100 st stick/tig arc welder operating manual

100 st stick/tig arc welder operating manual
100 ST STICK/TIG
ARC WELDER
OPERATING MANUAL
FEATURES:
• 90A Output
• 120V Input
• Easy to use
• Portable
• Lift arc TIG capable
SPECIFICATIONS:
• Recommended Electrode Diameter: Up to 1/8”
• Plate thickness range: 16 ga - 5/16”(7.94mm)
• Weight: 8.38 Lbs. (3.8 Kg)
• Dimensions: 1
6.1” (410mm) X 4.8”
(122mm) X 10.8” (274mm)
• 6 month warranty
IDEAL FOR:
Do-It-Yourself, Maintenance & Repair, Hobbyist
ENGLISH
REV 10.27.15
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STOP!
PLEASE DO NOT RETURN
TO THE STORE
If you have questions or problems with your new welder, please call
customer service at 1-800-521-6038 Monday through Friday from
7 a.m. - 5 p.m. (MST) or at
www.forneyind.com/customer_service.
Please take time to register your product at
www.forneyind.com/customer_service/register_your_product/
Thank you, enjoy your new welder.
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FIVE WAYS TO ORDER
Web: www.forneyind.com
Phone: 800-521-6038
Fax: 970-498-9505
Mail: Forney Industries
2057 Vermont Drive
Fort Collins, CO 80525
Email: sales@forneyind.com
U.S. Warehouses:
- Fort Collins, CO
- Tipp City, OH
Forney Promise
We are committed to your success regardless of location, size or needs.
We understand it is your goal to get the job done right, and we are
ready to help you do just that.
President's Message
We market the highest quality tools, equipment and accessories for
the do-it-yourselfer and professional. Our passion and dedication in
bringing new products to the industrial and retail market, combined
with our personal service, is unmatched in our industry. Our ability
to listen to our customers’ needs enables us to create solutions to their
problems.
Our dedication to the highest quality customer service within our
corporate headquarters and the service provided in the field is
unequaled. We are committed to creating the best solutions to our
customer’s needs. Above all, our employees will provide the same
respect and caring attitude within the organization as they are expected
to share with every Forney customer. Our goal will be to exceed our
customers’ expectations through empowered people, guided by shared
values and commitments.
We work hard so our customers trust us because of our integrity,
teamwork and innovation of Forney products, and Forney’s 80 years
of unmatched product quality and an unwavering commitment to our
customers.
When our customers succeed we succeed.
STEVEN G. ANDERSON, President & CEO
Copyright© 2014 Forney Industries, Inc. All
rights reserved. Unauthorized reproduction and/or distribution is subject to US
copyright laws.
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3
Forney 6 Month Warranty
Effective July 1, 2015
1) Limited Warranty: Subject to the terms and conditions below, Forney Industries, Inc., Fort Collins, Colorado,
warrants to its original retail purchaser that the new Forney equipment sold after the effective date of this limited
warranty is free of defects in material and workmanship at the time it is shipped by Forney. This is in lieu of all other
warranties, express or implied.
2) Notification: Please call 1-800-521-6038 with your warranty questions. You can also visit www.forneyind.com for
additional information about your new welder.
3) Length of Warranty: Within the 6 month warranty period Forney will repair or replace any warranted parts or
components that fail due to defects in material or workmanship. Warranty is effective from the date of original retail
purchase.
4) Non-Applicable Parts: Forney Industries limited warranty shall not apply to consumables such as contact tips,
cutting nozzles, felt wire cleaner, drive rollers, gas diffusers, plasma torch tips and electrodes, weld cables, tips and
parts that fail due to normal wear. In addition, this warranty does not extend to any damage caused by the untimely
replacement or maintenance of any of the previously listed consumable parts.
5) Warrantor:
Forney Industries
2057 Vermont Drive
Fort Collins, CO 80525
1-800-521-6038
www.forneyind.com
6) Purchaser / Warranty: The original purchaser of the Forney Industries product. The warranty is not transferable.
Forney Industries products are intended for purchase and use by persons trained and experienced in the use and
maintenance of welding equipment.
7) What is not covered under the warranty:
A) Implied warranties, including those of merchantability and fitness for a particular purpose are limited in duration to
this express warranty. After this period, all risks of loss, from whatever reason, shall be on the purchaser.
B) Any incidental, indirect, or consequential loss, damage, or expense that may result from any defect, failure or
malfunction of the Forney product.
C) Any failure that results from accident, purchaser’s abuse, neglect or failure to operate products in accordance with
instructions provided in the owner’s manual(s) supplied with the product.
D) Pre-delivery service, i.e. assembly and adjustment.
8) Claim: In the event of a warranty claim under this warranty, the exclusive remedies shall be, at Forney Industries sole
option:
A) Repair; or
B) Replacement; or
C) Where authorized in writing by Forney Industries, the cost of repair or replacement at an authorized Forney
Industries Service Center; or
D) Payment of or credit for the purchase price less reasonable depreciation based on actual use upon the return of the
goods at the customer’s risk and expense.
9) Purchaser will:
A) Contact Forney Customer Service at 1-800-521-6038 within 30 days of the defect or failure.
B) Provide dated proof of purchase (typically a purchase receipt).
C) Provide the serial number. Registering your welder at www.forneyind.com/customer_service/register_
your_product/ will speed up this process.
D) Deliver or ship welder to a Forney authorized Service Center. Freight &/or packaging costs, if any, must be borne
by the purchaser.
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CAUTION!
BEFORE INSTALLING, OPERATING OR CARRYING OUT MAINTENANCE ON THE MACHINE, READ THE CONTENTS OF THIS MANUAL CAREFULLY,
PAYING PARTICULAR ATTENTION TO THE SAFETY RULES AND HAZARDS.
In the event of these instructions not being clear, please contact your
Forney Authorized Dealer or Forney Customer Service 1-800-521-6038
Safety Information
Principal Safety Standards
• Safety in Welding and Cutting, ANSI Standard Z49.1, from American Welding Society, 8669 Doral
Boulevard, Suite 130, Doral, FL 33166 Safety and Health Standards, OSHA 29 CFR 1910, from
Superintendent of Documents, U.S. Government Printing Office, Washington, D.C. 20402.
• Recommended Safe Practices for the Preparation for Welding and Cutting of Containers That Have
Held Hazardous Substances, American Welding Society Standard AWS F4.1, from American Welding
Society, 8669 Doral Boulevard, Suite 130, Doral, FL 33166
• National Electrical Code, NFPA Standard 70, from National Fire Protection Association, Batterymarch
Park, Quincy, MA 02269.
• Safe Handling of Compressed Gases in Cylinders, CGA Pamphlet P-1, from Compressed Gas
Association, 1235 Jefferson Davis Highway, Suite 501, Arlington, VA 22202.
• Code for Safety in Welding and Cutting, CSA Standard W117.2, from Canadian Standards Association,
Standards Sales, 178 Rexdale Boulevard, Rexdale, Ontario, Canada M9W 1R3.
• Safe Practices For Occupation And Educational Eye And Face Protection, ANSI Standard Z87.1, from
American National Standards Institute, 1430 Broadway, New York, NY 10018.
• Cutting And Welding Processes, NFPA Standard 51B, from National Fire Protection Association,
Batterymarch Park, Quincy, MA 02269
California Proposition 65 Warning
This product may contain chemicals known to the State of California to cause cancer, birth defects and other
reproductive harm (CA. Prop 65). Wash hands after use.
EMF Information
Welding or cutting current, as it flows through the welding or cutting cables, will cause electromagnetic fields.
There has been and still is some concern about such fields. However, after examination the committee of
the National Research Council concluded that: “The body of evidence, in the committee’s judgment, has not
demonstrated that exposure to power-frequency electric and a magnetic field is a human health hazard.”
However, studies are still going forth and evidence continues to be examined. Until the final conclusions of the
research are reached, you may wish to minimize your exposure to electromagnetic fields when welding or
cutting.
To reduce magnetic fields in the workplace, use the following procedures:
1. Keep cables close together by twisting or taping them.
2. Arrange cables to one side and away from the operator.
3. Do not coil or drape cables around your body.
4. Keep welding or cutting power source and cables as far away from operator as practical.
5. Connect work clamp to work piece as close to the cut or weld as possible.
ABOUT PACEMAKERS & HEARING AIDS:
Pacemaker & Hearing Aid wearers consult your doctor first. If cleared by your doctor, then following the above
procedures is recommended.
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Personal Protection
Welding processes of any kind can be dangerous not only to the operator but to any person situated near the
equipment, if safety and operating rules are not strictly observed.
THE WELDING ARC PRODUCES VERY BRIGHT ULTRAVIOLET AND INFRARED LIGHT.
THESE ARC RAYS WILL DAMAGE YOUR EYES AND BURN YOUR SKIN IF YOU ARE
NOT PROPERLY PROTECTED. To reduce the risk of injury from arc rays, read, understand, and
follow the safety instructions. In addition, make certain that anyone else that uses this welding
equipment, or is a bystander in the welding area understands and follows these safety instructions as
well. Helmets and filter should conform to ANSI Z87.1 stan­dards.
• Do not look at an electric arc without proper protection. A welding arc is extremely bright and intense
and, with inadequate or no eye protection, the retina can be burned, leav­ing a permanent dark spot
in the field of vision. A shield or helmet with a #10 shade filter lens (minimum) must be used.
• Do not strike a welding arc until all bystanders and you (the welder) have welding shields and/or
helmets in place.
• Do not wear a cracked or broken helmet and replace any cracked or bro­ken filter lenses immediately.
• Do not allow the uninsulated portion of the wire feed gun to touch the ground clamp or grounded
work to prevent an arc flash from being created on contact.
• Provide bystanders with shields or hel­mets fitted with an appropriate shade filter lens.
• Wear protective clothing. The intense light of the welding arc can burn the skin in much the same way
as the sun, even through light-weight clothing. Wear dark clothing of heavy material. The shirt worn
should be long sleeved and the collar kept buttoned to protect chest and neck.
• Protect against reflected arc rays. Arc rays can be reflected off shiny sur­faces such as a glossy painted
surface, aluminum, stainless steel, and glass. It is possible for your eyes to be injured by reflected arc
rays even when wearing a protective helmet or shield. If welding with a reflective surface behind you,
arc rays can bounce off the surface and off the fil­ter lens. It can get inside your helmet or shield and
into your eyes. If a reflective background exists in your welding area, either remove it or cover it with
something non-flammable and non-reflective. Reflective arc rays can also cause skin burn in addition
to eye injury.
• Flying sparks can injure. Wear proper safety equipment to protect eyes and face. Shape tungsten
electrode on grinder wearing proper protection and in a safe location. Keep flammables away and
prevent fire from flying sparks.
FUMES, GASSES, AND VAPORS CAN CAUSE DISCOMFORT, ILLNESS, AND DEATH!
To reduce the risk, read, understand, and follow the safety instructions. In addition, make certain that
anyone else that uses this welding equipment or is a bystander in the welding area, understands and
follows these safety instructions as well.
• Read and understand manufacturers SDS and MSDS.
• Do not weld in an area until it is checked for adequate ventilation as described in ANSI standard
Z49.1. If ventilation is not adequate to exchange all fumes and gasses generated during the welding
process with fresh air, do not weld unless you (the welder) and all bystanders are wearing airsupplied respirators.
• Do not heat metals coated with, or that contain, materials that produce toxic fumes (such as
galvanized steel), unless the coating is removed. Make certain the area is well ventilated, and the
operator and all bystanders are wearing air-sup­plied respirators.
• Do not weld, cut or heat lead, zinc, cad­mium, mercury, beryllium, antimony, cobalt, manganese,
selenium, arsenic, copper, silver, barium, chromium, vanadium, nickel, or similar met­als without
seeking professional advice and inspection of the ventilation of the welding area. These metals
produce extremely toxic fumes which can cause discomfort, illness and death.
• Do not weld or cut in areas that are near chlorinated solvents. Vapors from chlori­nated hydrocarbons,
such as trichloroeth­ylene and perchloroethylene, can be decomposed by the heat of an electric arc
or its ultraviolet radiation. These actions can cause phosgene, a high­ly toxic gas, to form, along with
other lung and eye-irritating gasses. Do not weld or cut where these solvent vapors can be drawn into
the work area or where the ultraviolet radiation can pene­trate to areas containing even very small
amounts of these vapors.
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• Do not weld in a confined area unless it is being ventilated or the operator (and anyone else in the
area) is wearing an air-supplied respirator.
• Stop welding if you develop momentary eye, nose, or throat irritation as this indi­cates inadequate
ventilation. Stop work and take necessary steps to improve ventilation in the welding area. Do not
resume welding if physical discomfort persists.
Fire Prevention
FIRE OR EXPLOSION CAN CAUSE DEATH, INJURY, AND PROPERTY DAMAGE! To reduce
these risks, read, understand and follow the safety instructions. In addition, make certain that anyone
else that uses this welding equip­ment, or is a bystander in the welding area, understands and follows
these safety instruc­tions as well. Remember: arc welding by nature produces sparks, hot spatter, molten
metal drops, hot slag and hot metal parts that can start fires, burn skin and damage eyes.
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Do not wear gloves or other clothing that contains oil, grease, or other flammable substances.
Do not wear flammable hair preparations.
Do not touch the hot weld bead or weld puddle until fully cooled.
Do not weld in an area until it is checked and cleared of combustible and/or flam­mable materials. Be
aware that sparks and slag can fly 35 feet and can pass through small cracks and openings. If work
and combustibles cannot be sepa­rated by a minimum of 35 feet, protect against ignition with suitable,
snug-fitting, fire resistant, covers or shields.
Do not weld on walls until checking for and removing combustibles touching the other side of the walls.
Do not weld, cut, or perform other such work on used barrels, drums, tanks, or other containers that
had a flammable or toxic substance. The tech­niques for removing flammable sub­stance and vapors,
to make a used con­tainer safe for welding or cutting, are quite complex and require special educa­tion
and training.
Do not strike an arc on a compressed gas or air cylinder. Doing so will create a brittle area that can
result in a violent rupture immediately or at a later time as a result of rough handling.
Do not weld or cut in an area where the air may contain flammable dust (such as grain dust), gas, or
liquid vapors (such as gasoline).
Do not handle hot metal, such as the work piece or electrode stubs, with bare hands.
Wear leather gloves, heavy long sleeve shirt, cuffless pants, high-topped shoes, helmet, and cap. As
necessary, use additional protective clothing such as leather jacket or sleeves, fire resistant leggings,
or apron. Hot sparks or metal can lodge in rolled up sleeves, pant cuffs, or pockets. Sleeves and
collars should be kept buttoned and pockets eliminated from the shirt front.
Have fire extinguisher equipment handy for immediate use. A portable chemical fire extinguisher, type
ABC, is recom­mended.
Wear ear plugs when welding overhead to prevent spatter or slag from falling into ear.
Make sure welding area has a good, solid, safe floor, preferably concrete or masonry, not tiled,
carpeted, or made of any other flammable material.
Protect flammable walls, ceilings, and floors with heat resistant covers or shields.
Check welding area to make sure it is free of sparks, glowing metal or slag, and flames before
leaving the welding area.
Wear garments free of oil or other flammable substances such as leather gloves, thick cotton shirts
with no synthetic materials, cuffless trousers, closed toed shoes. Keep long hair pulled back.
Remove any combustibles such as lighters and matches before doing any welding.
Follow requirements in OSHA and NFPA for hot work and have an extinguisher nearby.
High Frequency Radiation
• High Frequency (H.F) can interfere with radio navigation, safety services, computers and
communication equipment.
• It is the user’s responsibility to have a qualified electrician promptly correct any interference problem
resulting from the installation. Electrician should regularly check and maintain installation.
• Stop using the equipment if notified by the FCC about interference.
• Keep H.F. source doors and panels tightly shut and keep spark gaps at correct setting.
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Arc Welding
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Computers and computer driven equipment can be harmed with electromagnetic energy.
Be sure all equipment is compatible with electromagnetic energy.
Keep welding cables short to reduce interference.
Follow manual to install and ground machine.
If interference continues, shield the work area or move the welding machine.
Electric Shock
WARNING: ELECTRIC SHOCK CAN KILL! To reduce the risk of death or serious injury from shock,
read, understand, and follow the safety instructions. In addition, make certain that anyone else who uses
this welding equipment, or who is a bystander in the welding area understands and follows these safety
instructions as well.
IMPORTANT! TO REDUCE THE RISK OF DEATH, INJURY, OR PROPERTY DAMAGE, DO
NOT ATTEMPT OPERA­TION of this welding equipment until you have read and understand the
following safety summary.
• Do not, in any manner, come into physi­cal contact with any part of the welding current circuit. The
welding current circuit includes:
a.the work piece or any conductive material in contact with it,
b.
the ground clamp,
c.
the electrode or welding wire,
d.
any metal parts on the electrode holder, or wire feed gun.
• Do not weld in a damp area or come in contact with a moist or wet surface.
• Do not attempt to weld if any part of clothing or body is wet.
• Do not allow the welding equipment to come in contact with water or moisture.
• Do not drag welding cables, wire feed gun, or welder power cord through or allow them to come
into contact with water or moisture.
• Do not touch welder, attempt to turn welder on or off if any part of the body or clothing is moist or if
you are in physical contact with water or moisture.
• Do not attempt to plug the welder into the power source if any part of body or cloth­ing is moist, or if
you are in physical con­tact with water or moisture.
• Do not connect welder work piece clamp to or weld on electrical conduit.
• Do not alter power cord or power cord plug in any way.
• Do not attempt to plug the welder into the power source if the ground prong on power cord plug is
bent over, broken off, or missing.
• Do not allow the welder to be connected to the power source or attempt to weld if the welder,
welding cables, welding site, or welder power cord are exposed to any form of atmospheric
precipitation, or salt water spray.
• Do not carry coiled welding cables around shoulders, or any other part of the body, when they are
plugged into the welder.
• Do not modify any wiring, ground connections, switches, or fuses in this welding equipment.
• Wear welding gloves to help insulate hands from welding circuit.
• Keep all liquid containers far enough away from the welder and work area so that if spilled, the
liquid cannot possibly come in contact with any part of the welder or electrical welding circuit.
• Replace any cracked or damaged parts that are insulated or act as insulators such as welding cables,
power cord, or electrode holder immediately.
• When not welding, cut wire back to contact tip or remove electrode from electrode holder.
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Noise
Noise can cause permanent hearing loss. Welding processes can cause noise levels that exceed safe
limits. You must protect your ears from loud noise to prevent permanent loss of hearing.
• To protect your hearing from loud noise, wear protective ear plugs and/or ear muffs.
• Noise levels should be measured to be sure the decibels (sound) do not exceed safe levels.
Additional Safety Information
For additional information concerning weld­ing safety, refer to the following standards and comply with them as
applicable.
• ANSI Standard Z49.1 - SAFETY IN WELDING AND CUTTING - obtainable from the American
Welding Society, 550 NW Le Jeune Road, Miami, FL 33126 Telephone (800) 443-9353, Fax (305)
443-7559 - www.amweld.org or www.aws.org
• ANSI Standard Z87.1 - SAFE PRAC­TICE FOR OCCUPATION AND EDUCA­TIONAL EYE AND FACE
PROTECTION - obtainable from the American National Standards Institute, 11 West 42nd St.,
New York, NY 10036 Telephone (212) 642A900, Fax (212) 398-0023 - www.ansi.org
• NFPA Standard 518 - CUTTING AND WELDING PROCESS - obtainable from the National Fire
Protection Association, 1 Batterymarch Park, P.O. Box 9101, Quincy, MA 02269-9101 Telephone
(617) 770-3000 Fax (617) 770-0700 - www.nfpa.org
• OSHA Standard 29 CFR, Part 1910, Subpart Q., WELDING, CUTTING AND BRAZING - obtainable
from your state OSHA office or U.S. Dept. of Labor OSHA, Office of Public Affairs, Room N3647,
200 Constitution Ave., Washington, DC 20210 - www.osha.gov
• CSA Standard W117.2 - Code for SAFE­TY IN WELDING AND CUTTING. - obtainable from
Canadian Standards Association, 178 Rexdale Blvd., Etobicoke, Ontario M9W 1R3 - www.csa.ca
• American Welding Society Standard A6.0. WELDING AND CUTTING CON­TAINERS WHICH HAVE
HELD COM­BUSTIBLES. - obtainable from the American Welding Society, 550 NW
Le Jeune Road, Miami, FL 33126 Telephone (800) 443-9353, Fax (305) 443-7559 www.amweld.org or www.aws.org
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Table of Contents
WARRANTY................................................................................................................................................................. 4
SAFETY SUMMARY...................................................................................................................................................... 5
PRINCIPAL SAFETY STANDARDS............................................................................................................................ 5
CALIFORNIA PROPOSITION 65 WARNING............................................................................................................ 5
EMF INFORMATION.............................................................................................................................................. 5
PERSONAL PROTECTION....................................................................................................................................... 6
FIRE PREVENTION................................................................................................................................................. 7
HIGH FREQUENCY RADIATION............................................................................................................................. 7
ARC WELDING..................................................................................................................................................... 8
ELECTRIC SHOCK.................................................................................................................................................. 8
NOISE.................................................................................................................................................................. 9
ADDITIONAL SAFETY INFORMATION.................................................................................................................... 9
TABLE OF CONTENTS................................................................................................................................................. 10
INSTALLATION........................................................................................................................................................... 11
WELDER SPECIFICATIONS .................................................................................................................................. 11
SITE SELECTION ................................................................................................................................................. 11
POWER SOURCE CONNECTION......................................................................................................................... 11
EXTENSION CORDS............................................................................................................................................ 11
PREPARATION FOR WELDING............................................................................................................................. 12
TYPICAL STICK WELDING SETUP.......................................................................................................................... 13
TYPICAL TIG WELDING SETUP.............................................................................................................................. 13
OPERATION............................................................................................................................................................... 14
DESCRIPTION...................................................................................................................................................... 14
CONTROLS AND SETTINGS................................................................................................................................. 14
THERMAL OVERLOAD PROTECTION.................................................................................................................... 15
WELDING TECHNIQUES...................................................................................................................................... 15
WELDING PITFALLS.............................................................................................................................................. 16
MAINTENANCE & SERVICING.................................................................................................................................... 16
GENERAL MAINTENANCE.................................................................................................................................. 16
TROUBLESHOOTING.................................................................................................................................................. 17
WIRING DIAGRAM.................................................................................................................................................... 18
USER NOTES............................................................................................................................................................. 19
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Installation
Welder Specifications
Your new stick (SMAW) welder is designed for maintenance and sheet metal fabrication.
Table 1. Welder Specifications
Primary (input) volts
120 VAC
Welding Range
20-80 Amps
Phase
Single
Frequency
Rated Duty Cycle
60Hz
20%
Electrodes
1/16 – most 1/8
Site Selection
Select a clean, dry location with adequate working space around all components. Provide at least two feet of
space in front of and behind the unit to allow for free flow of air.
Power Source Connection
Power Requirements
This welder is designed to operate on a properly grounded 120 volt, 60Hz, single-phase alternating current (AC)
power source fused with a 20 amp time delayed fuse or circuit breaker.
It is recommended that a qualified electrician verify the ACTUAL VOLTAGE at the receptacle into which the
welder will be plugged and confirm that the receptacle is properly fused and grounded. The use of the proper
circuit size can eliminate nuisance circuit breaker tripping when welding.
DO NOT OPERATE THIS WELDER if the ACTUAL power source voltage is less than 105 volts AC or greater than
132 volts AC. Contact a qualified electrician if this problem exists. Improper performance and/or damage to the
welder will result if operated on inadequate or excessive power.
Power source connection
Select a properly grounded extension cord that will mate directly with the power source receptacle and the
welder power cord without the use of adapters. Make certain that the extension is properly wired and in good
electrical condition. Extension cords must be a #12 gauge cord at the smallest. Do not use an extension cord over
25 ft. in length.
Extension Cords
For optimum welder performance, an extension cord should not be used unless absolutely necessary. If
necessary, care must be taken in selecting an extension cord appropriate for use with your specific welder.
Select a properly grounded extension cord that will mate directly with the AC power source receptacle and the
welder power cord without the use of adapters. Make certain that the extension cord is properly wired and in
good electrical condition. Extension cords must fit the following wire size guidelines:
•
25 ft. requires #12 gauge
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Do not use an extension cord over 25 ft. in length.
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Preparation for Welding
1. With the On/Off switch in the Off position, connect the welding leads and attach an electrode
as fol­lows:
Clasp the ground clamp to the work piece, and attach the other end usually to the negative terminal.
NOTE: For good contact the ground clamp must be attached to the clean bare, metal (not painted).
Attach the electrode holder lead to the opposite terminal (usually the positive terminal).
2. Secure the appropriate welding electrode by its bare end into the jaws of the
electrode holder.
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The size (diameter) of welding electrode should be approximately the same thickness of metal to be
welded. An appropriate current must be selected by turning the dial on the front panel until the required
amperage setting is reached. With practice you will gain a feel for the correct amperage setting for
different welding rod diameters.
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Typical Stick Welding Setup
DCEP - Direct current electrode positive. Most electrodes use this setup. This is also known as DCRP (direct current
reverse polarity)
Typical TIG Welding Setup
DCEN - Direct current electrode negative. This is also known as DCSP (direct current straight polarity)
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Operation
Description
Your new single phase inverter ST (Stick/TIG) arc welder is designed for maintenance and sheet metal
fabrication. It offers two welding functions in the same power source. These functions can be selected using the
selector switch on the front panel.
Stick Welding – How it Works
Stick welding is a process by which two pieces of metal are joined together using the heat developed by an
electric arc between the work piece and an electrode (welding rod).
The electrode can be connected to the positive or negative terminal, which in effect changes the polarity. Typical
polarity is electrode positive. When the electrode comes into contact with the work piece an arc is struck. The
high temperature of the arc melts the electrode into the joint of the work piece and fusion occurs.
Gas Tungsten Arc Welding, or Tungsten Inert Gas (TIG) Welding – How it Works
TIG welding is a process by which two pieces of metal are joined together using the heat developed by an
electrical arc between the work piece and a tungsten electrode.
The electrode is held in a torch and is connected to the negative terminal since it runs on a DC-only current.
When the tungsten electrode comes into contact with the work piece an arc is formed. The high temperature of
the arc creates fusion. If needed, a filler metal is added into the weld puddle formed by the arc. This machine is
capable of TIG welding steel and stainless steel. It cannot TIG weld aluminum, which requires AC high-frequency
current.
Controls and Settings
Amperage
adjustment
Power switch
Selector
switch
Power cord
Negative
Positive
For beginners the following table gives some useful guidelines:
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SIZE OF WELDING ROD/THICKNESS
AMPERAGE SETTING
1/16" – 16 Gauge
30-50
5/64" – 14 Gauge
40-60
3/32"
50-70
1/8”
80
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Thermal Overload Protection
CAUTION
If the duty cycle of the welder is exceeded, a thermostat will automatically cut the power to prevent the
machine from overheating. If this should happen do not unplug the machine but let it cool down. Then
the thermostat will automatically reset itself and you can continue welding. The thermostat is a protective
safety device and no harm will normally be done to the welder unless it is frequently over loaded, in
which case damage will eventually result. For this model the intervention of the thermostat is indicated by
the lighting of the indicator fault light.
Welding Techniques
1. Plug your welder into the correct socket and switch on using the ON/OFF switch. NOTE: If the machine
stops at any time and the indicator light turns on, the thermostat has intervened. Wait for a few minutes
while the welder cools down and when the indicator light goes out again welding can begin. DO NOT
turn off the machine, as the cooling fan inside will not continue to run.
2. Particularly for beginners, the most difficult aspect of the arc welding process is striking an arc. We
strongly recommend that you practice on pieces of scrap metal to get the feel of the operation before you
start on an actual welding job.
3. Hold the electrode about 3/8” from the work piece and at an angle of about 70 degrees to 80 degrees to
the work surface; try not to accidentally touch the work piece until you are ready to begin.
4. Put your helmet on, give a short stroke with the electrode on the work piece. As soon as the arc is struck,
lightly withdraw the electrode from the work piece and leave a tiny gap of around 1/16”. When you
strike an arc be sure to withdraw the electrode fairly swiftly to leave the 1/16” gap, otherwise the
electrode will weld itself to the work piece. Should this happen give the electrode a short, sharp jerk to
free it and, if necessary, strike the arc again. The current will flow across the gap with a crackling noise
and brilliant arc. Continue to weld in one direction, maintaining the small gap as you go. At the end
of the run, just withdraw the electrode fully from the work piece. NOTE: For TIG welding, if needed,
feed filler metal rod of the appropriate metal composition into the weld puddle formed by the tungsten
electrode. Do not touch the tungsten directly. Doing so will contaminate the electrode and you will need to
grind it to the desired point for optimal welds.
5. Inspect the job carefully. With a correct combination of rod size and amperage setting, the area of the
weld should be a complete fusion of the electrode and metal being joined. Slag forming on the surface
should be chipped away with a hammer. If the weld looks irregular, messy or shows signs of porosity or
slag contamination, you have almost certainly failed to achieve the correct combination. Do not worry as
practice will soon cure this. The following tips on welding pitfalls should help to improve your technique
quite quickly.
WARNING
Never look at a welding arc. It can seriously damage your eyes. Always use a helmet.
HEALTH WARNING
When welding, always make sure there is adequate ventilation in the working area as the welding
process gives off toxic fumes.
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Welding Pitfalls
1. Arc distance too short - this causes irregular masses of weld to be deposited with slag
contamination on the uneven surface.
2. Arc distance too long - this causes poor penetration resulting in a weak weld with excessive spatter
and porosity. Surface of weld is rough and the arc makes a hissing sound.
3. Electrode moved over work piece too slowly - this causes a very wide and heavy deposit which
overlaps at the sides. It is wasteful in terms of both time and electrodes used.
4. Electrode moved over the work piece too quickly - this causes poor penetration with a “stringy” and
incomplete weld deposit. Slag is very difficult to remove.
5. Amperage too low - this causes poor penetration and causes the electrode to stick to the work piece
easily. Also results in a very irregular and high weld deposit with difficult slag removal.
6. Amperage too high - this causes excessive penetration with spatter and a deep and pointed crater. It
may even cause holes to be burned in the work piece. Burns electrodes very quickly.
7. The perfect weld - with the correct combination of arc length, amperage regulation and inclination
of the electrode you will, with practice, produce the perfect weld. This should be regular with uniform
ripples and no slag contamination. The arc will make a steady
crackling sound.
Maintenance & Servicing
General Maintenance
Your arc welder is simple and sturdy, requiring virtually no maintenance other than the guidelines shown below:
• Keep the ventilation holes in welder clean to avoid the build-up of dirt inside the machine, this can
reduce machine output.
• Check all cables periodically; they must be in good condition and not cracked.
• Always try to avoid getting particles of metal inside the machine since they could cause
short circuits.
• Periodically clean the inside of the welder with compressed air.
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Troubleshooting
This chart will assist you in resolving common problems you may encounter. These are not all the possible solutions.
PROBLEM
POSSIBLE CAUSE
POSSIBLE SOLUTION
Yellow Indicator is on
Poor ventilation can cause overheating
Improve the ventilation
Ambient temperature is too high
It will automatically recover when the
temperature decreases
Using over the rated duty-cycle
The adjustment knob on the
front panel didn’t work
Potentiometer broken (current
regulation)
Replace the potentiometer.
Cooling Fan not working or
turning very slowly
Switch broken
Replace the switch
Fan broken
Replace or repair the fan
Wire broken or falling off
Check the connection
No no-load voltage
Over voltage, under voltage or scarcity See “Yellow Indicator is on”
of phase
Welder getting overheated
Switch broken
Electrode Holder and Cable
getting hot; “+” “-” polarity
sockets becoming hot
Replace the switch
Electrode holder’s capacity is too small
Replace it with a bigger capacity one
Cable is too small
Replace it with another one in
conformity with the requirement
Socket loosen
Remove the oxide skin and tighten it
Increased resistance between the
electrode holder and the cable
Power source tripping
Resume power over a long period of
time (more than two days)
In the process of welding
Others
Trip caused by the main power filter’s
capacity charging. Switch on the main
power source.
Contact us
Contact us
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Wiring Diagram
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User Notes
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Forney Industries, Inc.
2057 Vermont Drive
Fort Collins, CO 80525
800-521-6038
www.forneyind.com
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