Clocks Time Correct time A correct clock

Clocks Time Correct time A correct clock
Why is time important?
Johan Montelius
Correct time
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Who has the correct time?
A correct clock
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Drift is change in how well one clock can measure a time interval.
earths rotation - UT1
one “atomic” clock - UTC
Monotonic is the property that time always moves forward.
Even if wee all agree, how do we keep nodes synchronized?
Correctness often means monotonic and low drift.
it takes time to send a signal
in between signals nodes will drift
how often can we send signals
A correct clock might not be synchronized.
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How to synchronize
Accuracy or external synchronization:
Each node in our network is synchronized with an external (global)
source within a bound.
Precision or internal synchronization:
Every pair of nodes in our network are synchronized within a bound.
Asynchronous networks
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Christian’s algorithm
sending request
One server is connected to external source and used to synchronize other nodes
in the network.
received request
Problem is of course that round-trip times are unknown and that they vary.
T - received reply
A minimum propagation time can be known.
What is the time at T?
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T = t + r/2
reply [t]
What is the accuracy?
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t1: sending request
An architecture targeting reliability and wide area networks.
A hierarchy of servers: stratum-1 connected to external sources.
Fault tolerant: servers can be degraded to lower stratum if external source is
lost, client can connect to secondary servers.
Several synchronization protocols: LAN multicast, request reply and
t2 : received request
t3: reply [t1,t2,t3]
t4: received reply
Similar to Christian’s but with better estimate of delay.
Berkeley algorithm
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Stateless, no need to record r.
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Clocks can be synchronized:
or to an external source
Synchronization limited by:
network jitter
clock drift
Synchronize to UTC:
NTP connected over Internet: a few 10 ms
local GPS clocks connected to LAN: < 1 ms
on board GPS clock: few ms to ns
Used to synchronize a network of nodes.
send requests to all nodes
collect it and calculate an average time T
send out individual deltas to each node
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