Measuring mmWave Spectrum using External Mixer Application Note

Measuring mmWave Spectrum using External Mixer Application Note
Application Note
Measuring mmWave Spectrum
using External Mixer
Signal Analyzer MS2840A/MS2830A
High Performance Waveguide Mixer (50 to 75 GHz)/(60 to 90 GHz) MA2806A/MA2808A
Harmonic Mixer (26.5 to 325 GHz) MA2740C/50C Series
Contents
1.
Introduction ........................................................................................................... 2
2.
mmWave Usage...................................................................................................... 2
3.
mmWave Measurement Methods ........................................................................ 3
4.
Required Performance for Measurement System .............................................. 8
5.
Principle of Spurious Generation without using Preselector ............................ 9
6.
Measurement Examples ...................................................................................... 16
7.
mmWave Band Uncertainties and Notes........................................................... 20
8.
Conclusions ........................................................................................................... 24
1. Introduction
The mmWave band has this name because it uses frequencies with wavelengths from 1 to 10 mm, which in
concrete terms means a frequency of 30 GHz to 300 GHz.
Higher frequency signals have stronger linearity but the mmWave band also has high directivity.
In terms of physical characteristics, the mmWave band suffers from large free space attenuation losses, which
when coupled with the high directivity makes it an extremely difficult frequency band to use compared to the 800
MHz and 2 GHz bands currently used by applications.
In contrast to the frequency band at 6 GHz and below, which has a limited usable frequency band due to a
shortage of available frequencies, the mmWave band supports broadband signals and seems likely to be an
essential part of future large capacity wireless communications systems.
This Application Note explains issues in mmWave band measurements, and a new measurement method proposed
by Anritsu.
2. mmWave Usage
Wireless communications systems typified by mobile phones are seeing year onyear increases in data traffic. In
particular, 5G mobile communications systems targeting traffic volumes of 1000 times that of LTE are being
developed. Use of wideband signals is a key element in achieving large capacity communications and attention is
focused on the mmWave frequency band supporting broadband signals.
The Shannon-Hartley theorem (below) related to communications capacity in information theory shows how
communications capacity increases as the bandwidth of the transmitted signal is widened.
𝑆
C = 𝐡 × πΏπ‘œπ‘”2 (1 + )
𝑁
C: πΆπ‘œπ‘šπ‘šπ‘’π‘›π‘–π‘π‘Žπ‘‘π‘–π‘œπ‘›π‘  π‘π‘Žπ‘π‘Žπ‘π‘–π‘‘π‘¦ [bps]
B: Bπ‘Žπ‘›π‘‘π‘€π‘–π‘‘π‘‘β„Ž [Hz]
S: Tπ‘œπ‘‘π‘Žπ‘™ π‘π‘œπ‘€π‘’π‘Ÿ π‘œπ‘“ π‘ π‘–π‘”π‘›π‘Žπ‘™ 𝑖𝑛 π‘π‘Žπ‘›π‘‘π‘€π‘–π‘‘π‘‘β„Ž [W]
N: Tπ‘œπ‘‘π‘Žπ‘™ π‘π‘œπ‘€π‘’π‘Ÿ π‘œπ‘“ noise 𝑖𝑛 π‘π‘Žπ‘›π‘‘π‘€π‘–π‘‘π‘‘β„Ž [W]
S
: Sπ‘–π‘”π‘›π‘Žπ‘™ π‘‘π‘œ π‘›π‘œπ‘–π‘ π‘’ π‘Ÿπ‘Žπ‘‘π‘–π‘œ
N
Since recent wireless communications applications have a limited usable frequency band, wireless system
development has focused heavily on signal multiplexing, but the frequency resource rich mmWave band has
greater potential for larger capacity wireless communications than previous systems by simply doubling or tripling
the signal band.
2
3. mmWave Measurement Methods
This section explains mmWave band spectrum measurement methods. It introduces several methods and explains
the features of each.
3.1. Methods using Harmonic Mixers
The conventional method for measuring the mmWave band uses an external harmonic mixer. The harmonic mixer
takes the LO signal from a dedicated spectrum analyzer and frequency converts it using an internally generated
harmonic waveform. This frequency converted IF signal is returned to the spectrum analyzer to perform analysis.
Since the LO signal harmonic is used for frequency conversion, mmWave band signals can be analyzed using a
relatively low frequency LO signal, offering a lower cost system configuration than other measurement methods.
On the other hand, this method is limited in use because a preselector cannot be used upstream of the mixer and
the mixer response cannot be filtered out (see section 5). In addition, since this method uses frequency conversion
using the mixer harmonic response, it suffers from high conversion losses due to the conversion degree, requiring
care over the resultant degraded sensitivity of the measuring instrument.
RF:
81.875 GHz
Mixer
Diplexer
IF: 1.875 GHz
RF
Level
10 GHz
IF
Diplexer
ADC
LO
LO:80 GHz
LO frequency
LO: 10 GHz
Harmonic Mixer
Fig. 1: Harmonic mixer outline
LO: 10 GHz
Spectrum Analyzer
3
The following line of harmonic mixers supporting different frequencies matching the users’ application is available
for use as dedicated external mixers with the MS2830A/40A.
Model Name
MA2741C
MA2742C
MA2743C
MA2744C
MA2745C
MA2746C
MA2747C
MA2748C
MA2749C
MA2750C
MA2751C
4
Table 1: MA2740/50C series external mixers
Frequency Range
Band
Conversion
Conversion
Factor
Loss (typ.)
26.5 GHz to 40 GHz
A
4
23
33 GHz to 50 GHz
Q
5
26
40 GHz to 60 GHz
U
6
28
50 GHz to 75 GHz
V
8
32
60 GHz to 90 GHz
E
9
36
75 GHz to 110 GHz
W
11
39
90 GHz to 140 GHz
F
14
40
110 GHz to 170 GHz
D
17
45
140 GHz to 220 GHz
G
22
50
170 GHz to 260 GHz
Y
26
65
220 GHz to 325 GHz
J
33
70
Waveguide
size
WR28
WR22
WR19
WR15
WR12
WR10
WR08
WR06
WR05
WR04
WR03
3.2. Methods using External Down Converter
In methods using an external down converter, the down converter is upstream of the spectrum analyzer and a
synthesizer is provided to supply the LO signal. The mixer used by the down converter is a fundamental wave mixer,
rather than a harmonic mixer. Consequently, a multiplier is added to the LO signal path to increase the frequency
of the LO signal.
Down Converter
RF:
82 GHz
Mixer
Amplifier
IF: 10 GHz
ADC
IF
Level
RF
LO frequency
LO
Spectrum Analyzer
LO:72 GHz
LO:72 GHz
×N
LO:12 GHz
Multiplier
Fig. 2: Down converter outline
Signal Generator
When using an external down converter, the IF output of the down converter can be selected as the frequency
input to the downstream connected spectrum analyzer. As a result, the signal can be monitored with reduced
unwanted response (spurious response) generated by the external down converter.
On the other hand, with measurement methods using an external down converter, selection of any IF signal
requires correction of not only the frequency characteristics of the external down converter, but also of the
frequency characteristics of the cable connection to the downstream spectrum analyzer. In addition to a mixer for
the down converter, both a signal generator and a multiplier are required for the LO signal, creating issues with
measurement costs and difficult operation.
Moreover, since an unwanted image response is generated by the multiplier in the LO signal path, generation of
spurious frequencies must be considered, requiring separately a system matching the measurement frequency.
5
3.3. Methods using Spectrum Analyzers
The spectrum analyzer features a built in preselector for removing unwanted responses generated by the mixer.
Spectrum analyzers for the mmWave band are appearing.
On the other hand, since the spectrum analyzer internal noise figure (NF) increases as frequency rises, it becomes
difficult to obtain the required measurement sensitivity. In addition, use of coaxial connectors instead of a
waveguide results in problems handling connectors with high connection losses and degraded measurement
sensitivity.
Moreover, since these configurations use a preselector, there are limits on the measurable bandwidth.
Mixer
RF:
82 GHz
Amplifier
IF: 2 GHz
ADC
IF
RF
Attenuator Pre-selector
Level
40 GHz
LO:80 GHz
LO frequency
LO
LO:40 GHz
×N
Multiplier
Spectrum Analyzer
Fig. 3: Spectrum analyzer outline
6
LO:10 GHz
3.4. Method using High Performance Waveguide Mixer
The High Performance Waveguide Mixer MA2806A/08A connection method uses the same spectrum analyzer
LO signal source as when using a harmonic mixer. It has an internal multiplier for the LO signal because the
mixer uses a fundamental mixer. This is the same configuration as a down converter.
The IF signal depends on the spectrum analyzer because the connection is the same as a harmonic mixer. As
a result, spurious components generated by the mixer are reduced by the Spectrum Analyzer MS2830A/40A
and high IF of 1.875 GHz.
The High Performance Waveguide Mixer combines the advantages of down converter performance with
harmonic mixer ease of use.
RF:
81.875 GHz
Mixer
Diplexer
IF: 1.875 GHz
RF
IF
Diplexer
ADC
LO:80 GHz
Level
LO
LO frequency
LO: 80 GHz
×N
LO: 10 GHz
LO: 10 GHz
Multiplier
Spectrum Analyzer
High Performance Waveguide Mixer
Fig. 4: High Performance Waveguide Mixer outline
7
4. Required Performance for Measurement System
4.1. Dynamic Range Performance
Capturing wideband mmWave band signals requires better dynamic range performance than other applications.
For example, if we consider a –10 dBm signal with a bandwidth of 2 GHz, the normalized signal spectrum density is
–103 dBm/Hz (–10 dBm – 10*log(2 GHz) = –103 dBm/Hz).
Accurate measurement of this type of signal requires a high sensitivity measuring instrument with a sufficiently
lower level than –103 dBm.
CW Signal
Wideband Signal
10*log(Band Width) [dB]
Fig. 5: CW Signal and wideband signal spectrum density
4.2. Spurious Performance
mmWave band measurements using a harmonic mixer and external down converter require care concerning the
spurious performance. In this measurement method, various spurious, such as image response, is generated
because no preselector is used. If the user sees spurious in the wanted frequency range, the user must evaluate
whether it is caused by the measurement system or by the device under test (DUT).
Moreover, to capture wideband signals, if spurious is generated close to the input signal, there may be concerns
about overlap between the wanted signal and spurious, as shown in Fig. 6.
CW Signal
Wideband Signal
Signal
Spurious
Fig. 6: CW Signal and wideband signal spurious performance
8
5. Principle of Spurious Generation without using Preselector
5.1. Spurious Generation Principle
Most spurious generated by measurement without using a preselector is caused by the mixer response.
This section explains the mixer response and the principle by which spurious is generated when using a spectrum
analyzer.
Mixer
ADC
RF
IF=m×RF±n×LO
LO
Fig. 7: Mixer response and principle of spurious response
When not using a preselector, the largest spurious is the image response generated by the mixer.
As an example, a LO signal of 59 GHz is generated at an RF signal of 60 GHz and an IF signal of 1 GHz. Conversely
an IF signal of 1 GHz is generated even when the LO signal is 61 GHz. Usually, a spectrum analyzer displays the
response when LO is 59 GHz as a 60 GHz spectrum, and the response when LO is 61 GHz as a 62 GHz spectrum.
However, due to the previously described response, both the 60 GHz and 62 GHz signals are displayed when only a
60 GHz signal is input. The 62 GHz signal displayed at this time is called an image response.
Additionally, the image response is not the only main spurious; as shown by the following formula, the mixer
response is an unknown number of signals depending on the mixing degree. Based on the following equation, all
IF responses are displayed as spurious on the spectrum analyzer due to the action explained in the image response
example.
IF = mRF ± nLO
9
This spurious is called mixer multiple responses. (The image response is one of the mixer multiple responses but is
given a separate name because it is the same as the wanted signal.)
Generally, it is known that the conversion loss is smaller as the mixing degree becomes smaller, and the smaller
the conversion order, the bigger the unwanted signal level.
Image response
Multiple response
Fig. 8: Image response and multiple response spectrum example
10
Input signal
5.2. Signal Recognition Functions
As explained, measurement without a preselector generates unwanted signals. Consequently, the MS2830A/40A
has Signal ID and PS functions for recognizing signals. Using these functions makes it possible to filter out
displayed signals caused by the measurement system and redundant signals caused by the DUT.
5.2.1. Signal ID Function
The Signal ID function has two subsidiary functions: Image Shift, and Image Suppression.
Both can be used to perform measurement by changing the mixing conditions. When the mixing conditions are
changed, the frequency conditions change so the frequency of signals caused by the measurement system
changes, but the frequency of the input signal does not change. This property makes it possible to accurately
discriminate the input signal to the measuring instrument.
While the Image Shift and the Image Suppression modes both support measurement with changed measurement
conditions, unlike the Image Shift mode, which displays the results for alternate measurements at changed mixing
conditions, the Image Suppression mode displays only the lower of the two results at both sides for one
measurement.
Fig. 9: Signal ID function setting screen
11
Using Image Shift function, mixing conditions change at each sweep and
spurious due to measurement system changes displayed position
Fig. 10: Example of monitored spectrum using Signal ID Image Shift function
Using Image Suppression function, spurious
caused by measurement system become
compressed on display
Fig. 11: Example of monitored spectrum using Signal ID Image Suppression function
12
5.2.2. PS Function
Using the MS2830A/40A with the MA2806A/08A supports the unique PS function for measuring signals without
spurious. The PS function requires pre-input of a signal with a known frequency to suppress spurious caused by the
measurement system. Not only can it be used to evaluate signals that are hard to measure using the Signal ID
function, it can also capture accurate spectrum data.
We recommend using the previously described Signal ID function to capture the frequency of the pre-input signal.
Fig. 12: PS Function setting screen
The PS function makes maximum use of the features of the High Performance Waveguide MA2806A/08A.
Instead of using a harmonic mixer to achieve the required dynamic range performance, the MA2806A/08A
performs frequency conversion using a reference wave mixer after first multiplying the LO signal using the LO
Multiplier Chain. Use of a reference wave mixer not only achieves a high dynamic range but also suppresses
responses generated by the mixer. As a result, generated spurious can be limited to the upper or lower side of the
input signal, depending on the polarity of the mixer response. The spurious at any frequency is suppressed in
principle by changing the polarity of the mixer response.
For example, when the polarity is negative (LO signal frequency higher than input frequency), an image response
appears at a higher frequency than the input. Conversely, when the polarity is positive (LO signal frequency lower
than input frequency), an image response appears at a lower frequency than the input. Consequently, an image
response at the left side of the measurement screen center is negative polarity, and at the right side is positive
polarity, and cannot be measured.
The PS function can only be used with a fundamental mixer; with a harmonic mixer, there is a possibility that other
responses occur within the measurement range, so the PS function cannot be used.
13
LO Polarity: negative
LO polarity: positive
PS Function On
Fig. 13: PS Function outline
14
5.2.3.
Difference between Signal ID and PS Functions
The Signal ID and PS functions are similar in that they both separate spurious caused by the measurement system
from the wanted signal but there are several differences between these functions. Having a good understanding of
the effects of these functions ensures that the best method is used.
Advantage
Disadvantage
Signal ID (Image Suppression) Function
Spurious caused by the measurement
system can be distinguished by changing
the mixing conditions for measurement.
PS Function
Signals that fluctuate over time (e.g. chirp) can be
measured since spurious can be suppressed in
principle.
When measuring signals that fluctuate over
time, sometimes the peak level drops or
disappears because Minimum Hold
processing is used.
With CW signals, although spurious can be
isolated, there is a possibility that signals
may overlap when changing mixing
conditions when there is wideband signal.
Spurious that cannot be suppressed in principle is
displayed.
*Sometimes high order spurious of about –50 dBc is
displayed.
15
6. Measurement Examples
This section explains how to measure the mmWave band using the Signal Analyzer MS2830A/40A and High
Performance Waveguide Mixer MA2806AA/08A. The MS2830A/40A also supports measurements using the MA27xx
series of harmonic mixers, but the measurements explained here are limited to using the MA2806A/MA2808A.
6.1. Setup
The MA2806A/08A is connected to the LO output port of the MS2830A/40A.
Connection Cable
AC-DC Adapter
Fig. 14: High Performance Waveguide Mixer MA2808A connection
16
6.2. External Mixer Function Setting Method
The MS2830A/40A External Mixer function is used by enabling it using the External Mixer: On/Off key at the second
page of the Frequency key.
After selecting the External Mixer function, the best band(s) matching the mixer to be used are selected and the LO
signal matching each band is supplied from the MS2830A/40A to monitor the spectrum.
17
6.3. Signal Analysis Functions
By using the MS2830A/40A external mixer function, the spectrum analyzer Measure function and signal analyzer
functions can be used even when using an external mixer.
The spectrum analyzer Measure function supports SEM, OBW, etc., measurements. In addition, chirp signals, etc.,
can be analyzed using the signal analyzer functions.
Fig. 15: SEM Measurement function (Measure Function)
Fig. 17: SA Function (Spectrum)
18
Fig. 16: OBW Measurement function (Measure Function)
Fig. 18: SA Function (Frequency vs Time)
6.4. Phase Noise Measurement Function
Phase noise can be measured when the phase noise measurement option (Opt-010) is installed in the
MS2830A/40A. This function can also be used when using the MA2806A/08A and simplifies phase noise
measurements in the V-band (50 to 75 GHz) and E-band (60 to 90 GHz).
At a CF of 1 GHz, the MS2840A phase noise function supports performance of –123 dBc/Hz at 10 kHz offset, and
–123 dBc/Hz at 100 kHz offset. However, at phase noise measurement using the High Performance Waveguide
Mixer, the performance is degraded by 20*log (multiplier) [dB], depending on the multiplier circuit configuration in
each model.
The MA2806A uses a x8 internal multiplier and the MA2808A uses a x12 internal multiplier, so the phase noise
performance is degraded by about 18 dB and 22 dB, respectively.
Figure 19 shows an example of phase noise measurement results at input of a 79GHz signal.
Fig. 19: Phase Noise measurement result example (Input frequency: 79 GHz)
19
7. mmWave Band Uncertainties and Notes
7.1. Impedance Mismatching
As well as measuring the mmWave band, it is also important to perform accurate measurements to help
understand uncertainties due to impedance mismatching.
The RL performance of the MA2806A/08A RF port is <15 dB, which reduces measurement uncertainty due to
impedance mismatching.
Fig. 20: MA2808A RF port RL characteristics
7.2. Power Measurement
Power is generally measured using a power meter when the power meter measures the total power in the entire
receivable frequency range. Consequently, the power of the signal cannot be measured accurately if there is
another signal affecting the wanted signal.
To help improve the power measurement accuracy, many users use a spectrum analyzer to pre-check for the
presence of spectrum components other than the wanted signal.
7.3. Others
Usually, a waveguide is used as the interface for mmWave band signal measurements. Due to the waveguide
construction, there is usually a gap at the connection face, which may degrade the frequency characteristics.
Assuring measurements with high reproducibility requires specific connection methods for the waveguide
interface.
20
7.4. Correction Functions
The MS2830A/40A external mixer function has the following correction functions.
・Conversion Loss
・Cable Loss
・Level Offset
・User Correction
By using each of these correction functions, users can generally improve the accuracy of measurements in the
mmWave band.
・Conversion Loss
The conversion loss is a unique value depending on which mixer is used. As a result, this function is used to correct
the displayed spectrum level by inputting the conversion loss value.
The Conversion Loss correction function has two modes: Fixed and Table. When the MS2830A/40A is used in
combination with the MA2806A/MA2808A, the Table mode can be used.
The mixer frequency characteristics are corrected simply by loading the conversion loss data for the MA2806A/08A
being used. These data are read automatically from a USB memory stick shipped with each MA2806A/08A.
When Fixed mode is selected, any set conversion
loss is applied to all frequencies.
When Table Mode is selected the conversion loss
for each frequency is applied by referencing the
Correction Table.
21
・Cable Loss
When the MS2830A/40A is used in combination with the MA2806A/08A, the conversion loss parameters can be
adjusted using the above described function, but the connection cable between the MS2830A/40A and mixer may
differ according to the usage circumstances. As a result, when using a connection cable with a known loss, this
function can be used to reflect that known loss in the measurement results.
・Level Offset
Level Offset is a standard function of the MS2830A/40A for setting the screen display offset. It is used for more
accurate level display.
In addition, the previously described Cable Loss setting can also be combined with this function.
22
・User Correction
User Correction is a standard function of the MS2830A/40A. It is used to correct the frequency characteristics of
external modules (attenuators, etc.) that cannot be covered by other functions.
It is set at page 2 of the System Configuration menu. Up to 4096 data points can be input as User Correction data.
Can set any correction value (up
to 99.99 dB) at any frequency
step (4096 points)
Fig. 21: User Correction function setting screen and settings file
Figure 22 shows an example of using the User Correction function.
When the created Correction Table data is applied, the results are displayed with the added set Offset value for
each frequency as shown in Figure 21. The set Offset is applied by linear interpolation between the set frequencies
and the Offset value is reflected at the upper and lower frequencies in the domains below the set lower frequency
and above the set higher frequency.
In addition to correcting the frequency characteristics of external devices connected to the measuring instrument,
this function can also be used when the user wants to make more accurate correction of frequency characteristics.
Applies Correction Table lower frequency
Applies linear interpolation
between frequencies
Fig. 22: User Correction function setting screen and settings file
23
8. Conclusions
This Application Note explains the performance required by mmWave band measuring instruments and the
measurement methods. It also introduces the best measurement methods and measuring instrument for the
measurement items required by key players in the mmWave band market.
Last, it explains some precautions about mmWave band measurements.
Anritsu’s Signal Analyzer MS2830A/40A and High Performance Waveguide MA2806A/08A are ideal measurement
solutions supporting developers of mmWave band applications expected to see future widespread adoption.
24
Specifications are subject to change without notice.
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1607
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2016-12 MG
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