of suspected adverse reactions
described in the scientific and medical literature are provided in VI.B.1.1.2.. As regards the screening
of the scientific and medical literature, the requirements provided in this Module are part of the wider
literature searches which need to be conducted for periodic safety update reports (see Module VII).
In accordance with Article 107(3) of Directive 2001/83/EC, in order to avoid the reporting of duplicate
ICSRs, marketing authorisation holders shall only report those ICSRs described in the scientific and
medical literature which is not reviewed by the Agency, for all medicinal products containing active
substances which are not included in the list monitored by the Agency pursuant to Article 27 of
28
This does not concern donation of a medicinal product for research purpose if the marketing authorisation holder has no
control on the study.
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Regulation (EC) No 726/2004. Until such lists of scientific and medical literature and active substance
names are published by the Agency, marketing authorisation holders should monitor all the active
substances for which they hold a marketing authorisation in the EU by accessing a widely used
systematic literature review and reference database, in line with the principles detailed in VI.B.1.1.2.
and in VI. Appendix 2.
Articles can be excluded from the reporting of ICSRs by the marketing authorisation holder if another
company's branded medicinal product is the suspected medicinal product. In the absence of a specified
medicinal product source and/or invented name, ownership of the medicinal product should be
assumed for articles about an active substance, unless alternative reasons for exclusion detailed
hereafter apply:
•
where ownership of the medicinal product by the marketing authorisation holder can be excluded
on the basis of the criteria detailed in VI.C.2.2.;
•
for individual case safety reports identified in the scientific and medical literature that originate in a
country where a company holds a marketing authorisation but has never commercialised the
medicinal product;
•
for literature ICSRs which are based on an analysis from a competent authority database within the
EU. The reporting requirements remain for those ICSRs which are based on the analysis from a
competent authority database outside the EU;
•
for literature articles, which present data analyses from publicly available databases or, which
summarise results from post-authorisation studies (see VI.C.1.2.). This type of literature article
describes adverse reactions, which occur in a group of patients with a designated medicinal
product with the aim of identifying or quantifying a safety hazard related to a medicinal product,
and aggregated data on patients are often presented in tables or line listings. The main objective
of those studies is to detect/evaluate specific risks that could affect the overall risk-benefit balance
of a medicinal product.
New and significant safety findings presented in these articles, for which reporting is not required,
should however be discussed in the relevant sections of the concerned periodic safety update report
(see Module VII) and analysed as regards their overall impact on the medicinal product risk-benefit
profile. In addition, any new safety information, which may impact on the risk-benefit profile of a
medicinal product, should be notified immediately to the competent authorities in Member States
where the medicinal product is authorised and to the Agency in accordance with the recommendations
provided in VI.C.2.2.6..
A detailed guidance on the monitoring of the scientific and medical literature has been developed in
accordance with Article 27(3) of Regulation (EC) No 726/2004; it is included in VI. Appendix 2.
The electronic reporting recommendations regarding suspected adverse reactions reports published in
the scientific and medical literature are provided in VI.C.6.2.3.2..
VI.C.2.2.4. Suspected adverse reactions related to quality defect or falsified medicinal
products
When a report of suspected adverse reactions is associated with a suspected or confirmed falsified
medicinal product or quality defect of a medicinal product, a valid ICSR should be reported. The
seriousness of the ICSR is linked to the seriousness of the reported suspected adverse reactions in
accordance with the definitions provided in VI.A.2.4.. Electronic reporting recommendations provided
in VI.C.6.2.3.5. should be followed.
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In addition in order to protect public health, it may become necessary to implement urgent measures
such as the recall of one or more defective batch(es) of a medicinal product from the market.
Therefore, marketing authorisation holders should have a system in place to ensure that reports of
suspected adverse reactions related to falsified medicinal products or to quality defects of a medicinal
products are investigated in a timely fashion and that confirmed quality defects are notified separately
to the manufacturer and to competent authorities in accordance with the provisions described in Article
13 of Directive 2003/94/EC.
VI.C.2.2.5. Suspected transmission via a medicinal product of an infectious agent
For the purposes of reporting, any suspected transmission of an infectious agent via a medicinal
product should be considered as a serious adverse reaction and such cases should be reported within
15 days in accordance with the requirements outlined in VI.C.4.
29
. If no other criterion is applicable,
the seriousness of this ICSR should be considered as important medical event (see VI.A.2.4.). This also
applies to vaccines. Electronic reporting recommendations provided in VI.C.6.2.3.6. should be followed.
In the case of medicinal products derived from human blood or human plasma, haemovigilance
procedures may also apply in accordance with Directive 2002/98/EC. Therefore the marketing
authorisation holder should have a system in place to communicate suspected transmission via a
medicinal product of an infectious agent to the manufacturer, the relevant blood establishment(s) and
national competent authorities in Member States.
Any organism, virus or infectious particle (e.g. prion protein transmitting transmissible spongiform
encephalopathy), pathogenic or non-pathogenic, is considered an infectious agent.
A transmission of an infectious agent may be suspected from clinical signs or symptoms, or laboratory
findings indicating an infection in a patient exposed to a medicinal product.
Emphasis should be on the detection of infections/infectious agents known to be potentially
transmitted via a medicinal product, but the occurrence of unknown agents should also always be
considered.
In the context of evaluating a suspected transmission of an infectious agent via a medicinal product,
care should be taken to discriminate, whenever possible, between the cause (e.g. injection/
administration) and the source (e.g. contamination) of the infection and the clinical conditions of the
patient at the time of the infection (immuno-suppressed /vaccinee).
Confirmation of contamination (including inadequate inactivation/attenuation of infectious agents as
active substances) of the concerned medicinal product increases the evidence for transmission of an
infectious agent and may therefore be suggestive of a quality defect for which the procedures detailed
in VI.C.2.2.4. should be applied.
Medicinal products should comply with the recommendations provided in the Note for Guidance on
Minimising the Risk of Transmitting Animal Spongiform Encephalopathy Agents via Human and
Veterinary Products 30. For advanced therapy medicinal products, Article 14(5) of Regulation (EC) No
1394/2007 and the Guideline on Safety and Efficacy Follow-up - Risk Management of Advanced
Therapy Medicinal Products 31, should also be followed as appropriate.
29
30
31
See VI.C.6.2.3.6. for electronic reporting recommendations.
Latest revision. (Ref.: EMA/410/01).
Ref.: EMEA/149995/2008
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VI.C.2.2.6. Emerging safety issues
Events may occur, which do not fall within the definition of reportable valid ICSRs, and thus are not
subject to the reporting requirements, even though they may lead to changes in the known risk-benefit
balance of a medicinal product and/or impact on public health. Examples include:
•
major safety findings from a newly completed non-clinical study;
•
major safety concerns identified in the course of a non-interventional post-authorisation study or of
a clinical trial;
•
signal of a possible teratogen effect or of significant hazard to public health;
•
safety issues published in the scientific and medical literature;
•
safety issues arising from the signal detection activity (see Module IX) or emerging from a new
ICSR and which impact on the risk-benefit balance of the medicinal product and/or have
implications for public health;
•
safety issues related to the use outside the terms of the marketing authorisation;
•
safety issues due to misinformation in the product information;
•
marketing authorisation withdrawal, non-renewal, revocation or suspension outside the EU for
safety-related reasons;
•
urgent safety restrictions outside the EU;
•
safety issues in relation to the supply of raw material;
•
lack of supply of medicines.
These events/observations, which may affect the risk-benefit balance of a medicinal product, are not to
be submitted as ICSRs. They should be notified as emerging safety issues in writing to the competent
authorities in Member States where the medicinal product is authorised and to the Agency via email
(P-PV-emerging-safety-issue@ema.europa.eu); this should be done immediately when becoming
aware of them. The document should indicate the points of concern and the actions proposed in
relation to the marketing application/authorisation for the concerned medicinal product. Those safety
issues should also be analysed in the relevant sections of the periodic safety update report of the
authorised medicinal product.
VI.C.2.2.7. Period between the submission of the marketing authorisation application and
the granting of the marketing authorisation
In the period between the submission of the marketing authorisation application and the granting of
the marketing authorisation, information (quality, non-clinical, clinical) that could impact on the riskbenefit balance of the medicinal product under evaluation may become available to the applicant 32. It
is the responsibility of the applicant to ensure that this information is immediately submitted in
accordance with the modalities described in VI.C.2.2.6. to the competent authorities in the Member
States where the application is under assessment (including Reference Member State and all
concerned Member States for products assessed under the mutual recognition or decentralised
procedures) and to the Agency. For applications under the centralised procedure, the information
should also be provided to the (Co-) Rapporteur.
32
See also chapter 1, section 5.1.1 of Volume 2A (Notice to Applicants) of The Rules Governing Medicinal Products in the
European Union. http://ec.europa.eu/health/documents/eudralex/vol-2/index_en.htm.
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In the situation where a medicinal product application is under evaluation in the EU while it has already
been authorised in a third country, valid ICSRs from outside the EU, originating from unsolicited
reports (see VI.B.1.1.) or solicited reports (see VI.B.1.2.), should be reported in accordance with the
requirements provided in VI.C.3., VI.C.4. and VI.C.6..
VI.C.2.2.8. Period after suspension, revocation or withdrawal of marketing authorisation
The marketing authorisation holder shall continue to collect any reports of suspected adverse reactions
related to the concerned medicinal product following the suspension of a marketing authorisation. The
reporting requirements outlined in VI.C.4. remain.
Where a marketing authorisation is withdrawn or revoked, the former marketing authorisation holder is
encouraged to continue to collect spontaneous reports of suspected adverse reactions originating
within the EU to for example facilitate the review of delayed onset adverse reactions or of
retrospectively notified cases.
VI.C.2.2.9. Period during a public health emergency
A public health emergency is a public health threat duly recognised either by the World Health
Organization (WHO) or the Community in the framework of Decision No. 2119/98/EC as amended of
the European Parliament and of the Council. In the event of a public health emergency, regular
reporting requirements may be amended. Such arrangements will be considered on a case-by-case
basis and will be appropriately notified on the Agency website.
VI.C.2.2.10. Reports from class action lawsuits
Stimulated reports arising from class action lawsuits should be managed as spontaneous reports. Valid
ICSRs should describe adverse reactions related to the concerned medicinal product. They should be
reported in accordance with the time frames and modalities described in VI.C.3., VI.C.4. and VI.C.6..
Where large batches of potential ICSRs are received, marketing authorisation holders may request, in
exceptional circumstances, for an exemption in order to submit serious cases of suspected adverse
reactions within 30 days from their date of receipt instead of 15 days. The 90 days reporting time
frame for non-serious ICSRs remains unchanged. It will be possible to apply for this exemption only
once the functionalities of the EudraVigilance database specified in Article 24(2) of Regulation (EC) No
726/2004 are established. The request should be made to the Agency’s pharmacovigilance
department.
VI.C.2.2.11. Reports from patient support programmes and market research programmes
A patient support programme is an organised system where a marketing authorisation holder receives
and collects information relating to the use of its medicinal products. Examples are post-authorisation
patient support and disease management programmes, surveys of patients and healthcare providers,
information gathering on patient compliance, or compensation/re-imbursement schemes.
A market research programme refers to the systematic collection, recording and analysis by a
marketing authorisation holder of data and findings about its medicinal products, relevant for
marketing and business development.
Safety reports originating from those programmes should be considered as solicited reports. Marketing
authorisation holders should have the same mechanisms in place as for all other solicited reports (see
VI.C.2.2.2.) to manage that information and report valid cases of adverse reactions, which are
suspected to be related to the concerned medicinal product.
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Valid ICSRs should be reported as solicited in accordance with the electronic reporting requirements
provided in VI.C.6.2.3.7..
VI.C.3. Reporting time frames
The general rules in relation to the reporting of initial and follow-up reports, including those for
defining the clock start are detailed in VI.B.7..
According to Articles 107(3) and 107a(4) of Directive 2001/83/EC,
•
serious valid ICSRs shall be reported by competent authorities in Member States or by marketing
authorisation holders within 15 days from the date of receipt of the reports;
•
non-serious valid ICSRs shall be reported by competent authorities in Member States or by
marketing authorisation holders within 90 days from the date of receipt of the reports.
This should be done in accordance with the reporting modalities detailed in VI.C.4..
VI.C.4. Reporting modalities
In addition to the recommendations provided in VI.B.8., competent authorities in Member States and
marketing authorisation holders shall use the formats, standards and terminologies for the electronic
transmission of suspected adverse reactions as referred to in chapter IV of the Commission
Implementing Regulation (EU) No 520/2012. ICSRs shall be used for reporting to the Eudravigilance
database suspected adverse reactions to a medicinal product that occur in a single patient at a specific
point in time [IR Art 27]. Competent authorities in Member States and marketing authorisation holders
shall also ensure that all reported electronic ICSRs are well documented and as complete as possible in
accordance with the requirements provided in [IR Art 28].
The time frames for reporting serious and non-serious valid ICSRs are provided in VI.C.3.. The
recommendations provided in VI.C.6. should be adhered to as regards the electronic exchange of
pharmacovigilance information between competent authorities in Member States, marketing
authorisation holders and the Agency.
ICSRs reported electronically to the EudraVigilance database will be made accessible to stakeholders
such as competent authorities, healthcare professionals, consumers, as well as marketing authorisation
holders and research organisations in accordance with Article 24(2) of Regulation (EC) No 726/2004
and the EudraVigilance Access Policy for Medicines for Human Use 33. This policy defines the overall
principles of the provision of access to EudraVigilance data in line with the current legal framework,
while guaranteeing personal data protection. As detailed in the EudraVigilance access policy, a
selection of ICSRs could be downloaded by marketing authorisation holders in ICH E2B format and in
accordance with the ICH M2 message specifications, to facilitate their pharmacovigilance activities.
VI.C.4.1. Interim arrangements
In accordance with the provisions set out in Article 2(4), Article 2(5) and Article 2(6) of Directive
2010/84/EU, until the Agency can ensure the functionalities of the EudraVigilance database as
specified in Article 24(2) of Regulation (EC) No 726/2004, the following reporting requirements shall
apply to valid unsolicited and solicited ICSRs reported by healthcare professionals and non-healthcare
professionals. This is independently of the condition of use of the suspected medicinal product and of
the expectedness of the adverse reaction.
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a. Serious ICSRs
•
Marketing authorisation holders shall report all serious ICSRs that occur in the EU to the competent
authority of the Member State on whose territory the suspected adverse reactions occurred.
•
Marketing authorisation holders shall report to the EudraVigilance database all serious ICSRs that
occur outside the EU, including those received from competent authorities. If required by Member
States, those reports shall also be submitted to the competent authorities in the Member States in
which the medicinal product is authorised.
•
Competent authorities in Member States shall ensure that all serious ICSRs that occur in their
territory and that are reported to them, including those received from marketing authorisation
holders, are made available to the EudraVigilance database. Competent authorities in Member
States should also make available, to the marketing authorisation holders of the suspected
medicinal products, all serious ICSRs reported directly to them.
b. Non-Serious ICSRs
•
If required by Member States, marketing authorisation holders shall report all non-serious ICSRs
that occur in the EU to the competent authority of the Member State on whose territory the
suspected adverse reactions occurred.
Overviews of the reporting requirements of serious and non-serious reports during the interim period,
applicable to marketing authorisation holders or competent authorities in Member States, are
presented in VI.App3.1., together with a detailed business process map.
Member States reporting requirements for serious non-EU ICSRs and for non-serious EU ICSRs are also
included in this Appendix.
VI.C.4.2. Final arrangements
Once the functionalities of the EudraVigilance database specified in Article 24(2) of Regulation (EC) No
726/2004 are established, the following requirements, detailed in Articles 107(3) and 107a(4) of
Directive 2001/83/EC, shall apply within 6 months of the announcement by the Agency to valid
unsolicited and solicited ICSRs reported by healthcare professionals and non-healthcare professionals.
This is independently of the condition of use of the suspected medicinal product and of the
expectedness of the adverse reaction.
a. Serious ICSRs
•
Marketing authorisation holders shall submit all serious ICSRs that occur within or outside the EU,
including those received from competent authorities outside the EU, to the EudraVigilance database
only.
•
Competent authorities in Member States shall submit to the EudraVigilance database all serious
ICSRs that occur in their territory and that are directly reported to them.
b. Non-Serious ICSRs
•
Marketing authorisation holders shall submit all non-serious ICSRs that occur in the EU to the
EudraVigilance database only.
•
Competent authorities in Member States shall submit all non-serious ICSRs that occur in their
territory to the EudraVigilance database.
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Overviews of the reporting requirements of serious and non-serious reports, applicable to marketing
authorisation holders or competent authorities in Member States once the final arrangements are
implemented, are presented in VI.App3.2., together with a detailed business process map.
In accordance with the requirement detailed in Article 24(4) of Regulation (EC) No 726/2004 for the
final arrangements, the ICSRs submitted to the EudraVigilance database by marketing authorisation
holders shall be automatically transmitted upon receipt, to the competent authority of the Member
State where the reaction occurred. A detailed business process map is included in VI.App3.3..
VI.C.5. Collaboration with the World Health Organization and the European
Monitoring Centre for Drugs and Drug Addiction
The Agency shall make available to the WHO (in practice the WHO Collaborating Centre for
International Drug Monitoring) all suspected adverse reaction reports occurring in the EU [REG Art
28c(1)]. This will take place on a weekly basis after their transmission to the EudraVigilance database
by competent authorities in Member States or marketing authorisation holders. It will replace the
requirements of Member States participating in the WHO Programme for International Drug Monitoring
to directly report to WHO suspected adverse reactions reports occurring in their territory. This will be
implemented once the functionalities of the EudraVigilance database specified in Article 24(2) of
Regulation (EC) No 726/2004 are established.
A detailed business process map for the reporting of ICSRs, from the EudraVigilance database to the
WHO Collaborating Centre for International Drug Monitoring, is presented in VI. Appendix 4.
The Agency and the European Monitoring Centre for Drugs and Drug Addiction shall also exchange
information that they receive on the abuse of medicinal products including information related to illicit
drugs [REG Art 28c(2)].
VI.C.6. Electronic exchange of safety information in the EU
VI.C.6. highlights the requirements, as defined in Articles 24(1) and 24(3) of Regulation (EC) No
726/2004, for the establishment and maintenance of the European database and data processing
network (the EudraVigilance database) in order to collate and share pharmacovigilance information
electronically between competent authorities in Member States, marketing authorisation holders and
the Agency, in ways which ensure the quality and integrity of the data collected.
The information provided here is relevant for the electronic exchange of ICSRs in the EU between all
stakeholders and for the electronic submission of information on medicinal products to the Agency.
VI.C.6.1. Applicable guidelines, definitions, international formats,
standards and terminologies
For the classification, retrieval, presentation, risk-benefit evaluation and assessment, electronic
exchange and communication of pharmacovigilance and medicinal product information, Member
States, marketing authorisation holders and the Agency shall adhere to the legal requirements
provided in chapter IV of the Commission Implementing Regulation (EU) No 520/2012.
In addition the following guidelines should be applied:
•
Note for guidance - EudraVigilance Human - Processing of Safety Messages and Individual Case
Safety Reports (ICSRs) (EMA/H/20665/04/Final Rev. 2) (EudraVigilance Business Rules);
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•
Note for Guidance on the Electronic Data Interchange (EDI) of Individual Case Safety Reports
(ICSRs) and Medicinal Products (MPRS) in Pharmacovigilance during the pre- and postauthorisation phase in the European economic area (EEA) (EMEA/115735/2004);
•
The ICH guidelines detailed in VI.B.8.;
•
The ICH-M5 guideline ‘Routes of Administration Controlled Vocabulary’ (CHMP/ICH/175860/2005),
which provides standard terms for routes of administration;
The latest version of these documents should always be considered.
VI.C.6.2. Electronic reporting of individual case safety reports
The reporting of valid ICSRs electronically, by competent authorities in Member States and marketing
authorisation holders, is mandatory for all medicinal products authorised in the EU [DIR Art 107(3), Art
107a(4)]. Non-adherence to this requirement constitutes a non-compliance with EU legislation.
Responsibilities in case of communication failure (including adherence to compliance for reporting) are
detailed in chapter IV of the Note for Guidance on the Electronic Data Interchange (EDI) of Individual
Case Safety Reports (ICSRs) and Medicinal Product Reports (MPRs) in Pharmacovigilance during the
Pre- and Post-authorisation Phase in the European Economic Area (EEA) (EMEA/115735/2004).
Technical tools (EVWEB) have been made available by the Agency to interested electronic data
interchange partners, including small and medium-sized enterprises, to facilitate compliance with the
electronic reporting requirements as defined in EU legislation. Information is available on
EudraVigilance website 34.
VI.C.6.2.1. EudraVigilance Database Modules
Two modules are available in the EudraVigilance database to address the collection of reports of
suspected adverse reactions related to medicinal products for human use, in accordance with EU
legislation:
•
EudraVigilance Post-Authorisation Module (EVPM), implemented based on the requirements defined
in Regulation (EC) No 726/2004 and Directive 2001/83/EC; and
•
EudraVigilance Clinical Trial Module (EVCTM), implemented based on the requirements defined in
Directive 2001/20/EC.
VI.C.6.2.1.1. Adverse reaction data collected in the EudraVigilance Post-Authorisation
Module
The adverse reaction reports collected in the EudraVigilance Post-Authorisation Module (EVPM) refer to
unsolicited reports and solicited reports which do not fall under the scope of the Clinical Trials Directive
2001/20/EC (see VI.C.1.). The ICSRs should be submitted with the value 'EVHUMAN' in the data
element ‘Message receiver identifier’ (ICH M2 M.1.6).
Depending on their type, these ICSRs should be classified with one of the following options, in
accordance with the EudraVigilance Business Rules 35:
•
Data element ‘Type of report’ (ICH-E2B(R2) A.1.4):
−
spontaneous report;
34
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Note for guidance - EudraVigilance Human - Processing of Safety Messages and Individual Case Safety Reports (ICSRs)
(EMA/H/20665/04/Final Rev. 2).
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•
−
other;
−
not available to sender (unknown); or
−
report from study.
In addition, when the value in the data element ICH-E2B(R2) A.1.4 is ‘Report from study’, the data
element ‘Study type in which the reaction(s)/event(s) were observed’ (ICH-E2B(R2) A.2.3.3)
should be populated with:
−
individual patient use, e.g. compassionate use or named-patient basis; or
−
other studies, e.g. pharmacoepidemiology, pharmacoeconomics, intensive monitoring, PMS.
VI.C.6.2.1.2. Adverse reaction data collected in the EudraVigilance Clinical Trial Module
Only cases of suspected unexpected serious adverse reactions (SUSARs), related to investigational
medicinal products studied in clinical trials which fall under the scope of Directive 2001/20/EC (see
VI.C.1.), should be reported by the sponsor to the EudraVigilance Clinical Trial Module (EVCTM). The
requirements provided in chapter II of EudraLex Volume 10 of The Rules Governing Medicinal Products
in the European Union should be applied. The ICSRs should be submitted with the value 'EVCTMPROD'
in the data element ‘Message receiver identifier’ (ICH M2 M.1.6) and should be classified as followed,
in accordance with the EudraVigilance Business Rules 36:
•
data element ‘Type of report’ (ICH-E2B(R2) A.1.4):
−
•
report from study; and
data element ‘Study type in which the reaction(s)/event(s) were observed’ (ICH-E2B(R2) A.2.3.3):
−
clinical trials.
VI.C.6.2.2. Preparation of individual case safety reports
VI.C.6.2.2.1. General principles
The content of each valid ICSR transmitted electronically between all stakeholders should comply with
the legal requirements and guidelines detailed in the Commission Implementing Regulation (EU) No
520/2012 and in VI.C.6.1., particularly:
•
the requirements provided in chapters IV and V of the Commission Implementing Regulation (EU)
No 520/2012;
•
the latest version of the ICH-Endorsed Guide for MedDRA Users - MedDRA Term Selection: Points
to Consider Document (see GVP Annex IV);
•
the EudraVigilance business rules for the electronic transmission of ICSRs detailed in the Note for
Guidance - EudraVigilance Human - Processing of Safety Messages and Individual Case Safety
Reports (ICSRs) (EMA/H/20665/04/Final Rev. 2).
It is recognised that it is often difficult to obtain all the details on a specific case. However, the
complete information (medical and administrative data) for a valid ICSR that is available to the sender
should be reported in a structured manner in the relevant ICH-E2B(R2) data elements (see GVP Annex
IV) (which should be repeated as necessary when multiple information is available) and in the
36
See Footnote 38.
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narrative section (see VI.C.6.2.2.4.). This applies to all types of ICSRs, such as reports with initial
information on the case, follow-up information and cases highlighted for nullification 37.
In the situation where it is evident that the sender has not transmitted the complete information
available on the case, the receiver may request the sender to re-transmit the ICSR within 24 hours
with the complete case information in electronic format in accordance with the requirements applicable
for the electronic reporting of ICSRs. This should be seen in the light of the qualitative signal detection
and evaluation activity, where it is important for the receiver to have all the available information on a
case to perform the medical assessment (see VI.C.6.2.4.).
Where the suspected adverse reactions reported in a single ICSR impact on the known risk-benefit
balance of a medicinal product, this should be considered as an emerging safety issue (see
VI.C.2.2.6.), which should be immediately notified in writing to the competent authorities of the
Member States where the medicinal product is authorised and to the Agency. This is in addition to the
reporting requirements detailed in VI.C.4.. A summary of the points of concerns and the action
proposed should be recorded in the ICSR in data element ‘Sender’s comments’ (ICH-E2B(R2) B.5.4).
VI.C.6.2.2.2. Information on suspect, interacting and concomitant medicinal products
The suspect, interacting and/or concomitant active substances/invented names of the reported
medicinal products should be provided in accordance with IR Art 28 (3) (g) to (i), ICH-E2B(R2) (see
GVP Annex IV) and the EudraVigilance Business Rules.
The characterisation of medicinal products as suspect, interacting or concomitant is based on the
information provided by primary source.
For combination medicinal products, which contain more than one active substance, each active
substance needs to be reflected individually in the data element ‘Active substance name(s)’ (ICH
E2B(R2) B.4.k.2.2), which needs to be repeated for each active substance contained in the
combination medicinal product.
When the primary source reports a suspect or interacting branded/proprietary medicinal product name
without indicating the active substance(s) of the medicinal product and where the proprietary
medicinal product can be one of two or more possible generics, which have a different composition
depending on the country where the medicinal product is marketed, the ICSR should be populated as
follows:
•
data element 'Proprietary medicinal product name' (ICH-E2B(R2) B.4.k.2.1) should be populated
with the proprietary/branded medicinal product name as reported by the primary source;
•
data element 'Active substance name(s)' (ICH-E2B(R2) B.4.k.2.2) should be completed with the
active substance(s) that correspond(s) to the composition of the proprietary/branded medicinal
product of the country where the reaction/event occurred.
However if the information is available on:
•
the 'Identification of the country where the drug was obtained' (data element ICH E2B(R2)
B.4.k.2.3),
•
the 'Authorization/application number' (data element ICH-E2B(R2) B.4.k.4.1),
•
the 'Country of authorization/application' (data element ICH-E2B(R2) B.4.k.4.2), and/or
•
the 'Batch/lot number' (data element ICH-E2B(R2) B.4.k.3),
37
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the composition with regard the active substance(s) of the proprietary medicinal product should be
provided accordingly.
Where the primary source reports a suspect or interacting branded/proprietary medicinal product name
without indicating the pharmaceutical form/presentation of the product and where the
proprietary/branded medicinal product can be one of two or more possible pharmaceutical
forms/presentations, which have different compositions in a country, the ICSR should be populated as
follows:
•
data element 'Proprietary medicinal product name' (ICH-E2B(R2) B.4.k.2.1) should be populated
with the medicinal product name as reported by the primary source;
•
data element 'Active substance name(s)' (ICH-E2B(R2) B.4.k.2.2) should be completed with those
active substances which are in common to all pharmaceutical forms/presentations in the country of
authorisation.
Where medicinal products cannot be described on the basis of the active substances or the invented
names, for example when only the therapeutic class is reported by the primary source, or in case of
other administered therapies that cannot be structured, this information should only be reflected in the
case narrative (data element ICH-E2B(R2) B.5.1). The data elements ‘Proprietary medicinal product
name’ (ICH-E2B(R2) B.4.k.2.1) and ‘Active substance name(s)’ (ICH-E2B(R2) B.4.k.2.2) should not be
populated. The same applies if a suspected food interaction is reported (e.g. to grapefruit juice).
Where a case of adverse reactions is reported to be related only to a therapeutic class, it is considered
incomplete and does not qualify for reporting (see VI.B.2.). Efforts should be made to follow-up the
case in order to collect the missing information regarding the suspected medicinal product (see
VI.B.3.).
As regards the reporting of drug interactions, which concerns drug/drug (including biological products),
drug/food, drug/device, and drug/alcohol interactions, the coding of the interaction should be
performed in section ‘Reactions/Events’ (ICH-E2B(R2) B.2) in line with the latest version of the ICHEndorsed Guide for MedDRA Users - MedDRA Term Selection: Points to Consider Document (see GVP
Annex IV). In addition, for drug/drug interactions, information on the active substances/proprietary
medicinal product names should be provided in the section ‘Drug information’ (ICH-E2B(R2) B.4),
which should be characterised as interacting in the data element ‘Characterisation of drug role’ (ICHE2B(R2) B.4.k.1).
If the primary source suspects a possible causal role of one of the ingredients (e.g., excipient or
adjuvant) of the suspected medicinal product, this information should be provided in the section ‘Drug
information’ (ICH-E2B(R2) B.4) as a separate entry in addition to the information given regarding the
suspected medicinal product. This should also be specified in the case narrative (data element ICHE2B(R2) B.5.1). If available, tests results (positive or negative) in relation to the causal role of the
suspected ingredient should be included in the section 'Results of tests and procedures relevant to the
investigation of the patient' (ICH E2B(R2) B.3).
VI.C.6.2.2.3. Suspected adverse reactions
All available information as described in [IR Art 28 (3) (j)] shall be provided for each individual case.
The coding of diagnoses and provisional diagnoses with signs and symptoms in the data element
'Reaction/event in MedDRA terminology (Lowest Level Term)' (ICH-E2B(R2) B.2.i.1) should be
performed in line with the latest version of the ICH-Endorsed Guide for MedDRA Users, MedDRA Term
Selection: Points to Consider (see GVP Annex IV).
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In practice, if a diagnosis is reported with characteristic signs and symptoms, the preferred option is to
select a term for the diagnosis only and to MedDRA code it in the ICH-E2B(R2) section B.2
'Reaction(s)/event(s)'. If no diagnosis is provided, all reported signs and symptoms should be listed
and MedDRA coded in the ICH-E2B(R2) section B.2 'Reaction(s)/event(s)'. If these signs and
symptoms are typically part of a diagnosis, the diagnosis can be MedDRA coded in addition by
competent authorities in Member States or marketing authorisation holders in the ICH-E2B(R2) data
element B.5.3 ‘Sender's diagnosis/syndrome and/or reclassification of reaction/event'.
If in the narrative other events have been reported, which are not typically signs or symptoms of the
primary source's diagnosis or provisional diagnosis, and those events are suspected to be adverse
reactions, they should also be listed and MedDRA coded in the ICH-E2B(R2) section B.2
'Reaction(s)/event(s)'.
In case a competent authority in a Member State or a marketing authorisation holder disagrees with
the diagnosis reported by the primary source, an alternative diagnosis can be provided in the ICHE2B(R2) data element B.5.3 ‘Sender's diagnosis/syndrome and/or reclassification of reaction/event’ in
addition to the reported diagnosis provided in the ICH-E2B(R2) section B.2 'Reaction(s)/event(s)'. In
this situation, a reasoning should be included in the data element ‘Sender’s comments’ (ICH-E2B(R2)
B.5.4) (see VI.C.6.2.2.4.).
In the event of death of the patient, the date, cause of death including autopsy-determined causes
shall be provided as available [IR 28 (3) (l)]. If the death is unrelated to the reported suspected
adverse reaction(s) and is linked for example to disease progression, the seriousness criterion of the
ICSR should not be considered as fatal; the recommendation provided in the EudraVigilance Business
Rules should be followed.
VI.C.6.2.2.4. Case narrative, causality assessment and comments
In accordance with [IR Art 28 (3) (m)], a case narrative (data element ICH-E2B(R2) B.5.1) shall be
provided, where possible 38, for all cases with the exception of non-serious cases. The information shall
be presented in a logical time sequence, in the chronology of the patient’s experience including clinical
course, therapeutic measures, outcome and follow-up information obtained. Any relevant autopsy or
post-mortem findings shall also be summarised.
The narrative should be presented in line with the recommendations described in chapter 5.2 of ICHE2D (see GVP Annex IV). In this aspect, it should serve as a comprehensive, stand-alone “medical
report” containing all known relevant clinical and related information, including patient characteristics,
therapy details, medical history, clinical course of the event(s), diagnosis, adverse reactions and their
outcomes, relevant laboratory evidence (including normal ranges) and any other information that
supports or refutes the suspected adverse reactions. An example of a standard narrative template is
available in the Report of the CIOMS Working Group V 39.
The information provided in the narrative should be consistent with the data appropriately reflected in
all the other relevant ICH-E2B(R2) data elements of the ICSR (see GVP Annex IV).
During the interim arrangements (see VI.C.4.1.), the case narratives included in the ICSRs submitted
to the competent authorities in Member States by marketing authorisation holders, should not be
modified or deleted when the ICSRs are forwarded to the EudraVigilance database by the competent
authorities.
38
‘Where possible’ should be interpreted as having received sufficient information from the primary source to prepare a
concise clinical summary of the individual case.
39
Council for International Organizations of Medical Sciences (CIOMS). Current Challenges in Pharmacovigilance: Pragmatic
Approaches (CIOMS V). Geneva: CIOMS; 2001. http://www.cioms.ch/.
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Where available, comments from the primary source on the diagnosis, causality assessment or other
relevant issue, should be provided in the data element ‘Reporter’s comments’ (ICH-E2B(R2) B.5.2).
Competent authorities in Member States and marketing authorisation holders may provide an
assessment of the case and describe a disagreement with, and/or alternatives to the diagnoses given
by the primary source (see VI.C.6.2.2.3.). This should be done in the data element ‘Sender’s
comments’ (ICH-E2B(R2) B.5.4), where discrepancies or confusions in the information notified by the
primary source may also be highlighted. Where applicable, a summary of the points of concerns and
actions proposed should also be included in the data element ‘Sender’s comments’ (ICH-E2B(R2)
B.5.4), if the ICSR leads to notification of an emerging safety issue (see VI.C.2.2.6.). The degree of
suspected relatedness of each medicinal product to the adverse reaction(s) may be indicated in the
data element ‘Relatedness of drug to reaction(s)/event(s)’ (ICH-E2B(R2) B.4.k.18), which should be
repeated as necessary. This also allows presenting the degree of relatedness from different sources or
with different methods of assessment.
VI.C.6.2.2.5. Test results
Results of tests and procedures relevant to the investigation of the patient shall be provided [IR Art 28
(3) (k)].
As described in ICH-E2B(R2) (see GVP Annex IV), the section B.3 'Results of tests and procedures
relevant to the investigation of the patient' should capture the tests and procedures performed to
diagnose or confirm the reaction/event, including those tests done to investigate (exclude) a non-drug
cause, (e.g., serologic tests for infectious hepatitis in suspected drug-induced hepatitis). Both positive
and negative results should be reported.
The coding of investigations should be performed in line with the latest version of the ICH-Endorsed
Guide for MedDRA Users, MedDRA Term Selection: Points to Consider (see GVP Annex IV). If it is not
possible to provide information on tests and test results in a structured manner, provisions have been
made to allow for the transmission of the information as free text in the data element ICH-E2B(R2)
B.3.2. 'Results of tests and procedures relevant to the investigation'.
VI.C.6.2.2.6. Supplementary information
Key information from supplementary records should be provided in the relevant section of the ICSR,
and their availability should be mentioned in the data element ‘List of documents held by sender’ (ICHE2B(R2) A.1.8.2).
Other known case identifiers relevant for the detection of duplicates should be presented
systematically in the data element ‘Other case identifiers in previous transmissions’ (ICH-E2B(R2)
A.1.11).
VI.C.6.2.2.7. Follow-up information
ICSRs are sent at different times to multiple receivers. Therefore the initial/follow-up status is
dependent upon the receiver. For this reason an item to capture follow-up status is not included in the
ICH-E2B(R2) data elements. However, the data element ‘Date of receipt of the most recent information
for this report’ (ICH-E2B(R2) A.1.7) taken together with the data element ‘Sender identifier’ (ICH
E2B(R2) A.3.1.2) and the data element ‘Sender’s (case) report unique identifier’ (ICH-E2B(R2)
A.1.0.1) provide a mechanism for each receiver to identify whether the report being transmitted is an
initial or a follow-up report. For this reason these items are considered critical for each transmission
and a precise date should always be used (i.e. day, month, year). The data element ‘Date of receipt of
the most recent information for this report’ (ICH-E2B(R2) A.1.7) should therefore always be updated
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each time a follow-up information is received by a competent authority or a marketing authorisation
holder, independently whether the follow-up information received is significant enough to be reported.
The data element ‘Date report was first received from the source’ (ICH-E2B(R2) A.1.6) should remain
unchanged to the date the competent authority or the marketing authorisation holder became aware of
the initial report.
New information should be clearly identifiable in the case narrative (data element ICH-E2B(R2) B.5.1)
and provided in a structured format in the applicable ICH-E2B(R2) data elements.
Competent authorities in Member States or marketing authorisation holders should report follow-up
information if significant new medical information has been received. Significant new information
relates to for example new suspected adverse reaction(s), a change in the causality assessment and
any new or updated information on the case that impacts on its medical interpretation. Therefore, the
identification of significant new information requiring to be reported always necessitates medical
judgement.
Situations where the seriousness criteria and/or the causality assessment are downgraded (e.g. followup information leads to a change of the seriousness criteria from serious to non-serious; causality
assessment is changed from related to non-related) should also be considered as significant changes
and thus reported (see VI.B.7.1. for reporting time frames).
In addition, competent authorities in Member States or marketing authorisation holders should also
report follow-up information, where new administrative information is available, that could impact on
the case management; for example, if new case identifiers have become known to the sender, which
may have been used in previous transmissions (data element ‘Other case identifiers in previous
transmissions’ (ICH-E2B(R2) A.1.11)). This information may be specifically relevant to manage
potential duplicates. Another example refers to data element ‘Additional available documents held by
sender’ (ICH-E2B(R2) A.1.8), whereby new documents that have become available to the sender may
be relevant for the medical assessment of the case.
In contrast, a follow-up report which contains non-significant information does not require to be
reported. This may refer, for example, to minor changes to some dates in the case with no implication
for the evaluation or transmission of the case, or corrections of typographical errors in the previous
case version. Medical judgement should be applied since a change to the birth date may constitute a
significant modification (e.g. with implications on the age information of the patient). Similarly, a
change of the status of a MedDRA code/term from current to non-current, due to a version change of
MedDRA, can be considered as a non-significant change as long as this change has no impact on the
medical content of a case. However, an amendment of the MedDRA coding due to a change in the
interpretation of a previously reported suspected adverse reaction may constitute a significant change
and therefore should be reported.
In situations where the case is modified without impacting on its medical evaluation, while no new
follow-up is received (e.g., for correcting a mistake or typographical error), the date of receipt of the
most recent information reported in the data element ‘Date of receipt of the most recent information
for this report’ (ICH-E2B(R2) A.1.7 ) should not be changed. This data element should however be
updated in any other situations, to the date when new follow-up information is received (independently
whether it is significant or not) or to the date when changes are made which impact on the
interpretation of the case.
Where follow-up information of a case initially reported by a marketing authorisation holder is received
directly by a competent authority, the ‘Worldwide unique case identification number’ (ICH-E2B(R2)
A.1.10) of the initial report should be maintained, in adherence with ICH-E2B(R2) (see GVP Annex IV).
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The same principle should be applied if a follow-up is received by a marketing authorisation holder of a
case initially reported by a competent authority.
VI.C.6.2.2.8. What to take into account for data privacy laws
To detect, assess, understand and prevent adverse reactions and to identify, and take actions to
reduce the risks of, and increase the benefits from medicinal products for the purpose of safeguarding
public health, the processing of personal data within the EudraVigilance database is possible while
respecting EU legislation in relation to data protection (Directive 95/46/EC, Regulation (EC) No
45/2001).
Where in accordance with applicable national legislation, information related to personal data cannot
be transferred to the EudraVigilance database, pseudonymisation may be applied by competent
authorities in Member States and by marketing authorisation holders, thereby replacing identifiable
personal data such as name and address with pseudonyms or key codes, for example in accordance
with the ISO Technical Specification DD ISO/TS 25237:2008, Health informatics – Pseudonymization
[IR Recital 17]. The application of pseudonymisation will facilitate the ability of the EudraVigilance
system to adequately support case processing and detect duplicates. This should however be done
without impairing the information flow in the EudraVigilance database and the interpretation and
evaluation of safety data relevant for the protection of public health; given the high-level nature of the
information, data elements such as patient's age, age group and gender should in principle be kept unredacted/visible.
VI.C.6.2.2.9. Handling of languages
The ICH-E2B(R2) (see GVP Annex IV) concept for the electronic reporting of ICSRs is based on the fact
that structured and coded information is used for data outputs of pharmacovigilance systems (e.g.
listings) and for signal detection. However, for scientific case assessment and signal evaluation, the
medical summary provided in the data element ‘Case narrative including clinical course, therapeutic
measures, outcome and additional relevant information’ (ICH-E2B(R2) B.5.1) is normally required (see
VI.6.2.2.4.).
Where suspected adverse reactions are reported by the primary source in narrative and textual
descriptions in an official language of the Union other than English, the original verbatim text and the
summary thereof in English shall be provided by the marketing authorisation holder 40. Member States
may report case narratives in their official language(s). For those reports, case translations shall be
provided when requested by the Agency or other Member States for the evaluation of potential signals.
For suspected adverse reactions originating outside the EU, English shall be used in the ICSR [IR 28
(4)].
Additional documents held by the sender, which may be only available in a local language, should only
be translated if requested by the receiver.
VI.C.6.2.2.10. Nullification of cases
In line with ICH-E2B(R2) (see GVP Annex IV), the nullification of individual cases should be used to
indicate that a previously transmitted report should be considered completely void (nullified), for
example when the whole case was found to be erroneous or in case of duplicate reports. It is essential
to use the same case report numbers previously submitted in the data element ‘Sender’s (case) safety
40
In practice, the original verbatim text reported by the primary source in an official language of the Union other than
English should be included in the ICSR, if it is requested by the Member State where the reaction occurred or by the
Agency.
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report unique identifier’ (ICH-E2B(R2) A.1.0.1) and in the data element ‘Worldwide unique case
identification number’ (ICH-E2B(R2) A.1.10).
A nullified case is one that should no longer be considered for scientific evaluation. The process of the
nullification of a case is by means of a notification by the sender to the receiver that this is no longer a
valid case. However, the case should be retained in the sender’s pharmacovigilance database for
auditing purposes.
The principles to be considered when nullifying a case are detailed in VI. Appendix 5.
VI.C.6.2.3. Special situations
VI.C.6.2.3.1. Use of a medicinal product during pregnancy or breastfeeding
General recommendations are provided in VI.B.6.1..
With regard to the electronic reporting of parent-child/foetus cases, the following should be adhered
to:
•
In the situation where a foetus or nursing infant is exposed to one or several medicinal products
through the parent and experiences one or more suspected adverse reactions (other than early
spontaneous abortion/foetal demise), information on both the parent and the child/foetus should
be provided in the same report. These cases are referred to as parent-child/foetus reports. The
information provided in the section ‘Patients characteristics’ (ICH-E2B(R2) B.1) applies only to the
child/foetus. The characteristics concerning the parent (mother or father), who was the source of
exposure to the suspect medicinal product should be provided in the data element ‘For a parentchild/fetus report, information concerning the parent’ (ICH-E2B(R2) B.1.10). If both parents are
the source of the suspect drug(s) then the case should reflect the mother’s information in the data
element ‘For a parent-child/fetus report, information concerning the parent’ (ICH E2B(R2) B.1.10).
The data element ‘Case narrative including clinical course, therapeutic measures, outcome and
additional relevant information’ (ICH-E2B(R2) B.5.1) should describe the entire case, including the
father’s information.
•
If both the parent and the child/foetus experience suspected adverse reactions, two separate
reports, i.e. one for the parent (mother or father) and one for the child/foetus, should be created
but they should be linked by using the data element ‘Identification number of the report which is
linked to this report’ (ICH-E2B(R2) A.1.12) in each report.
•
If there has been no reaction affecting the child, the parent-child/foetus report does not apply; i.e.
the section ‘Patients characteristics’ (ICH-E2B(R2) B.1) applies only to the parent (mother or
father) who experienced the suspected adverse reaction.
•
For those cases describing miscarriage or early spontaneous abortion, only a parent report is
applicable, i.e. the section ‘Patients characteristics’ (ICH-E2B(R2) B.1) apply to the mother.
However, if the suspect medicinal product was taken by the father, the data element ‘Additional
information on drug’ (ICH-E2B(R2) B.4.k.19) should specify that the medication was taken by the
father.
VI.C.6.2.3.2. Suspected adverse reaction reports published in the scientific literature
EU requirements in relation to the monitoring of suspected drug reactions reported in the scientific and
medical literature are provided in VI.C.2.2.3.. With regard to the electronic reporting of ICSRs
published in the scientific and medical literature, the following applies:
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•
The literature references shall be included in the data element ‘Literature reference(s)’ (ICHE2B(R2) A.2.2) in the Vancouver Convention (known as “Vancouver style”), developed by the
International Committee of Medical Journal Editors [IR Art 28 (3) (b)]. The standard format as well
as those for special situations can be found in the following reference: International Committee of
Medical Journal Editors. Uniform requirements for manuscripts submitted to biomedical journals. N
Engl J Med. 1997; 336: 309-16, which is in the Vancouver style 41.
•
A comprehensive English summary of the article shall be provided in the data element ‘Case
narrative including clinical course, therapeutic measures, outcome and additional relevant
information’ (ICH-E2B(R2) B.5.1) [IR Art 28 (3) (b)].
•
Upon request of the Agency, for specific safety review, a full translation in English and a copy of
the relevant literature article shall be provided by the marketing authorisation holder that
transmitted the initial report, taking into account copyright restrictions [IR 28 (3)]. The
recommendations detailed in VI.App2.10, regarding the mailing of the literature article, should be
adhered to.
•
Recommendations presented in VI.App2.10, for the reporting of several cases when they are
published in the same literature article, should be followed.
VI.C.6.2.3.3. Suspected adverse reactions related to overdose, abuse, off-label use, misuse,
medication error or occupational exposure
General principles are provided in VI.B.6.3..
If a case of overdose, abuse, off-label use, misuse, medication error or occupational exposure is
reported with clinical consequences, the MedDRA Lowest Level Term code, corresponding to the term
closest to the description of the reported overdose, abuse, off-label use, misuse, medication error or
occupational exposure should be added to the observed suspected adverse reaction(s) in the data
element ‘Reaction/event in MedDRA terminology (Lowest Level Term)’ (ICH-E2B(R2) B.2.i.1), in line
with recommendations included in the latest version of the ICH-Endorsed Guide for MedDRA Users
'MedDRA Term Selection: Points to Consider' (see GVP Annex IV).
VI.C.6.2.3.4. Lack of therapeutic efficacy
General principles are provided in VI.B.6.4..
If the primary source suspects a lack of therapeutic efficacy, the MedDRA Lowest Level Term code,
corresponding to the term closest to the description of the reported lack of therapeutic efficacy, should
be provided in the data element ‘Reaction/event in MedDRA terminology (Lowest Level Term)’ (ICHE2B(R2) B.2.i.1), in line with recommendations included in the latest version of the ICH-Endorsed
Guide for MedDRA Users 'MedDRA Term Selection: Points to Consider' (see GVP Annex IV).
Unless aggravation of the medical condition occurs, the indication for which the suspected medicinal
product was administered should not be included in the data element ‘Reaction/event in MedDRA
terminology (Lowest Level Term).
The same reporting modalities as for serious ICSRs (see VI.C.4.) should be applied for those cases
related to classes of medicinal products where, as described in VI.B.6.4., reports of lack of therapeutic
efficacy should be reported within a 15-day time frame. If no seriousness criterion is available, it is
acceptable to submit the ICSR within 15 days as non-serious.
41
The Vancouver recommendations are also available on the International Committee of Medical Journal Editors website
http://www.icmje.org.
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VI.C.6.2.3.5. Suspected adverse reactions related to quality defect or falsified medicinal
products
EU requirements are provided in VI.C.2.2.4.. In order to be able to clearly identify cases related to
quality defect or falsified medicinal products when they are exchanged between stakeholders, the
following recommendations should be applied:
a. Quality defect
Where a report of suspected adverse reactions is associated with a suspected or confirmed quality
defect of a medicinal product, the MedDRA Lowest Level Term code of the term corresponding most
closely to the product quality issue, should be added to the observed suspected adverse reaction(s) in
the data element ‘Reaction/event in MedDRA terminology (Lowest Level Term)’ (ICH-E2B(R2) B.2.i.1).
b. Falsified medicinal products
Where a report of suspected adverse reactions is associated with a suspected or confirmed falsified 42
ingredient, active substance or medicinal product, the MedDRA Lowest Level Term code of the term
corresponding most closely to the reported information should be added to the observed suspected
adverse reaction(s) in the data element ‘Reaction/event in MedDRA terminology (Lowest Level Term)’
(ICH-E2B(R2) B.2.i.1). Information on the suspected medicinal product, active substance(s) or
excipient(s) should be provided in the data elements ‘Proprietary medicinal product name’ (ICHE2B(R2) B.4.k.2.1) and/or ‘Active substance name(s)’ (ICH-E2B(R2) B.4.k.2.2) as reported by the
primary source.
VI.C.6.2.3.6. Suspected transmission via a medicinal product of an infectious agent
EU requirements are provided in VI.C.2.2.5..
The coding of a suspected transmission of an infectious agent via a medicinal product in the data
element 'Reaction/event in MedDRA terminology (Lowest Level Term)' (ICH-E2B(R2) B.2.i.1 ) should
be performed in line with the latest version of the ICH-Endorsed Guide for MedDRA Users 'MedDRA
Term Selection: Points to Consider' (see GVP Annex IV).
In addition, if the infectious agent is specified, the MedDRA Lowest Level Term code corresponding to
the infectious agent should also be included in the data element ‘Reaction/event in MedDRA
terminology (Lowest Level Term)’ (ICH-E2B(R2) B.2.i.1).
VI.C.6.2.3.7. Reports of suspected adverse reactions originating from organised data
collection systems and other systems
General safety reporting requirements in the EU for post-authorisation studies are provided in VI.C.1.
and VI.C.2.2.2.. Individual case safety reports originating from those studies shall contain information
on study type, study name and the sponsor’s study number or study registration number [IR Art 28
(3)(c)]. This should be provided in ICH E2B(R2) section A.2.3 ‘Study identification’.
Safety reporting requirements regarding patient support programmes or market research programmes
are provided in VI.C.2.2.11..
The following reporting rules should be applied based on (i) the type of data collection system and (ii)
whether the suspected medicinal product is part of the scope of the data collection system.
1. For cases of suspected adverse reactions (i) in relation to those adverse events for which the
protocol of non-interventional post-authorisation studies does not provide differently and requires
42
As presented in EU legislation (Directive 2011/62/EU).
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their systematic collection (see VI.C.1.2.1.), (ii) originating from compassionate use or named
patient use conducted in Member States where the active collection of adverse events occurring in
these programmes is required (see VI.C.1.2.2.), or (iii) originating from patient support
programmes, or market research programmes (see VI.C.2.2.11.):
a) Where the adverse reaction is suspected to be related at least to the studied (or supplied)
medicinal product:
•
the report should be considered as solicited;
•
the ICH E2B(R2) data element A.1.4 'Type of report' should be populated with the value 'Report
from study';
•
the ICH E2B(R2) data element A.2.3.3 'Study type in which the reaction(s)/event(s) were
observed' should be populated with the value ‘Other studies’ or 'Individual patient use'.
b) Where the adverse reaction is only suspected to be related to a medicinal product which is not
subject to the scope of the organised data collection system and there is no interaction with the
studied (or supplied) medicinal product:
•
the report should be considered as spontaneous report; as such it conveys the suspicion of the
primary source;
•
The ICH E2B(R2) data element A.1.4 'Type of report' should be populated with the value
'Spontaneous'.
2. For suspected adverse reactions (i) in relation to those adverse events for which the protocol of
non-interventional post-authorisation studies provides differently and does not require their
systematic collection (see VI.C.1.2.1.) or (ii) originating from compassionate use or named patient
use conducted in Member States where the active collection of adverse events occurring in these
programmes is not required (see VI.C.1.2.2.):
•
the report should be considered as spontaneous report; as such it conveys the suspicion of the
primary source;
•
the ICH E2B(R2) data element A.1.4 'Type of report' should be populated with the value
'Spontaneous'.
3. For clinical trial conducted in accordance with Directive 2001/20/EC and where the adverse reaction
is only suspected to be related to a non-investigational medicinal product (or another medicinal
product which is not subject to the scope of the clinical trial) and there is no interaction with the
investigational medicinal product:
•
the report should be considered as spontaneous report; as such it conveys the suspicion of the
primary source;
•
the ICH E2B(R2) data element A.1.4 'Type of report' should be populated with the value
'Spontaneous'.
All ICSRs which are reportable to the EudraVigilance database and which originate from postauthorisation studies which do not fall under the scope of the clinical trials Directive 2001/20/EC,
should be submitted to EVPM (see VI.C.6.2.1.). The same applies to cases of adverse reactions
originating in clinical trials if they are not suspected to be related to the investigational medicinal
product.
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VI.C.6.2.3.8. Receipt of missing minimum information
When missing minimum information (see VI.B.2.) has been obtained about a non-valid ICSR, the
following rules should be applied:
•
the data element ‘Date report was first received from source’ (ICH-E2B(R2) A.1.6) should contain
the date of receipt of the initial non-valid ICSR;
•
the data element ‘Date of receipt of the most recent information for this report’ (ICH-E2B(R2)
A.1.7) should contain the date when all the four elements of the minimum information required for
reporting have become available;
•
clarification should be provided in the case narrative (data element ICH-E2B(R2) B.5.1) that some
of the four elements were missing in the initial report.;
•
as for any reported cases, compliance monitoring is performed against the data element ‘Date of
receipt of the most recent information for this report’ (ICH-E2B(R2) A.1.7).
VI.C.6.2.4. Data quality of individual case safety reports transmitted electronically and
duplicate management
The EudraVigilance database should contain all cases of suspected adverse reactions that are
reportable according to Directive 2001/83/EC and Regulation (EC) No 726/2004 to support
pharmacovigilance activities. This applies to all medicinal products authorised in the EU independent of
their authorisation procedure.
The EudraVigilance database should also be based on the highest internationally recognised data
quality standards.
To achieve these objectives, all competent authorities in Member States and marketing authorisation
holders should adhere to:
•
the electronic reporting requirements as defined in EU legislation;
•
the concepts of data structuring, coding and reporting in line with the EU legislation, guidelines,
standards and principles referred to in VI.C.6.2.2.1..
This is a pre-requisite to maintain a properly functioning EudraVigilance database intended to fully
support the protection of public health.
The Agency shall, in collaboration with the stakeholder that submitted an ICSR to the EudraVigilance
database, be responsible for operating procedures that ensure the highest quality and full integrity of
the information collected in the EudraVigilance database [REG Art 24(3)]. This includes as well the
monitoring of use of the terminologies referred to in chapter IV of the Commission Implementing
Regulation (EU) No 520/2012 [IR Art 25(3)].
Specific quality system procedures and processes shall be in place in order to ensure:
•
the submission of accurate and verifiable data on serious and non-serious suspected adverse
reactions to the Eudravigilance database within the 15 or 90-day time frame [IR Art 11 (1) (c)];
•
the quality, integrity and completeness of the information submitted on the risks of medicinal
products, including processes to avoid duplicate submissions [IR Art 11 (1) (d)].
In this regard, marketing authorisation holders and competent authorities in Member States should
have in place an audit system, which ensures the highest quality of the ICSRs transmitted
electronically to the EudraVigilance database within the correct time frames, and which enables the
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detection and management of duplicate ICSRs in their system. Those transmitted ICSRs should be
complete, entire and undiminished in their structure, format and content.
High level business process maps and process descriptions in relation to the quality review of ICSRs
and the detection and management of duplicate ICSRs are provided in VI. Appendix 6 and VI.
Appendix 7. Further guidance on the detection of duplicate ICSRs is available in the Guideline on the
Detection and Management of Duplicate Individual Cases and Individual Case Safety Reports (ICSRs)
(EMA/13432/2009).
A review of the ICSRs quality, integrity and compliance with the reporting time frames will be
performed by the Agency at regular intervals for all organisations reporting to the EudraVigilance
database. Feedback from these reviews will be provided to those organisations.
VI.C.6.2.5. Electronic re-transmission of ICSRs between multiple senders and receivers
The electronic re-transmission of cases refers to the electronic exchange of ICSRs between multiple
senders and receivers, for example where in case of contractual agreement, a third country ICSR is
first reported by a marketing authorisation holder outside the EU to another marketing authorisation
holder in the EU and from there to the Agency. This applies as well for the interim arrangements
period, where based on the reporting requirements detailed in VI.C.4.1., ICSRs originating in the EU
are submitted by marketing authorisation holders to the competent authorities in the Member State
where the reaction occurred and then re-transmitted to the EudraVigilance database.
During this re-transmission process, information on the case should not in principle be omitted or
changed if no new information on the case is available to the re-transmitting sender.
Exceptions apply to the following data elements or sections:
•
‘Sender’s (case) safety report unique identifier’ (ICH-E2B(R2) A.1.0.1);
•
‘Date of this transmission’ (ICH-E2B(R2) A.1.3);
•
‘Date report was first received from source’ (ICH-E2B(R2) A.1.6), for initial reports;
•
‘Date of receipt of the most recent information for this report’ (ICH-E2B(R2) A.1.7);
•
‘Information on sender and receiver of case safety report’ (ICH-E2B(R2) A.3);
•
‘Relatedness of drug to reaction(s)/event(s)’ (ICH-E2B(R2) B.4.k.18);
•
‘Sender's diagnosis/syndrome and/or reclassification of reaction/event’ (ICH-E2B(R2) B.5.3);
•
‘Sender’s comments’ (ICH-E2B(R2) B.5.4).
In the interest of improving data quality, in case of errors or inconsistencies in the report, the retransmitters should go back to the originator of the report to correct the case accordingly. However, if
this cannot be done within normal reporting time frame, the re-transmitter can correct information that
has been incorrectly structured.
In addition, any electronic data interchange partner should adhere to the ICH-E2B(R2) rules regarding
the provision of follow-up information, whereby the ‘Worldwide unique case identification number’
(ICH-E2B(R2) A.1.10) should be maintained in accordance with the ICH-E2B(R2) guideline (see GVP
Annex IV). Non-adherence to these administrative requirements endangers the electronic case
management and leads to the potential for unnecessary duplication of reports in the receiver’s
database.
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VI.C.6.2.6. Electronic reporting through company’s headquarters
If a pharmaceutical company decides to centralise the electronic reporting of ICSRs (e.g. by reporting
through the company’s global or EU headquarter), the following should be taken into account:
•
the central reporting arrangement should be clearly specified in the marketing authorisation
holder’s pharmacovigilance system master file and in the internal standard operating procedures;
•
the company’s headquarter designated for reporting the ICSRs should be registered with
EudraVigilance;
•
the same principles may be applied for reporting ICSRs from the competent authorities in Member
States to the marketing authorisation holders during the interim arrangements period, that is the
competent authorities in Member States report electronically to the company’s headquarter instead
of to the local affiliates.
VI.C.6.3. Electronic submission of information on medicinal products
To support the objectives of Directive 2001/83/EC and Regulation (EC) No 726/2004, the provisions
provided in second sub-paragraph of Article 57(2) of Regulation (EC) No 726/2004, regarding the
electronic submission and update of information on medicinal products for human use authorised or
registered in the EU, shall be followed by marketing authorisation holders. In this aspect marketing
authorisation holders shall apply the internationally agreed formats and terminologies described in
chapter IV of the Commission Implementing Regulation (EU) No 520/2012. Recommendations related
to the electronic submission of information on medicines are provided on the Agency’s website 43.
43
See EMA documents for electronic submission of information on medicines:
http://www.ema.europa.eu/ema/index.jsp?curl=pages/regulation/document_listing/document_listing_000336.jsp&murl=m
enus/regulations/regulations.jsp&mid=WC0b01ac0580410138&jsenabled=true
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VI. Appendix 1 Identification of biological medicinal
products44
Figure VI.2. Business process map - Identification of biological medicinal products
44
Mandatory when they are the subject of reports of suspected adverse reactions [DIR Art 102(e) and IR Art 28 (3)].
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Table VI.2. Process description - Identification of biological medicinal products
No.
Step
Description
Responsible
Organisation
1
Start.
Day 0. Receipt of the information for
Receive report.
the case that indicates that one of the
MAH/NCA
suspect drugs is of biological origin.
2
3
Does report concern a biological
If Yes, go to step 3
medicinal product?
If No, go to step 4
Are batch number, brand name
If Yes, create the case and send it to the
& active substance all present
correct receiver (step 3).
and identifiable?
If there is more than one batch number,
MAH/NCA
structure the batch number that coincided
with the adverse reaction in the Drug
section (ICH-E2B(R2) B.4) and enter the
other batch numbers in the case narrative.
If No, create the case and send it to the
correct receiver (step 3) and follow-up
with the reporter (step 3.1).
3.1
Follow-up with reporter.
Follow-up with the reporter to attempt to
MAH/NCA
identify the missing information.
3.2
Was reporter able to provide the
If Yes, return to step 1 – the information
missing information?
should be treated as follow-up and a new
MAH/NCA
version created & transmitted.
If No, document this (step 3.3).
3.3
Document the required missing
Document in the case that the missing
information in the case.
required information has been sought but
MAH/NCA
the reporter was not able or willing to
provide it.
4
Send to receiver, where
If the case requires transmission to a
applicable.
receiver, transmit the case electronically,
MAH/NCA
in E2B(R2) format within the relevant
timelines (15 or 90 days), to the relevant
receiver.
5
Receive in
Receive the case electronically and load it
PharmacoVigilance DataBase
into the PharmacoVigilance DataBase.
Receiver
(PhV DB).
6
Validate products and
Validate the products and substances to
substances
ensure that the brand name, active
Receiver
substance & batch number are all present
and identifiable.
This validation should be complementary
to the usual business rules validations.
7
Was validation successful?
If Yes, store the case in the
Receiver
PharmacoVigilance DataBase (step 8).
If No, contact the sender (Step 7.1).
7.1
Contact sender.
Contact the sender regarding the missing
Receiver
or not identifiable information.
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No.
Step
Description
Responsible
Organisation
7.2
Is required data in the case
Upon receipt of communication from the
file?
receiver, check in the case file to see if the
MAH/NCA
missing or unidentifiable information is
already on file.
If it is on file, correct the case (step 7.3).
If the information is not on file, contact
the reporter to request the missing
information (step 3.1).
7.3
Correct case.
Correct the case to include the missing
MAH/NCA
information & send updated version to
receiver (step 4).
8
Store case in
The case should now be stored in the
PharmacoVigilance DataBase
pharmacovigilance database.
Receiver
(PhV DB).
9
End.
The case is now available for signal
detection and data quality analyses.
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VI. Appendix 2 Detailed guidance on the monitoring of
scientific literature
VI.App2.1. When to start and stop searching in the scientific literature
EU specific requirements, as regards the monitoring of scientific and medical literature are provided in
VI.C.2.2.3..
In addition to the reporting of serious and non-serious ICSRs or their presentation in periodic safety
update reports, the marketing authorisation holder has an obligation to review the worldwide
experience with medicinal product in the period between the submission of the marketing authorisation
application and the granting of the marketing authorisation. The worldwide experience includes
published scientific and medical literature. For the period between submission and granting of a
marketing authorisation, literature searching should be conducted to identify published articles that
provide information that could impact on the risk-benefit assessment of the product under evaluation.
For the purpose of the preparation of periodic safety update reports (see Module VII) and the
notification of emerging safety issues (see VI.C.2.2.6.), the requirement for literature searching is not
dependent on a product being marketed. Literature searches should be conducted for all products with
a marketing authorisation, irrespective of commercial status. It would therefore be expected that
literature searching would start on submission of a marketing authorisation application and continue
while the authorisation is active.
VI.App2.2. Where to look
Articles relevant to the safety of medicinal products are usually published in well-recognised scientific
and medical journals, however, new and important information may be first presented at international
symposia or in local journals. Although the most well-known databases (e.g. Medline) cover the
majority of scientific and medical journals, the most relevant publications may be collated elsewhere in
very specialised medical fields, for certain types of product (e.g. herbal medicinal products) or where
safety concerns are subject to non-clinical research. A marketing authorisation holder should establish
the most relevant source of published literature for each product.
Medline, Embase and Excerpta Medica are often used for the purpose of identifying ICSRs. These
databases have broad medical subject coverage. Other recognised appropriate systems may be used.
The database providers can advise on the sources of records, the currency of the data, and the nature
of database inclusions. It is best practice to have selected one or more databases appropriate to a
specific product. For example, in risk-benefit assessment, safety issues arising during non-clinical
safety studies may necessitate regular review of a database that has a less clinical focus and includes
more laboratory-based publications.
Relevant published abstracts from meetings and draft manuscripts should be reviewed for reportable
ICSRs and for inclusion in periodic safety update reports. Although it is not a requirement for
marketing authorisation holders to attend all such meetings, if there are company personnel at such a
meeting, or it is sponsored by a marketing authorisation holder, it is expected that articles of relevance
would be available to the marketing authorisation holder's pharmacovigilance system. In addition,
literature that is produced or sponsored by a marketing authorisation holder should be reviewed, so
that any reportable ICSRs can be reported as required in advance of publication.
If ICSRs are brought to the attention of a marketing authorisation holder from this source, they should
be processed in the same way as ICSRs found on searching a database or reviewing a journal.
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Abstracts from major scientific meetings are indexed and available in some databases, but posters and
communications are rarely available from this source.
VI.App2.3. Database Searches
A search is more than a collection of terms used to interrogate a database. Decisions about the
database selection, approach to records retrieval, term or text selection and the application of limits
need to be relevant to the purpose of the search. For searches in pharmacovigilance, some of the
considerations for database searching are described below.
VI.App2.3.1. Precision and recall
Medical and scientific databases are a collection of records relating to a set of publications. For any
given record, each database has a structure that facilitates the organisation of records and searching
by various means, from simple text to complex indexing terms with associated subheadings. Search
terms (text or indexed) can be linked using Boolean operators and proximity codes to combine
concepts, increasing or decreasing the specificity of a search. In addition, limits to the output can be
set. When searching, the application of search terms means that the output is less than the entire
database of the records held. The success of a search can be measured according to precision and
recall (also called sensitivity). Recall is the proportion of records retrieved ("hits") when considering
the total number of relevant records that are present in the database. Precision is the proportion of
"hits" that are relevant when considering the number of records that were retrieved. In general, the
higher recall searches would result in low precision.
VI.App2.3.2. Search construction
Databases vary in structure, lag time in indexing and indexing policy for new terms. While some
database providers give information about the history of a particular indexing term or the application
of synonyms, other databases are less sophisticated. In addition, author abstracts are not always
consistent in the choice of words relating to pharmacovigilance concepts or medicinal products/active
substances names.
When constructing a search for pharmacovigilance, the highest recall for a search would be to enter
the medicinal product name and active substance name (in all their variants) only. In practice,
additional indexing terms and text are added to increase precision and to reduce the search result to
return records that are of relevance to pharmacovigilance. There is a balance to be achieved. It is,
therefore, expected that complicated searches are accompanied by initial testing to check that relevant
records are not omitted, however, there is no defined acceptable loss of recall when searching for
pharmacovigilance purposes. Term selection should be relevant to the database used and the subject
of the search.
VI.App2.3.3. Selection of product terms
Searches should be performed to find records for active substances and not for brand names only. This
can also include excipients or adjuvants that may have a pharmacological effect. When choosing
search terms for medicinal products, there are a number of considerations.
•
Is the active substance an indexed term?
•
What spellings might be used by authors (particularly if the active substance is not indexed)?
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•
What alternative names might apply (numbers or codes used for products newly developed,
chemical names, brand names, active metabolites)?
•
Is it medically relevant to search only for a particular salt or specific compound for an active
substance?
During searches for ICSRs, it may be possible to construct a search that excludes records for
pharmaceutical forms or routes of administration different to that of the subject product, however,
restrictions should allow for the inclusion of articles where this is not specified. Search construction
should also allow for the retrieval of overdose, medication error, abuse, misuse, off-label use or
occupational exposure information, which could be poorly indexed. Searches should also not routinely
exclude records of unbranded products or records for other company brands.
VI.App2.3.4. Selection of search terms
As described previously, there is no acceptable loss of recall when searching published literature for
pharmacovigilance. The use of search terms (free text or use of indexing) to construct more precise
searches may assist in managing the output. Deficiencies that have been found frequently during
Competent Authority inspections include:
•
the omission of outcome terms, for example "death" as an outcome may be the only indexed term
in a case of sudden death;
•
the omission of pregnancy terms to find adverse outcomes in pregnancy for ICSR reporting;
•
the omission of terms to include special types of reports which needs to be addressed as well in
periodic safety update reports, for example,
−
Reports of asymptomatic overdose, medication error, off-label use, misuse, abuse,
occupational exposure;
−
Reports of uneventful pregnancy.
VI.App2.3.5. Limits to a search
Some databases apply indexing that allows the application of limits to a search, for example by subject
age, sex, publication type. The limits applied to a search are not always shown in the "search strategy"
or search string.
If limits are applied, they should be relevant to the purpose of the search. When searching a worldwide
scientific and medical literature database, titles and abstracts are usually in English language. The use
of limits that reduce the search result to only those published in the English language is generally not
acceptable. Limits applied to patient types, or other aspects of an article, for example human, would
need to be justified in the context of the purpose of a search.
Limits can be applied to produce results for date ranges, for example, weekly searches can be obtained
by specifying the start and end date for the records to be retrieved. Care should be taken to ensure
that the search is inclusive for an entire time period, for example, records that may have been added
later in the day for the day of the search should be covered in the next search period. The search
should also retrieve all records added in that period, and not just those initially entered or published
during the specified period (so that records that have been updated or retrospectively added are
retrieved). This should be checked with the database provider if it is not clear.
Although one of the purposes of searching is to identify ICSRs for reporting, the use of publication type
limits is not robust. ICSRs may be presented within review or study publications, and such records may
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not be indexed as "case-reports", resulting in their omission for preparation of periodic safety update
reports from search results limited by publication type.
VI.App2.4. Record keeping
Records of literature searches should be maintained in accordance with the requirements described in
[IR Art 12]. Marketing authorisation holders should demonstrate due diligence in searching published
scientific and medical literature. It is always good practice to retain a record of the search construction,
the database used and the date the search was run. In addition, it may be useful to retain results of
the search for an appropriate period of time, particularly in the event of zero results. If decision
making is documented on the results, it is particularly important to retain this information.
VI.App2.5. Outputs
Databases can show search results in different ways, for example, titles only or title and abstract with
or without indexing terms. Some publications are of obvious relevance at first glance, whereas others
may be more difficult to identify. Consistent with the requirement to provide the full citation for an
article and to identify relevant publications, the title, citation and abstract (if available) should always
be retrieved and reviewed.
VI.App2.6. Review and selection of articles
It is recognised that literature search results are a surrogate for the actual article. Therefore, it is
expected that the person reviewing the results of a search is trained to identify the articles of
relevance. This may be an information professional trained in pharmacovigilance or a
pharmacovigilance professional with knowledge of the database used. Recorded confirmation that the
search results have been reviewed will assist in demonstrating that there is a systematic approach to
collecting information about suspected adverse reactions from literature sources. It is recommended
that quality control checks are performed on a sample of literature reviews / selection of articles to
check the primary reviewer is identifying the relevant articles.
A common issue in selecting relevant articles from the results of a search is that often this process is
conducted for the purposes of identification of ICSRs only. Whereas the review should also be used as
the basis for collating articles for the periodic safety update report production, therefore relevant
studies with no ICSRs should also be identified, as well as those reports of events that do not qualify
for reporting.
Outputs from searches may contain enough information to be a valid ICSR, in which case the article
should be ordered. All articles for search results that are likely to be relevant to pharmacovigilance
requirements should be obtained, as they may contain valid ICSRs or relevant safety information. The
urgency with which this occurs should be proportionate to the content of the material reviewed and the
resulting requirement for action as applicable for the marketing authorisation holder.
Articles can be excluded from reporting by the marketing authorisation holder if another company's
branded medicinal product is the suspected medicinal product. In the absence of a specified medicinal
product source and/or invented name, ownership of the medicinal product should be assumed for
articles about an active substance. Alternative reasons for the exclusion of a published article for the
reporting of ICSRs are detailed in VI.C.2.2.3..
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VI.App2.7. Day zero
As described in VI.B.7., day zero is the date on which an organisation becomes aware of a publication
containing the minimum information for an ICSR to be reportable. Awareness of a publication includes
any personnel of that organisation, or third parties with contractual arrangements with the
organisation. It is sometimes possible to identify the date on which a record was available on a
database, although with weekly literature searching, day zero for a reportable adverse reaction present
in an abstract is taken to be the date on which the search was conducted. For articles that have been
ordered as a result of literature search results, day zero is the date when the minimum information for
an ICSR to be valid is available. Organisations should take appropriate measures to obtain articles
promptly in order to confirm the validity of a case.
VI.App2.8. Duplicates
Consistent with the requirements for reporting ICSRs, literature cases should be checked to prevent
reporting of duplicates, and previously reported cases should be identified as such when reported. It is,
therefore, expected that ICSRs are checked in the organisation database to identify literature articles
that have already been reported.
VI.App2.9. Contracting out literature search services
It is possible to use the services of another party to conduct searches of the published scientific and
medical literature. In this event, the responsibility for the performance of the search and subsequent
reporting still remains. The transfer of a pharmacovigilance task or function should be detailed in a
contract between the organisation and the service provider. The nature of third party arrangements for
literature searching can range from access to a particular database interface only (access to a
technology) to full literature searching, review and reporting (using the professional pharmacovigilance
services of another organisation). It is recognised that more than one organisation may share services
of a third party to conduct searches for generic active substances. In this instance, each organisation
should satisfy itself that the search and service is appropriate to their needs and obligations.
Where an organisation is dependent on a particular service provider for literature searching, it is
expected that an assessment of the service(s) is undertaken to determine whether it meets the needs
and obligations of the organisation. In any case, the arrangement should be clearly documented.
The clock start for the reporting of ICSRs begins with awareness of the minimum information by either
the organisation or the contractual partner (whichever is the earliest). This also applies where a third
party provides a review or a collated report from the published scientific and medical literature, in
order to ensure that published literature cases are reported as required within the correct time frames.
That is, day zero is the date the search was run if the minimum criteria are available in the abstract
and not the date the information was supplied to the organisation.
VI.App2.10. Electronic submission of copies of articles published in the
scientific literature
Until standards for the electronic transmission of attachments (e.g. copies of literature articles) are
developed in the framework of ICH, the sender should follow the rules outlined below for the
submission of a copy of the literature article as detailed in VI.C.6.2.3.2.:
1. Mailing address and format of literature articles:
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Literature articles reportable to the Agency should be provided in PDF format and sent via e-mail to
the following e-mail address: EVLIT@ema.europa.eu.
In relation to copies of articles from the published scientific and medical literature, marketing
authorisation holders are recommended to consider potential copyright issues specifically as
regards the electronic transmission and handling of electronic copies in the frame of regulatory
activities.
2. File name of literature articles sent in electronic format to the Agency:
The file name of a literature article sent in PDF format should match exactly the ‘World-Wide
Unique Case Identification Number’ (ICH-E2B(R2) A.1.10.1 or A.1.10.2 as applicable) assigned to
the individual case, which is described in the article and which is reported in the E2B(R2) ICSR
format.
If there is a follow-up article to the individual case published in the literature, the file name with
the World-Wide Unique Case Identification Number must be maintained but should include a
sequence number separated with a dash.
Examples:
•
Initial ICSR published in the literature: FR-ORGABC-23232321 (data element ‘World-Wide Unique
Case Identification Number’ (ICH-E2B(R2) A.1.10.1));
−
•
File name of the literature article: FR-ORGABC-23232321.pdf.
Follow-up information published in the literature in a separate article:
−
ICSR: FR-ORGABC-23232321 (data element World-Wide Unique Case Identification Number
remains unchanged (ICH-E2B(R2) A.1.10.1));
−
File name: FR-ORGABC-23232321-1.pdf.
3. Reporting of cases reported in the scientific and medical literature referring to more than one
patient:
When the literature article refers to the description of more than one patient, the copy of the
literature article should be sent only once.
The file name of a literature article sent in PDF format should match exactly the ‘World-Wide
Unique Case Identification Number’ (data element ICH-E2B(R2) A.1.10.1 or A.1.10.2 as applicable)
assigned to the first reportable individual case described in the article.
In addition, all ICSRs which relate to the same literature article should be cross referenced in the
data element ‘Identification number of the report which is linked to this report’ (ICH-E2B(R2)
A.1.12). The data element should be repeated as necessary to cross refer all related cases (see
Table VI.2.).
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Table VI.3. Examples for the reporting of ICSRs described in the scientific and medical literature and
referring to more than one patient
Ex.
Scenario
Action
1
A literature article describes
For Case 1 described in the literature article:
suspected adverse reactions that
•
ICH-E2B(R2) A.1.10.1 ‘World-Wide Unique Case
have been experienced by up to
Identification Number’:
3 single patients.
UK-ORGABC-0001
3 ICSRs should be created and
•
which is linked to this report’:
reported for each individual
identifiable patient described in
the literature article.
UK-ORGABC-0002
•
ICH-E2B(R2) A.1.12 ‘Identification number of the report
which is linked to this report’:
UK-ORGABC-0003
Each ICSR should contain all the
available information on the
ICH-E2B(R2) A.1.12 ‘Identification number of the report
•
ICH-E2B(R2) A.2.2 ‘Literature reference(s):
Literature reference in line with uniform requirements for
case.
manuscripts submitted to biomedical journals:
N Engl J Med. 1997;336:309-15.
•
File name for the copy of literature article to be sent via
e-mail to EVLIT@ema.europa.eu:
UK-ORGABC-0001.pdf
For Case 2 described in the literature article:
•
ICH-E2B(R2) A.1.10.1 ‘World-Wide Unique Case
Identification Number’:
UK-ORGABC-0002
•
ICH-E2B(R2) A.1.12 ‘Identification number of the report
which is linked to this report’:
UK-ORGABC-0001
•
ICH-E2B(R2) A.1.12 ‘Identification number of the report
which is linked to this report’:
UK-ORGABC-0003
•
ICH-E2B(R2) A.2.2 ‘Literature reference(s):
Literature reference in line with uniform requirements for
manuscripts submitted to biomedical journals:
N Engl J Med. 1997;336:309-15.
•
No copy of the literature article required since the copy
was already submitted for case 1.
For Case 3 described in the literature article:
•
ICH-E2B(R2) A.1.10.1 ‘World-Wide Unique Case
Identification Number’:
UK-ORGABC-0003
•
ICH-E2B(R2) A.1.12 ‘Identification number of the report
which is linked to this report’:
UK-ORGABC-0001
•
ICH-E2B(R2) A.1.12 ‘Identification number of the report
which is linked to this report’:
UK-ORGABC-0002
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Ex.
Scenario
Action
•
ICH-E2B(R2) A.2.2 ‘Literature reference(s):
Literature reference in line with uniform requirements for
manuscripts submitted to biomedical journals:
N Engl J Med. 1997;336:309-15.
•
No copy of the literature article required since the copy
was already submitted for case 1.
2
A literature article describes
For the ICSRs which relate to the same literature article, the
suspected adverse reactions that
cross reference in the data element ‘Identification number of
have been experienced by more
the report which is linked to this report’ ICH (E2B(R2) field
than 3 single patients.
A.1.12) should be conducted as follows:
ICSRs should be created and
reported for each individual
identifiable patient described in
the literature article.
•
The first case should be linked to all other cases related
to the same article;
•
All the other cases should be only linked to the first one,
as in the example below.
Example for the reporting of cases originally reported in the
Each ICSR should contain all the
scientific and medical literature referring to a large number
available information on the
of patients:
case.
The cross reference with all the
linked ICSRs from this literature
For Case 1 described in the literature article:
•
Identification Number’:
article should only be provided in
the first case, in the data
element ICH-E2B(R2) A.1.12
UK-ORGABC-0001
•
report’. There is no need to
UK-ORGABC-0002
•
ICH-E2B(R2) A.1.12 ‘Identification number of the report
which is linked to this report’:
repeat all the cross references in
the other ICSRs.
ICH-E2B(R2) A.1.12 ‘Identification number of the report
which is linked to this report’:
‘Identification number of the
report which is linked to this
ICH E2B(R2) A.1.10.1 ‘Worldwide Unique Case
UK-ORGABC-0003
•
ICH-E2B(R2) A.1.12 ‘Identification number of the report
which is linked to this report’:
UK-ORGABC-0004
•
ICH-E2B(R2) A.1.12 ‘Identification number of the report
which is linked to this report’:
UK-ORGABC-000N
•
ICH-E2B(R2) A.2.2 ‘Literature reference(s)’:
•
File name for the copy of literature article to be sent via
N Engl J Med. 1997;336:309-15.
e-mail to EVLIT@ema.europa.eu:
UK-ORGABC-0001.pdf.
For Case 2 described in the literature article:
•
ICH E2B(R2) A.1.10.1 ‘Worldwide Unique Case
Identification Number’:
UK-ORGABC-0002
•
ICH-E2B(R2) A.1.12 ‘Identification number of the report
which is linked to this report’:
UK-ORGABC-0001
•
ICH-E2B(R2) A.2.2 ‘Literature reference(s)’:
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Ex.
Scenario
Action
N Engl J Med. 1997;336:309-15.
•
No copy of the literature article required since the copy
was already submitted for case 1.
For Case N described in the literature article:
•
ICH-E2B(R2) A.1.10.1 ‘Worldwide Unique Case
Identification Number’:
UK-ORGABC-000N
•
ICH-E2B(R2) A.1.12 ‘Identification number of the report
which is linked to this report’:
UK-ORGABC-0001
•
ICH-E2B(R2) A.2.2 ‘Literature reference(s)’:
•
No copy of the literature article required since the copy
N Engl J Med. 1997;336:309-15.
was already submitted for case 1.
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VI. Appendix 3 Modalities for reporting
VI.App3.1. Interim arrangements
Figure VI.3. Business process map - Suspected adverse reaction reporting in EU – Interim
arrangements
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Table VI.4. Process description - Suspected adverse reaction reporting in EU - Interim arrangements
No.
Step
Description
Responsible
Organisation
1
Start.
Marketing Authorisation Holder
Receive report.
(MAH) receives information on a
MAH
suspected adverse reaction from a
patient, healthcare professional or
other valid reporter. If the case has
been received from an EU NCA, do not
retransmit it to EudraVigilance (EV).
2
Open case.
Open and create an individual case safety
MAH
report.
3
Is case from EEA?
Did the adverse reactions occur in the EU?
MAH
If No, go to step 3.1.
If Yes, got so step 5.
3.1
Is case serious?
If No, go to step 3.2.
MAH
If Yes, got to step 4.
3.2
End.
The case is now stored in the MAHs
MAH
pharmacovigilance database. Normal
follow-up activities should continue
and if any follow-up is received,
return to step 1.
4
Send to EV & relevant NCAs.
Transmit the serious case electronically,
MAH
in ICH E2B(R2) format as an xml message
within the 15-day time frame to EV and to
the relevant NCAs, where required. The
case goes to step 4.1 & step 6.
4.1
Receive in EV.
Receive the message in EV database from
EMA
MAH or NCA.
4.2
Technical Validation (EV
Every message that is received in EV is
Business Rules).
validated against the EudraVigilance
EMA
Business Rules and an Acknowledgement
message (ACK) is created specifying
whether or not the message & the case(s)
therein are valid.
A valid message will have an ACK code
01. A non-valid message will have an ACK
code 02 (if a case contained therein is
non-valid) or 03 (if the message itself is
not correctly formatted).
4.3
Store in EV.
4.4
Send ACK.
Once the case has been validated, it is
EMA
stored in EV.
The acknowledgement message created in
EMA
step 4.2 is transmitted to the case
sender, no later than 2 business days
following receipt of the case.
Go to step 16 for MAHs receiving the ACK.
Go to step 20 for NCAs receiving the ACK.
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No.
Step
Description
Responsible
Organisation
Go to step 4.5 for the EMA’s next step.
4.5
Was ACK code 01?
If No, go to step 4.6.
EMA
If Yes, go to step 4.7.
4.6
Await corrected case.
The sender should correct every case with
EMA
an error ACK and retransmit within the
regulatory reporting timelines. Periodically
the EMA should assess all cases with an
error ACK for which a corrected case has
not been transmitted and contact the
Qualified Person responsible for
PharmacoVigilance (QPPV) to inform of
these missing corrected cases. If a sender
fails to correct cases, then this
information should be incorporated into
data quality assessments and the
appropriate committees should be
informed.
Go back to step 4.1 upon receipt of the
corrected case.
4.7
End.
The case is now stored in EV &,
EMA
following duplicate detection &
recoding will be available for signal
detection and data quality analyses.
5
Send to relevant NCA.
Transmit the case (serious, and if
MAH
required non-serious) electronically, in
ICH E2B(R2) format as an xml message
within the relevant time frames (15 or 90
days, as applicable), to the relevant NCA
for the Member State where the reaction
occurred. If country of occurrence has not
been specified, then country of primary
source should normally be taken to be the
occurrence country.
6
Receive in
Receive the message from MAH in the
PharmacoVigilance DataBase
NCA’s PhV DB.
NCA
(PhV DB).
7
Technical Validation (EV
Every message that is received in the
Business Rules).
NCA’s PhV DB should be validated against
NCA
the EudraVigilance Business Rules and an
Acknowledgement message (ACK) is
created specifying whether or not the
message & the case(s) therein are valid.
A valid message will have an ACK code
01. A non-valid message will have an ACK
code 02 (if a case contained therein is
non-valid) or 03 (if the message itself is
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No.
Step
Description
Responsible
Organisation
not correctly formatted).
8
Store in EV.
Once the case has been validated, it is
NCA
stored in the NCA’s PhV DB.
9
Send ACK.
The acknowledgement message created in
NCA
step 7 is transmitted to the case sender
no later than 2 business days following
receipt of the case.
Go to step 16 for MAHs receiving the ACK.
Go to step 10 for the NCA’s next step.
10
Was ACK code 01?
10.1
Await corrected case.
If No, go to step 10.1.
NCA
If Yes, go to step 11.
The MAH should correct every case with
NCA
an error ACK and retransmit it within the
regulatory reporting timelines. Periodically
the NCA should assess all cases with an
error ACK for which a corrected case has
not been transmitted and contact the
QPPV to inform them of these missing
corrected cases. If a sender fails to
correct cases, then this information
should be incorporated into any data
quality assessments performed and the
appropriate action can be taken.
Go back to step 6 upon receipt of the
corrected case.
11
Was case from NCA’s MS?
Did the case occur in the territory of the
NCA
receiving NCA?
If No, go to step 11.1.
If Yes, go to step 12.
11.1
End.
The case is now stored in the NCA’s
NCA
PharmacoVigilance DataBase &,
following duplicate detection &
recoding will be available for signal
detection and data quality analyses.
12
Send to EV & MAH.
Transmit the serious case electronically,
NCA
in ICH E2B(R2) format as an xml message
within the 15-day time frame to EV and to
the relevant MAH(s).
Go to step 4.1 for reception of the case in
EV
Go to step 24 for reception of the case by
the relevant MAH(s)
13
Start.
NCA receives information on a
Receive report.
suspected adverse reaction from a
NCA
patient, healthcare professional or
other valid reporter concerning a
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No.
Step
Description
Responsible
Organisation
suspected adverse reaction occurring
in the territory of the receiving
competent authority.
14
Open case.
Open and create an individual case safety
NCA
report.
15
Is case serious?
If No, go to step 15.1
NCA
If Yes, go to step 12
15.1
End
The case is now stored in the NCA’s
NCA
PharmacoVigilance DataBase &,
following duplicate detection &
recoding will be available for signal
detection and data quality analyses.
16
Receive ACK.
Receive the ACK message, associate it
MAH
with the relevant case(s) and check to
ensure that the case was considered
valid.
17
Was ACK code 01?
If yes, go to step 17.1.
MAH
If no, then the regulatory timeline clock
has not stopped and the case should be
corrected and re-transmitted to EV within
the relevant regulatory reporting
timelines. Day 0 remains as the day that
the first information was received. A 02 or
03 ACK does not constitute new
information. Go to step 18 (Correct case).
17.1
End.
End the process of transmitting this
MAH
version of the case to EV or NCA.
Normal follow-up activities should
continue and if any follow-up is
received, return to step 1.
18
Correct case.
Correct the case to remove the errors
19
Retransmit to the organisation
Retransmit the corrected case to the
which rejected the case.
organisation which rejected the case with
MAH
identified in the ACK.
MAH
ACK code 02 or 03.
Got to step 4.1 &/or step 6 as
appropriate.
20
Receive ACK.
Receive the ACK message, associate it
NCA
with the relevant case(s) and check to
ensure that the case was considered
valid.
21
Was ACK code 01?
If yes, go to step 23.
NCA
If no, then the regulatory timeline clock
has not stopped and the case should be
corrected and re-transmitted to EV within
the relevant regulatory reporting
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No.
Step
Description
Responsible
Organisation
timelines. Day 0 remains as the day that
the first information was received. A 02 or
03 ACK does not constitute new
information. Go to step 22 (Correct case).
22
Correct case.
Correct the case to remove the errors
NCA
identified in the ACK and retransmit the
case to EV and to the relevant MAH(s) (go
back to step 12).
23
End.
End the process of transmitting this
NCA
version of the case to EV and to the
relevant MAH(s). Normal follow-up
activities should continue and if any
follow-up is received, return to step 6
or 13.
24
Receive report from NCA
MAH receives information on a
MAH
suspected adverse reaction from an
NCA.
This case should not be retransmitted
to EV and to the NCA which
transmitted it to the MAH
25
End
The case is now stored in the MAH’s
MAH
PharmacoVigilance DataBase &,
following duplicate detection &
recoding will be available for signal
detection and data quality analyses.
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VI.App3.1.1. Interim arrangements applicable to marketing authorisation
holders
Reporting requirements of individual case safety reports applicable to marketing authorisation holders
during the interim period are detailed in the latest version of Doc. EMA/321386/2012 available on EMA
website.
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VI.App3.1.2. Interim arrangements applicable to competent authorities in
Member States
Table VI.5. Reporting requirements applicable to competent authorities in Member States - Interim
arrangements
Marketing authorisation
Origin
Adverse reaction type
Destination
procedure
•
Centralised
•
Mutual recognition,
•
Time
frame
EU
All serious
•
EudraVigilance database
•
Marketing authorisation
decentralised or
holder of the suspected
subject to referral
medicinal product
15 days
Purely national
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VI.App3.2. Final arrangements
Figure VI.4. Business process map - Suspected adverse reaction reporting in EU - Final arrangements
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Table VI.6. Process description - Suspected adverse reaction reporting in EU - Final arrangements
No.
Step
Description
Responsible
Organisation
1
Start.
National Competent Authority (NCA)
Receive report.
or Marketing Authorisation Holder
MAH/NCA
(MAH) receives information on a
suspected adverse reaction from a
patient, healthcare professional or
other valid reporter.
If the case has been received from an
EU NCA, do not retransmit it to
EudraVigilance (EV).
2
Open case.
3
Is case serious?
Open and create an individual case safety
MAH/NCA
report.
If No go to step 3.1.
If Yes, go to step 4.
3.1
Is case from EEA?
If No go to step 11.1.
If Yes, go to step 4.
4
Send to EV.
Transmit the case (all serious and EU
MAH/NCA
non-serious) electronically, in ICH
E2B(R2) format as an xml message within
the relevant time frame (15 or 90 days,
as applicable), to EV.
5
Receive in EV.
Receive the message in the EV.
EMA
6
Technical Validation (EV
Every message that is received in EV is
EMA
Business Rules).
validated against the EudraVigilance
Business Rules and an Acknowledgement
message (ACK) is created specifying
whether or not the message & the case(s)
therein are valid.
A valid message will have an ACK code
01. A non-valid message will have an ACK
code 02 (if a case contained therein is
non-valid) or 03 (if the message itself is
not correctly formatted).
7
Store in EV.
Once the case has been validated, it is
EMA
stored in the EV.
8
Send ACK.
The acknowledgement message created in
EMA
step 6 is transmitted to the case sender
no later than 2 business days following
receipt of the case.
Go to step 9 for the EMA’s next step.
Go to step 10 for MAH/NCA’s next step.
9
Was ACK code 01?
9.1
Await corrected case.
If No go to step 9.1.
EMA
If Yes, go to step 9.2.
The sender should correct every case with
EMA
an error ACK and retransmit it within the
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No.
Step
Description
Responsible
Organisation
regulatory reporting timelines. Periodically
the EMA should assess all cases with an
error ACK for which a corrected case has
not been transmitted and contact the
Qualified Person responsible for
PharmacoVigilance (QPPV) to inform these
missing corrected cases. If a sender fails
to correct cases, this information should
be incorporated into data quality
assessments and the appropriate
committees should be informed.
Go back to step 5 upon receipt of the
corrected case.
9.2
End.
The case is now stored in EV &,
EMA
following duplicate detection &
recoding will be available for signal
detection and data quality analyses.
If the case occurred in the EU and
was transmitted to EV by a MAH, it
will be rerouted to the relevant NCA
(see VI. Appendix 3.3)
10
Receive ACK.
Receive the ACK message, associate it
MAH/NCA
with the relevant case(s) and check to
ensure that the case was considered
valid.
11
Was ACK code 01?
If yes, go to step 11.1.
MAH/NCA
If no, then the regulatory timeline clock
has not stopped and the case should be
corrected and re-transmitted to EV within
the relevant regulatory reporting
timelines. Day 0 remains as the day that
the first information was received. A 02 or
03 ACK does not constitute new
information. Go to step 12 (Correct case)
11.1
End.
End the process for this version of the
MAH/NCA
case. Normal follow-up activities
should continue and if any follow-up
is received, return to step 1.
12
Correct case.
Correct the case to remove the errors
MAH/NCA
identified in the ACK and retransmit the
case to EV (go back to step 4).
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VI.App3.2.1. Final arrangements applicable to marketing authorisation
holders
Table VI.7. Reporting requirements applicable to marketing authorisation holders - Final
arrangements
Marketing
Origin
authorisation
Adverse reaction
Destination
type
Time
frame
procedure
•
Centralised
•
Mutual recognition,
EU
decentralised or
subject to referral
•
Purely national
Non-
All serious
•
EudraVigilance database
15 days
All non-serious
•
EudraVigilance database
90 days
All serious
•
EudraVigilance database
15 days
EU
VI.App3.2.2. Final arrangements applicable to competent authorities in
Member States
Table VI.8. Reporting requirements applicable to competent authorities in Member States - Final
arrangements
Marketing
Origin
authorisation
Adverse reaction
Destination
type
Time
frame
procedure
•
Centralised
•
Mutual recognition,
decentralised or
EU
All serious
•
EudraVigilance database
15 days
All non-serious
•
EudraVigilance database
90 days
subject to referral
•
Purely national
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VI.App3.3. Transmission and rerouting of ICSRs to competent authorities in
Member States 45
Figure VI.5. Business process map - Transmission and rerouting of ICSRs to competent authorities in
Member States
45
Once the functionalities of the EudraVigilance database specified in [REG Art 24(2)] are established.
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Table VI.9. Process description - Transmission and rerouting of ICSRs to competent authorities in
Member States 46
No.
Name
Description
Responsible
Organisation
1
Start.
Marketing Authorisation Holder
Receive report.
(MAH) receives information on a
MAH
suspected adverse reaction from a
patient, healthcare professional or
other valid reporter.
2
Open case.
Open and create an individual case safety
MAH
report.
3
Send to EudraVigilance (EV).
Transmit the case electronically, in ICH
MAH
E2B(R2) format as an xml message within
the relevant time frames (15 or 90 days,
as applicable), to EV.
4
Receive in EV.
Receive the message in the EV.
EMA
5
Technical Validation (EV Business
Every message that is received in EV is
EMA
Rules).
validated against the EudraVigilance
Business Rules and an Acknowledgement
message (ACK) is created specifying
whether or not the message & the case(s)
therein are valid.
A valid message will have an ACK code
01. A non-valid message will have an ACK
code 02 (if a case contained therein is
non-valid) or 03 (if the message itself is
not correctly formatted).
6
Store in EV.
Once the case has been validated, it is
EMA
stored in EV.
7
Send ACK.
The acknowledgement message created in
EMA
step 5 is transmitted to the case sender
no later than 2 business days following
receipt of the case.
7.1
Receive ACK.
Receive the ACK message, associate it
MAH
with the relevant case(s) and check to
ensure that the case was considered
valid.
7.2
Was ACK code 01?
If Yes, go to step 7.2.1.
MAH
If no, then the regulatory timeline clock
has not stopped and the case should be
corrected and re-transmitted to EV within
the relevant regulatory reporting
timelines. Day 0 remains as the day that
the first information was received. A 02 or
03 ACK does not constitute new
information. Go to step 7.2.2 (Correct
46
Once the functionalities of the EudraVigilance database specified in [REG Art 24(2)] are established.
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No.
Name
Description
Responsible
Organisation
case).
7.2.
End.
1
End the process of transmitting this
MAH
version of the case to EV. Normal
follow-up activities should continue
and if any follow-up is received,
return to step 1.
7.2.
Correct case.
2
Correct the case to remove the errors
MAH
identified in the ACK and retransmit the
case to EV (go back to step 3).
8
Was ACK code 01?
If yes, go to step 9.
EMA
If no, perform no further processing on
this version of the case and go to step 8.1
8.1
Await corrected case.
The sender should correct every case with
EMA
an error ACK and retransmit it within the
regulatory reporting timelines. Periodically
the EMA should assess all cases with an
error ACK for which a corrected case has
not been transmitted and contact the
Qualified Person responsible for
PharmacoVigilance (QPPV) to inform of
these missing corrected cases. If a sender
fails to correct cases, his information
should be incorporated into data quality
assessments and the appropriate
committees should be informed.
9
Assess cases in message.
Whenever a message has passed the
EMA
technical validation, the cases therein
should be immediately assessed to
determine the country where the reaction
occurred for regulatory reporting
purposes.
10
Was case from EU?
For every case, assess whether the
EMA
country of occurrence is in the EU.
If Yes, go to step 11.
If No, go to step 10.1
10.1
End.
The case is now stored in EV &,
EMA
following duplicate detection &
recoding will be available for signal
detection and data quality analyses.
11
Extract cases from message.
The cases occurring in the EU will be
EMA
extracted from the message for
processing prior to retransmission.
12
Technical Validation.
Message sender identifier (ICH M2 M.1.5)
EMA
of reporting MAH is inserted in Sender
organisation field (ICH-E2B(R2) A.3.1.2)
prior to retransmission. This is to permit
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No.
Name
Description
Responsible
Organisation
the receiving National Competent
Authority (NCA) to unambiguously identify
the MAH responsible for transmitting the
case to EV.
13
Send to relevant NCA
The case is transmitted to the relevant
EMA
NCA of the Member State where the
reaction occurred with no other changes.
Where a Member State has more than
one NCA responsible for post-marketing
reports, the cases occurring in that
Member State are sent to all relevant
NCAs.
14
15
Receive in PharmacoVigilance
The relevant NCA receives the message in
DataBase (PhV DB).
its PhV DB
Technical Validation (EV Business
Every message should be validated
Rules).
against the EudraVigilance Business Rules
NCA
NCA
(the same business rules as in Step 5 and
an Acknowledgement message (ACK) is
created specifying whether or not the
message & the case(s) therein are valid.
A valid message will have an ACK code
01. A non-valid message will have an ACK
code 02 (if a case contained therein is
non-valid) or 03 (if the message itself is
not correctly formatted).
16
17
Store in PharmacoVigilance
Once the case has been validated, it is
DataBase (PhV DB).
stored in the PhV DB.
Send ACK.
The acknowledgement message created in
NCA
NCA
step 15 is transmitted to EV no later than
2 business days following receipt of the
case.
17.1
End
The case is now stored in the NCA’s
NCA
PharmacoVigilance DataBase &,
following duplicate detection &
recoding will be available for signal
detection and data quality analyses.
18
Receive ACK
19
End
The acknowledgement message sent in
EMA
step 17 is received & stored in EV.
The case has now been successfully
EMA
retransmitted to the relevant NCA.
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VI. Appendix 4 Transmission of ICSRs to World Health
Organization (WHO)47
Figure VI.6. Business process map - Transmission of ICSRs to World Health Organization (WHO)
Collaborating Centre for International Drug Monitoring
47
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Table VI.10. Process description - Transmission of ICSRs to World Health Organisation (WHO)
Collaborating Centre for International Drug Monitoring 48
No.
Step
Description
Responsible
Organisation
1
Start.
National Competent Authority (NCA)
Receive report.
or Marketing Authorisation Holder
MAH/NCA
(MAH) receives information on a
suspected adverse reaction from a
patient, healthcare professional or
other valid reporter.
2
Open case.
Open and create an individual case safety
MAH/NCA
report.
3
Send to EV.
Transmit the case electronically, in ICH
MAH/NCA
E2B(R2) format as an xml message within
the relevant time frames (15 or 90 days,
as applicable), to EudraVigilance (EV).
4
Receive in EV.
Receive the message in EV.
EMA
5
Technical Validation (EV
Every message that is received in EV is
EMA
Business Rules).
validated against the EudraVigilance
Business Rules and an Acknowledgement
message (ACK) is created specifying
whether or not the message & the case(s)
therein are valid.
A valid message will have an ACK code
01. A non-valid message will have an ACK
code 02 (if a case contained therein is
non-valid) or 03 (if the message itself is
not correctly formatted).
6
Store in EV.
7
Send ACK.
Once the case has been validated, it is
EMA
stored in EV.
The acknowledgement message created in
EMA
step 5 is transmitted to the case sender
no later than 2 business days following
receipt of the case.
7.1
Receive ACK.
Receive the ACK message, associate it
MAH/NCA
with the relevant case(s) and check to
ensure that the case was considered valid.
7.2
Was ACK code 01?
If Yes, go to step 7.2.1.
MAH/NCA
If no, then the regulatory timeline clock
has not stopped and the case should be
corrected and re-transmitted to EV within
the relevant regulatory reporting
timelines. Day 0 remains as the day that
the first information was received. A 02 or
03 ACK does not constitute new
information. Go to step 7.2.2 (Correct
48
Once the functionalities of the EudraVigilance database specified in [REG Art 24(2)] are established.
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No.
Step
Description
Responsible
Organisation
case).
7.2.1
End
End the process of transmitting this
MAH/NCA
version of the case to EV. Normal
follow-up activities should continue
and if any follow-up is received,
return to step 1.
7.2.2
Correct case
Correct the case to remove the errors
MAH/NCA
identified in the ACK and retransmit the
case to EV (go back to step 3).
8
Was ACK code 01?
If yes, go to step 9
EMA
If no, perform no further processing on
this version of the case and go to step 8.1
8.1
Await corrected case.
The sender should correct every case with
EMA
an error ACK and retransmit within the
regulatory reporting timelines. Periodically
the EMA should assess all cases with an
error ACK for which a corrected case has
not been transmitted and contact the
Qualified Person responsible for
PharmacoVigilance (QPPV) to inform of
these missing corrected cases. If a sender
fails to correct cases, this information
should be incorporated into data quality
assessments and the appropriate
committees should be informed.
9
Assess cases in message.
Once a week, for every message that has
EMA
passed the technical validation, the cases
therein should be assessed to determine
the country where the reaction occurred
for regulatory reporting purposes.
10
Was case from EU?
For every case, assess whether the
EMA
country of occurrence is in the EU.
If Yes, go to step 11.
If No, go to step 10.1.
10.1
End.
The case is now stored in EV &,
EMA
following duplicate detection &
recoding will be available for signal
detection and data quality analyses.
11
Extract cases from message
The cases occurring in the EU is extracted
EMA
from the message for processing prior to
retransmission.
12
Redact & replace data in line
Prior to sending the cases to the World
with EV Data Access policy.
Health Organization (WHO) Collaborating
EMA
Centre for International Drug Monitoring,
the extracted copies of the cases have
some data elements redacted and
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No.
Step
Description
Responsible
Organisation
replaced in line with the EV Data Access
Policy in order to ensure personal data
protection.
13
Copy cases to physical media.
The cases are copied to physical media.
EMA
14
Send to WHO.
The physical media is sent to WHO
EMA
Collaborating Centre.
15
Receive physical media
WHO Collaborating Centre receives
WHO
the physical media.
16
Store cases in
Once the cases have been validated, they
PharmacoVigilance DataBase
are stored in the PhV DB.
WHO
(PhV DB).
17
End.
Cases are stored in the WHO
WHO
Collaborating Centre’s
PharmacoVigilance DataBase &,
following duplicate detection &
recoding will be available for signal
detection and data quality analyses.
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VI. Appendix 5 Nullification of cases
General principles regarding the nullification of cases are provided in VI.C.6.2.2.10. The following
recommendations should also be applied:
•
The value in the data element ‘Report nullification’ (ICH-E2B(R2) A.1.13) should be set to ‘Yes’ and
the nullification reason should be provided in the data element ‘Reason for nullification’ (ICHEB(R2) A.1.13.1). The nullification reason should be clear and concise to explain why this case is
no longer considered to be a valid report. For example a nullification reason stating, ‘the report no
longer meets the reporting criteria’ or ‘report sent previously in error’ are not detailed enough
explanations.
•
An individual case can only be nullified by the sending organisation.
•
Once an individual case has been nullified, the case cannot be reactivated.
•
If it becomes necessary to resubmit the case that has been previously nullified, a new ‘Sender’s
(case) safety report unique identifier’ (ICH-E2B(R2) A.1.0.1) and ‘Worldwide unique case
identification number’ (ICH-E2B(R2) A.1.10) should be assigned.
•
Individual versions (i.e. follow-up reports) of a case cannot be nullified, only the entire individual
case to which they refer.
Table VI.11. Examples of scenarios for which ICSRs should be nullified
Ex.
Scenario
Action
1
An individual case has been identified as
One of the individual cases should be nullified. The
a duplicate of another individual case
remaining valid case should be updated with any
previously submitted.
additional relevant information from the nullified
case.
2
A wrong ‘Worldwide unique case
The case with the wrong ‘Worldwide unique case
identification number’ (ICH-E2B(R2)
identification number’ (ICH-E2B(R2) A.1.10) should
A.1.10) was accidentally used and does
be nullified.
not refer to an existing case.
A new case should be created with a correct
‘Worldwide unique case identification number’.
3
On receipt of further information it is
The case should be nullified.
confirmed that that the adverse reaction
occurred before the suspect drug(s) was
taken.
4
On receipt of further information on an
The case should be nullified.
individual case, it is confirmed that the
patient did not receive the suspect drug.
Minimum reporting criteria for an ICSR
as outlined in VI.B.2 are no longer met.
5
On receipt of further information it is
The case should be nullified.
confirmed by the same reporter that the
reported adverse reaction(s) did not
occur to the patient. Minimum reporting
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Ex.
Scenario
Action
criteria for an ICSR as outlined in
VI.B.2are no longer met.
6
On receipt of further information it is
If it is not possible to obtain confirmation of the
confirmed that there was no valid patient
patient’s existence, then the case should be nullified.
for the individual case. Minimum
reporting criteria for an ICSR as outlined
in VI.B.2 are no longer met.
•
Individual cases that have been nullified should not be used for scientific evaluation, however, they
should remain in the database for auditing purposes.
•
In addition, in case of duplicate reports where one report needs to be nullified, the update of the
remaining case should be performed in the form of a follow-up report 49. Information on the
identification of the nullified case(s) should be provided in the data element ‘Source(s) of the case
identifier (e.g. name of the company, name of regulatory agency)’ (ICH-E2B(R2) A.1.11.1 ) and in
the data element ‘Case identifier(s)’ (ICH-E2B(R2) A.1.11.2).
Table VI.12. Examples of scenarios for which ICSRs should NOT be nullified
Ex.
Scenario
Action
7
A wrong ‘Worldwide unique case
The report with the wrong ‘Worldwide unique case
identification number’ (ICH E2B(R2)
identification number’ (ICH-E2B(R2) A.1.10) should
A.1.10) was accidentally used. This
not be nullified.
wrong ICH-E2B(R2) A.1.10 ‘Worldwide
unique case identification number’
referred to an existing case.
A follow-up report should be submitted to correct
the information previously submitted.
A new ICSR should be created and submitted with
the correct ‘Worldwide unique case identification
number’.
8
On receipt of further information on an
The case should not be nullified.
individual case, it is confirmed that the
patient did not receive the marketing
authorisation holder’s suspect drug.
However, the patient received other
suspect drugs and the minimum
reporting criteria for an ICSR are still
met.
9
On receipt of further information the
reporter has confirmed that the reported
adverse reaction is no longer considered
to be related to the suspect medicinal
product(s).
The case should not be nullified.
A follow-up report should be submitted within the
appropriate time frame with the updated information
on the case.
49
As presented in the Guideline on the Detection and Management of Duplicate Individual Cases and Individual Case Safety
Reports (ICSRs), EMA/13432/2009.
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Ex.
Scenario
Action
10
Change of the individual case from
The case should not be nullified.
serious to non-serious (downgrading).
A follow-up report should be submitted with the data
element ‘Seriousness’ (ICH-E2B(R2) A.1.5.1)
populated with the value ‘No’ without selection of a
value for the data element ‘Seriousness criteria’
(ICH-E2B(R2) A.1.5.2).
The data element ‘Does this case fulfil the local
criteria for an expedited report?’ (ICH-E2B(R2) field
A.1.9) should remain populated with the value ‘Yes’.
11
The primary source country has
changed, which has an impact on the
ICH-E2B(R2) convention regarding the
creation of the ‘Worldwide unique case
identification number’ (ICH-E2B(R2)
A.1.10).
The case should not be nullified.
The ‘Sender’s (case) safety report unique identifier’
(ICH-E2B(R2) A.1.0.1) can be updated on the basis
of the new primary source country code. However,
the ‘Worldwide unique case identification number’
(ICH-E2B(R2) A.1.10) should remain unchanged.
If, for some technical reason, the sender’s local
system is not fully ICH-E2B(R2) compliant and
cannot follow this policy, then the sender should
nullify the original case. A new case should be
created with a new ‘Worldwide unique case
identification number’ (ICH-E2B(R2) A.1.10)
reflecting the changed primary source country code.
The ‘Worldwide unique case identification number’
(ICH-E2B(R2) A.1.10) of the case that was nullified
should be reflected in the data elements ‘Other case
identifiers in previous transmissions’ (ICH-E2B(R2)
A.1.11).
12
The suspected medicinal product belongs
to another marketing authorisation
holder (e.g. a product with the same
active substance but marketed under a
different invented name).
The case should not be nullified.
It is recommended that the initial sender informs the
other marketing authorisation holder about this case
(including the ‘Worldwide unique case identification
number’ (ICH-E2B(R2) A.1.10) used). The original
organisation should also submit a follow-up report to
provide this new information.
The other concerned marketing authorisation holder
should create a new case and specify the reference
case number and the name of the initial sending
marketing authorisation holder in the data elements
‘Source(s) of the case identifier (e.g. name of the
company name of regulatory agency)’ (ICH-E2B(R2)
A.1.11.1) and ‘Case identifier(s)’ (ICH-E2B(R2)
A.1.11.2). This will allow grouping the cases in the
EudraVigilance database.
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Ex.
Scenario
Action
13
The suspected medicinal product taken
The case should not be nullified.
does not belong to the marketing
authorisation holder (same active
substance, the invented name is
unknown and the report originates from
The marketing authorisation holder should submit a
follow-up report with this information within the
appropriate time frame.
a country, where the marketing
authorisation holder has no marketing
authorisation for the medicinal product in
question).
14
The case is mistakenly reported by the
marketing authorisation holder A
although the marketing authorisation
holder B as co-marketer is responsible
for reporting the case.
The case should not be nullified.
An explanation should be sent by the marketing
authorisation holder A to the co-marketer marketing
authorisation holder B that the case has already
been reported. The marketing authorisation holder B
should provide any additional information on the
case as a follow-up report with the same ‘Worldwide
unique case identification number’ (ICH-E2B(R2)
A.1.10).
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VI. Appendix 6 Data quality monitoring of ICSRs transmitted
electronically
Figure VI.7. Business process map - Data quality monitoring of ICSRs transmitted electronically
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Table VI.13. Process description - Data quality monitoring of ICSRs transmitted electronically
The business map and process description describe a system where there is a separation between a
PharmacoVigilance DataBase (PhV DB) holder, the PhV DB holder’s data Quality Assessors (QA) and
the PhV DB holder’s auditors; however this is not mandatory and these functions may be performed by
the same people or groups.
No.
Step
Description
Responsible
Organisation
1
Start.
Select one of the organisations that
PhV DB
Decide upon Sender to
has transmitted ICSRs to your
holder
evaluate.
database.
Inputs into this decision can include,
but need not be limited to findings
from previous assessments and
requests from pharmacovigilance
audits.
2
Sample ICSRs from Sender.
Take a sample of ICSRs that were
QA
transmitted by the selected sender
3
Check for data quality errors.
Check the cases for data quality errors.
QA
The cases should be assessed against
appropriate published standards and
similar documents, for example the
MedDRA Term Selection Points to
Consider document.
4
Write report and send to PhV
The findings from the data quality
DB holder.
assessment should be collated into a
QA
single report. These can include related
checks, such as 15-day reporting
compliance, whether error reports are
corrected and similar statistical
information.
5
Errors found?
Were any errors found during the analysis
PhV DB
of the cases?
holder
If No, go to step 5.1.
If Yes go to steps 5.2, 5.3 & 6.
5.1
End.
If there were no errors found, then
PhV DB
no further action needs to be taken.
holder
The process can end until the next
time the sender is assessed.
The PhV DB holder may choose to
share this information with the
assessed sender and their auditors
who may wish to factor this in to
determinations of which sender to
assess.
5.2
Highlight for PhV audit.
If the PhV DB holder’s organisation has an
PhV DB holder
audit department, any significant findings
should always be shared with them.
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No.
Step
Description
Responsible
Organisation
5.2.1
Prioritise for Audit.
The audit or inspections department
PhV DB
should use the information provided to
holder’s
them to feed into decisions about
auditors
prioritising organisations for audit or
inspection.
5.3
INPUT: Findings from
Any errors found (or even lack thereof)
PhV DB
previous assessments.
should be incorporated into decisions
holder
about which senders to evaluate & should
also inform the performance of the
assessments (e.g. targeting particular
types of case) and the report
(documenting whether previously
identified issues have been addressed).
6
Inform sender of findings.
Inform the sender of the findings,
PhV DB holder
including requested remedial actions (e.g.
retransmitting certain cases) and time
frames for those actions
7
Request meeting?
The sender should have the option to
Sender
choose to request a meeting to discuss
the findings and appropriate remedial
action and time frames.
If no meeting is requested, go to step 7.1.
If a meeting is requested go to step 8.
7.1
Address the findings &
Address all findings, take necessary steps
retransmit any required cases.
to prevent recurrence of such findings &
Sender
retransmit any required cases.
7.2
End.
Once all findings have been
Sender
addressed, the necessary steps taken
to prevent recurrence of such
findings and any required cases have
been retransmitted, the process can
end until the next time the sender is
assessed.
8
Have meeting.
Upon request from one party, a meeting
PhV DB
should be held to discuss the findings of
holder &
quality assessments and appropriate
Sender
remedial and preventive actions to ensure
that the cases in the database are correct
and shall be so in the future.
9
End.
Unless further action has been
PhV DB
specified (e.g. future meetings or
holder
assessments), the process can end
until the next time the sender is
assessed.
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VI. Appendix 7 Duplicate detection and management of ICSRs
Figure VI.8. Business process map - Duplicate detection and management of ICSRs
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Table VI.14. Process description - Duplicate detection and management of ICSRs
No.
Step
Description
Responsible
organisation
1
Start.
Potential duplicates have been
PhV DB
Potential duplicate
detected by the PharmacoVigilance
holder
detected.
DataBase (PhV DB) holder
organisation or the PhV DB holder
organisation is notified of potential
duplicates by a receiver of the cases.
2
Assessment.
All potential duplicates need
DMT
assessment by the organisation
Duplicate Management Team (DMT)
to confirm or deny their duplicate
status.
Following assessment there are 4 possible
outcomes:
• Not a Duplicate (go to step 2.1),
• More Information Needed (go to
step 2.2),
• Duplicates From Different Sender
(go to step 2.3),
• Duplicates From Same Sender (go
to step 2.4).
The outcome of all assessments should be
recorded to avoid continually reassessing
the same cases when further versions
arrive. These recorded outcomes can also
be used to refine the duplicate detection
methods during future development.
2.1
Not a Duplicate: Mark as
If the cases are assessed as not being
not a duplicate.
duplicates of one another, then mark both
DMT
cases as such.
Go to step 3 (End).
2.2
More information needed:
There should be some form of tool for
Log in tracking tool.
tracking when more information is
DMT
needed, when correspondence has been
sent, whether an answer was received
and, if so, when.
2.2.1
Write to Sender.
More information is required in order to
PhV DB
be able to make a definite assessment.
holder
The sender (who transmitted the case(s)
in question to the PhVDB holder’s
organisation) should be contacted to
request specific information necessary to
confirm or deny duplication.
Personal data protection must remain
paramount, so unsecured communications
should not include sufficient data to
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No.
Step
Description
Responsible
organisation
identify an individual.
2.2.2
Receive request, draft
Once a request for more information has
and send response.
been received, the Sender of the case
Sender
should respond promptly, either as a
follow-up version of the case or by
responding to the requester.
The DMT should then reassess the case
based on the new information (Go back to
step 2).
2.3
Duplicates Different
Once cases have been determined to be
Senders: Create or
duplicates of one another and have been
nominate master.
transmitted to the PhV DB holder by
DMT
different senders or reporters, then they
should be merged under a master case,
following the process described in chapter
2.3 “Management of duplicate cases” of
the Guideline on the Detection and
Management of Duplicate Individual Cases
and Individual Case Safety Reports
(ICSRs), EMA/13432/2009.
2.3.1
Deal with follow-ups.
If any follow-ups arrive for any of the
DMT
cases, this information may require a
reassessment of the master case.
Reassess and, if necessary, amend the
master case as with any received followup information.
Go to step 3 (End).
2.4
Duplicates Same Sender:
Once cases have been determined to be
Log in tracking tool.
duplicates of one another, and have been
DMT
transmitted to the PhV DB holder by the
same sender, then this decision and the
correspondence referred to in step 2.4.1
should be logged in the tracking tool
referred to in step 2.2.
2.4.1
Write to Sender.
The sender organisation, as the source of
PhV DB
the duplicates, should be contacted in
holder
accordance with chapter 2.3.3 of the
Guideline on the Detection and
Management of Duplicate Individual Cases
and Individual Case Safety Reports
(ICSRs), EMA/13432/2009.
The sender should be asked to confirm or
deny duplication and take appropriate
steps in accordance with chapter 2.3.1 of
the aforementioned Guideline.
2.4.2
Receive request.
Receive and log the communication
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No.
Step
Description
Responsible
organisation
containing information on suspected
duplicates in the Sender’s PhV DB.
2.4.3
Is it a duplicate?
Assess the potential duplicates. Are the
Sender
cases duplicates of one another?
If Yes, go to step 2.4.3.1.
If No, go to step 2.4.3.2.
2.4.3.1
Merge duplicates.
Merge the duplicates, taking into account
Sender
Flowchart 1 of chapter 2.3.1.3 of the
Guideline on the Detection and
Management of Duplicate Individual Cases
and Individual Case Safety Reports
(ICSRs), EMA/13432/2009.
2.4.3.1.1
Send follow-up/nullification.
For the cases that are merged under the
Sender
master, send a nullification message to
the PhV DB holder.
For the case that is master, send the
updated case to the PhV DB holder as
follow-up information. The merging &
transmission should be completed
promptly and in any case within 15 days
of the date of receipt of the information
from the PhV DB holder that the cases
were considered to be possible duplicates.
This date should be treated as the date of
receipt of most recent information for
regulatory reporting purposes.
2.4.3.1.2
End.
The duplicates have now been
Sender
removed from both the Sender’s
system and that of the PhV DB holder
and only the master should be
available for signal detection and
data quality analyses.
Unless follow-up information is
received, then no further steps need
be taken.
2.4.3.2
Draft and send a response.
Reply to the PhV DB holder who sent the
Sender
communication informing that the cases
are not duplicates.
2.4.3.2.1
Mark as “Not a
Upon receipt of confirmation from the
duplicate”.
Sender organisation that the cases are
DMT
not duplicates, mark the cases as “Not a
duplicate” & go to step 3 (End).
3
End.
No further action is required for this
DMT
couple.
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