P1540 Canning Vegetables 4-H Food Preservation Project Unit 4

P1540 Canning Vegetables 4-H Food Preservation Project Unit 4
Canning
Vegetables
4 - H F O O D P R E S E R VAT I O N P R O J E C T
UNIT 4
Contents
What Causes Vegetables To Spoil? . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .3
How Much To Can . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .4
Canning Vegetables . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .4
How Does a Pressure Canner Work? . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .4
Selecting Vegetables . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .5
Basic Steps . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .5
Directions for Canning . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .6
Using Canned Vegetables . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .7
Calculate the Cost . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .8
Exhibits . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .8
Score for Canned Food . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .9
4-H Project Record for Canning Vegetables . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .10
Canning
Vegetables
You will learn these terms in this project:
The two most common methods of preserving vegetables
are freezing and canning. Freezing keeps the food so cold that
microorganisms cannot grow, and enzyme activity is slowed
down. When you can vegetables, you put them in a jar and heat
them. You heat them enough to kill microorganisms that cause
spoilage, and you seal the jar to keep microorganisms and air
out. Canning is more work than freezing but is more economical.
• Raw Pack – the way you treat food before placing it in jars.
In a raw pack, you do not cook the food before filling the jar.
There are several advantages in using the raw pack: (1) the food
requires very little preparation before it is processed; (2) it is
almost impossible to over pack a jar that is raw packed; (3)
there is less cleanup, since you use less equipment.
You will learn these things in this project:
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• Exhausting – when you process foods in a pressure canner,
steam should escape, forcing out air before the pressure begins
to rise. This is called exhausting.
What causes food to spoil.
How canning prevents food spoilage.
The meaning of words related to food
preservation.
• Hot Pack – place vegetables in large pan. Cover with water.
Bring to a boil to precook (refer to specific vegetables for
length of time to boil). Pack the hot vegetables in jars. Cover
with the boiling liquid used to cook the vegetables in. Leave
correct amount of head space.
How to determine the amount of vegetables
to preserve for your family.
How to select vegetables for canning.
How to can vegetables.
• Head space – space left at the top of the jar after you put
food into the jars.
How a pressure canner works.
How to use the vegetables you have preserved.
• Precooking – when using the hot-pack method of canning,
heat the foods in boiling water for a few minutes.
You will do these things in this project:
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Determine the kinds of vegetables and quantity of each to
can for your family’s needs.
• Processing – heating the foods in the canner after you put
the foods in jars.
Can at least four different kinds of vegetables.
Exhibit your canned vegetables at county fairs and
exhibit days.
• Vacuum Seal – when a jar lid seals while the contents are
boiling hot, a vacuum forms as the jar cools.
Give a food preservation visual presentation.
Freeze and can fruits and vegetables that you learned to
process in other food preservation projects.
What Causes
Vegetables To Spoil?
Keep a complete record of foods you have frozen
and canned.
Microorganisms – Molds, yeast, and bacteria are
microorganisms found in the soil, water, and air, and on all sur-
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Canning Vegetables
faces they come in contact with. If these microorganisms are
not destroyed by heat or stopped by cold, they cause food to
spoil. They can also get into jars that are not sealed and cause
canned foods to spoil. Because you cannot see yeast, molds,
and bacteria without using a microscope, they are called
microorganisms. Micro means very small; and organism is a
living thing.
The acidity of food determines whether it can be safely
canned at 212 ºF (in boiling water-bath) or must be heated to
240 ºF (in a pressure canner).
Acidity Scale
Molds form fuzzy patches on foods, causing a bad taste
and sometimes developing toxins (poisons). Yeasts cause food
to ferment, creating gases and off-flavors. Yeast and molds need
air to grow; they are also easily destroyed by heat.
Bacteria can cause any number of spoilage symptoms,
ranging from sour taste to gas formation to serious poisoning.
Some bacteria grow best in a vacuum without air.
HIGH ACID
Boiling
Water Bath
(212 ˚F)
Pressure
Canner
(240 ˚F)
Enzymes – Enzymes are chemical substances that are present in all living things. They cause changes in flavor, texture,
color, and food value. They cause vegetables to mature; if
allowed to remain active, they eventually cause vegetables to
spoil. To preserve food, you must destroy, stop, or slow them.
Enzymes are destroyed by heat but not by cold.
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Pickles, citrus juices,
sauerkraut, most
fruits and berries,
tomatoes
Tomatoes, peppers,
figs, most vegetables,
meats, eggs, poultry,
fish, olives, hominy
LOW ACID
High acidity prevents the growth of Colstridium botulinum, a bacterium that produces a deadly toxin in vacuumsealed products. Even if Colstridium botulinum spores (a bacteria “seed” that is not easily killed by heat) are present in canned
high-acid foods, they cannot grow because of the acidity. In
low-acid foods, such as vegetables, all spores must be killed by
processing at 240 ºF because there is not enough acidity to prevent their growing during storage.
How To Prevent Spoilage
To stop the spoilage of vegetables, you must heat them hot
enough to kill the microorganisms, or you must keep them cold
enough (0 ºF to 18 ºC or less) to keep them inactive. It is not
hard to make food safe to eat, but you want the food to taste
good and be good for you. Thus it is important to follow correct
procedures that will result in a good product.
How Does a
Pressure Canner Work?
How Much To Can
Canned vegetables are best if used with in a year. They
will keep longer, but quality and nutritive value decline gradually. You should consider also how frequently your family will
enjoy a certain vegetable. If they like green beans, for example,
and would enjoy them once a week, you can plan on 52 jars of
green beans.
How can the temperature of the water get higher than 212 ˚F?
In a pressure canner, water is added, and the lid is tightly
sealed. As the water comes to a boil, it changes to steam. The
steam drives all the air out of the canner. When all of the air is
out, the petcock (valve) on the pressure canner should be
closed. Once it is closed, the steam cannot get out. It gets hotter
and hotter and the pressure builds up. It keeps expanding and
keeps getting hotter until it reaches 10 pounds pressure. The
temperature is 240 ˚F (115.5 ˚C) by then. This is hot enough to
destroy the botulinum spores.
Many people are afraid of pressure canners. There is no
reason to be afraid if you know what you are doing and follow
the instructions.
Pressure canners have safety devices to keep them from
“blowing up.” But it is up to you to take care of the pressure
canner to make sure it works correctly. There are two types of
safety features. One is a rubber safety plug. If the pressure gets
above 20 pounds in the pressure canner, the safety plug will pop
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out. The steam can then escape. When the steam escapes, the
pressure inside the canner drops and will fall back to zero. It
will then be safe to open.
The other safety device is a metal safety plug. It is made of
metal alloy that melts when the temperature gets too hot in the
pressure canner. When the alloy melts, steam can escape, and
the pressure drops.
Another way to have a safely operating pressure canner is
to keep it clean. If the petcock or the vent pipe where the weight
rests becomes clogged with food, steam cannot escape. Pressure
could come up too quickly. It is important to see if the hole is
free from food. If it is clogged, draw a string through the hole.
Before using the pressure canner, read the directions carefully. Follow the manufacturer’s directions.
3.
For either type of pack, use a plastic spatula or plastic
knife to work out as many air bubbles as possible.
4.
Take a clean, damp cloth and wipe the mouth of the jar. If
any food particles are left on the jar, they could keep the
jar from sealing. Heat the lids according to the directions
on the lid package. Place the lid on the jar. Screw the band
on according to the lid package directions. These may vary
with different lids.
5.
Selecting Vegetables
Select only fresh, young, tender vegetables. Canning will
not improve a bad vegetable. The canned vegetable will be as
good as the fresh vegetable. The quicker the vegetable is picked
and canned, the better it will be.
Wash vegetables in several changes of cool water soon
after you pick them. This helps to cool them and remove bacteria and dirt from the surface. Refrigerate freshly-picked vegetables and can them as quickly as possible.
Wash canning jars, lids, and screw bands. Use only standard canning jars. These are tempered jars that are specially
heat treated to stand the 240 ºF reached in a pressure canner.
Make sure there are no nicks or chips in the jar. They could
keep the jar from sealing. If you do find a nick or a chip, throw
the jar away. Use new jar lids. Do not use lids more than one
time. The screw bands can be used more than one time if they
are not rusty or bent.
6.
Basic Steps
1.
2.
If you are going to use a hot pack, precook the vegetables.
Pack the hot vegetables in a jar. Cover with boiling cooking liquid, leaving the right amount of head space.
If you are using the raw pack, pack the food in a jar. You
will want to pack it attractively, but do not waste a lot of
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time trying to make it look fancy. When the jar is full, add
boiling water to the jar, leaving the right amount of head
space. (See individual vegetables.)
Add 2 inches of water to the pressure canner and heat. Be
sure there is a rack in the bottom of the pressure canner.
This will keep the glass jars from coming in direct contact
with the hot metal. Even tempered glass can break if it is
touching the hot metal canner bottom. Place the jars on the
rack in 2 inches of hot water.
Adjust the canner’s lid according to the manufacturer’s
directions. Follow the directions for exhausting your canner. Exhaust the canner by letting steam come out of the
petcock. Exhaust it for 10 minutes. Then close the petcock
or add the weight. When the pressure reaches 10 pounds,
begin the processing time. Turn the heat down and keep
the pressure at 10 pounds. If the pressure is allowed to
fluctuate, liquid might be forced out of the jars. Check the
pressure often. When the processing time is finished, turn
off the heat, but DO NOT try to remove the lid until the
pressure is at zero. When the pressure has completely
dropped and steam no longer comes out of the petcock,
wait two more minutes and remove the lid. Open it away
from your face. Place the lid on a cloth on a flat surface
and let it cool. Do not put the dial side of the lid on the
cloth. Remove the jars and let them cool. Place them on a
rack or cloth out of a draft. Leave for 12 to 24 hours.
7.
8.
top of jar. Wipe jar rims clean. Adjust jar lids. Process in dial
gauge pressure canner at 11 pounds pressure or in a weighted
gauge pressure canner at 10 pounds pressure.
Pint jars – 20 minutes
Quart jars – 25 minutes
Hot Pack: Wash beans. Snap ends. Cut or break into
1 inch pieces. Cover with boiling water. Boil 5 minutes. Pack
hot beans loosely to within 1 inch of top. Add 1⁄2 teaspoon salt to
pints and 1 teaspoon to quarts. Cover with boiling-hot cooking
liquid, leaving 1 inch space at top of jars. Wipe jar rims clean.
Adjust jar lids. Process in dial gauge pressure canner at 11
pounds pressure or in a weighted gauge pressure canner at 10
pounds pressure.
Pint jars – 20 minutes
Quart jars – 25 minutes
After the jars have cooled, test for a seal. During heat processing, air is pulled out of the jar, and a vacuum is formed
when the jar is cooled. This pulls the lid down, and the jar
is sealed. If the lid is not pulled down, there is not vacuum;
the jar is not sealed; and the food will spoil. If you find
any unsealed jars, you can store them in the refrigerator for
one to two days, and you can use the contents as if they
were fresh.
If the jar is not sealed, you can freeze the food or recan it if
you found the unsealed jar within 24 hours after it was
canned. First check to see if the jar rim has a chip. If it
does, that might be why the jar did not seal. Throw away
the chipped jar or one with an uneven mouth. Use a new
canning lid and seal the jar. Reprocess in a pressure canner
for the original length of time.
Beets
Select young or mature beets not more than 3 inches
across; 21⁄2 to 3 pounds make 1 quart. A bushel (52 pounds)
yields about 20 quarts. Sort beets for size. Cut off tops, leaving
an inch of stem. Also leave root. Wash beets. Cover with boiling water and boil until skin slips off easily – 15 to 25 minutes,
depending on size. Skin and trim. Leave baby beets whole. Cut
medium or large beets in 1⁄2 inch cubes or slices; halve or quarter
very large slices. Pack hot beets to within 1 inch of top. Add 1⁄2
teaspoon salt to pints and 1 teaspoon to quarts. Cover with boiling water, leaving 1-inch space at top of jar. Wipe jar rims
clean. Adjust jar lids. Process in dial gauge pressure canner at
11 pounds pressure or in a weighted gauge pressure canner at
10 pounds pressure.
Pint jars – 30 minutes
Quart jars– 35 minutes
If the jar is sealed, remove the screw band. Wipe the jar
and label it with the name of the product and the date.
Store jars in a cool, dark, dry place. Wash and dry the
screw band. Store it in a dry place. Clean the canner and
store it according to the manufacturer’s directions.
Directions for
Canning
Carrots
Select young, tender carrots; 21⁄2 to 3 pounds make 1 quart.
A bushel (50 pounds) yields about 20 quarts.
Raw Pack: Wash and scrape carrots. Slice or dice. Pack
carrots tightly into clean jars, to within 1 inch of top of jar. Add
1
⁄2 teaspoon salt to pints and 1 teaspoon salt to quarts. Fill jar to
within 1 inch to top with boiling water. Wipe jar rims clean.
Adjust jar lids. Process in dial gauge pressure canner at 11
pounds pressure or in a weighted gauge pressure canner at 10
pounds pressure.
Pint jars – 25 minutes
Quart jars – 30 minutes
Green Beans
Pick young, tender beans; 1 ⁄ to 2 pounds make 1 quart. A
bushel (30 pounds) yields 15 to 20 quarts.
Raw Pack: Wash beans. Snap ends. Cut or break into 1inch pieces. Pack raw beans tightly to within 1 inch of top. Add
1
⁄2 teaspoon salt to pints and 1 teaspoon to quarts (if desired for
flavor). Cover with boiling water, leaving 1⁄2 inch head space at
1
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Hot Pack: Wash and scrape carrots. Slice or dice. Cover with
boiling water and bring to a boil. Pack hot carrots to within 1
inch of top. Add 1⁄2 teaspoon salt for pints and 1 teaspoon for
quarts. Cover with boiling-hot cooking liquid, leaving 1⁄2 inch
space at top of jar. Wipe jar rims clean. Adjust jar lids. Process
in dial gauge pressure canner at 11 pounds pressure or in a
weighted gauge pressure canner at 10 pounds pressure.
Pint jars – 25 minutes
Quart jars – 30 minutes
pints and 1 teaspoon to quarts. Cover with boiling water, leaving
1 inch space at top of jar. Wipe jar rims clean. Adjust jar lids.
Process in dial gauge pressure canner at 11 pounds pressure or
in a weighted gauge pressure canner at 10 pounds pressure.
Pint jars – 40 minutes
Quart jars – 40 minutes
Hot Pack: Shell and wash peas. Cover with boiling water.
Bring to boil. Pack hot peas loosely to within 1 inch of top of
jar. Add 1⁄2 teaspoon salt to pints and 1 teaspoon to quarts. Cover
with a boiling-hot cooking liquid, leaving 1 inch space at top of
jar. Wipe jar rims clean. Adjust jar lids. Process in dial gauge
pressure canner at 11 pounds pressure or in a weighted gauge
pressure canner at 10 pounds pressure.
Pint jars – 40 minutes
Quart jars – 40 minutes
Beans, Fresh Lima
Cream Style Corn
Hot Pack: Husk corn and remove silk. Wash. Blanch ears
4 minutes in boiling water. Cut corn from cob at about center of
kernel and scrape cob. To each quart of corn add 1 pint boiling
water. Heat to boiling. Use pint jars only. Pack hot corn to 1
inch of top. Add 1⁄2 teaspoon salt to each jar. Adjust jar lids.
Process in dial gauge pressure canner at 11 pounds pressure or
in a weighted gauge pressure canner at 10 pounds pressure.
Pint jars – 85 minutes
Can only young, tender beans; 4 to 5 pounds in pods yield
1 quart. A bushel (30 pounds) yields 7 to 8 quarts.
Raw Pack: Shell and wash beans. Pack raw beans into
clean jars. For small beans, fill to within 1 inch of top of jar for
pints and 11⁄2 inch for quarts. For large beans, fill to within 1
inch of top for pints and 11⁄4 inch for quarts. Beans should not be
pressed or shaken down. Add 1⁄2 teaspoon salt for pints and 1
teaspoon for quarts. Fill jar to within 1 inch of top with boiling
water. Wipe jar rims clean. Adjust jar lids. Process in dial gauge
pressure canner at 11 pounds pressure or in a weighted gauge
pressure canner at 10 pounds pressure.
Pint jars – 40 minutes
Quart jars – 50 minutes
Hot Pack: Shell the beans, cover with boiling water, and
bring to a boil. Pack hot beans loosely from 1 inch of top of jar.
Add 1⁄2 teaspoon salt to pint jars and 1 teaspoon to quarts. Cover
with boiling water, leaving 1 inch space at top of jar. Wipe jar
rims clean. Adjust jar lids. Process in dial gauge pressure canner
at 11 pounds pressure or in a weighted gauge pressure canner at
10 pounds pressure.
Pint jars – 40 minutes
Quart jars – 50 minutes
Using
Canned Vegetables
When you get ready to use home-canned vegetables, look
closely to make sure the jar is sealed. If it is not sealed, throw it
away. If there is a soured odor or off-odor, foam, or spurting
liquid when you open the jar, throw the food away. To make
absolutely sure that all home-canned low-acid foods are safe to
eat, you should boil them before you taste them. Boil all homecanned vegetables 10 minutes before you taste them. Homecanned vegetables should be safe to eat if you use the correct
procedures, but do not take a chance. Boil before you taste!
Green Peas
Pick when pods are well-filled with tender green peas. Two
to 2 ⁄2 pounds peas in pods yield 1 pint. A bushel (30 pounds)
yields 12 to15 pints.
Raw Pack: Shell and wash peas. Pack peas to within 1
inch of top; do not shake or press down. Add 1⁄2 teaspoon salt to
1
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FRUITED CARROTS
1 pint canned carrots, drained
1 cup pineapple chunks with juice
1
⁄2 cup of orange juice
1
⁄2 tablespoon cornstarch
1
⁄2 teaspoon salt
1
⁄4 teaspoon cinnamon
In medium saucepan, blend cornstarch with orange juice
and juice from pineapple chunks. Heat, stirring constantly until
thickened. Add pineapple chunks, carrots, salt, and cinnamon
and cook, covered, over low heat for 15 to 20 minutes. Makes 4
servings.
Calculate the Cost
The amount of money you will save on your family’s food
bill is hard to figure because of the differences in costs of supplies and fuel. If you preserve food from your garden, the savings will be considerably more than if you purchase raw vegetables to process.
To get an idea of the value of your products, visit the grocery and see how much the same size container of each of the
vegetables costs. Multiply the cost times the number of containers you preserved. You should be pleasantly surprised at the
value of your products.
GREEN BEAN CASSEROLE
1 pint canned green beans, drained
1 101⁄2-ounce can mushroom soup
1
⁄4 cup milk
1 31⁄2-ounce can French fried onion rings
Place half of green beans in a greased 1-quart casserole
dish. Combine soup and milk and spread half of mixture over
beans. Sprinkle with half of onion rings. Repeat layers with the
other half of ingredients. Bake for 25 to 30 minutes at 350 ºF.
Serves 4 to 6.
CRANBERRY BEETS
1 pint canned sliced or diced beets, drained
2 teaspoons cornstarch
2 teaspoons sugar
1
⁄4 teaspoon salt
1
⁄2 cup cranberry juice
1
⁄4 teaspoon grated orange peel.
In saucepan blend cornstarch, sugar, and salt. Stir in cranberry juice and stir over medium heat until thickened and bubbly. Add beets and orange peel. Simmer, uncovered, for 10 minutes. Makes 4 servings.
Exhibits
Share what you have done in your project with others by
putting your canned vegetables on display. Most counties have
a county fair exhibit day where 4-H projects can be displayed.
Outstanding exhibits are selected at the county level to be
exhibited at the Mississippi State Fair. Check with your 4-H
leader and county Extension agent for details.
Visual Presentations
One of the best ways to teach others how to preserve food
is by giving food preservation visual presentations. You can
show others what you have learned and help them see the value
of canning vegetables for home use. Here are some presentation
topics you may want to use:
• How To Operate a Pressure Canner
• Selecting Vegetables for Canning
• Canning Equipment and Its Use
• How To Fill and Seal Jars
• Safety Tips in Food Processing
4-H Project Leader
You might want to serve as a leader for younger members
in the food preservation project. Sharing what you have learned
about food preservation can help you develop your leadership
skills as well as help others learn to preserve foods. Ask your
4-H leader or county Extension agent for details on serving as a
4-H project leader.
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Score for Canned Food
Color...............................................................................................
Food is similar to natural color of raw food.
Condition........................................................................................
Food is free of blemishes and/or insect bites and cooked
to the right stage (not over or under cooked). Vegetables
are young, tender, and immature.
Clearness of liquid or syrup............................................................
Liquid or syrup is clear, free of dregs and foreign
material. Syrup is light.
Uniformity......................................................................................
All pieces of food in container are uniform in color,
shape, and size.
Pack...............................................................................................
Food is packed to one-half inch of top of container
(Exception: allow 1 inch for starchy foods) and
the syrup or liquid covers the food.
Total Possible Score
9
Points
20
Score
_____
30
_____
20
_____
20
_____
10
_____
100
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4-H Project Record for
Canning Vegetables
NAME_____________________________________________________________ DATE _____________________________
NAME OF 4-H CLUB OR PROJECT GROUP ________________________________________________________________
AGE _____________________ GRADE IN SCHOOL ____________________________
n What are the most important things you learned in this project?
_________________________________________________________________________________________________________
_________________________________________________________________________________________________________
_________________________________________________________________________________________________________
_____________________________________________________________________________________
n How many food preservation project group meetings did you attend? _______________
n List any assistance you have given to other 4-H’ers with their food preservation projects.
Number helped
Kind of assistance given
______________
__________________________________________________________________________________
______________
__________________________________________________________________________________
______________
______________
______________
______________
__________________________________________________________________________________
__________________________________________________________________________________
__________________________________________________________________________________
__________________________________________________________________________________
n List talks and demonstrations given which relate to this project. (Include radio and TV appearances.)
Number in
audience
Topic
Indicate number
of times given
on each level*
_________________________________________________________________________________________________________
_________________________________________________________________________________________________________
_________________________________________________________________________________________________________
_________________________________________________________________________________________________________
_________________________________________________________________________________________________________
_________________________________________________________________________________________________________
_________________________________________________________________________________________________________
_________________________________________________________________
* Levels: Local (L), County, (C), District (D), State (S)
10
n List awards and recognition received in this project.
Type of award
* Indicate level
_________________________________________________________________________________________________________
_________________________________________________________________________________________________________
_________________________________________________________________________________________________________
_____________________________________________________________________________________
n Vegetables Canned
Date
Name of vegetable
No. of jars
Size of jars
_________________________________________________________________________________________________________
_________________________________________________________________________________________________________
_________________________________________________________________________________________________________
_________________________________________________________________________________________________________
_________________________________________________________________________________________________________
_________________________________________________________________________________________________________
_________________________________________________________________________________________________________
_________________________________________________________________________________________________________
_________________________________________________________________________________________________________
_________________________________________________________________________________________________________
Total
n List other foods you froze or canned this year.
Date
Food
No. and size of
jars or packages
Indicate method of preparation
(pressure canner or boilingwater bath)
_________________________________________________________________________________________________________
_________________________________________________________________________________________________________
_________________________________________________________________________________________________________
_________________________________________________________________________________________________________
_________________________________________________________________________________________________________
_________________________________________________________________________________________________________
_________________________________________________________________________________________________________
_________________________________________________________________________________________________________
* Levels : Local (L), County (C), District (D), State (S)
GRAND TOTAL CANNED:
Pints__________
Quarts__________
n On a separate sheet of paper, write a story about what you did and learned in your food preservation project.
_________________________________________
Leader’s Signature
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_________________________________________
Extension Agent’s Signature
4-H Club Pledge
I Pledge:
My Head to clearer thinking,
My Heart to greater loyalty,
My Hands to larger service, and
My Health to better living for
My Club, My Community, My Country,
And My World.
Distributed in Mississippi by Brent Fountain, PhD, RD, LD, associate Extension professor, Food Science,
Nutrition, and Health Promotion. Revised from materials originally prepared by the University of
Kentucky College of Agriculture.
Discrimination based upon race, color, religion, sex, national origin, age, disability, or veteran’s status is
a violation of federal and state law and MSU policy and will not be tolerated. Discrimination based
upon sexual orientation or group affiliation is a violation of MSU policy and will not be tolerated.
Publication 1540
Extension Service of Mississippi State University, cooperating with U.S. Department of Agriculture.
Published in furtherance of Acts of Congress, May 8 and June 30, 1914. GARY B. JACKSON, Director
(POD-12-12)
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