Electric Vehicle Charging Integration

Electric Vehicle Charging Integration
Electric Vehicle !
Charging Integration
Johan Driesen
KU Leuven, Department Electrical Engineering
Research group Electrical Energy (ESAT-ELECTA)
Kasteelpark Arenberg 10, 3001 Leuven, Belgium
e-mail: johan.driesen@esat.kuleuven.be
www: http://www.esat.kuleuven.be/electa
© K.U.Leuven – ESAT/Electa
Tutorial
•  Goal:
•  get insight into the charging process and procedures
•  understand the different technology concepts and business
models to implement this
•  learn about the problems caused by and opportunities offered
through a large fleet of EVs in the electricity system
•  Overview
•  EV overview: history, types, charging level
•  Charging technology
•  Grid interaction
© K.U.Leuven – ESAT/Electa
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Electric Vehicles overview
including how to “charge”
© K.U.Leuven – ESAT/Electa
History: 1895-1910
•  electric vehicles were the most promising drive
technology end 1800s: speed records, neater cars
•  combustion engine took over in early 1900s: became
more powerful, easy to take with cheap fuel
Edison electric car battery
© K.U.Leuven – ESAT/Electa
Charging of a Detroit Electric vehicle
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Early EVs
•  Baker'Inside'Driven'
Coupe'
•  1.5'kW'cont.'
•  4.5'kW'peak'
•  40'km/h'top'speed'
•  12'x'6V'baCery'cells'
•  175'km'range'
•  Edison'Nickel'Iron'
Alkaline'
•  2475'$'in'1915'
•  Vs.'440'$'for'1915'
Ford'model'T
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Janetzy Jamais Contente
o  first car ever to
exceed 100 km/h
•  24/04/1899
•  105.882 km/h
•  2 electric motors in
‘aerodynamic’ car
•  driven by Camille
Janetzy (B.) in
Achères (Fr.)
•  named “Jamais
Contente”
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History: 1905-1925
•  gasoline vehicles take over completely: discovery of
many oil wells drop fuel prices
•  mass production techniques introduced by Ford
•  short revivals:
•  Edison battery (NiFe)
•  WW I: oil shortage
•  1900 US car production: 1575 electric cars vs. 936
gasoline cars down to 4% in 1925
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history: after WW II
•  60s: small ‘smog buster’ cars
•  GM 512, Ford Comuta (failed to sell: smog reduction incentive
too limited)
•  1973: oil crisis
•  economical push to revive EV R&D as a mean to reduce oil
dependence
•  80s: growing environmental concerns
•  Clean Air Acts (California) and other
•  90s: evolution in power electronics
•  after ’00: battery evolution
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GM EV-1
•  First'‘modern’'EV'
–  1996S1999'
•  AC'inducTon'motor'
•  102'kW'@'7000'rpm'
•  149'Nm'@'0S7000'rpm'
•  LeadSacid'(gen1)'
•  26'Delco'12Svolt/'533'kg'
•  16.2'kWh/'100S145'km'range'
•  18.7'kWh/'100S130'km'Panasonic'
pack'for'iniTal'gen'2'
•  NiMH'baCeries'(gen'2)'
•  Ovonics'26.4'kWh'
•  160S225'km'range'
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GM EV-1
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GM EV-1
•  Magne'Charge'
•  InducTve'charging'system'
•  Safety'reasons'
•  Supplied'by'Delco'
•  Also'for'Toyota'RAV4'EV'
•  Small'and'large'paddle'
•  6.6'and'50'kW'
•  Both'fit'in'the'EV1'
•  Obsolete'infrastructure'now'
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Controversy GM EV-1
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Other 90s EVs
Chevrolet S-10 EV
Ford Ranger EV
Toyota RAV4 EV
© K.U.Leuven – ESAT/Electa
Honda EV Plus
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Battery Electric Vehicles
© K.U.Leuven – ESAT/Electa
A lot of new EVs
Smart ED
BYD E6
Tesla Roadster
Tesla Model S
Nissan Leaf
Ford Focus EV
Honda Fit EV
Mitsubishi i-MiEV
Toyota RAV4 EV
© K.U.Leuven – ESAT/Electa
Coda Electric
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Tesla Roadster
Tesla Roadster
•  MG: 225 kWpeak/370 Nm 4-pole
induction motor
•  Battery: 53 kWh Li-on battery pack, 69
cells in parallel, 99 parallel stacks in
series, 365 V, 410 kg
•  Single speed transmission
•  Range: 390 km
•  Charge at 70 A/240 V (17 kW)
•  ± 500 complete charge-discharge cycles & ±
400 km/charge = ± 200.000 km
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Top: 210 km/h, 0-100 km/h in 4 s
Mass: 1134 kg
• 
2008
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Battery Electric Vehicles
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Tesla Model S
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MG: 225/270/310 kWpeak
430/440/600 Nm
Battery: 60/85 kWh Li-on
battery
Single speed transmission
Range: 390/502 km
11/22 (10/20 in US) kW onboard charger
DC fast charging up to 120 kW
Top: 193/201/209 km/h
0-100 km/h in 6.2/5.6/4.4 s
Mass: 2025/2108 kg
73,040/83,590/97,990 EUR (incl.
VAT BE)
2013
© K.U.Leuven – ESAT/Electa
© K.U.Leuven – ESAT/Electa
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Tesla Model S vs. competitors
Tesla Model S
•  MG: 225/270/310 kWpeak
•  430/440/600 Nm
•  Battery: 60/60/85 kWh
•  Range: 390/502/502 km
•  Top: 193/201/209 km/h
•  0-100 km/h: 6.2/5.6/4.4 s
•  Mass: 2025/2108 kg
•  73,040/83,590/97,990 EUR
© K.U.Leuven – ESAT/Electa
BMW 7-series (740i/750i)
•  ICE: 235/330 kWpeak
•  450/650 Nm
•  Fuel tank: 80 l
•  Range: 1,012/930 km
•  7.9/8.6 l/100 km
•  0-100 km/h: 5.7/4.8 s
•  Mass: 1900/2015 kg
•  91,500/103,150 EUR
Nissan Leaf
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MG: 80 kWpeak/280 Nm PMSM
Battery: 24 kWh Li-on battery
pack
•  192 cells in parallel, 480 V
•  300 kg
•  Air cooled
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Retaining 70-80 % of battery
capacity over 10 years
Single speed transmission
Range: 117 km
Charge at 16 A/230 V or DC
(Chademo)
Top: 150 km/h, 0-100 km/h in 10 s
Mass: 1521 kg
2010
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Nissan Leaf
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Nissan Leaf
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Renault ZOE
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MG: 66 kWpeak/220 Nm
External excited synchronous
motor
Single speed transmission
Battery: 220 kWh Li-on battery
pack
•  270-400 V
•  300 kg
•  Air cooled
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Range: 210 km
Charge at up to 63 A/400 V
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Chameleon charger
Up to 43 kW
0.03 m3
Usage of powertrain PE components
Top: 135 km/h, 0-100 km/h in 8.1 s
Mass: 1392 kg
2012
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Renault ZOE
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Pure battery EV
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emissions are moved to (more efficient) power plants
need recharging stations
recharging = ‘slow’ (?)
recharge overnight (cheap power)
batteries are heavy and spacious
extremely silent
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BEV vs. Fuel cell car
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Well to Wheel
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True ZEV: solar challenge cars
•  regular race for photovoltaic powered cars: in Europe,
Australia
•  extreme efficiencies required
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Plug-in Hybrid Electric Vehicles
© K.U.Leuven – ESAT/Electa
Plug-in hybrid electric vehicles
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HEVs which can be plugged in a standard outlet to charge the
batteries: PHEV
Same power train topologies as for full hybrids
•  Series
•  Parallel
•  Mixed
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PHEVs
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Charged directly from the power grid.
Larger battery pack.
Short distances: in full electric mode.
Internal combustion engine (ICE)
•  to extend their driving range.
•  boost performance.
Tank to wheel efficiency is high (between hybrid and pure
electric vehicles).
•  Up to 50% more efficient compared to hybrids, because they could run
much longer on electricity alone.
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Use of cheaper energy at least at current fuel prices.
Low carbon fuel profile.
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PHEVs
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Limited electric range
•  Typically low daily driven distance/
trip distance
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Charging infrastructure is
available: standard sockets
ICE for occasionally long trip
•  Reduced range anxiety
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Smaller battery pack than BEV
•  Challenging requirments
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More complex architecture than
pure BEV
•  Both ICE and electric motor(s)
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Prius plug-in
•  Same configuration as regular
Prius
•  Larger battery pack
•  4.4 kWh Li-ion pack
•  23 km electric range
•  1.5 hours recharging time
•  Electric driving possible at
speeds up to 100 km/h
•  Regular Prius behavior if
battery is depleted
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Prius plug-in
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Chevrolet Volt
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Extended Range Electric
Vehicle
1.4 l gasoline engine
•  60 kW
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2 electric motors
•  111 kW traction motor
•  55 kW generator
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Li-ion battery pack
•  16.5 kWh
•  10.8 kWh (30-85 %) used
•  40-80 km electric range
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Hybrid if battery is
depleted
similar: Opel Ampera
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Chevrolet Volt
•  288 individual battery cells
•  Individual cell balancing
•  9 modules
•  Nominal voltage 360 V
•  Liquid cooled
•  T < 2K in all 3 dimensions
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Chevrolet Volt
•  Also planetary gearbox
•  But different configuration
•  Reconfigurable hybrid
•  Through 3 clutches
•  ICE only active if battery is
depleted
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Chevrolet Volt
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Single Motor EV driving
•  Only traction motor is active
Two Mode EV driving
•  Both electric motors
•  Reduces rpm at high speeds (>110
km/h)
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Single Mode Extended-Range
Driving
•  Series hybrid, if battery is depleted
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Two Motor Extended-Range
Combined driving
•  Both electric motors and ICE, if
battery is depleted
•  At high speeds
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Chevrolet Volt
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Realtime monitoring of these
vehicles
Majority of miles is driven
electrically
•  Charging opportunity at standstill
near household socket or
charging station
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Chevrolet Volt
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Fisker Karma
• 
Extended Range Electric
Vehicle
•  Series hybrid configuration
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Li-ion battery pack
•  Li-iron-phosphate
•  20.1 kWh
•  Up to 80 km electric range
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2 electric motor
•  120 kW/650 Nm each
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2.0 l gasoline engine (GM)
•  Turbo + direct injection
•  190 kW / 350 Nm
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Fisker Karma
•  Not the most efficient EV
•  40.6 kWh/100 km
•  Chevrolet volt: 21.9 kWh/100 km
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Heavy Duty Electric Vehicles
© K.U.Leuven – ESAT/Electa
Battery Electric truck
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Delivery services
•  Scheduled routes
•  Limited distances
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Economical decision
•  Low total cost of ownership
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Less noise
Low emission areas
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Battery electric Heavy Duty
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High efficiency as main
advantage
•  Stop and go traffic
•  Energy recuperation
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Using fast charging
•  During scheduled standstill
•  Smaller batteries needed
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Proterra Electric Bus
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Proterra Electric Bus
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Opbrid Busbaar
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Charging concepts and
infrastructure
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Charging up
•  filling up a classical car with gasoline is the equivalent
of an MW energy transfer
•  using an electrical cable: tens of kWh (need several
hours)
•  2 systems: conductive, inductive coupling
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Charging: further considerations
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Necessary infrastructure for PHEVs is already in place
•  Many homes and garages have outlets capable of recharging PHEVS (?)
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Charging off-peak (e.g. during the night)
•  The transmission grid: no problem?
•  The distribution grid: controlled charging will probably be necessary.
!  PHEV means controllable loads for the grid
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Storage function
•  Renewable sources: intermitted.
•  Fluctuations can be captured by the batteries of the PHEVs?
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Vehicle to grid?
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Balancing
Spinning reserves
Reactive power
….
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Concept!
Grid coupling
•  Single phase grid coupling : AC/DC converter
•  Goal:
•  Charging batteries: Grid " DC-bus
•  Vehicle-to-Grid services
•  Plug-in hybrid vehicle
FOC
AC/DC
INVERTER
GRID
M
INVERTER
DC/DC
INVERTER
© K.U.Leuven – ESAT/Electa
BATTERY
Concept!
Grid coupling
•  Topology
© K.U.Leuven – ESAT/Electa
Concept!
Grid coupling
•  Goal 1: charging battery
•  AC-grid " batteries
•  Power factor
!  Displacement Power Factor
!  Distortion
AC/DC
DCDC
NET
INVERTER
© K.U.Leuven – ESAT/Electa
INVERTER
BATTERY
Concept!
Grid coupling
•  Goal 2:Vehicle-to-Grid (V2G)
•  Bidirectional current streams
!  Vehicles produce services to support the grid
!  Active en reactive streams deliver to the grid
–  PF 1
–  Distortion
AC/DC
DC/DC
GRID
Invertor
© K.U.Leuven – ESAT/Electa
Invertor
BATTERY
Concept!
Plug-in electric vehicle
• 
Control for driving
•  Pure electric driving
Driving
ACDC
FOC
INVERTER
GRID
M
INVERTER
DCDC
INVERTER
© K.U.Leuven – ESAT/Electa
BATTERY
Concept!
Plug-in electric vehicle
• 
Control for charging
•  Loading batteries when connected to the grid
CHARGING
ACDC
FOC
INVERTER
GRID
M
INVERTER
DCDC
INVERTER
© K.U.Leuven – ESAT/Electa
BATTERY
How to charge
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Constant Current Constant Voltage
(CCCV)
Most used and safest method to
charge
The battery is charged with a
constant current (CC) until a
certain voltage is reached.
The battery voltage (CV) is kept
constant while the current is
throttled back.
When the constant voltage is
reached it takes a long time until
the battery is charged completely.
Also charging power limitation
through available grid connection.
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battery charging
o  constant current (CC)
•  voltage rises to maximum
•  speed determined by current level
•  fast charge: only this stage
o  constant voltage (CV)
•  current drops to 5-3%
•  conditioning of the battery
•  CC and CV typical for most charging
processes
o  trickle-charge
•  compensated self-discharge
•  only for standby-applications
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charging powers (1/2)
o  Consumption EV: +/- 0,2 kWh/km
•  assume 1 kW charger
•  1 hour charging adds 5 km range
•  “charging speed” of 5 km/h
o  “Normal” charging
•  1-phase: 16 A and 230 V=> maximal 3,68 kW
•  charging speed: 18,4 km/h
•  drawing 16 A for longer time from a socket not advisable?
o  “Semi-fast” charging
•  1-phase: 32 A and 230 V => 7,36 kW (36,8 km/h)
•  3-phase: 16 A and 400 V => 11,09 kW (55,4 km/h)
•  3-phase: 32 A and 400 V => 22,17 kW (110,9 km/h)
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charging powers (2/2)
o  fast charging
•  50 kW and higher
•  >250 km/h charging speed
o  special charging infrastructure
•  large part of converter electronics in
the charging unit
•  large power grid connection
o  Chademo standard
o  Psychological effect
•  may help overcome range anxiety
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charging modi (1/2)
o  defined in IEC 61851-1
o  Mode 1
•  through standard 16 A sockets
•  applicable everywhere, simple and cheap
•  needs correct protection for single earth fault
!  earthing
!  differential protection
!  overcurrent protection (e.g. fuse)
•  forbidden in USA
o  Mode 2
•  also through standard 16 A sockets
•  protection in the cable
•  protects the vehicle, not the plug
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charging modi (2/2)
o  Mode 3
•  specialized charging infrastructure
•  uses a control function
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! 
! 
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check correct connection
checks earthing
switches charging system on/off
selects charging current (duty-cycle)
•  Control signal through pilot wire or
PowerLine Communication (PLC)
o  Mode 4
•  for fast charging: external charger
•  also pilot wire
•  communication link for battery condition
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Connectors (1/2)
o  Standard plug: 16 A
•  Mode 1
•  Mode 3, with PLC
•  industrial type for intensive use
o  plugs met pilot signal
•  Type 1: 1-phase
!  16A/120V, 32A/240V, 80A/240V
!  Japan and US: SAE J1772
•  Type 2: 3-phase
!  16-63 A per phase
!  also suitable for 1-phase: multifunctional
!  Western-Europe (Mennekes)
•  Type 3
!  32 A per phase
!  ‘”shutters”: compulsory in certain countries
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Connectors (2/2)
•  Type 4 : DC charging
!  DC, external charger
!  large power
!  possibly combined “universal” plug
o  many standards
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Charge cases: cables
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IEC 61851-1 standard
Case A: the charging cable is
attached to the EV.
•  Renault Twizy
•  Standard domestic socket.
• 
Case B: a loose cable is used
•  Connector at the EV side and a
plug at the EVSE side
•  Most currently used
configuration.
•  High degree of compatibility
• 
Case C: the cable is attached
to the EVSE
•  Dedicated charging stations
•  The connector is chosen to be
compatible with the EV inlet.
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Charge cases
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Charging modes
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Mode 1: low power (up to 16 A )
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3.7 kW single phase and 11 kW three phase
Standard, non-dedicated domestic or industrial
socket
!  Without communication at standard safety level.
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The power coding is supplied by a resistor
Case A and B can use this charging mode.
Mode 2: low power (up to 32 A )
7.4 kW single phase and 22 kW three phase.
Standard, non-dedicated domestic or industrial
socket
•  In-cable protection device that provides the control
pilot signal to the EV
•  Case A and B can use this charging mode
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Mode 3: dedicated charging infrastructure
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up to 32 A for case B or 63 A for case C
Control pilot signal is supplied by the EVSE
maximum charging power is controlled by the EVSE
Mode 4: DC-fast charging (up to 400 A)
• 
High power off board charger, and is not further
discussed.
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Connections
• 
Standard domestic plug/socket
•  Case A and B
•  Limited power rating, to be sure fuse won’t trip
•  Typically limited to 10 A
• 
IEC 62196-2 Type 1
•  SAE J1772
•  Only used as connector/inlet for case B and C.
•  Allows Mode 1, 2 and 3, depending on the connection
with the EVSE.
•  Standard vehicle inlet/connector In the USA and Japan
•  Also in Europe, several vehicles are currently equipped
with this vehicle inlet
!  Nissan Leaf, Chevrolet Volt/Opel Ampera
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Connections
• 
IEC 62196-2 Type 2
•  “Mennekes” plug
•  used as plug/socket and/or
connector/inlet
•  case A, B and C
•  Mode 1, 2 and 3 charging
• 
IEC 62196-2 Type 3
EV plug alliance
Shutters for safety
Only used as plug/socket
Case A and B for Mode 3
charging
•  In competition with type 2
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Compatibility
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Compatibility
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Compatibility
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Compatibility
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Control Pilot
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Control Pilot
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battery exchanging (swapping)
• 
• 
• 
• 
• 
• 
alternative for fast charging
similar principle as service station
battery leased
standardisation of batteries
necessity
needs more than1 battery per EV
warehousing problem
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Inductive charging
• 
Contactless
•  Safety
•  No wear
•  Weather resistant
• 
Flexibility
•  Power ratings
•  Statis, continuous
• 
EMC
•  Within limits
•  Only field present if vehicle is charging
• 
Technology under development
• 
• 
• 
• 
Bombardier, Siemens, etc.
Halo IPT, Evatran, etc.
Volvo, Audi, etc.
…
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Inductive charging
• 
Flanders Drive project (Lommel)
• 
• 
• 
• 
• 
Busses and cars
Both static and continuous
EMC/EMF measurements
Efficiency measurements
System evaluation
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Inductive charging
• 
Contactless
•  Safety
•  No wear
•  Weather resistant
• 
Flexibility
•  Power ratings
•  Statis, continuous
• 
EMC
•  Within limits
•  Only field present if vehicle is charging
• 
Technology under development
• 
• 
• 
• 
Bombardier, Siemens, etc.
Halo IPT, Evatran, etc.
Volvo, Audi, etc.
…
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Bombardier Primove
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Bombardier Primove
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what to use when?
o  standard charging through standard plug will be used most
•  needs no special plug
•  low power sufficient for nightly charging
o  Mode 3 charging is very applicable for public charging
•  reasonably fast charging
•  power not to large to require complicated hardware and heavy grid connection
o  battery exchanging suitable for standardised fleets
•  e.g. taxis
•  requires standardisation of battery pack, etc.
•  needs large investment in infrastructure
o  Inductive charging is very user-friendly and flexible
•  charge as well during driving: leads to smaller batteries
•  requires large infrastructure, especially for driven charging
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Where to get the power ?
•  Grid connection to charge
•  Potentially large additional load
to the grid
•  Candidate for ‘demand control’
balancing?
•  “V2G”
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Public Charging &
Payment systems
© K.U.Leuven – ESAT/Electa
Exploitation cost of electric vehicles
• 
• 
Electricity cost is the variable
cost factor
Public charging: opportunity
charging
•  20 % of the charging actions
•  Energy consumption: 2-10 kWh
• 
Consumption cost: 0,5-2,5
EUR/dag
•  Finale charging price will include
more than this cost factor
•  Overhead cost must remain
relatively low
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Payment model
• 
Energy consumption measurement
•  Ferrarris: Cheap and reliable, but needs
monitoring
•  Electronic: automated reading at a higher cost
• 
Time measurement
•  Simply measurable
•  Occupation of the infrastructure has a cost
•  Energy cost divided over time usage
• 
flat fee system
•  No need for measuring infrastructure at every
charging pole
•  Access via key or verification via tag
• 
Integration in the parking cost
•  Relatively high parking cost compared to
charging
•  No need for additional high-end infrastructure
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Payment procedure
• 
Low cost required
•  Low cost of charging action
• 
Different possibilities
•  GSM and GPRS: simple and cheap
•  Modules for vehicles and infrastructure
•  Communication with the user (e.g. through
sms)
• 
Charging procedure
• 
• 
• 
• 
• 
Vehicle identification at arrival
Proposal of charging tariff
User confirmation, start of charging
Notification charging end to the EV driver and
EVSE operator
Settling of payment after finishing
charging action.
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Payment method (1/2)
• 
Coins
•  Cfr. parking payment
•  Sensitive to vandalism and theft
• 
Specific EV-payment card
•  Cfr. phone card
•  Both pre-paid and contract is possible
•  “tagging” with RFID
• 
Banc /credit card
•  Maestro,Visa, etc…
•  High transaction cost, so less suitable
• 
Vignet
•  flat-fee system, payment at purchase
•  Monitoring required
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Payment method (2/2)
• 
Electronic purse
•  Chip on bank card
•  Advanced and expensive infrastructure required
! 
! 
! 
! 
Modem for the transaction
Microcontroller for controlling the sockets
Socket locking
Communication with the terminal
•  x % commission per transaction
•  Unsuitable at low usage rate of EV infrastructure
• 
Payment with SMS
•  Already used for public transport and parking
•  Low initial investment, widely accessible
•  Safe, anonymous and fast payment
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Example:The Plugin Company
• 
• 
• 
Distributor of Electrobay charging
infrastructure
Simple home charging unit
Charging point with back office for
public charging infrastructure
•  Acces with RFID card
•  Payment via contract
http://www.theplugincompany.com/
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Example:The Plugin Company
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Example: BeCharged
• 
Different types
•  Pole/wall model
•  Robust aluminum model
•  Integration with solar panels
• 
Different versions
•  Hardware/software
•  Different packs
•  Different types of sockets/connectors
• 
Service package
•  Vehicle owner
•  Infrastructure owner
http://www.becharged.be
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Example: Enovates
• 
Modular charging infrastructure
•  Easily expandable
•  Easily to adapt for other socket types
• 
Different types
• 
• 
• 
• 
• 
Home: simple version
Business: networked and controllable
Trader: integration of payment systems
Public: robustness
Management software
http://www.enovates.com/
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Electricity Grid
Interaction
© K.U.Leuven – ESAT/Electa
More than just a plug…
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Not only home charging
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Energy consumption
•  1 car on average: +/- 3,300 kWh/year
•  4-7 kWh/km, 90 % efficiency of charger
•  15,000 km/year
•  Significant increase in household electricity
consumption
•  3,500 kWh/year
•  Same order of magnitude
•  Modest on national scale
•  90 TWh (Belgium)
•  3.3 TWh for 1 million vehicles
!  3.7 % increase
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Uncoordinated charging!
Power production
•  EV charging energy must
be generated
•  Power generation
•  Nuclear, gas, coal, pumped
storage
•  Base, modulating, peak
•  Installed capacity in 2011:
16.8 GW
•  Simultaneity household
and EV charging demand
•  High peak power
•  High ramp rate
© K.U.Leuven – ESAT/Electa
K. Clement, “Impact of Plug-in Hybrid Electric Vehicles on
the Electricity system”, PhD Thesis, K.U.Leuven, 2010
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Uncoordinated charging!
Power production
•  Without expansion of the production parc
•  30% EVs: with coordination
•  10% EVs: without coordination
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Coordinated charging!
Transmission level
• 
Long distance, high volume
transfer of electrical energy
•  Centralized power plants =>
LV/MV substations
•  National TSO: Elia in Belgium
• 
Enough available capacity?
•  Only limited increase in energy
demand
•  No problem with coordinated
charging
• 
Is stability guaranteed?
•  Shifting in load/generation
patterns
•  Anticipating through grid
planning
•  Gradual rise of EV penetration
rate
© K.U.Leuven – ESAT/Electa
J. Van Roy, and K. Vogt. Analyse van verschillende
batterijcapaciteiten voor plug-in hybride elektrische voertuigen,
Master’s thesis, KU Leuven, 2010.
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Uncoordinated charging!
Distribution level
•  HV/MV substation =>
households (400/230 V)
•  Extensive infrastructure
•  High variety of topologies
•  Charging typically at LV
level
•  Relative high R/X ratio
•  Voltages strongly influenced
by loads
•  Unbalanced situations
K. Kok, M. Venekamp, “Market based control in
decentralized electric power systems”, ECN, 2010
•  Local high penetration
grades
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Uncoordinated charging!
Distribution level
•  Highly stochastic loads
Power&(kW)&
•  lack of aggregation
•  Inaccurate predictions
•  Strong voltage variations
VREG&SLP&profiles:&19826/03/2012&
1'
0.5'
0'
•  Voltages should stay
within limits
•  EN 50160
•  Interaction with PV not
straightforward
•  Unbalanced situation
•  Both can worsen each other
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Source: KU Leuven
104
Coordinated charging!
Distribution level
•  Shift load (DSM)
Without coordination
© K.U.Leuven – ESAT/Electa
Perfect coordination
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Coordinated charging!
Distribution level: losses
•  Uncoordinated charging
•  Increased peak: need for new investments
•  Higher load" higher currents" higher losses
!  Higher losses" influence electricity price
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Coordinated charging!
Distribution level: voltage deviations
•  Uncoordinated
•  Higher load" higher currents" higher voltage deviations:
standard EN 50160
!  230 V ±'10'%'for'95'%'of'Tme'
!  VUF'<'2%'for'95'%'of'Tme'(raTo'of'inverse/forward'component'of'
voltage)
Spanningsafwijkingen
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Coordinated charging!
Coordination objective
• 
Grid operators
•  Optimal usage of infrastructure
•  Limiting the losses
•  Limiting voltage deviations
• 
Minimizing
investments
Users
•  Minimizing charging costs
• 
• 
Combination of objectives for general optimum
Coördination methods
•  Central
•  Distributed
•  Hiërarchical
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Example PowerMatcher
•  Distributed multi-agent systeem
•  Matching of demand and supply
•  Bid curves
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Limiting grid impact
•  limit voltage deviations
•  adapt PF, proportional to ΔV
•  difficult when R/X is high
•  droop control
•  local balancing
•  coordination – load activation
•  use storage?
•  V2G
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Controllability
• 
Charging
•  Delay
•  On/off
•  Continuously variable
• 
Discharging
Grid For Vehicles WP1.3 Parameter Manual, 2010.
• 
Vehicle-to-grid, vehicle-to-home, vehicle-to-building
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Vehicle-to-Grid (V2G)
• 
Vehicle-to-Grid intelligent
charging
•  Adaptation of charging power
•  Injecting power into the grid
• 
Bidirectional power flows
•  Active and reactive
• 
Limited storage in the grid
•  E.g. pumped storage
•  High flexibility required
•  Increasing amount of intermittend
sources
• 
Potential flexibility of vehicle
charging
•  Long standstill times
•  Average short daily driven distance
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Electric vehicles availability
•  15 - 50 kWh per vehicle
•  > 90 % of the time at standstill
•  Large flexibility potential when being plugged in
sufficiently
•  Grid support
•  Controlled charging
!  Bidirectional / unidirectional / Q?
•  V2G / V2H
•  Expensive due to degradation of battery
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Potential of EV fleet?
W. Kempton and J. Tomic, Vehicle-to-grid power implementation: From stabilizing the grid to supporting largescale renewable energy, Journal of Power Sources, vol. 144, no. 1, pp. 280-294, Jun. 2005.
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Vehicles at home
J. Van Roy, N. Leemput, S. De Breucker, F. Geth, P. Tant, and J. Driesen, An Availability Analysis and Energy
Consumption Model for a Flemish Fleet of Electric Vehicles, in European Electric Vehicle Congress (EEVC),
2011, pp. 1-12.
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V2G pros and cons
•  Pro
• 
• 
• 
• 
Delivering grid support in peak situations
Increasing amount of renewables to be integrated in the grid
Could be activated very fast: power electronic interface
Large fleet of EVs= large power and energy buffer
•  Con
•  Battery wear?
•  Total cost
•  Needs substantial coordination
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V2G potential?
•  Tesla Roadster
•  53 kWh
•  393 km range
•  Battery cost 40 000 $ !
= 30 000 EUR
•  Warranty
•  7 year
•  160 000 km
53'kWh'
1'kWh'
© K.U.Leuven – ESAT/Electa
#'
75'EUR'
#' 1.41'EUR'
J.Driesen - EV Charging Integration
160 000 km / 400
km
= 400 cycles
30 000 EUR / 400
cycles
= 75 EUR / cycle
53 kWh x 0.230 EUR/kWh
= 12.2 EUR / cycle
117
Grid impact!
Conclusions
• 
EVs will significantly impact of the power system
•  Energy production
•  Grid load
• 
• 
Uncoordinated charging will increase peak power demand
Potential for coordinated charging
•  Shifting charging to off-peak moments
•  Flexibility within the mobility objective
• 
Challenges first on the local level
•  High local penetration grade
•  Highly stochastic behavior
•  Grid constraints on the LV grid
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Thank you!
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