wholefoodscookbooks | Cookbooks
From Quick Breads
to Yeast Breads
An Introduction to
Whole Grain Baking
. . . with
Blender Batter Baking
The Two-Stage Process
&
&
SueGreggCookbooks
PUBLICATIONS BY SUE GREGG
SueGreggCookbooks
Main Dishes, 3rd edition
Soups & Muffins, 2nd edition
Meals in Minutes, 4th edition
Lunches & Snacks, 3rd edition
Breakfasts, 3rd edition
Desserts, 2nd edition
Master Index & Menu Planner
Holiday Menus
The Creative Recipe Organizer
Four Food Storage Plans
Будте здоровы! Recipes with Nutrition Basics
for Russian and Russian-speaking families
Curriculum
Taste & Tell
Cooking with Children
Baking with Whole Grains
Published and distributed by
SueGreggCookbooks
8830 Glencoe Drive
Riverside, California 92503-2135
www.suegregg.com 951.687.5491
An Introduction to Whole Grain Baking
© 2007 by Rich & Sue Gregg
ISBN 1-878272-20-9
Printed April 2007
All rights reserved. No part of this book may be copied or reproduced
in any form without the written consent of the publishers.
All scripture quotations, unless otherwise indicated, are taken from
the HOLY BIBLE, NEW INTERNATIONAL VERSION®. NIV®. Copyright © 1973, 1978, 1984 by International Bible Society. Used by
permission of Zondervan Publishing House. All rights reserved.
Contents
Introduction
2
Getting Started
3
Grain Wonders
39
Quick Breads
79
Yeast Breads
117
Living Bread
166
Index
169
Cut-Out Tabs
173
Introduction
Whole grains are a wonderful gift from God, both for our health
and our enjoyment. No food seems to touch the heart more than a
hearty tasty bread. Regardless of inroads of high protein or other lowcarb diets, bread has a very long history. It is here to stay. But we have
lessons to learn in its proper preparation. I have dreamed about
writing this book for some time. Finally, it has become a reality. With
the growing awareness to properly process whole grains to release
more nutrients and improve digestability, I have been prompted to
offer this book, incorporating the two-stage process into whole grain
baking, my own coined term for any one of the three preparation
methods: soaking, sprouting, or fermenting.
As the title suggests, this book is an introduction. It is not intended
to be an in-depth presentation of the subject from every angle nor to
include all of my whole grain recipes. Rather, it is intended to give you
the basics for whole grain baking with the two-stage process, both for
quick breads and for yeast breads. Thus, key recipes of both types
are introduced. An important purpose of this introduction is to teach
adapting the process to all whole grain recipes, whether found in my
other cookbooks, other wholefoods cookbooks or among your own
favorites. This book will provide the basics of what you need to
become proficient in two-stage baking.
Not everyone involved in working with whole grains believes that
the two-stage process is essential. I recommend you begin by reading
Understanding the Two-Stage Process and Evaluating the Importance of the Two-Stage Process, pp. 12-14.
This book has grown out of our Baking with Whole Grains
semester course for high school home schoolers. As a result, An
Introduction to Whole Grain Baking replaces Breakfasts as the text for
that course. It also stands alone, however, as an introductory
cookbook in whole grain baking for all ages. The accompanying
PowerPoint CD provides over 30 step-by-step demonstrations so
that you may see clearly how to prepare the recipes.The close-up
color photos will bring the recipe steps to life. The slide format is
deliberate, allowing you to go your own pace through a demonstration, pausing at, returning to, and reviewing steps as you find a need.
It also acts as a "mother's helper" in teaching children and a "leader's
helper" in teaching small groups a foods class in whole grain baking.
Please be aware that this introduction does not cover recipes in the
desserts category such as as cookies, cakes, or pie crusts.
2
Getting Started
She is like the merchant ships, bringing her food from afar.
Proverbs 31:14
Getting Started Contents
Should We Eat Grains?
5
Quick Shopping Guide for Quality Ingredients
6
Equipment Check List
10
Understanding the Two-Stage Process
12
Evaluating the Importance of
The Two-Stage Process
13
Liquids for Baking
Coconut Milk for Baking
Almond Milk for Baking
15
16
16
Eggs
17
Whole Grains
17
Fats
Butter
Coconut Oil
Olive Oil
What about Canola Oil?
18
18
18
19
20
Sweeteners
Honey
Sucanat
What Happened to Crystalline Fructose?
What About Xylitol?
21
21
23
24
24
Leavenings
Homemade Baking Powders
25
26
Spices & Flavorings
28
Salt
29
Nuts & Seeds
30
The Wonder of Flax Seeds
Flaxseed Egg Alternative
30
31
Allergy Alternatives
32
Measuring Techniques
33
Accuracy, Convenience & Safety Habits
for Recipe Preparation
35
Getting Started Bibliography
38
4
Should We Eat Grains?
Several leading nutritionists are cautioning the consumption of
whole grains. There may be reasons for this in the lives of individuals
with particular health needs. In general, however, taking grains out
of the diet over the long term overlooks the historical grain food
foundation of many cultures. Rather, a better approach includes
selecting grains according to individual needs, preparing them by a
two-stage process, and balancing them appropriately in menus.
Bread has traditionally been regarded as the staff of life for a
reason. Bread and meat were the staples of the biblical levitical diet
in the Old Testament. God sent ravens to Elijah morning and evening
for a season to bring him bread and meat to strengthen him for the
task ahead of him. During a famine he sent Elijah to the widow of
Zeraphath who sustained herself, her child, and Elijah on bread
alone. God sent Joseph to Egypt to store up grain for a 7-year famine.
The Egyptians traded livestock for grain during this famine. Jesus
fed the 5000 with a boy's lunch of two fish and five loaves of barley
bread. Our resurrected Lord served his disciples a breakfast of bread
and fish on the beach. What are we to conclude from this biblical
evidence? Was our Creator God ignorant about the dangers of grain,
or somehow so spiritually minded, that he doesn't care about the
health of our bodies? Psalm 65:9 makes it clear that grain is a Godgiven gift. Every good and perfect gift comes down from the Father of
lights (James 1:17). Take cautiously what the modern health gurus
say about grains and learn to think biblically (i.e. from a Christian
perspective) about the foods we are given to prepare and enjoy. See
also "Grains & Bread in the Bible," p. 77.
God has provided grains as a wonderful resource for our health, as
well as our enjoyment, but we must manage them through the
progressive discovery of how to select and prepare them (see Genesis
1:29 and Proverbs 25:2). This is what this book seeks to do in the
baking of breads. There is much to learn and we undoubtedly still do
not have all the information. But let the lessons and recipes of this
book be a good start for you. It is divided into 4 sections: Getting
Started, Grain Wonders, Quick Breads, and Yeast Breads. For a
quick reference to the contents of each section, attach the tabs (p.
173) to the section pages. Getting Started and Grain Wonders
applies to both quick breads and yeast breads. The latter two
sections focus on procedures and recipes specific to each type.
5
Understanding the Two-Stage Process
Maximizing the Nutritional Value of Whole Grains
Just because you’ve switched from white flour to whole grains
does not mean that you are getting all the nutritional value. In fact
you may also experience new problems with digestion and assimilation. That is because whole grains contain phytic acid in the bran of
the grain. Phytic acid combines with key minerals, especially calcium, magnesium, copper, iron, and zinc and prevents their absorption in the intestinal tract.
Soaking, fermenting, or sprouting the grain before cooking or
baking will neutralize a large portion of the phytic acid, releasing
these nutrients for absorption. This process allows enzymes, lactobacilli, and other helpful organisms to not only neutralize the phytic
acid, but also to break down complex starches, irritating tannins,
and difficult-to-digest proteins including gluten. For many, this may
lessen their sensitivity or allergic reactions to particular grains. Everyone will benefit, nevertheless, from the release of nutrients and
greater ease of digestion.
The first stage of preparation in making baked recipes by the
soaking method is to soak the whole grain flour in an acid medium.
In quick breads this is usually a cultured milk such as kefir, plain
yogurt, sour raw milk, or buttermilk. A small amount of vinegar,
whey,1 or lemon juice is added when the primary liquid in the recipe
is either water,2 sweet raw milk, or almond or coconut milk.
As little as 7 hours soaking will neutralize a large portion of the
phytic acid in grains. Twelve to 24 hours is even better with 24 hours
yielding the best results. Brown rice, buckwheat, and millet are
more easily digested because they contain lower amounts of phytates
than other grains, so 7 hours soaking is sufficient. Other grains,
particularly oats, highest in phytates of the whole grains, are best
soaked up to 24 hours.
There are two other advantages of the two-stage process. Several hours of soaking serves to soften the grain, resulting in baked
goods lighter in texture, closer to the texture of white flour. This is
especially helpful when making blender batters, where the initial
blending may not smooth out the grain as much as desired. Secondly, this is a great step in convenience, dividing the task into two
shorter time periods. It cuts the time needed to prepare the recipe
1
Yogurt usually separates somewhat once opened or even before opening, leaving some
liquid on top. This is whey. To make a quantity of whey from yogurt, see the demonstration
CD; it may be frozen in 2 tbsps. portions. 2An acid medium is given as optional in the
flatbread recipes (Blender Crepes and Torillas or Chapatis); see p. 14.
12
right before cooking and baking when you feel rushed to get food on
the table. Doing food preparation tasks in advance is a great convenience facilitator. The two-stage process fits right in.
I believe that,
...this is a great step in convenience, dividing
in addition to enhancing nutrithe task into two shorter time periods, cutting
tional value, the
the time needed to prepare the recipe right betwo - stage pro fore cooking and baking when you feel rushed to
cess may minimize the sensiget food on the table. Doing food preparation
tivity to whole
tasks in advance is a great convenience facilitagrains that many
people frequently
tor. The two-stage process fits right in.
experience. As
Sally Fallon and Mary Enig, PhD point out, “...virtually all
preindustrialized peoples soaked or fermented their grains before
making them into porridge, breads, cakes and casseroles.” (Nourishing Traditions p. 452).
Many are overwhelmed by the thought of doing the two-stage
process. This is because it is a paradigm shift, something completely foreign to our normal way of doing things. For decades it has
never been part of cookbooks with whole grain recipes. Thus a variety of questions arise, such as, "Do I soak the grain and then grind
it? Do I grind the flour and then soak it? How will I use the soaked
flour or grain in the recipe?," etc. Instead of worrying about how to
do it, just follow the recipes in this book, step-by-step. As you become familiar with the basic two-stage preparation for either a quick
bread or yeast bread, you will easily learn how to adapt it to any
recipe that does not follow two-stage preparation. The only time
that separate preparation is needed is when the method used is
sprouting the grain. There are some wonderful advantages in using
sprouted grain. I have introduced it in the Yeast Breads section.
Sprouted grain can be used in both quick and yeast breads.
Evaluating the Importance of the Two-Stage Process
While the whole truth is probably not yet known (recall Proverbs
25:2 ), phytates also have promising benefits. Research shows that
they may be involved in curbing free radicals in the body that contribute to heart disease and cancers, as well as preventing excessive
mineral build up in the body, especially of iron, which also contributes to free radical formation. It is thought that it may be the phytates
in the bran layers of whole grains, in legumes, and in nuts and seeds
that are providing these protections. However, I question the fear of
excessive mineral buildup when real whole foods are consumed.
13
The value of phytates does not warrant ignoring the value of the twostage process. First of all, neutralizing phytic acid to release nutrients bound up in the form of phytates is not 100% accomplished
except under ideal conditions of temperature and pH. These conditions cannot be easily achieved in home baking. Perhaps they are
best achieved in making sourdough breads, a time-honored practice for millenia. Second, take a realistic look at your habits. Home
baking notwithstanding, commercial whole grain products not processed by a two-stage process will find their way to our tables (as
whole grain pastas, commercially purchased breads, e.g.). Likewise,
only the most dedicated will do the two-stage process with every
recipe. Stop worrying that you will ruin the benefits of phytates by
using the two-stage process. Many more people lack essential minerals and have difficulty with the digestion of gluten in grains. The
two-stage process, therefore, plays a valuable role in baking with
whole grains.
Kaayla T. Daniel, PhD, CNN, author of The Whole Soy Story, points
to the Hebrews as an example of consuming both leavened and unleavened bread. The former, which was produced through the fermentation process from wild yeasts, was practiced most of the time.
The latter, unleavened bread, was part of the the Hebrew preparation for Passover in early spring (see also p. 113), "a natural time for
fasting, a practice that encourages detoxification." Daniel suggests
that these yearly short periods "might have been a very effective way
to rid the body of any heavy metals through the action of phytic
acid." On the other hand, she reminds us that "decades of research
on the phytates of real foods have shown that phytates are
antinutrients--more likely to contribute to disease than prevent it."1
I suggest that occasional or even short periods of consuming of
whole grains that are not processed by one of the three
two-stage methods (soaking, fermenting, sprouting)
is not likely detrimental to health and may contribute a plus,2 while those that are properly processed as the main dietary choice will be greatly beneficial to health.
1
The Whole Soy Story, by Kaayla T. Daniel, PhD, CNN, Chapter 17, “Phytates ties that
bind,” pp. 221, 224, quotes by permission. 2For this reason, I have made the two stage
process optional for the two flatbread recipes, Blender Crepes and Tortillas or Chapatis.
However, to many gluten-sensitive and grain-allergic persons, the two-stage process may
be beneficial on a basically consistent basis. See also, "Against the Grain-The Case for
Rejecting or Respecting the Staff of Life" by Katherine Czapp, Wise Traditions, Summer
2006: http://www.westonaprice.org/moderndiseases/gluten-intolerance.html
14
Grain Wonders
...the valleys are mantled with grain;
they shout for joy and sing.
Psalm 65:13
Grain Wonders Contents
Isaiah 28:23-29
41
Oats
61
Whatever Happened
to Whole Grains?
42
Brown Rice
63
Barley
64
A Little Fiber History
44
Rye
65
A Fiber Analysis
46
Millet
66
A Kernel of Truth
47
Triticale
67
God's Grain Wonders
48
Buckwheat
67
Grains Have Protein!
50
Sorghum
68
Grains are Low Fat!
51
Quinoa
68
A Summary of Baking
Characteristics
52
Amaranth
69
Great Grains!
53
Teff
70
Wheat, King of Grains
53
Wild Rice
70
Wheat Bran & Germ
54
All Grains are Low Cost!
71
Hard Red Winter
& Spring Wheats
54
Whole Grain
Storage & Care
73
Hard White Spring
Wheat
55
What About Whole
Grain Flour?
74
Soft Spring Wheat
55
The Value of a Grain Mill
75
Kamut®grain
56
77
Spelt
58
Grains & Bread in the
Bible
Grain Wonders
Bibliography
78
Corn
40
59
Whatever Happened to Whole Grain?
We may not understand the way that ancient harvesting methods
worked as mentioned in the Bible, yet it is clear from Isaiah 28:23-29
that God had an ordered plan for producing and harvesting the food we
eat and that plan was magnificent in wisdom. Surely God's plan was
intended to produce health-giving grain for mankind's use!
For centuries the bread of peasants in Europe was a coarse, dark,
and heavy loaf made of perhaps a little wheat and a quantity of rye or
barley, or of barley and oats. For example, from the time of Charlemagne
a bread even as hard as Trencher Bread was common in the European
household. Trencher came from a French word referring to a wooden
plate. This coarse square-cut flat bread was so hard it served as the
plate shared between two people on which they placed their food!
Lay a clean trencher before you, and when your pottage is
brought, take your spoon and eat quietly; and do not leave your
spoon in the dish, I pray you. Lay salt honestly on your trencher,
for that is courtesy. Do not put the meat off your trencher into
the dish, but get a voider and empty it into that. Do not play with
the spoon, or your trencher, or your knife; but lead your life in
cleanliness and honest manners. Heap not they trencher high
with many morsels. . . Advice to a Child, 15001
It is little wonder that civilizations have attempted to produce
breads more appealing in texture and color. Little progress was made
in these attempts until the 19th century. Fine flour was expensive and
thus limited to use by the wealthy before then. All this changed when
Governor Washburn of Minnesota tasted his first white French roll at
an exhibition in Paris in 1876.
Washburn returned to America and introduced the steel roller mill,
an economical method of making white flour available. This flour
stored well, traveled across the pioneer miles well, and baked into nice
high light loaves of pleasant textured bread. What defined status for the
wealthy now became accessible to all. Homemakers were thrilled and
no one was the wiser for its nutritional bankruptcy.
When the Depression hit in the 1930's people relied more on
inexpensive foods, including white bread. This resulted in a rampant
spread of the Vitamin B-1 deficiency disease, beri beri. There were just
not enough sustaining nutrients in white bread. Enrichment was thus
introduced, adding three synthetic B-vitamins and iron to white flour.
1
Bailey, Adrian. The Blessings of Bread. Adrian Bailey. New York: Paddington Press LTD,
1975, p. 37.
42
But the full nutritional value of over thirty nutrients was not restored,
nor was fiber loss even considered.
Enriched white flour products of all kinds have not only become
entrenched in our society, but have rapidly spread throughout the
world. The desire for convenience, ready availability, and familiarity of
taste and preparation far outweigh awareness and concern for nutritional value--even for those who believe in God's magnificent wisdom.
As a consequence, we have lost the synergistic value of whole grains,
that is, nutrients of a whole food working together more effectively than
when separated.
Let's consider, for example, the role of dietary fiber. Plant cell walls
and properties associated with them make up the dietary fiber in
foods. It has traditionally been termed roughage or bulk, although
this doesn't describe soluble fibers very well. It is primarily nondigestible, but not all. The American diet, typically under 20 grams
dietary fiber daily, falls far short of the need. In contrast, citizens of
countries such as Africa, where dietary fiber averages 40-60 grams
daily, do not suffer diseases and health conditions resulting from a
deficiency of high fiber foods. While whole grains are not the
highest fiber foods, small amounts do add up, making a
significant contribution to meet the need. In addition, by
studying "A Kernel of Truth," p. 47, you can see that the nutrient losses in white flour are significant. Most of this loss
comes from the dietary fiber and wheat germ combined. Thus,
more is lost from the absence of dietary fiber than the effective
benefits of the fiber alone.
"A Fiber Analysis," p. 46 identifies the types and forms of fiber and
what they do, at least according to what was discovered as the end of
the 20th century approached. Upon reading "A Little Fiber History,"
pp. 44-45, you can expect more news to be added to the fiber puzzle
beyond the year 2000. Proverbs 25:2 is still relevant in the 21st
century. For example, it is already being discovered that phytates,
found in dietary fiber may provide some of the benefits, although this
is not to diminish the importance of the "Two-Stage Process" (pp. 1314).
I want you to appreciate the nutritional
riches of whole grains. With tasty recipes
you can be liberated from dependence on
nutrient and fiber-depleted wheat flour,
one recipe at a time!
43
Grains have Protein!
Dairy products compliment grain proteins to provide complete, highly usable protein.1 For example
milk and eggs with whole grain in muffins, waffles,
French toast and other baked goods, milk served
with breakfast cereals, and eggs served with whole
grain toast, rolls, or biscuits. Legumes (dry beans)
also compliment grain protein, such as Chili with
Cornbread or including a portion of bean flour in
yeast breads.
Protein Value of Grains by Weight
Kamut®grain
triticale
quinoa2
oats
amaranth2
spelt
wild rice
wheat, hard spring (durum)
wheat, hard spring/winter (bread)
teff
rye2
barley2
sorghum
buckwheat2
millet2
wheat, soft (pastry)
corn
brown rice2
17.3%
17%
16.2% - 20%
14 - 16.7%
15.7%
13.1 - 14.28%
14%
12 - 14%
12 - 14%
12%
12%
10 -12%
11%
10 -11%
6-11%
9.1%
9%
7.5 - 9%
1
A complete protein includes all eight essential amino acids that the body cannot produce, in
amounts that makes them highly usable protein.
2
These grains contain higher amounts of lysine, the essential amino acid that is normally low
in grains. The protein value of grains high in lysine is a more complete (usable) protein on
its own, but all grain proteins are well utilized when served in the suggested food combinations
listed above. If one were on a subsistence diet of grain only, the lysine content would become
more significant (see e.g. high-lysine corn and millet, pp. 60, 66).
50
Grains are Low Fat!
All grains are low fat, high energy
foods. Grains that are both higher in
fat and protein than other grains are
considered especially high energy
foods.
Quality low fat foods are not better
than quality high fat foods. They are
just different; these differences allow
balance in the daily diet.
Fat Value of Grains1
(% of Calories)
oats
amaranth
quinoa
triticale
corn
millet
spelt
barley
Kamut®grain
sorghum
teff
wheat
buckwheat
rye
brown rice
wild rice
15.0%
14.0%
13.5%
12.0%
10.5%
8.2%
6.9%
5.5%
6.6%
8.0%
4.5%
6.9%
6.4%
5.9%
4.7%
1.8%
1
The fat in grains contain valuable essential fatty acids in a whole food package. In the 21st
century, many nutritionists are gaining a higher appreciation for the role of quality fats, not
only in a healthful diet, but for weight management as well. See Recommended Reading, p.
38.
51
A Summary of Baking Characteristics
How whole grain flours act in baking depends mostly on the gluten
content. High gluten grains, for example, are best for yeast bread
recipes. The gluten, a protein part of the grain, develops elasticity as it
is kneaded. This in turn traps the gas formed by the yeast as it grows
and gives the bread its rise and lightness of texture. Gluten-free and lowgluten grains, therefore, do not produce light textured yeast breads,
although a portion of the flour may consist of another grain or
combination of grains (see Yeast Breads section).
Grains may be classified as having no gluten, low gluten or high
gluten content:
Gluten-free grains
Low-gluten grains
High-gluten grains
brown rice
corn
millet
amaranth
quinoa
sorghum
barley
oats
rye
buckwheat
triticale
teff
soft wheat (pastry)
hard red winter wheat
hard spring wheat
hard white wheat
Kamut®grain
spelt
Gluten flour, a commercial product made from white flour, is often
added to make whole grain yeast breads lighter. I have never found this
a necessity and discourage its use. Gluten flour is an unnecessary
expense, costing ten times that of the whole wheat, even if only a small
portion is needed. I don't even use it when combining wheat with other
grains. Pleasing yeast breads can be made that are light enough without
this addition. There also are enough people who have a problem with
gluten without adding more of it to recipes. Rather, I believe it is best
to develop a taste for denser breads. The measure of taste and texture
quality is not in making whole grain breads match refined breads.
Quick breads are more easily adaptable to the use of grains with
varying degrees of gluten content, although different results in texture
will be achieved. Gluten development is not desirable in quick bread
baking for lightness as it is in yeast bread baking. A wider range of grain
options in quick breads is a boon for persons with grain allergies or
gluten intolerance.
52
All Grains are Low Cost!
Why spend money on what is not bread,
and your labor on what does not satisfy?
Listen, Listen to me, and eat what is good.
Isaiah 55:2
Some grains do cost more than others, yet as a food group, grains
are a low budget food item. The higher the proportion of grains to dairy
and meats in the diet, the less costly meals will be, even when more
expensive grains are included.
Comparative prices of certified organic grains, recorded below from
SunOrganic Farm, 2006 prices (www.sunorganic.com), will give you
some idea of grain costs. Note that bulk prices are lower cost per lb.
than smaller packages.
GRAIN
1 lb.
3 lb.
Rye Berries
Wheat, Pastry
Wheat, Hard Red Winter
Wheat, Hard Red Spring
Cornmeal, stoneground
Corn, whole kernel
Millet, hulled
Wheat, Hard White Spring
Barley, hulled
Buckwheat, sprouting
Oats, Rolled
Oat Groats
Kamut®grain
Brown Rice, Long/Short Grain
Triticale
Buckwheat, hulless
Spelt
Quinoa
Amaranth
Wild Rice
1.95
1.95
1.95
1.95
1.95
1.95
1.95
1.95
1.95
1.95
1.95
2.25
1.95
1.95
2.25
2.25
2.25
2.75
3.50
7.65
2.95
2.95
2.95
2.95
3.25
3.25
3.35
3.45
3.50
3.50
3.50
3.95
4.25
4.65
4.85
5.85
5.65
7.35
9.35
22.50
25 lbs.
15.00
16.00
16.50
17.50
17.50
18.50
24.50
18.50
18.50
19.95
21.00
23.85
22.25
26.75
29.50
35.50
32.50
43.50
49.50
147.00
Translating cost into a recipe, e.g. Blender Banana Muffins, p. 108:
3 lbs. pastry wheat @ $2.95 = about 8 cups grain. Divide 8 cups grain
by 1¹⁄₃ cups per recipe = 6 recipes. Each recipe makes 14 muffins or
84 muffins for 6 recipes; $2.95 divided by 84 muffins = $.035 per
muffin. The average cost of most whole grain muffin recipes is about
$.20 per muffin. The flour is less than 1/5 the total cost. Be aware,
however that when mail ordering, the cost of shipping and handling
must be added.
71
Quick Breads
...establish the work of our hands for us-yes, establish the work of our hands.
Psalm 90:17
Quick Breads
Whole Grain Blender Magic!
81
Techniques & Tips for Quick Breads
85
Additional Tips for Coffee Cakes,
Cornbread & Quick Loaf Breads
Biscuits & Scones
88
88
Waffles/Pancakes Making Tips
92
Grain Variety for Blender Waffles/Pancakes
95
Tips for Making Crepes
97
Making Muffins
105
Quick Bread Recipes Nutrient Information
116
QUICK BREAD RECIPES
Almond Coffee Cake
89
Blender Cornbread
90
Cornbread
91
Blender Waffles/Pancakes
96
Blender Crepes
101
Blender Banana Muffins
108
Banana Nut Muffins
109
Cinnamon Scones
110
Hearty Biscuits
111
Tortillas or Chapatis
112
Pumpkin Bread
114
Zucchini Bread
115
FILLINGS & TOPPING RECIPES
Cottage Filled Fruit Crepes
80
102
102
Fresh Berry Topping
103
Mixed Berry Topping
103
Whipped Cream
103
Fresh Apple Topping
104
Dried Apple Topping
104
Whole Grain Blender Magic!
With my blender, I have always been able to grind rolled
oats and tiny grains such as millet, quinoa, amaranth, and teff
into flour, to coarsely grind cornmeal from whole corn (this
takes a sturdy blender), and to unevenly crack most other
whole grains for hot cereal. Then a neighbor shared a whole
wheat pancake recipe with me that called for adding the grain, whole
and raw, to the liquid ingedients in the blender. The high speed
blending action of the blender completely "milled" the grain.
The result was incredible! Instead of making whole wheat pancakes,
however, I converted my recipe for kamut-oat waffles to the blender
procedure, using 1 egg to replace my usual 3 egg yolks + 3 beaten egg
whites. These blender waffles were the lightest, most tender I had ever
made. Why hadn't I thought of this fifteen years earlier? Convinced this
blender process was working, I started experimenting with more waffle/
pancake recipes, muffins, coffee cakes, crepes, and cornbread. They
all turned out successfully, using all kinds of grains, except instant or
parboiled brown rice.
What's most exciting about this is that most households have
blenders and they are not expensive. To do many recipes with whole
grains you don't have to have a grain mill. This is the ultimate in
convenience --requiring less than 15 minutes of your time to get the
blender process going and completed, even with the two-stage process. What could be easier?
Now there are limitations to this. There must be enough liquid in
proportion to the grain to keep the blender churning for 3 minutes to
grind the grain without putting excessive stress on the blender. This is
why I call it blender batter baking. Any batter recipe with a ratio of
about 1 cup grain to 1-1¹⁄₄ cups combined liquid ingredients usually
works. The steps are simple and virtually the same for any blender
batter recipe. The details follow the summary of steps below.
Summary of Steps
1. Blend liquids and grain on high speed 3 - 5 minutes.
2. Cover blender and let stand several hours.
3. Add egg and reblend 1 - 3 minutes.
4. Add leavenings, salt, spices; blend just to mix.
5. Fold in nuts, etc.
6. Pour into pan or pans and bake.
81
Steps in Detail
1. Put all the liquid ingredients (except egg) with grain whole and raw
(not flour) in the blender. Put liquids in first, followed by the grain.
2. Blend on highest speed 3 - 5 minutes. As the batter blends, it will
thicken because the grain is being ground into flour. Sometimes a
bubble will form over the blades and stop the churning. The churning
creates a vortex. Keep the vortex going. If the vortex disappears,
slowing or changing the blender speed will help to get the batter
churning again. If necessary, add a bit more liquid. Do not worry if
you still feel grit in the batter from not-quite-ground grain. It will have
a second chance in the second blending stage.
3. Cover blender, unplug it and let stand at room temperature 7 hours
or 12 - 24 hours depending on the grain (see p. 12). I have been asked
the question: "won't the milk spoil?" The answer is no. The reason is
that the milk is cultured either naturally or by adding vinegar to sour
it. It is only sweet milk that could spoil, especially in hot weather. And
it is not good to leave eggs at room temperature, which is the reason
we save them for the second stage of blending.
Another question I have often been asked: "Won't the blended grain
lose nutritional value standing at room temperature for several
hours?" Use your logic here. The grain is not directly exposed dry to
the air. Secondly, neutralizing the phytic acid is releasing nutrients
that will make them available to the body when digested. Two
contradictory processes are not going on at the same time.
4. Add egg and reblend about 1 - 3 minutes. This normally completes
the grinding of the grain. Change blender speed as needed as in step
#2 above to keep the vortex going. Add a bit extra liquid, if needed.
Feel batter between fingers. If grit remains, you can blend 2 or 3
minutes longer. Beyond that, the grain is probably as smooth as it's
going to get. But don't worry, because the grain has already soaked
and softened to become edible and nutritious when baked.
5. Blend or thoroughly stir in leavening and spices (baking powder,
soda, salt, cinnamon, etc) just before baking and just until mixed
in. Stir these through a small strainer into a small bowl or
container with a measuring spoon as you are measuring them.
This will take out any lumps. Even though a powerful blender will
do this, it is a good practice to follow. I usually include the spices
in this process for the sake of convenience, even though they don't
need sifting. I do this measuring and sifting in the first stage of
recipe preparation. Then they are immediately ready to add to the
batter in the second stage when you want to save last minute time.
82
If the blender does not immediately churn when you add the
leavenings, don't add more liquid. Just help the blender out by
folding them in with a rubber spatula.
6. Fold in any ingredients such as nuts just before baking without delay.
Chopped nuts soaked for 7 hours will improve digestiblilty and
nutrition (see p. 30). Drain and rinse them well before adding
leavenings to a recipe.
7. Pour into baking pan or pans and bake. When you start the final
mixing of the second stage, preheat the oven and grease the pans.
All these basic steps are written into the recipes, but not all the
details. Review these as often as you need to. You will be surprised how
fast you will learn and therefore not need to read these details every
time.
I can't begin to tell you how easy it is to use the blender method with
whole grains for batter recipes. I love it and use it wherever possible
even though I have a grain mill. Just remember, you are not going to
be making any yeast loaf breads, biscuits, or cookie doughs in your
blender! Quick loaf breads and even some muffin recipes will not have
enough liquid for the blender method. So if you adapt recipes other
than those in this book to the blender, do take care to
follow the guidelines given here.
A WORD ABOUT BLENDERS
Generally a blender that crushes ice cubes is acceptable
for the blender recipes. Most do. Be cautious if using an old
or dull-bladed blender. Turn off a motor that stalls or
begins to smell hot and give it a rest. If your blender isn't
adequate, this method is worth a new blender for $30$40. Two blenders suitable for blender batters in this
cost range are the 450 watt, 12 or16 speed Oster or 525
watt, 5 speed Braun. The Oster has a slight edge over the Braun
with its metal gear, which is not as much at risk of cracking through
repeated use. On the other hand, the Braun has a higher wattage which
is an additional advantage. More heavy-duty blenders, of course, such as
a Vita-Mix, a Bosch blender or DLX blender are ideal. Be aware that you
may need to cut the blending time when using a Vita-Mix.
Do not double recipes in a blender! When you add the leavenings you
may get a volcanic eruption over the top of the blender. On the other
hand, some heavy duty machines have larger capacity blender bowls.
You will need to experiment since whole grain blender batters do
require more power to blend; less batter in the bowl can ease this
process.
Almond Coffee Cake
Our most often served blender coffee cake. See pp. 81-83 for blender tips
and pp. 85-88 for additional tips. To mix by hand with flour see p. 84 and
use 2 cups whole wheat pastry flour or Kamut®grain flour, 2¹⁄₄ cups barley flour
or brown rice flour, or 2¹⁄₂ cups spelt flour.
AMOUNT: 11" or 11.5" x 8" Pan (recommended, p.88)
Bake: 325°F (165°C) - 30 to 40 minutes
STAGE 1
1. Place in blender; blend at highest speed 3 - 5 minutes; cover
blender; let stand at room temperature several hours (p. 12):
1 cup cultured milk or non-dairy alternative (p. 6)
¹⁄₄ cup melted butter or olive oil (p. 7; or add melted coconut
oil in step 6 below; see p. 19)
³⁄₄ cup honey (p. 9; warm slightly if not easily pourable)
grain choice (not flour): 1¹⁄₃ cups whole wheat pastry berries
or 1¹⁄₂ cups spelt, Kamut®grain or brown rice
or 1¹⁄₄ cups hulled barley
2. For topping blend together in order given with a fork except nuts;
soak nuts in salted water overnight (p. 30); set aside:
2 tablespoons melted butter (unsalted preferred, p. 7)
2 tablespoons Sucanat or Rapadura (p. 9)
¹⁄₂ cup uncooked rolled oats
(with kamut only) 1 teaspoon cinnamon
¹⁄₂ cup sliced or chopped almonds
3. Sift through small strainer into a small bowl; set aside:
1 teaspoons baking powder (p. 8)
1 teaspoon baking soda (p. 8)
¹⁄₂ teaspoon salt, to taste (p. 9)
2 teaspoons cinnamon (omit with kamut)
¹⁄₄ teaspoon ginger
STAGE 2
4. Preheat oven and grease baking pan (p. 82).
5. Drain and rinse almonds well; stir into other topping ingredients.
6. Just before baking, add eggs and blend on highest speed for 1 - 3
minutes; briefly blend in leavening, salt and spices just to mix in
evenly:
2 eggs or alternative (p. 7)
leavenings, salt and spices (from step 3)
7. Pour batter into baking pan. Distribute topping evenly over top
with fingers, pressing it slightly into batter with a fork.
Bake at 325°F (165°C) for 30 - 40 minutes or until knife or toothpick
comes clean out of center of cake. Serve cake hot or cold.
89
Blender Cornbread
A popular quick bread and so easy to make with
whole dry corn or a blend of corn and another grain
in the blender. See pp. 81-83 for blender tips and pp.
85-88 for additional tips. To mix by hand with flour, see
recipe, p. 91.
AMOUNT: 8" Square Baking Pan (recommended, p.87)
Bake: 325° (165°C) - 25 to 35 minutes
STAGE 1
1. Place in blender; blend at highest speed 3 - 5 minutes;
cover blender (expect batter to be gritty); let stand at room
temperature 12 - 24 hours (p. 12):
1 cup cultured milk or non-dairy alternative (p. 6)
¹⁄₄ cup melted butter or extra virgin olive oil (p. 7)
3 tablespoons maple syrup or honey (p. 9)
²⁄₃ cup whole kernel dry corn (p. 7)
²⁄₃ cup additional whole kernel dry corn
or ²⁄₃ cup whole wheat pastry grain
or ³⁄₄ cup Kamut®grain
2. Sift through small strainer into a small bowl; set aside:
1¹⁄₂ teaspoons baking powder (p. 8)
¹⁄₂ teaspoon baking soda (p. 8)
1 teaspoon salt (p. 9)
STAGE 2
3. Preheat oven to 325°F (165°C) and grease pan (p. 82).
4. Just before baking, add eggs and blend on highest speed for
1-3 minutes; briefly blend in leavening and salt just to mix in evenly:
2 eggs or alternative (p. 7)
leavenings and salt (from step 2)
5. Pour batter immediately into greased baking pan.
Bake at 325°F (165°C) for 25 - 35 minutes or until knife comes
clean out of center.1
1
Sometimes my cornbread rises well. Sometimes it hardly rises at all. Who knows why?
Maybe it is the liveliness of the leavening. But I don't worry about it because it always
tastes good either way!
Toasty Cornbread
Great for leftover cornbread! Split cornbread pieces in half.
Spread each half with butter and toast buttered side down on griddle.
90
Waffle/Pancake Making Tips
Become an expert in whole grain waffle/pancake making in no time
with the following steps:
1. Use the recipe for Blender Waffles/Pancakes, p. 96.
2. Acquaint yourself with Whole Grain Blender Magic, pp. 81-83.
3. Take advantage of the additional tips below.
· Waffle iron Waffle irons are problematic. Belgian
waffle irons, 7" in diameter, make the best whole
grain waffles, but all modern irons have a nonstick finish that is suspect of releasing toxic
compounds at high heat. An alternative is Rome's
Cast Iron Waffle Iron (http://www.wisementrading.com/
outdoorcooking/castiron.htm). The cost with shipping at the time of
this writing is under $25. It is non-electric, made for stove top
burner, and makes 6¹⁄₂" waffles. The grid is very shallow. It comes
with its own seasoning instructions.
· Griddle A cast iron griddle is the best! It is great to have one that fits
over two burners. You can season your griddle in advance to
minimize greasing when baking (see seasoning a crepe pan, p. 98).
· Grain Since practically any whole grain or grain combination works
great in this recipe, minimize the use of wheat. Wheat makes waffles
and pancakes heavier than any other grain, and is used in many
other recipes where a wide variety of grains don't work well. This
is your opportunity to use variety (see p. 95) and also to meet allergy
needs. With experimentation you will discover what grains you like
best. My personal favorite is a combination of kamut and oats.
· Liquid Cultured or soured milk will make the lightest waffles.
I use yogurt thinned to the consistency of buttermilk, or 1 cup yogurt
+ ¹⁄₂ cup water for 1¹⁄₂ cups cultured milk. See alternative choices,
pp. 15-16. Keep the batter quite pourable--better thin than too
thick. A vortex (large hole in the center of churning batter) insures
best consistency for waffle batter. Adjust batter consistency to your
preference. You may want your batter thicker for pancakes. To
substitute juice, stay away from those with high sugar content, e.g.
strawberry, that will cause the batter to stick in the waffle iron.
Apple or orange juice are fairly safe. Nutritionally, however, I believe
nut milks such as almond or coconut milk are better non-dairy
alternatives to juice (recipes, p. 16). Even unsweetened fruit juices
are concentrated in sugar.
· Egg The egg is optional so there is no need for a substitute, but we
always use it. See p. 17 for more information on quality of eggs.
92
· Oil Fat is for crispy waffle lovers, but it also adds nutritional value
if you add the right kind (see pp. 18-20). Fat also makes the waffles
more golden brown. Nutritionally I recommend butter, coconut
oil or extra virgin olive oil. If you omit the fat, special care must be
taken to prepare the waffle iron or griddle so the batter does not
stick (see Baking Waffles and Baking Pancakes, pp. 93, 94).
·
Vanilla Extract Many waffle and pancake recipes call for a little
sugar. Vanilla acts somewhat similar to sugar in adding that
certain something to the flavor. I call it the secret ingredient for
especially tasty waffles, except in buckwheat waffles.
· Salt See p. 9.
· Sweetener Traditional recipes call for a bit. We don't add any. Who
needs it with all that sweet stuff on top! Besides, added sugar in the
batter will just mean more sticking problems in the waffle iron.
· Leavening See p. 8.
· Follow the two-stage process of mixing
Recall the key reasons (pp. 12-14):
Nutritional Value - Releasing nutrients; aids digestion of grains.
Smoother Batter - Allows second blending after grain is soaked.
Convenience - Cuts last minute mixing time in half.
· Baking waffles
The demonstration CD is especially helpful with this.
Turn waffle iron to hottest setting and allow it to heat up fully. For
stove top cast iron, heat as for griddle using sizzling water drops to
test for readiness.
Grease surface with coconut oil, or spray just before pouring in
batter for first waffle (see Olive Oil Non-Stick Spray, p. 7).
Do not pour batter quite to edges of iron-- ³⁄₄ cup batter is about
right to fill a 7" waffle iron.
Allow waffles to bake until light goes off or about 4-5 minutes for most
of the newer waffle irons. Set a timer! Gently test lifting the lid. If the
waffle is done, the lid will lift easily without the waffle sticking to both
surfaces of the iron. If it does not come up easily, give it a little more
baking time. Stove top cast iron requires turning waffle over.
The best way to prevent scratching the waffle iron while removing
the waffle is to loosen and lift the edge up with a shish kabob or
party stick (see photo for crepes, p. 99).
Don't throw away broken up waffle pieces! This may happen occasionally when removing waffles stuck to the iron. Dad and boys will
eat them!
93
· Baking pancakes:
The demonstration CD is especially helpful with this.
Turn griddle to medium-high; drops of water should sizzle
on the griddle surface.
Grease surface just before pouring on batter for first pancakes.
If seasoned well, you may not need to do this at all.
Pour on batter for any size pancakes you want.
Number of pancakes given in recipe are for about
4" pancakes.
Turn pancakes when the bubbles
on the top side start to break.
Turn only once.
· Keeping Waffles or Pancakes Hot
Serving them directly from the iron is best. Otherwise, stack plates
in the oven to get hot. As waffles bake, stack them on the top plate.
Turn the oven to 200 - 300°. Waffles will crisp up a bit more in the
oven. To serve, have syrup heated and/or other toppings already
prepared.
· To keep pancakes hot, overlap them on one hot serving plate in the
oven or on a plate covered with a large inverted metal mixing bowl
on top of the range next to the griddle. As hot baked pancakes are
added to the serving plate covered with the bowl, they warm the
bowl which in turn keeps the cakes hot until ready to serve. This
works especially well if the bowl is metal; I use my large stainless
steel mixing bowl.
· Waffles and pancakes also keep hot in a rice cooker turned on low.
We have used this successfully in serving groups. A stainless steel
rice cooker is now available (look up Lotus Foods on Internet).
· Freezing & Reheating Leftover Waffles/Pancakes
Allow to thoroughly cool. Wrap snugly in plastic wrap (see p. 11),
then firmly in foil. Use within 2 weeks. There are several methods
to reheat. For waffles I use the first method.
Turn the waffle iron on medium heat setting. Match the waffles
with the grid and reheat. If waffles are still frozen use lower
heat.
Toast in toaster on lightest setting. Great for a snack!
Warm on oven rack 3-5 minutes at 350°.
Heat pancakes covered.
94
Grain Variety for Blender Waffles/Pancakes
In Blender Waffles/Pancakes, p. 96, use 1¹⁄₂ cups grain or less
depending on the grains used. Amounts below are approximations.
Start with lesser amounts when first learning; make adjustments as
desired. The following combinations work well; we like them all.
· 1¹⁄₈ - 1¹⁄₂ cups brown rice or millet (gluten free)
Wonderfully light, these look like white flour waffles! Batter may be
very thin. Fill waffle iron almost completely to edges. These two grains
also make a great combination using equal parts of each grain.
· 1¹⁄₈ - 1¹⁄₃ cups Kamut®grain, spelt, wheat
Kamut®grain is a favorite. We seldom use wheat except kamut because
this recipe is our chance to use so many wheat-free grains. Wheat will
make the heaviest waffles or pancakes of all the whole grains and many
persons are either sensitive or allergic to wheat.
· 1 cup buckwheat
Reduce to 1 cup grain (equal to about 1¹⁄₂ cups flour) for 4 servings.
It expands. Sprouting buckwheat is our favorite and it is much less
costly than toasted or raw buckwheat (see p. 68). Sprouting buckwheat includes the dark outer hull. My husband's favorite. I like this
grain best when not combined with other grains. Omit vanilla.
· 1 cup barley
Hulled, not pearled. Reduce to 1 cup grain (equal to about 1¹⁄₂ cups
flour) for 4 servings. It expands.
· 1¹⁄₈ - 1¹⁄₃ cups corn (gluten free)
Use dry whole corn, not cornmeal for the blender method. Expect
some crunch and a distinct corn flavor, appealing to most tastes. Also
a good combination with whole wheat pastry berries using equal parts
of each grain.
· 1¹⁄₂ cups quinoa (gluten free)
Thoroughly rinse quinoa for 3 minutes in strainer to remove bitter
saponins flavor (see p. 69). Use 1³⁄₄ cups liquid in recipe for either
pancakes or waffles.
· oats
Especially good in combination with other grains, using ¹⁄₂ cup
rolled oats or ¹⁄₃ cup oat groats. Reduce the amount of the primary
grain by about ¹⁄₃ cup. My favorite, for example is ¹⁄₂ cup rolled oats
+ ³⁄₄ - 1 cup Kamut®grain.
· nuts & seeds
Add 2 tablespoons ground flax seed with the egg in step 4, p. 96
(see pp. 30-31 for nutrition and grinding). Sprinkle nuts or seeds over
the top of the batter in waffle iron: chopped pecans, walnuts, sunflower
seeds (see p. 30 for soaking preparation).
95
Blender Waffles/Pancakes
Enjoy surprisingly light and crispy whole grain waffles
without an expensive grain mill. Versatile allergy alternatives with grain variations. See pp. 81-84 for blender tips and
pp. 92-94 for additional tips. For 6 servings you can increase this recipe 1¹⁄₂
times, but do not double it; this will overload the blender unless you have
a Vita-Mix. To mix by hand with flour see p. 84; use about 2¹⁄₄ cups flour.
AMOUNT: Serves 4 (4 - 5 waffles--7"; 18 - 20 pancakes--4")
STAGE 1
1. Place in blender; blend at highest speed 3 - 5 minutes;
cover blender; let stand at room temperature several hours (p. 12):
1¹⁄₂ - 1³⁄₄ cups cultured milk or non-dairy alternative (p. 6)
Use the lesser amount liquid for pancakes; batter should be
a little thicker than for waffles; adjust to your preference.
2 tablespoons melted butter or olive oil (p. 7; or add melted coconut
oil in step 4 below; p. 19)
1 teaspoon vanilla extract (omit with buckwheat)
1 cup raw brown rice + ¹⁄₂ cup uncooked rolled oats (pp. 7-8)
or other grain choice (see suggestions, p. 95)
2. Sift through small strainer into a small bowl; set aside (see step 5, p. 82):
2 teaspoons baking powder (p. 8)
¹⁄₂ teaspoon baking soda (p. 8)
¹⁄₂ - 1 teaspoon salt, to taste (p. 9)
STAGE 2
3. Preheat waffle iron at highest temperature, or griddle on mediumhigh (pp. 93, 94).
4. Just before baking, add egg and any extra liquid; blend on highest speed
1 - 3 minutes; briefly blend in optional ground flax seeds, then
leavenings and salt (assist with rubber spatula, if needed):
1 egg or alternative (p. 7)
additional liquid (add water if batter needs thinning to keep a vortex going)
2 tablespoons ground flax seeds, optional (p. 95)
leavenings and salt (from step 2)
5. Grease waffle iron or griddle if needed.
Pour batter onto hot waffle iron or
griddle for pancakes. Bake until light
goes off on waffle iron or according to
appliance instructions. For pancakes,
bake on first side until bubbles on unbaked side begin
to break; turn and bake on second side.
6. Serve hot (see p. 94).
96
Fresh Apple Topping
A favorite waffle, pancake or crepe topping when
fresh apples are in abundance. I like tart apples
such as Gravenstein, Greening, Newton Pippin, or
Granny Smith. Jonathan are also especially good.
AMOUNT: 4 - 6 Servings (2¹⁄₂ - 3 Cups)
1. Combine in saucepan, bring to boil, lower heat and simmer until
apples are just tender, about 5 minutes:
4 apples, cored, peeled or unpeeled; coarsely chopped
just enough water to prevent sticking while cooking
2. Remove from heat, drain, if desired, and stir in:
¹⁄₄ cup honey, to taste (p. 9)
¹⁄₂ teaspoon cinnamon, to taste (p. 9)
Dried Apple Topping
A favorite off-season waffle and pancake topping. Delicious with yogurt.
Dried apples are the least expensive dried fruit to keep on hand.
AMOUNT: About 3 Cups
1. Soak several hours or overnight:
1 cup dried apples, unsulfured (p. 7)
2 cups filtered water (p. 9)
2. Drain the apples, saving the juice. Measure the
juice and add enough water to make 1 cup liquid;
pour into saucepan and whisk in:
¹⁄₄ cup honey (p. 9)
2 tablespoons arrowroot powder (see below) or cornstarch
¹⁄₂ teaspoon cinnamon (p. 9)
3. Bring to a low boil over medium heat, stirring constantly with
wire whisk. Continue to cook until thickened and clear, about
1 minute. Remove from heat.
4. Snip apples in pieces with kitchen shears, or chop small
with a chef's knife. Fold into cooked sauce.
5. To serve, rewarm or keep warm, as needed over low heat.
Ingredient Tip Arrowroot powder comes from the tubers of several
tropical plants, containing trace minerals, better nutritionally than cornstarch, but more unstable. It requires lower heat and is best not boiled
vigorously. It generally does not hold or reheat well, although this recipe
remains thick upon refrigerating and reheating leftover topping. This may
be partly due to the thickening effect of the pectin in the apples. Although
arrowroot has twice the thickening power of cornstarch, I prefer to use the
same amount of either in recipes. Purchase at a health food store.
104
116
1 Serving of 4
1 piece of 15
1 crepe of 15
1 piece of 9
1 muffin of 14
1 muffin of 12
1 scone of 12
1 biscuit of 9
1 tortilla of 12
1 slice of 16
1 slice of 16
Almond Coffee Cake (cut 3 x 5), p. 89
Blender Crepes, p. 101
Blender Cornbread or Cornbread (cut 3 x 3)
pp. 90, 91
Blender Banana Muffins without nuts, p. 108
Banana Nut Muffins, p. 109
Cinnamon Scones, p. 110
Hearty Biscuits, p. 111
Tortillas or Chapatis, p. 112
Pumpkin Bread, p. 114
Zucchini Bread, p. 115
1 Serving of 4
Blender Waffles/Pancakes (Kamut grain/oat)
pp. 95, 96
®
Blender Waffles/Pancakes (rice/oat), p. 96
130
172
89
131
170
207
170
135
54
201
315
335
CARB
12 g (33%) 47 g (57%)
FAT
2 g (7%)
3 g (6%)
3 g (12%)
3 g (9%)
2 g (6%)
4 g (8%)
3 g (7%)
3 g (9%)
2 g (12%)
4 g (7%)
4 g (25%)
4 g (18%)
1 g (15%)
4 g (30%)
8 g (44%)
8 g (35%)
7 g (38%)
6 g (38%)
2 g (25%)
8 g (33%)
23 g (68%)
34 g (76%)
16 g (74%)
20 g (61%)
21 g (50%)
30 g (58%)
24 g (55%)
18 g (53%)
8 g (62%)
30 g (59%)
10 g (12%) 11 g (33%) 43 g (55%)
8 g (10%)
SERVING SIZE CALORIES PROTEIN
2g
3g
4g
3g
3g
4g
3g
1g
1g
3g
9g
2.5 g
DIETARY FIBER
Data based on first ingredients listed in recipe; g = grams; % = % of Calories
cultured milk in recipes is based on using 2 parts whole yogurt + 1 part water.
RECIPE
Yeast Breads
Again he asked, "What shall I compare the kingdom of God to? It is like yeast that a woman took
and mixed into a large amount of flour until it
worked all through the dough." Luke 13:20-21
Yeast Breads Contents
Introducing Yeast Breads
119
Outline of Steps in Yeast Bread Baking
121
The Value of a Bread Kneader
122
What About Auto-Bake Machines?
122
Pans for Bread Baking
123
Ingredients for Yeast Breads
124
Yeast Bread Baking Techniques
130
Evaluating a Yeast Bread Loaf
141
Trouble Shooting Your Bread
142
Sensational Sourdough
156
The Best Thing Before Sliced Bread
160
Yeast Bread Recipes Nutrient Information
168
RECIPES
Delicious Whole Grain Dough
Delicious Whole Grain Bread
Break-Apart Loaves
Whole Grain Dinner Rolls
Cinnamon Rolls
Prune Rolls
Cinnamon Bread
Oatmeal Bread
Little Wheat Nuggets Bread
Barley Malt Bread
Seven Grain Bread
Bread in the Round
Parmesan Herb Bread
Pizza Crust
Party Pizza
Sprouted Grain
Sprouted Whole Grain Bread
Sourdough Starter
Sourdough Bread
Sourdough English Muffins
144
145
146
147
148
149
150
150
150
150
151
151
152
153
153
154
155
157
158
159
118
Introducing Yeast Breads
The wonderful world of whole grain baking is not complete
without an introduction to yeast breads. The combination of a variety
of whole grain quick breads and yeast breads adds tremendous
nutritional and creative value to family meals. Yeast bread baking is
more involved and complex than baking quick breads. Most homemakers shy away from it. Nevertheless, yeast breads fill a niche in our
diet that quick breads, tasty as they are, fail to completely satisfy. Not
only do they provide contrast in taste and texture, but they are suited
to all meals and snacks. In comparison, most sweetened quick breads
are more suitable for breakfast menus, snacks, brunch or desserts.
A Russian experience will serve to illustrate. During my first classes
for Russian women, I prepared a quick bread such as muffins to serve
with a main dish. While dining on the main dish, I expected the women
to eat the muffins as an accompaniment. Instead, they wanted to save
the muffins for dessert with tea, and while dining on the main dish
asked, "Isn't there any bread?" In Russia, a meal is not a meal without
bread, and that means yeast bread.
Yeast bread has been loved by virtually all peoples for millennia,
while most quick breads are more recent. Homebaked yeast breads
are worthy of our attention since most commercial yeast breads,
including whole grain, fail to measure up nutritionally. Likewise, the
delectable taste and texture of homebaked yeast breads is hard to
match com-mercially. People who are served a slice of homebaked
yeast bread feel like they are getting the royal treatment.
There is always more to be learned about whole grain baking and
especially about making yeast breads. For years I made the first basic
yeast bread recipe that came with my electric bread kneader with
success every time. I have happily used my Bosch Universal Kitchen
Machine for thirty years (not an autobake machine). I followed the
easiest guidelines for producing this recipe almost effortlessly, doing
a variety of variations with the same dough: loaves, dinner rolls,
variations of cinnamon rolls, date pecan ring, pizza crust, parmesan
herb bread, hamburger and hot dog buns. I used hard winter red
wheat exclusively until I was introduced to spelt, Kamut®grain, hard
white wheat and hard red spring wheat. I continued to have consistent
success substituting these grains in the same recipe with slight
variations in flour quantity.
The original recipe, Delicious Whole Grain Dough, p. 144 still
remains my basic recipe, although now incorporating changes based
on current nutritional understanding concerning the issue of phytates.
119
Although instruction is given in the recipes for hand-kneading, I
have always used my electric bread kneader. If you have a machine that
does the work for you, who wants to discourage it? On the other hand,
I believe one gains a much better understanding of the kneading
process by learning to hand-knead. Likewise, not everyone will have an
electric bread kneader. Either way, try your hand at hand-kneading
first before relying completely on an electric bread kneader.
Recall key nutritional reasons for neutralizing the phytic acid in
whole grains: to release valuable nutrients, to make the protein more
usable, and to reduce stress of gluten on the digestive system. Fermentation with yeast is one of the three ways to accomplish this. Unfortunately, commercial yeast, which includes only one strain of bacteria,
does not adequately break down the phytates. According to Claude
Aubert in Les Aliments Fermentes Traditionnels, as quoted in Nourishing Traditions,1 the fermentation of commercial yeast "becomes
mainly an alcoholic fermentation and the acidification is greatly lessened. The bread is less digestible, less tasty and spoils more easily."
Thus the two-stage method of soaking is still called for even in my yeast
bread recipes that rely on commercial yeast fermentation to neutralize
phytic acid. The exception is that when sprouted grain is used for the
flour, the soaking stage may be omitted. Likewise, sourdough breads,
fermented by a combination of several yeasts, do not require the
soaking stage in the same way as when using commercial yeast.
Sourdough, nevertheless, has its own soaking stage. Each of these
three methods for making yeast breads is introduced in this book.
Since you have learned the two-stage method of soaking for quick
breads, making the transition to yeast breads and even sourdough
bread will not seem so strange or difficult. You will also be able to apply
the principles of yeast bread baking in this book to your own favorite
recipes as well as all other yeast bread recipes from additional cookbooks and resources.
A yeast bread is not a quick bread because of the time involved in
the fermentation process and the kneading process. Yet your own time
involved is probably not more than 35 - 40 minutes for two loaves of
bread even if you hand-knead without a machine. Shaping the dough
into rolls or items other than loaves may add another 10 minutes. It is
the hand-kneading process that requires the most effort. Otherwise, it
is an exercise in patient waiting for the dough to do its own work. It will
not do to be in a rush to start and complete a yeast bread recipe of high
nutritional value (see, for example, Exodus 12:39).
1
Nourishing Traditions by Sally Fallon with Mary G. Inig, Ph.D.. Washington D.C. ,
NewTrends Publishing, Inc. (www.newtrendspublishing.com), 2001, p. 489.
120
The instructions and techniques explained for making yeast
breads seem complicated and involved, especially at first. The actual
practice, however, is really quite simple and easily understood after
a few practices. With increasing experience, you can make yeast
breads of any type with ease and confidence and will not need to refer
to involved instructions. The basic techniques are the same for all with
slight variation for sourdough or sprouted breads. Don't expect to
learn all there is to know from this book. It is an introduction to the
basics.
Getting the perspective from the outline below will provide a
clearer sense of direction to build your confidence.
Detailed explanations of these steps follow on
the succeeding pages, paralleling the basic
yeast dough and yeast bread recipes. After a
few yeast bread baking experiences, the recipes alone will give you sufficient instruction.
Outline of Steps in Yeast Bread Baking
1. Soak major portion of flour.
2. Let stand 12 - 24 hours.
3. Proof the yeast.
4. Add remaining ingredients with yeast.
5. Knead, adding more flour as needed.
6. 1st rise - in the bowl
7. Press down gently.
8. 2nd rise - in the bowl
9. Press down gently; knead briefly.
10. Divide and shape; place in pans.
11. 3rd rise - Proofing - in the pans
12. Bake (4th rise - Oven Spring).
13. Turn loaves out to cool.
14. Cool completely before slicing/storing.
121
Troubleshooting
Your Bread
Check out the positives first! See p. 141.
Too soft, sticky, or "gooey" after baking?
· Not enough flour added
· Not baked long enough
· Unpasteurized milk not scalded
· If sprouted grain added, sprouts too long or mature
· Too much potato or potato water added
Too dry or crumbly?
· Too much flour added
· Flour too coarse in texture
· Raisins not soaked or drained before adding
Dough doesn't rise?
· Yeast left out (It does happen!)
· Yeast is dead or inactive
· Yeast proofed in too hot water
· Bread allowed to rise in too hot a place (as oven or hot stove top)
Dough rises too slowly?
· Water added was too cool
· Flour was refrigerator cold
· Place of rising too cool
· Yeast old, but not dead
Falls while baking?
· Allowed to rise too high before baking
· Temperature in oven not turned high enough
Doesn't rise very high?
· Don't expect it to rise as high as white bread
· Addition of grains other than wheat
· Dough took too long to rise (see reasons above)
· Not enough kneading to develop gluten, or over-kneading
· Pans too large
· Too much liquid in recipe
Burned?
· Oven temperature too hot
· Baked too long
· Glass pans absorb more heat. Lower by 25° if needed.
· The more honey used, the faster the bread browns.
142
Tastes flat?
· Salt left out
· Not enough salt
Poor flavor?
· Recipe not followed correctly
· Recipe doesn't suit your taste--adjust to suit your taste
· Your creative additions didn't quite work, but don't give up
Has large air holes?
· Air bubbles not pressed out adequately
while shaping the dough (pp. 136-137)
Crumbles when sliced?
· Too dry (p. 131)
· Not allowed to cool thoroughly before slicing
· Wrong kind of knife for the task--an all too common occurrence
Causes indigestion, drowsiness, or other discomfort?
· Not baked long enough
· Sensitive or allergic to wheat, gluten, or other ingredient
· Carbohydrate eaten alone can cause drowsiness--eat some
protein with the bread
· The condition, Candida Albicans, a proliferation of yeast throughout the body cells, is aggravated by eating foods containing yeast
· Bread eaten while too fresh (p. 140)
What to do with Bread 'Failures'
Make bread crumbs
Trim off burned part, break up into blender and process to crumbs;
freeze in tightly covered container. Use to garnish casseroles or in
recipes calling for bread crumbs.
Make bread cubes
Trim off burned part, cut in cubes and freeze to use in bread stuffing.
Make croutons
Make Soup 'n Salad Croutons, Soups & Muffins or Meals in Minutes.
Make a dessert
Use in Sweet 'n Spicy Pudding, Desserts; rich and delicious!
143
Delicious Whole Grain Dough
Master this one recipe and you will be able to make several delicious
variations with it. Easily double this recipe with an electric bread kneader
(p. 122). For additional ingredient variations not included in specific recipe
variations, see pp. 128-129.
AMOUNT: About 3 lbs. Dough (See Recipe Variations)
STAGE 1 (pp.130-131)
1. Blend well in mixing bowl (dough may be quite firm); lay plastic
wrap snuggly on top of dough (p. 11); cover bowl with damp cloth
(p.131); let stand 12-24 hours:
2 cups warm filtered water (p.9)
2 tablespoons whey or apple cider vinegar (pp.6, 128)
4 - 6 cups whole wheat flour, spelt or Kamut®grain flour (p.7)
STAGE 2 (pp.131-136)
2. Blend and allow to stand 5-10 minutes until it bubbles up (p.131):
¹⁄₄ cup very warm (but not hot) water
1 tablespoon active dry yeast (or ¹⁄₄ oz. packet) (p.8)
¹⁄₂ teaspoon baking soda (neutralizes acid in step 1; see p. 128)
¹⁄₂ teaspoon honey
3. Blend following ingredients in measuring cup; work into dough
followed by proofed yeast until all is well blended (pp.131-132):
¹⁄₃ cup melted coconut oil or butter, or olive oil (p.7)
¹⁄₃ cup honey (p.9)
2 teaspoons salt (p.9)
4. Add flour in the bowl until dough can be handled easily outside
the bowl; turn out of bowl and knead 20 minutes or 600-800
strokes until smooth and resistant to kneading action, adding
more flour, as needed to prevent sticking (pp. 132-134):
2 - 3 cups flour (sprouted flour or unbleached white bread flour, pp.8, 132)
(expect to use more if spelt flour used in step 1)
5. 1st Rise (p.135) Place dough in lightly greased bowl, grease top of
dough lightly, cover with damp cloth; let rise in a warm place until
double, about 1-1¹⁄₂ hours. Use finger poke test.
6. 2nd Rise (pp.135-136) Punch dough down gently, turn it over; cover
and let rise until double, about 45 minutes. Use finger poke test.
7. Punch down down; place on counter with a little flour under it;
knead briefly, round it up and cover with a damp cloth; let it rest
10-15 minutes (p.136).
8. Shape dough and bake, as desired, into bread loaves, rolls, or pizza
crust, etc. using recipes that follow.
144
Living Bread
I love working with food. I marvel at the variety, the textures, the
flavors, the colors, and the endless ways to prepare it. There is almost
nothing I like better than to serve others a beautiful satisfying meal of
tasty, nutritious food. This interest was sparked in me even before I
began my university years in home economics education.
But I had little awareness of the Master Chef, the personal Creator
who had originated the foods I loved to prepare. My background wasn't
religious, although from childhood I believed in my own idea of God. I
had heard of Jesus, but I thought of him only as the greatest man who
ever lived. I did not think he was essential to my belief in God. Although
I felt some security in my belief in God, it left me with only a vague
understanding of who he was. Consequently, as with everything else in
my life, my choice of an education in home economics was not
grounded in any kind of conscious relationship with him.
When I was invited to attend a Bible study held weekly at my
university residence, I brought my own idea of Jesus with me. I wasn't
aware that He had created a complete meal for over 5,000 people out
of two fish and five loaves of barley bread just by giving thanks for it to
his heavenly Father and distributing it to the multitude through the
helping hands of his disciples! I soon learned that my conception of
him was far too limited.
In the beginning was the Word and the Word was with God, and the
word was God...The Word became flesh and lived for a while among
us. We have seen his glory, the glory of the one and only Son, who
came from the Father, full of grace and truth. John 1:1, 14.
Who was Jesus Christ? The greatest Man that ever lived? Yes! But
much more. Was it possible that I could believe in God and reject Jesus
Christ? Through him all things were made; without him nothing was
made that has been made (John 1:3). Obviously not; Jesus Christ was
present and active in the creation of the world!
Why did I need to concern myself with believing in Jesus Christ? Out
of his own eternal relationship with his heavenly Father, he was seeking
a personal relationship with me, as well. My sheep listen to my voice,
I know them, and they follow me (John 10:27). While God created food
for me, he created me for himself, to honor and reflect his creative and
moral magnificence.
166
Yet, there is a separation between human beings and God ever since
Eve deliberately chose to defy his instructions by eating and serving the
wrong food. Just imagine that he chose a food issue to test man's
obedience to himself--so homely, so every-day! Adam and Eve suffered
the consequences of that choice--separation from his fellowship and
death, both physical and spiritual. They chose to make their decisions
about life independently of God, and that was exactly what I had been
doing!
No one had ever explained to me that I was spiritually dead or that
the purpose of God, the Son, becoming flesh was not just to identify
with my human situation alone. He took the death penalty on himself,
to pay the price for my rebellion, that is my independence from God,
and to restore a fellowship relationship with himself. Imagine, the
eternal, living, personal God taking my death sentence upon himself!
Thus I discovered it is not possible to honor God or to know him apart
from Jesus. I learned that receiving God, the Son, Jesus Christ, was
receiving the Father as well. I am the way and the truth and the life.
No one comes to the Father except through me. If you really knew me,
you would know my Father as well. From now on, you do know him
and have seen him...Anyone who has seen me has seen the Father
(John 14:6-7, 9).
I gave my life to Jesus Christ. Yet to all who received him, to those
who believed in his name, he gave the right to become children of God
(John 1:12). It was the beginning of a transformed life. ...if anyone is
in Christ, he is a new creation; the old has gone, the new has come!
All this is from God....God made him who had no sin to be sin for us,
so that in him we might become the righteousness of God (2 Corinthians
5:17, 21).
"I am the bread of life. He who comes to me will never go hungry...I
am the living bread that came down from heaven. If a man eats of this
bread, he will live forever" (John 6:35, 51). This is Jesus' astounding
offer to "whosoever" believes in him (John 3:16).
This is the living bread that you may eat
of and not die, the central message God
desires to make known to us even as
reflected in and made known through
our daily bread (Romans 1:20; Jeremiah
15:16).
167
168
143
107
118
1 roll/15 pan
1 roll/15 pan
1 roll/15 pan
1 slice/16 per loaf
1 slice/16 per loaf
1 slice/16 per loaf
1 wedge of 6
1 slice/16 per loaf
1 slice/16 per loaf
1/2 muffin of 20
Cinnamon Rolls, p. 148 (w/out opt. ingred.)
Prune Rolls, p. 149
Cinnamon Bread, p. 150 (with raisins)
Oatmeal Bread, p. 150 (¹⁄₄ C. ea. honey, oil) 1 slice/16 per loaf
1 slice/16 per loaf
Whole Grain Dinner Rolls, p. 147
(without sesame seeds)
Little Nuggets Bread, p. 150
Barley Malt Bread, p. 150
Seven Grain Bread, p. 151
Party Pizza, 13" pizza, p. 153 (all ingred.)
Sourdough Bread, p. 158
Sprouted Whole Grain Bread, p. 155
Sourdough English Muffins, p. 159
88
121
91
376
98
118
179
138
115
111
1 slice/16 per loaf
Parmesan Herb Bread, p. 152
108
CALORIES
1 slice/16 per loaf
SERVING SIZE
Delicious Whole Grain Bread, p. 145
(6 cups wheat flour; 1 cup=407 Calories)
RECIPE
4 g (15%)
4 g (12%)
4 g (15%)
20 (21%)
3 g (12%)
4 g (12%)
4 g (12%)
3 g (12%)
3 g (9%)
4 g (9%)
3 g (9%)
3 g (11%)
4 g (12%)
4 g (12%)
PROTEIN
1 g (6%)
3 g (19%)
1 g (8%)
16 (36%)
3 g (23%)
3 g (20%)
3 g (20%)
2 g (19%)
3 g (16%)
6 g (26%)
3 g (18%)
3 g (21%)
3 g (22%)
3 g (19%)
FAT
19 g (68%)
22 g (69%)
19 g (68%)
42 (43%)
17 g (64%)
19 g (68%)
19 g (68%)
19 g (68%)
19 g (68%)
19 g (68%)
19 g (68%)
19 g (68%)
19 g (68%)
22 g (69%)
CARB
2g
3g
2g
6g
3g
3g
3g
3g
3g
4g
3g
3g
3g
3g
DIETARY FIBER
_____________________________________________________________________________________________
Data based on first ingredients listed in recipe; g = grams; % = % of Calories
Index
A
Allergy alternatives, 27, 30,
32,
56-57, 58
Almond Coffee Cake, 89
Almond milk, 9, 16
Almond Milk for Baking, 16
Amaranth, 50-52, 69
Apple cider vinegar 6, 15, 32,
128, 130
Apple Topping, Dried, 104
Apple Topping, Fresh, 104
Appliances, 10
B
Baking pans , 10
Baking powder, 8, 25-27, 32
Baking soda, 8, 25-27,128
Banana Muffins, Blender,
108
Banana Nut Muffins, 109
Barley, 50-52, 64-65
Barley malt, 9
Barley Malt Bread, 150
Berry Topping, Fresh, 103
Berry Topping, Mixed, 103
Biscuits, 88
Hearty Biscuits, 111
See also quick breads
Blender, 10, 81-84
Blender Banana Muffins, 108
Blender Corbbread, 90
Blender Crepes, 101
Blender Waffles/Pancakes, 96
Bread in the Round, 151
Bread kneaders, 122
Break-Apart Loaves, 146
Brewer’s yeast, 129
Brown rice, 50-52, 63-64
Buckwheat, 50-52, 67-68
Butter, 7, 18, 34
Buttermilk, 6, 15
C
Canola oil, 20-21
Chapatis, See tortillas
Cheese cloth, 10
Cinnamon Bread, 149
Cinnamon Rolls, 148
Cinnamon Scones, 110
Coconut milk, 9, 16
Coconut Milk for Baking, 9, 16
Coconut oil,7, 18-19
Coffee bean mill, See mills
Coffee cakes, 88
See also quick breads
Corn, 50-52, 59-60
Cornbread, 88
Cornbread, 91
Cornbread, Blender, 90
See also quick breads
Cornmeal, 8
Cottage Filled Fruit Crepes,
102
Crepe pan, 10
Crepes, 97-100
See also quick breads
Crepes, Blender, 101
Crystalline fructose, 24
Cultured milk, 6, 15
D
Dehydrator, 10
Delicious Whole Grain Bread, 145
Delicious Whole Grain Dough, 144
Dietary fiber , See fiber
Dinner Rolls, Whole Grain, 147
Dried Apple Topping, 104
E
Eggs, 7, 17, 31, 32, 129
Equipment, 10-11
169
F
Flaxseed Egg Alternative, 31
Flour, 7, 47, 124, 132
White, 8, 42-43, 47
Wheat/whole grain, 8, 17,
54-55, 74-75
Fresh Apple Topping, 104
Fresh Berry Topping, 103
Fructose, crystalline, 22
Fruits, 7
G
Gluten, 32, 52, 133-134, 136,
139
Grain, 7, 17, 48-72, 124
Biblical, 5, 42, 48, 77
Cost of, 71
Converting to flour, 17
Flour, whole See flour
Storage of, 73-74
Whole, 17, 42-46
Grain mills See mills
H
Hearty Biscuits, 111
Honey, 21
K
Kamut, 50-52, 56-57
Kefir, 6, 15
Kneading, 120,122, 124-135
L
Leavenings, 8, 25-26
Legumes, 128
Little Nuggets Wheat Bread,
150
Loaf pans, 10
M
Maple syrup, 21
Measuring, 33-34, 35
Milk, 129
Millet, 15,50-52,66
Mills
170
Coffee bean, 10, 76
Grain or flour, 10, 75-76,
130
Mixed Berry Topping, 103
Muffins, 105-107
See also quick breads
Muffin pans , 10
N
Nonstick spray, 7
Nuts & seeds, 8, 30, 129
O
Oatmeal Bread, 150
Oats, 50-52, 61-62
Oils, 7, 93
See fats, individual names
Olive oil, 7, 19-20
Olive oil nonstick spray, 7, 18
Organic foods 6
P
Pancakes, 92-95
See also quick breads
Blender Waffles/Pancakes,
96
Parmesan HerbBread, 152
Party Pizza, 153
Pastry blender,
11
Phytates. 13-14, 54,62, 128
Phytic acid, 12-14, 15, 26,
29, 128,130
Pizza Crust, 153
Prune Rolls, 149
Pumpkin Bread, 114
Q
Quick breads, 80, 81-88,
92-95, 97-100, 105-107,
112-113, 116
Pumpkin Bread, 114
Zucchini Bread, 115
Quinoa, 50-52, 68
R
Rapadura, 9, 24
Raw milk, 6, 15
Rice, See brown rice
Rolled oats, 8
Rye, 50-52, 65
S
Salt, 9,29, 126
Scones, Cinnamon, 110
Seeds, See nuts & seeds
Seven Grain Bread, 151
Shopping
Quick shopping guide, 6-9
Sorghum, 50, 68
Sourdough, 156-157
Sourdough Bread, 158
Sourdough English Muffins,
159
Sourdough Starter, 157
Spelt, 53, 58
Spices & flavorings, 9,28
Sprouts, 128
Sprouted grain, 17
Sprouted Grain, 154
Sprouted Whole Grain Dough,
155
Sucanat, 9, 23-24
Sugar
Brown, 9
White, 9
Sweeteners 9, 21-24, 125
T
Teff, 50-52, 70
Thermometer
Chef’s, 10
Digital, 10
Oven, 11, 138
Tortillas, 112-113
Triticale, 50-52, 67
Two-stage process, 12-14,
81-84
U
Utensils, 10
See also individual items
V
Vanilla extract,28
W
Waffle iron, 10
Waffles, 92-95
See also quick breads
Waffles/Pancakes, Blender ,
96
Water, 9,127
Wheat, 32,47, 50-55
Wheat bran,46, 54
Wheat germ,
54
Whipped Cream, 103
White flour See flour
Whole Grain Dinner Rolls, 147
Whole grain (wheat) flour
See flour
Wild rice, 50-51, 70
X
Xylitol, 24
Y
Yeast, 8, 25, 126, 135-136,
156
Proofing, 131-132
Yeast breads, 118-143, 141
Z
Zucchini Bread, 115
171
Was this manual useful for you? yes no
Thank you for your participation!

* Your assessment is very important for improving the work of artificial intelligence, which forms the content of this project

Download PDF

advertising