High Resolution Digital Dimmer

High Resolution Digital Dimmer
AND8011/D
High Resolution Digital
Dimmer
Littelfuse.com
APPLICATION NOTE
INTRODUCTION
Phase Control with Thyristors
using phase control in triac applications is the generation of
electomagnetic interference (EMI). Each time the triac is
triggered the load current rises from zero to the load limited
current value in a very short time. The resulting di/dt
generates a wide spectrum of noise that may interfere with
the operation of nearby electronic equipment unless proper
filtering is used.
The following figure shows the function of the phase
control.
An effective and widely used method of controlling the
average power to a load through a triac is by phase control.
Phase control is a method of utilizing the triac to apply the
ac supply to the load for a controlled fraction of each cycle.
In this mode of operation, the triac is held in an off or open
condition at a time in the half cycle determined by the
control circuitry. In the on condition, the circuit current is
limited only by the load i.e., the entire line voltage (less the
forward drop of the triac) is applied to the load.
As one might expect, in spite of its usefulness, phase
control has some disadvantages. The main disadvantage in
Phase Control of AC Waveform
ÉÉÉÉÉÉÉ
ÉÉÉÉÉÉÉ
ÉÉÉÉÉÉÉ
ÉÉÉÉÉÉÉ
ÉÉÉÉÉÉÉ
ÉÉÉÉÉÉÉ ÉÉÉÉÉÉ
ÉÉÉÉÉÉ
ÉÉÉÉÉÉ
ÉÉÉÉÉÉ
ÉÉÉÉÉÉ
ÉÉÉÉÉÉ
∝
∝
The above figure illustrates the concept of the phase
control. During the first portion of each half cycle of the ac
sine wave, an electronic switch is opened to prevent the
current flow. At some specified phase angle (Alpha), this
switch is closed to allow the full line voltage to be applied
Specifications subject to change without notice. © 2016 Littelfuse, Inc.
September 19, 2016 − Rev. 2
Portion of Waveform
Applied to the Load
to the load for the remainder of that half cycle. Varying
Alpha will control the portion of the total sine wave that is
applied to the load (shaded area), and thereby regulate the
power flow to the load.
1
Publication Order Number:
AND8011/D
AND8011/D
The following schematic diagram shows a digital dimmer with phase control from 10% to 95% of the ac sine wave.
DIGITAL DIMMER
+12 Vdc
1000 mF
+12 Vdc
+12 Vdc
L1
110/220 V
60 Hz
10 kW
12 V
60 Hz
+
+12 Vdc
-
10 kW
L2
+12 Vdc
2.5 kW
LM339
10 kW
MUR160
4
100 W
8
7
10 kW
3
6
1
L1
+12 Vdc
555
2.75 mF
0.001 mF
2
L2
110/220 VAC
620 W
5
1 kW
2 kW
0.01 mF
510 W
0.01 mF
MOC3022
BTA08−600BW3G
LOAD
Specifications subject to change without notice. © 2016 Littelfuse, Inc.
September 19, 2016 − Rev. 2
2
Publication Order Number:
AND8011/D
AND8011/D
In the previous diagram, the operational amplifier
(LM339) is performing a zero crossing function, and due to
this, the integrated circuit (555) is being activated each time
a zero crossing condition occurs. Therefore, once this
integrated circuit (555) is activated (due to a zero crossing
condition), it will wait a short delay time before it activates
the transistor and in turn the triac BTA08−600BW3G. Due
to this delay time, the triac BTA08−600BW3G will be
activated at different points (phase angles) of each
half−cycle of the ac sine wave, so the load is going to receive
only a portion of the current waveform which is determined
for the kind of delay time set. This delay time is selected by
the adjustable resistor, in this example, 2.5 kW. It is able to
control almost 100% of the complete ac sine wave.
On the other hand, the kind of triac to be used in the
dimmer circuit is determined by the load characteristics
taking into consideration the current, voltage, power, and its
physical characteristics (inductive or resistive load).
Therefore, it is very important to select the proper triac
according to the load requirements.
In conclusion, the Digital Dimmer described in this
application note offers a very reliable control phase (from
10% to 95% of the ac sine wave). It can be a very useful and
inexpensive option for lighting applications or one phase
motor speed controls or any other kind of application
circuits where a reliable control phase is needed.
Nevertheless, it is important to mention that the main
disadvantage of using phase control in the application
circuits is the generation of electromagnetic interference
(EMI). Therefore, proper filtering needs to be used in order
to eliminate the EMI phenomena, otherwise the noise would
interfere with the operation of nearby electronic equipment.
Another factor that is important to take into consideration,
is extreme environmental temperatures could cause poor
operation of the dimmer and thus the wrong phase control
for the load. Therefore, it is necessary that the designer
determine under what conditions would the dimmer need to
operate in order to make the proper calculations of the
electronic devices according to those needs.
Littelfuse products are not designed for, and shall not be used for, any purpose (including, without limitation, automotive, military,
aerospace, medical, life-saving, life-sustaining or nuclear facility applications, devices intended for surgical implant into the body, or
any other application in which the failure or lack of desired operation of the product may result in personal injury, death, or property
damage) other than those expressly set forth in applicable Littelfuse product documentation. Warranties granted by Littelfuse shall be
deemed void for products used for any purpose not expressly set forth in applicable Littelfuse documentation. Littelfuse shall not be
liable for any claims or damages arising out of products used in applications not expressly intended by Littelfuse as set forth in
applicable Littelfuse documentation. The sale and use of Littelfuse products is subject to Littelfuse Terms and Conditions of Sale,
unless otherwise agreed by Littelfuse.
Littelfuse.com
Specifications subject to change without notice. © 2016 Littelfuse, Inc.
September 19, 2016 − Rev. 2
3
Publication Order Number:
AND8011/D
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