Sizing and Selection Standard vs. Custom

Sizing and Selection Standard vs. Custom
CABLE BASICS
Sizing and Selection
Standard vs. Custom
Presented by
800.468.1516 • +1 715.294.2121 • www.northwire.com • © 2010 Northwire, Inc. All rights reserved
A cable
is a cable is
a cable – right
?
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They all look sort of the same
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They look the same on a schematic
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Today’s topics
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Cable basics
Things to consider
Choices available
How to choose the best cable solution
for your project
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By the end of today’s webinar you will
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Gain an awareness of how cable is manufactured
Have a list of questions to ask when selecting cable
Acquire knowledge about various materials
available for cable construction
Learn about some of the tests required for cable
Have a better understanding of how to choose the
best cable solution for your project
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How is cable
manufactured?
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Step 1: Insulating the conductors
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Step 2: Cabling
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Step 3: Shielding, if required
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Step 4: Jacketing
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You have choices
in each of the
manufacturing steps
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Choice influences and questions to ask
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Application: What is the cable’s primary use?
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Instrumentation and control
Power
Communication
Specific network or control system requirements
Are there specific agency approvals required?
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UL
CSA
CE
NFPA
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SAE
IEC
VDE
FDA
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ABS
IEEE
DNV
NEK 606
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MSHA
USP
TUV
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Agency approvals – examples
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UL-recognized appliance wiring material (AWM)
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UL-listed
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30V to 1000V
600V to 2000V tray cable (TC)
300V power-limited tray cable (PLTC)
150V instrumentation tray cable (ITC)
Flex cord (power cord) 300V or 600V
The approvals required help define materials choices
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Electrical requirements
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Voltage and amperage
Specified characteristic impedance
Low or controlled capacitance
Velocity of propagation
Signal attenuation
Audio or video specs
Electromagnetic interference (EMI) or radio frequency
interference (RFI) shielding requirements
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Specify network protocol
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NEC and UL work together
NEC
725
UL 13
PLTC
727
UL 2250
ITC
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Questions to ask
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Stay with us here!
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At this point you may have the answers that apply
to your project
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Let’s review other considerations to give you
questions you CAN ask and available options
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Environment
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Temperature range – high and low
Presence of water or other fluids
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Chemical exposure
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Occasional exposure, accidental after-splash and submersion
How long and at what temperatures
Identify chemical(s) and concentrations
Liquid, solid or gas
For how long and at what temperatures
Exposure to oils, fuels, solvents and more
Wash-down or sterilization required
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Environment
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Prolonged ultraviolet (UV) exposure
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Exposure to other contaminants
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Sunlight
Weld flash
Dirt, dust and other contaminants
Bodily fluids (medical applications)
Exposure (or potential) to flame
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How much and how long
Hazardous-area classification
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Physical characteristics
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Flexibility
Flex-life
Abrasion
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Dimensional requirements – size constraints
Aesthetics
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How long and how often
Look and feel
How will the cable be assembled
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Mold material types
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WHEW !!!!
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Seem complicated? It’s really not
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Are you convinced that all cables are not alike?
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One size does not fit all
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A qualified cable design specialist can guide you
through the details
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Materials choices
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Conductor types
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Insulations
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Shielding options
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Jacketing options
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Conductor types
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Copper stranding is the most common
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Bare copper
Looks like a shiny new penny
► Cost-effective
► Good for sonic welding
► Up to 150°C
► Pure electrical signal over long distances
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Conductor types
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Tinned copper
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Looks like a shiny new dime
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Easier to solder than bare copper
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Corrosion-resistant
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Up to 150°C
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Fine stranding available
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Tinning adds some cost if your vendor doesn’t buy in volume
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Conductor types
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Silver-plated copper
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Purer than copper
Dielectric clarity
Lower oxygen content
Up to 260°C
The audiophile’s choice
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Conductor types
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Many alloys are available
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Silver, nickel, cadmium and others
Select for toughness
Break strength
Flex-life
High-temperature
Steel
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Not a great dielectric unless coated
Strong with less stretch
Frequently used in military applications
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Conductor types
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Bunched is least expensive
Concentric
Semi-concentric
Unilay
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Concentric
Tightly controlled electrical properties
Flex-life
Flexibility
Rope-lay
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Bunched
Unilay
Flex-life
Flexibility
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Insulations (from least expensive to most)
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Polyvinyl chloride (PVC) is most common
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Polyolefins: 80°C maximum temperature with very
good electrical properties and low water absorption.
Poor flame resistance can be overcome with jackets.
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Polyethylene (PE)
Polypropylene (PP)
Foamed PE
Cross-linked polyethylene (XLPE)
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105°C + maximum temperature
Very good electrical properties
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Insulations
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Thermoplastic elastomers (TPE)
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Broad category, but can have high temp ratings
Many different durometers (softness and flexibility)
Some are highly oil resistant
Polypropylene (PP) and ethylene propylene diene
monomer (EPDM) blends (Santoprene™)
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Food grades and medical grades available
Resistant to wash-down and many chemicals
Santoprene is a trademark of Advanced Elastomer Systems, LP.
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Insulations
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Polyester elastomer (Hytrel®)
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-70°C to 105°C
Excellent cut and abrasion resistance
Reliable with thin walls
Poor dielectric
Low friction (high flex-life cables)
Less expensive than fluoropolymers
Hytrel is a registered trademark of DuPont.
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Insulations
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Fluoropolymers
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Fluorinated ethylene propylene (FEP)
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Ethylene tetrafluoroethylene (ETFE)
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Tefzel®, Fluon® and Neoflon™
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Perfluoroalkoxy (PFA) polymer
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Ethylene chloratrifluoroethylene (ECTFE)
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Halar®
Tefzel is a registered trademark of DuPont, Fluon is a registered trademark of Asahi Glass Company,
Neoflon is a trademark of Daikin Industries, Limited and Halar is a registered trademark of Solvay
Polymers, Inc.
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Insulations
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Fluoropolymers
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Cold temps -70°C or better
Tefzel® 150°C to 200°C, FEP 150°C to 200°C, PFA to 260°C
Excellent resistance to most chemicals
Frequently the choice for clean room environments
Fairly rigid material
Low friction (flex-life)
Abrasion resistant
Highly flame retardant
ETFE (Tefzel) does not emit toxic fumes when ignited (aerospace wire)
Low dielectric constants
Tefzel is a registered trademark of DuPont.
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Shielding options
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Multiple reasons to include shielding
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Mechanical strength
Rodent or insect resistance
Electromagnetic compatibility (EMC)
Shielding can be designed to protect components
within the cable or the cable as a whole
Foils, drains and braids are all options
Shielding scheme can be adapted to your
application
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Tapes, wraps and fillers
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Clear or opaque Mylar® to bind core
Paper wrap for jacket stripability
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PTFE or spun nylon tapes to improve flex-life
Fillers may be used to keep cable round
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Used in place of rip cords
Easier molding and sealing in glands
Water-blocking tapes and fillers are available
Mylar is a registered trademark of DuPont.
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Jacketing – PVC
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Many grades available
Temperature range -40°C to 105°C
Durometers vary
RoHS-compliant options
Varying degrees of oil resistance
Nonmigratory versions offered
Ultraviolet (UV) stability varies
Flame resistance varies widely
Some pass severe crush and impact tests
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Jacketing – TPE
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Thermoplastic elastomer (TPE)
Temperature range -60°C to 105°C
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Some remain flexible even in severe cold
Durometers vary
Can be highly oil resistant (Oil Res I & II)
Often weather rated
May have excellent flex-life properties
Weld slag-resistant versions available
Flame resistance varies widely
Some pass severe crush and impact tests
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Jacketing – TPU
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Thermoplastic polyurethane (TPU)
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Various grades available
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Polyether-based or
Polyester-based (poor in water)
Some are alloys for cost-effectiveness
Temperature range -60°C to 105°C
Some have excellent cold-impact resistance
Can be highly oil resistant (Oil Res I & II)
Superior cut and abrasion resistance
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Jacketing – TPU
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May have excellent flex-life properties
Flame resistance varies widely
Resistant to many chemicals
Finishes vary from shiny to satin to matte
Flame resistance varies from -0- to UL 1685
Some pass severe crush and impact tests
Excellent for coiling (retractile cords)
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Jacketing – other options
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Polyethylenes
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Polyester elastomer (Hytrel®)
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80°C
Excellent for retractile cords
Fluoropolymers
Excellent for higher temperatures
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► Expensive
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New options such as low-smoke zero halogen (LSZH)
Hytrel is a registered trademark of DuPont.
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Testing and requirements
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Flame tests
Ultraviolet (UV) tests
Exposed-run (ER)
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Flame tests
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Agency approvals require flame tests of various difficulty
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Recognized materials (AWM) may require as little as
three one-minute bursts of flame from a tirrill burner
(internal wiring only)
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Listed cables, including tray cable (TC),
instrument tray cable (ITC) and
power-limited tray cable (PLTC) require
UL 1685 or CSA FT4 flame testing
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IEC 332-2 Cat A, UL 1685, IEEE 1202
and CSA FT4 Flame Test Comparisons
Test
IEC 332-3 Cat A
UL 1685 Vertical Tray
IEEE 1202/FT4
Flame BTU/Hr
70,000
70,000
70,000
Burner type
10-inch burner w 3 rows of
holes, 81, 80 and 81 per row
10-inch ribbon burner
10-inch ribbon burner
How is the flame
applied?
90 degrees perpendicular to
sample
90 degrees perpendicular to sample
20 degrees up from the floor
Chamber height or
length and sample
location
11.5 feet, back of chamber
nearly against the wall
(potentially stricter than FT4)
8 feet, center of chamber
8 feet, center of chamber
Duration of flame
40 minutes
20 minutes
20 minutes
Acceptance criteria
Flame shall not propagate
upward more than 8.2 feet
(2.5 m)
Fails if flame propagates to the top of
the cable tray
FT4 measures char length
max 150 cm (50 inches) –
IEEE measures melt/blistering
Sample footage
determination
Determine sample volume per Sample OD divided by 48 x 3
meter, IEC 60332-3-23 for
further determination
Dependent on OD, cables are
bundled; refer to UL 13 or 444
procedure, similar to UL 1685
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Ultraviolet (UV) resistance tests
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720-hour xenon arc test
Cable must retain at least 80 percent of the original tensile
and elongation
Not a guarantee of color fastness
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Exposed-run (ER)
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600V to 2000V tray cable, exposed-run
(TC-ER), control and instrumentation tray
cable, (CIC-TC)
300V power-limited tray cable (PLTC)
150V instrument tray cable (ITC)
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Meet the same crush and impact tests of
metal-clad cable, but without the metal
May be run exposed as long as protected
and supported every 1.6 meters
This can be a significant cost savings over
armored cable or use of conduit
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Custom vs. standard
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Some off the shelf cables may meet your needs
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Review the same questions to be certain you are specifying
the correct cable for the job
Custom cables are also an option
An experienced cable design specialist will ask the right
questions and help specify a cable to meet your requirements
► Why settle for an extra conductor or properties that don’t
fit what you really need
► The exact custom cable you require may cost less than a
standardized off the shelf cable
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Custom vs. standard
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Custom cable:
Could save installation time and money
► Can be color coded
► Is available in composite configurations
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Be sure to ask!
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You have choices. Consider your options.
This will ensure you receive the best cable
solution for your project
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CABLE BASICS
Thank you for joining us!
Have technical questions? Speak
directly with one of our engineers
Steve Kedrowski
steven.kedrowski@northwire.com
Electrical Engineer • Program Manager
Government and Energy
Presented by
800.468.1516 • www.northwire.com/cablebasics
CABLE BASICS
www.northwire.com/cablebasics
cableinfo@northwire.com
800.468.1516
Presented by
800.468.1516 • +1 715.294.2121 • www.northwire.com • © 2010 Northwire, Inc. All rights reserved
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