MAX44299 Current and Voltage Sense with

MAX44299 Current and Voltage Sense with
MAX44299
Current and Voltage Sense with
Power Measurement
General Description
Benefits and Features
Instantaneous power is calculated internally by multiplying
the load current and a fraction of the load voltage set by
an external resistive divider. All three outputs are scaled
to a full-scale current of 100µA. An additional output
current of 100µA is available at the reference (REF)
output; this current can be used to create a reference
voltage for the ADC that is being used to measure the
power, voltage, and current signals.
●● High Integration Saves Cost and Space
• Power, Current, and Voltage Monitoring Plus Reference
• 5mV, 10mV, and 20mV Programmable CurrentSensing Full-Scale Voltage
• Calibration Point at 10µA upon Command
The MAX44299 is a low-side current, voltage, and power
monitoring circuit that provides an analog output current
proportional to the measured current, voltage, and the
internally calculated instantaneous power.
By providing the ADC with both the measured signals and
the input reference voltage, the ADC can make a ratiometric
measurement, allowing improved accuracy. The use of
currents, rather than voltage, to convey the measured
signals to the ADC eliminates any errors caused by
voltage drops across the parasitic resistance of PCB,
which can be significant for high-current systems. To allow
full-system calibration, the CAL bump provides a way to
calibrate gain and offset for the ADC.
The device measures load current by using a precision,
auto-zeroed current-sense amplifier (CSA), which due to
its ultra-low offset voltage allows precise measurement of
full-scale voltages of 5mV, 10mV, and 20mV. The load voltage is measured via a user-selectable resistive network,
dividing the input voltage down to a full scale of 1.00V.
The wide supply voltage range of 3V to 5.5V allows the simple
sharing of supplies with either the ADC or a microcontroller.
The device can be powered down and the outputs will then go
high impedance. The device is available in a 2.4mm x 2.4mm,
16-bump wafer-level package (WLP) and is specified for the
0°C to +85°C temperature range.
See the MAX44298 for a very similar product with a choice of
50µA output current and alternate pinout.
19-8500; Rev 0; 3/16
●● High Accuracy Improves Measurement Quality
• Accurate Power Measurement: < 1.1% of Reading
Total Error
• Zero Thermal Drift Current-Sense Input
●● Single-Supply Range and Low Power Simplify
Power-Supply Design
• Current Output Signals Overcome Trace Output
Voltage Drops and Noise
• 3V to 5.5V Single Supply
• Power-Down Mode with High-Impedance Output
• 0°C to +85°C Temperature Range
• Tiny 16-Bump, 2.4mm x 2.4mm WLP
Applications
●● Power Monitoring and Management Data Center
and Telecom
●● Renewable Energy System
●● Smart Battery Packs and Chargers
Ordering Information appears at end of data sheet.
MAX44299
Current and Voltage Sense with
Power Measurement
Absolute Maximum Ratings
VDD1 to GND1 ........................................................-0.3V to +6V
VDD2 to GND2 ........................................................-0.3V to +6V
VDD1 to VDD2 .......................................................-0.3V to +0.3V
GND1 to GND2 ....................................................-0.3V to +0.3V
RS+, RS- to GND2 ..................................................-0.3V to +2V
RS+ to RS- ............................................................................±2V
VIN, CAL, G1, G0, ISET, IOUT, VOUT, REF,
POUT to GND1................................... - 0.3V to (+VDD + 0.3V)
Output Short-Circuit Duration.....................................Continuous
CAL, G1, G0, ISET, CF Continuous Current.....................±10mA
VOUT, IOUT, POUT, REF Continuous Current...................±10mA
Continuous Power Dissipation (TA = +70°C)
WLP (derate 20.4mW/°C above +70°C).....................1632mW
Operating Temperature Range................................0ºC to +85°C
Junction Temperature.......................................................+150°C
Storage Temperature Range..............................-65ºC to +150°C
Lead Temperature (soldering, 10s).................................. +300°C
Soldering Temperature (reflow)........................................+260°C
Package Thermal Characteristics (Note 1)
WLP
Junction-to-Ambient Thermal Resistance (θJA)...........49°C/W
Note 1: Package thermal resistances were obtained using the method described in JEDEC specification JESD51-7, using a four-layer
board. For detailed information on package thermal considerations, refer to www.maximintegrated.com/thermal-tutorial.
Stresses beyond those listed under “Absolute Maximum Ratings” may cause permanent damage to the device. These are stress ratings only, and functional operation of the device at these
or any other conditions beyond those indicated in the operational sections of the specifications is not implied. Exposure to absolute maximum rating conditions for extended periods may affect
device reliability.
Electrical Characteristics
(VDD = VDD1 = VDD2 = 3.3V, VISET = 0V, VSENSE = VFS/2, RSENSE = 1mΩ, VIN = 0.54V, RL = 30.1kΩ to GND, CL = 100pF, TA = 0°C
to +85°C, unless otherwise noted. Typical values are at TA = +25°C.) (Note 2)
PARAMETER
SYMBOL
CONDITIONS
MIN
TYP
MAX
UNITS
+0.1
V
CURRENT SENSE (RS+, RS-)
Input Common-Mode Voltage
Range
(VRS+ + VRS-)/2
VSENSE Input Full-Scale
Range
VRS+ VRS-
FSR_I
-0.1
G1 = 1, G0 = 1
20
G1 = 1, G0 = 0
10
G1 = 0, G0 = 1
5
mV
LOAD VOLTAGE SENSE (VIN)
Input Voltage Range
VIN
0.45
0.75
VOUT Output Full-Scale
Current Range
ISET = 0
Compliance Output Voltage
VDD - VVOUT (0.1% accuracy)
VOUT Output-Referred Noise
Noise BW = 10kHz
40
Total Error (100µA Range)
Voltage between 50% and 90%
of FSR
0.5
Settling Time to 1%
VIN steps from 0.6V to 0.8V
20
www.maximintegrated.com
1.005
100
V
µA
300
mV
µVRMS
2.5
% RDG
µs
Maxim Integrated │ 2
MAX44299
Current and Voltage Sense with
Power Measurement
Electrical Characteristics (continued)
(VDD = VDD1 = VDD2 = 3.3V, VISET = 0V, VSENSE = VFS/2, RSENSE = 1mΩ, VIN = 0.54V, RL = 30.1kΩ to GND, CL = 100pF, TA = 0°C
to +85°C, unless otherwise noted. Typical values are at TA = +25°C.) (Note 2)
PARAMETER
SYMBOL
CONDITIONS
MIN
TYP
MAX
UNITS
POWER SENSE (POUT), OUTPUT FS = 100µA (Note 3)
Output Full-Scale Current
All three VSENSE ranges, ISET
=0
Compliance Output Voltage
VDD - VPOUT (1% accuracy)
20mV VSENSE range,
+25°C < TA < +85°C
100
300
mV
0.6
20mV VSENSE range,
0°C < TA < +85°C
POUT TUE
(Current Input 95% of FSR)
0.6
5mV VSENSE range,
+25°C < TA < +85°C
0.6
5mV VSENSE range,
0°C < TA < +85°C
1.3
1.3
5mV VSENSE range,
+25°C < TA < +85°C
1.3
5mV VSENSE range,
0°C < TA < +85°C
2.2
www.maximintegrated.com
% RDG
3.0
3.5
6.0
10mV VSENSE range,
+25°C < TA < +85°C
2.2
5mV VSENSE range,
+25°C < TA < +85°C
2.2
5mV VSENSE range,
0°C < TA < +85°C
3
5.0
20mV VSENSE range,
0°C < TA < +85°C
POUT TUE
(Current Input 30% of FSR)
3.0
5.0
10mV VSENSE range,
+25°C < TA < +85°C
20mV VSENSE range,
+25°C < TA < +85°C
% RDG
3.5
20mV VSENSE range,
0°C < TA < +85°C
POUT TUE
(Current Input 50% of FSR)
3
3.5
10mV VSENSE range,
+25°C < TA < +85°C
20mV VSENSE range,
+25°C < TA < +85°C
µA
% RDG
3.5
6.0
Maxim Integrated │ 3
MAX44299
Current and Voltage Sense with
Power Measurement
Electrical Characteristics (continued)
(VDD = VDD1 = VDD2 = 3.3V, VISET = 0V, VSENSE = VFS/2, RSENSE = 1mΩ, VIN = 0.54V, RL = 30.1kΩ to GND, CL = 100pF, TA = 0°C
to +85°C, unless otherwise noted. Typical values are at TA = +25°C.) (Note 2)
PARAMETER
SYMBOL
CONDITIONS
MIN
20mV VSENSE range,
+25°C < TA < +85°C
TYP
MAX
3.3
4.5
20mV VSENSE range,
0°C < TA < +85°C
POUT TUE
(Current Input = 15% of FSR)
8
10mV VSENSE range,
+25°C < TA < +85°C
3.3
5mV VSENSE range,
+25°C < TA < +85°C
3.3
5mV VSENSE range,
0°C < TA < +85°C
4.5
20mV VSENSE range,
0°C < TA < +85°C
4.5
8.5
12
10mV VSENSE range,
+25°C < TA < +85°C
4.5
5mV VSENSE range,
+25°C < TA < +85°C
4.5
5mV VSENSE range,
0°C < TA < +85°C
% RDG
8.5
12
20mV VSENSE range,
+25°C < TA < +85°C
6.1
20mV VSENSE range,
0°C < TA < +85°C
POUT TUE
(Current Input = 1% of FSR)
% RDG
8
20mV VSENSE range,
+25°C < TA < +85°C
POUT TUE
(Current Input = 5% of FSR)
UNITS
20
22
10mV VSENSE range,
+25°C < TA < +85°C
6.1
5mV VSENSE range,
+25°C < TA < +85°C
6.1
5mV VSENSE range,
0°C < TA < +85°C
% RDG
20
22
REFERENCE OUTPUT (REF)
REF Output Full-Scale
Current Range
ISET = 0
98.5
Compliance Output Voltage
VDD - VREF
300
Reference Output Current
Temperature Coefficient
101.5
3V < VDD < 5.5V
Output-Referred Noise
Noise BW = 10kHz
µA
mV
ppm/°C
±80
PSRR
www.maximintegrated.com
100
0.001
50
0.1
µA/V
µVRMS
Maxim Integrated │ 4
MAX44299
Current and Voltage Sense with
Power Measurement
Electrical Characteristics (continued)
(VDD = VDD1 = VDD2 = 3.3V, VISET = 0V, VSENSE = VFS/2, RSENSE = 1mΩ, VIN = 0.54V, RL = 30.1kΩ to GND, CL = 100pF, TA = 0°C
to +85°C, unless otherwise noted. Typical values are at TA = +25°C.) (Note 2)
PARAMETER
SYMBOL
CONDITIONS
MIN
TYP
MAX
UNITS
CALIBRATION CURRENT (CAL = 1)
Nominal Current
Current Error
TA = +25°C
10
µA
+25°C < TA < +85°C
0.1
0.8
0°C < TA < +85°C
0.1
0.8
%FS
POWER-SUPPLY VOLTAGE (VDD1 = VDD2 = VDD) (Note 4)
VDD Supply Voltage Range
VDD
VDD Supply Current
IDD
Power-Down Supply Current
ISHDN
Power-Up Time
(From Power-Down)
3.0
No output load current
G1 = 0, G0 = 0
Measured with POUT settling to
10% of its final value
5.5
V
1
1.3
mA
1.5
5
µA
ms
1
DIGITAL INPUTS (G1, G0, CAL, ISET)
Input Voltage High Threshold
0.7 x VDD
0.3 x
VDD
Input Voltage Low Threshold
Input Logic-High Current
ISET, CAL have internal
pulldown current
1
Input Logic-Low Current
G1, G0 have internal pullup
current
1
V
µA
Note 2: All devices are 100% production tested at TA = +25°C. Temperature limits are guaranteed by design.
Note 3: Total Unadjusted Error (TUE) includes all the source errors such as gain, offset, nonlinearity, and noise.
Note 4: Connect VDD1 and VDD2 together at the bumps, connect GND1 and GND2 together at the bumps and the device operates with a
single power supply from +3V to +5.5V. This power supply is called VDD/GND throughout the data sheet for simplification.
www.maximintegrated.com
Maxim Integrated │ 5
MAX44299
Current and Voltage Sense with
Power Measurement
Typical Operating Characteristics
(VDD = VDD1 = VDD2 = 3.3V, VISET = 0V, VIN = 0.54V, VSENSE = VFS/2, each output loaded with RL = 30.1kΩ and CL = 100pF to GND,
TA = +25°C, unless otherwise noted.)
VIOUT & VVOUT TUE vs.
TEMPERATURE (20mV FSR/100 A RANGES)
0
-1
-2
TUE (% RDG)
1
-0.6
-0.8
-1.0
-1.2
-1.6
IOUT
-4
-1.8
-5
-2
-50
-25
0
25
50
75
100
125
-25
0
25
50
75
100
125
-25
0
30%
VOUT
FSR
TUE (% RDG)
0
-1
25
50% FSR
95% FSR
IOUT
-25
0
50
75
100
15% FSR
-15
125
1% FSR
-50
-25
0
VIOUT AND VVOUT TUE vs.
TEMPERATURE (5mV FSR/100µA RANGES)
toc5
3
10
TUE (% RDG)
0
-1
-2
-25
www.maximintegrated.com
30% FSR
-5
-5
25
50
75
TEMPERATURE (ᵒC)
100
125
95% FSR
-10
-20
0
125
0
-4
-25
50% FSR
15% FSR
-15
IOUT
-50
100
toc6
5
1
-3
75
15
30%
VOUT
FSR
2
50
VPOUT TUE vs.
TEMPERATURE (5mV FSR/100µA RANGES)
VIN = 0.54V
VSENSE = VFSR/2
4
25
TEMPERATURE (ᵒC)
TEMPERATURE (°C)
5
125
5% FSR
-10
25
100
0
-4
-50
75
30% FSR
5
-5
-3
50
VPOUT TUE vs. TEMPERATURE
(10mV FSR/100µA RANGES)
15
-2
TUE (% RDG)
-50
TEMPERATURE (°C)
10
1
-5
1% FSR
toc4
TUE (% RDG)
-50
-15
toc3
VIN = 0.54V
VSENSE = VFSR /2
4
2
15% FSR
5% FSR
-10
VIOUT AND VVOUT TUE vs.
TEMPERATURE (10mV FSR/100 A RANGES)
3
0
TEMPERATURE (°C)
TEMPERATURE (°C)
5
30% FSR
5
-5
-1.4
-3
95% FSR
50% FSR
10
-0.4
REF ERROR (%)
TUE (% RDG)
-0.2
30%
VOUT
FSR
2
VPOUT TUE vs.
TEMPERATURE (20mV FSR/100 A RANGES)
toc2
3
15
toc1b
VIN = 0.54V
VSENSE = VFSR /2
4
REF ERROR vs. TEMPERATURE
0
toc1a
5
5% FSR
1%
1%FSR
FSR
-50
-25
0
25
50
75
100
125
TEMPERATURE (ᵒC)
Maxim Integrated │ 6
MAX44299
Current and Voltage Sense with
Power Measurement
Typical Operating Characteristics (continued)
(VDD = VDD1 = VDD2 = 3.3V, VISET = 0V, VIN = 0.54V, VSENSE = VFS/2, each output loaded with RL = 30.1kΩ and CL = 100pF to GND,
TA = +25°C, unless otherwise noted.)
7
6
5
4
3
2
1
0
1
10
100
1000
10000
5
4
3
2
1
1
10
100
1000
10000
TUE (% RDG)
4
3
2
1
100
1000
10000
100000
0.5
0.4
0.3
0.2
0.1
0
-0.1
-0.2
-0.3
-0.4
-0.5
-0.6
-0.7
-0.8
-0.9
-1.0
-1.1
PSRR vs. FREQUENCY
(10mV/100µA RANGES)
2
1
1
10
REF
-30
-40
1000
10000
100000
VIN = 0.54V
VSENSE = VFSR /2
POUT
VOUT
REF
IOUT
3
3.5
4
4.5
5
5.5
VIN STEP RESPONSE
(VSENSE = 5mV, VIN = 500mV TO 750mV) toc13
toc12
750mV
VIN
500mV
IOUT
-20
100
IOUT, VOUT, POUT AND REF TUE
vs. VDD (10mV FSR/100 A RANGE)
POUT
0
-10
PSRR (dB)
3
VDD (V)
FREQUENCY (Hz)
10
4
toc11
5
10
5
FREQUENCY (Hz)
6
1
6
0
100000
toc09
7
FREQUENCY (Hz)
7
0
POUT NOISE VOLTAGE DENSITY vs. FREQUENCY
8
6
REF NOISE VOLTAGE DENSITY vs. FREQUENCY
toc10
8
toc08
7
0
100000
FREQUENCY (Hz)
REF VOLTAGE NOISE DENSITY (uV/√Hz)
VOUT NOISE VOLTAGE DENSITY
vs. FREQUENCY
8
VOUT VOLTAGE NOISE DENSITY (µV/√Hz)
IOUT VOLTAGE NOISE-DENSITY (µV/√Hz)
toc07
POUT VOLTAGE NOISE DENSITY (µV/√Hz)
I OUT NOISE VOLTAGE DENSITY
vs. FREQUENCY
8
1.125V
VOUT
-50
VPOUT
0.75V
2.25V
VOUT
1.5V
-60
-70
-80
-90
-100
-110
10
100
www.maximintegrated.com
1000
10000 100000 1000000
FREQUENCY (Hz)
100µs/div
Maxim Integrated │ 7
MAX44299
Current and Voltage Sense with
Power Measurement
Typical Operating Characteristics (continued)
(VDD = VDD1 = VDD2 = 3.3V, VISET = 0V, VIN = 0.54V, VSENSE = VFS/2, each output loaded with RL = 30.1kΩ and CL = 100pF to GND,
TA = +25°C, unless otherwise noted.)
IDD vs. VDD vs TEMP
(VIN = VSENSE = 0V)
VSENSE STEP RESPONSE
(VSENSE = 2.5mV TO 7.5mV, VIN = 0.54V) toc14
ISHDN vs. VDD vs TEMP
(VIN = VSENSE = 0V)
toc15
1.3
+125ᵒC
7.5mV
VSENSE
+85ᵒC
1.2
2.5mV
toc16
4.5
4
+25ᵒC
TA = +85ᵒC
TA = +125ᵒC
3.5
3
0.75V
IDD (mA)
VIOUT
1.215V
VPOUT
ISHDN (uA)
2.25V
1.1
0.9
200µs/div
1.5
-5ᵒC
-40ᵒC
3
3.5
4
4.5
VDD (V)
5
0.5
5.5
4
4.5
VDD (V)
5
5.5
2.7
2.4
2.1
IOUT
1.8
VVOUT, VPOUT (V)
VIOUT, VPOUT (V)
3.5
VSENSE = 5mV
3
1.5
1.2
0.9
0.6
VOUT
2.1
1.8
1.5
1.2
0.9
POUT
0.3
0.6
POUT
0.3
0
1
2
3
4 5 6
VSENSE (mV)
7
VPOUT DRIFT
(IC #1, TA = +55ᵒC)
0.8175
8
9
10
0
toc19
0.8173
0.8171
0.8169
0.8167
VPOUT (V)
VPOUT (V)
3
toc18
3.3
VIN = 0.54V
2.4
0.8165
0.8163
0.8161
0.8159
0.8157
0.8155
TA= -5ᵒC
TA= -40ᵒC
VVOUT, VPOUT vs. VIN
(100µA, 10mV RANGES)
toc17
2.7
0
TA = +25ᵒC
1
VIOUT, VPOUT vs. VISENSE
(100µA, 10mV RANGES)
3
2
1
0.405V
3.3
2.5
0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18
TIME (DAY)
www.maximintegrated.com
0.4
0.8177
0.8175
0.8173
0.8171
0.8169
0.8167
0.8165
0.8163
0.8161
0.8159
0.8157
0.8155
0.8153
0.8151
0.8149
0.8147
0.8145
0.5
0.6
0.7
VIN (V)
0.8
0.9
1
VPOUT DRIFT
(IC #2, TA = +55ᵒC)
0
2
4
6
8
10
TIME (DAY)
toc20
12
14
16
Maxim Integrated │ 8
MAX44299
Current and Voltage Sense with
Power Measurement
Bump Configuration
TOP VIEW
MAX44299
A
1
2
3
4
RS+
RS-
CF
CAL
GND2
ISET
G1
IOUT
VDD2
VDD1
G0
POUT
VIN
REF
VOUT
GND1
+
B
C
D
16 WLP
Bump Description
BUMP
NAME
A1
RS+
Current-Sense Amplifier Non-Inverting Input. The current-sense amplifier is unipolar and RS+
must always be positive with respect to RS- for correct current measurement.
A2
RS-
Current-Sense Amplifier Inverting Input. The current-sense amplifier is unipolar and RS- should
always be negative, with respect to RS+, for correct current measurement.
A3
CF
External Filter Capacitor Input. Used to filter noise from the high-gain current-sense amplifier.
8kHz LPF is recommended to filter noise from the high-gain, zero-drift CSA.
A4
CAL
Calibration Input. When CAL is low, all three outputs (VOUT, POUT, and IOUT) source 100% of
their full-scale current (REF always outputs 100% FS current regardless of the CAL input state).
When CAL is high, the device forces VOUT, POUT, and IOUT to source a fixed 10µA, regardless
of the state of ISET. This allows the user to calibrate all the external resistors (RREF, RSC1,
RSC2 and RSC3). CAL has an internal weak pulldown.
B1
GND2
Ground. Current-sense amplifier power supply return.
B2
GND1
Ground. Main power supply and digital signal return.
B3
IOUT
B4
G1
www.maximintegrated.com
FUNCTION
Current source output with full-scale scaled by the selected ranges and the external current
sense resistor.
G1, together with G0, selects the CSA VSENSE FS Range (see Table 1). When both G1 and G0
are low, the device is powered down. G1 has an internal weak pullup.
Maxim Integrated │ 9
MAX44299
Current and Voltage Sense with
Power Measurement
Bump Description (continued)
BUMP
NAME
FUNCTION
C1
VDD2
C2
VDD1
Main Power Supply Voltage Input. Bypass VDD with a 0.1µF capacitor to GND.
C3
ISET
Full-Scale Output Current Select. Connect ISET to ground or leave it unconnected to select the
full-scale output current of 100µA.
C4
POUT
Current Source Output. POUT represents the measured power, scaled by the different currentsense ranges, the external current-sense resistor and the voltage divider.
D1
VIN
Load Voltage Input. This voltage input is connected with external scaling resistors to set full-scale
to be 1.00V
D2
REF
Reference Current Source Output. REF outputs 100µA FS output current range and is intended
to be used with a resistor to provide the reference voltage for an external ADC.
D3
VOUT
VOUT Current Source Output. VOUT FS output current represents 1.00V on the VIN pin.
D4
G0
Power Supply for Current-Sense Amplifier.
G0, together with G1, selects the CSA VSENSE FS Range (see Table 1). When both G1 and G0
are low, the device is powered down. G0 has an internal weak pullup.
Detailed Description
The MAX44299 low-side current, voltage, and power
monitoring circuit provides scaled analog output currents
proportional to the measured current, voltage, and the
instantaneous power. The device provides instantaneous
power monitoring by internally multiplying the scaled load
current and a scaled fraction of the load voltage. All three
measured current/voltage/power outputs (IOUT, VOUT,
POUT) are scaled to a full-scale current of 100µA. An
additional full-scale output current of either 100µA is
available at the reference (REF) output. Use the REF
output to create a reference voltage for the ADC that is
being used to measure the power, voltage, and current
signals. To set full-scale output current for all four outputs,
connect ISET to ground or leave it unconnected to select
the 100µA full-scale output current.
The MAX44299 measures the load current by using a
precision, auto-zeroed, 5µV - VOS CSA allowing accurate full-scale VSENSE ranges of 5mV, 10mV, and 20mV
and provides scaled output at IOUT. The load voltage is
measured via a user-selectable resistive divider (dividing the
load input voltage down to a full-scale VIN of 1.00V) and an
integrated high input impedance buffer that provide scaled
www.maximintegrated.com
output at VOUT. The device monitors the instantaneous
input power by internally multiplying the scaled load current
and a scaled fraction of the load voltage and provides scaled
output at POUT.
Calibration
The reference output (REF) always outputs full-scale current and the other three outputs (IOUT, VOUT, POUT) track
this full-scale value. The device provides a logic-input signal
(CAL) to allow full-system calibration. When CAL is at a logic
low, 100% of FS output current is available at all four IOUT,
VOUT, POUT and REF outputs. When CAL is pulled high, the
device forces three IOUT, VOUT, and POUT outputs to source
a typically fixed 10µA (regardless of the state of the state of
the ISET input). This, together with the REF always outputs
100% FS, allows two-point (gain and offset) calculated. Zero
is not used since the device cannot output a negative current
but could have a negative offset. This calibration is more for
the ADC and scaling resistors, the MAX44299 is internally
trimmed over temperature.
Maxim Integrated │ 10
MAX44299
Current and Voltage Sense with
Power Measurement
Input Current-Sense Selection
in the range of 400mV to 1005mV for optimum multiplier
linearity. For a maximum input voltage of say 60V, RPT
could be 590kΩ with RPB being 10kΩ. Given the current
signal experiences a significant propagation delay, this
can be matched to some extend by adding a capacitor
across RPB. A value in the order of 2.2nF is expected to
be suitable.
G1 and G0 are digital inputs and are decoded to provide
full-scale input VSENSE range of 5mV, 10mV, or 20mV
as shown in Table 1. Table 1 also provides a wide variety
of full-scale input current ranges with selected RSENSE
resistance values.
In addition to what Table 1 shows, any full-scale current
range can be calculated as VSENSE/RSENSE. One effect
of this simple equation is that the full-scale changes as
the resistance changes—as it might due to its temperature
coefficient and especially at high currents. This effect can
be greatly reduced by using the lowest value of sense
resistor together with a very low temperature coefficient
and plenty of heatsinking.
Output-Scaling Resistors (RSC1, RSC2, RSC3,
RREF, and the ISET Input)
The output scaling resistors should all be the same value
and be of a type with very low temperature coefficients
The chosen values of these resistors will depend on the
optimum full-scale voltage of the ADC. When ISET is
connected to ground, the full-scale output current from all
four outputs will be 100µA. This can be a convenient and
simple way to change all four scaling resistors simultaneously.
The MAX44299 enters power-down mode when both G1
and G0 are pulled low. In this mode, all POUT, VOUT,
IOUT, and REF outputs are turned off and the internal
circuitry is powered down to less than 5µA consumption.
The current output stages of the MAX44299 require
300mV (min) of headroom in order to maintain their full
accuracy. This has the effect of limiting the maximum
recommended values of the scaling resistors to 30kΩ
but this does not take into account any variation on the
nominally 3.3V supply. If the supply has a -10%
specification over full load, line, and temperature then the
scaling resistors should be reduced by a further 10%, to
for example, 27.1kΩ or 26.7kΩ for standard value 0.1%
tolerance series.
There is a short (< 100µs) period for the current-sense
amplifier to settle to its new value each time the gain is
changed, assuming that the input is within the full-scale
of the selected range.
The differing gains are achieved by changing the gain
taken from the precision amplifier. This impacts the bandwidth of the amplifier; at higher gains the bandwidth is
reduced. However, this effect is significantly reduced due
to the output filter capacitor, CF, which is recommended
to reduce the chopping noise from the amplifier but which
also reduces the current-sensing bandwidth to around
8kHz for all gains.
If the ADC can use the REF output as its reference, then
the POUT, IOUT, and VOUT signals will track ratiometrically,
improving performance, especially over temperature. If the
ADC’s reference is internal then regularly measuring REF
can also compensate for any drifts between the MAX44299’s
reference and that of the ADC.
Input Voltage-Range Selection
The input voltage is potentially divided down using the two
resistors RPT and RPB, see theTypical Application Circuit.
The division should result in a voltage at the VIN bump
Table 1. Full-Scale VSENSE Range Selection
G1
G0
FS VSENSE
RSENSE = 1mΩ
RSENSE = 2mΩ
RSENSE = 10mΩ
0
1
5mV
5A
2.5A
0.5A
1
0
10mV
10A
5A
1A
1
1
20mV
20A
10A
2A
0
0
www.maximintegrated.com
Device enters power-down mode
Maxim Integrated │ 11
MAX44299
Current and Voltage Sense with
Power Measurement
Applications Information
As shown in the Typical Application Circuit, the input
power supply has its current measured by the lowside current-sense amplifier (through RSENSE) and its voltage measured via the potential divider made up of
RPT and RPB at VIN. The loads are a combination of
switching regulators that provide multiple voltage rails
to the processor and their memory systems. Power can
usually be tapped from one of these regulators and used
to supply 3.3V (3.0V minimum, 5.5V maximum) to the
MAX44299 and the power monitoring controller. The
MAX44299 draws less than 1.3mA from its power supply.
Typical Application Circuit
C1
10nF
RPT
POWER
ENTRY
FROM
UTILITY
OR UPS
POL
RPB
3.3V
VDD1
CF
VIN
68nF
VDD2
i
RS-
CH0
VOUT
RSC1
30.1kΩ
RS+
RSENSE
i
GND1
CH1
RSC2
30.1kΩ
MAX44299
i
100pF
CH2
IOUT
RSC3
30.1kΩ
i
100pF
POUT
GND2
REFERENCE
POL
MUXED
ADC
+
µC
100pF
REF
DIGITAL
PROCESSOR
REF
RSC4
30.1kΩ
100pF
ISET
G1
G0
CAL
LINK OR
CONTROL BIT
GPO
GPO
GPO
www.maximintegrated.com
Maxim Integrated │ 12
MAX44299
Power-Supply Recommendations
The MAX44299 has two supply voltage inputs, VDD1 and
VDD2. VDD2/GND2 is the power supply for the onboard
CSA while VDD1/GND1 is the main power supply for the
rest of the device. Connect VDD1 and VDD2 together at
the bumps, connect GND1 and GND2 together at the
bumps and the device will operate from a single supply
(VDD) from +3V to +5.5V. Power-supply bypass capacitors
are required for stability and should be placed as close
as possible to the supply and ground terminals of the
device. A typical value for this supply bypass capacitor
is 0.1μF close to the VDD1/VDD2 bumps. The capacitors
should be rated for at least twice the maximum expected
applied voltage. Applications with noisy or high-impedance
power supplies may require additional decoupling capacitors
to reject power-supply noise.
Additional Sense Resistor Information
The value chosen for the shunt resistor, RSENSE, depends
on the application. It plays a big role in a current-sensing
system and must be chosen with care. The selection of
the shunt resistor needs to take into account the tradeoffs
in small-signal accuracy, the power dissipated and the
voltage loss across the shunt itself. In applications where
a small current is sensed, a bigger value of RSENSE is
selected to minimize the error in the proportional output
voltage. Higher resistor value improves the signal-tonoise ratio (SNR) at the input of the current-sense amplifier,
which gives a more accurate output. Similarly, when high
current is sensed, the power losses in RSENSE can be
significant so a smaller value of RSENSE is desired. In this
condition, it is also required to take into account the power
rating of the RSENSE resistor. The low input offset of the
MAX44299’s CSA allows the use of small sense resistors
to reduce power dissipation while still providing a good
input dynamic range. The input dynamic range is the ratio
between the maximum signal that can be measured and
the minimum signal that can be detected, where usually
the input offset is the principal limiting factor.
www.maximintegrated.com
Current and Voltage Sense with
Power Measurement
The CSA inputs should be directly connected to the sense
resistor pads using “Kelvin” or “4-wire” connection techniques.
The paths of the input traces should be identical, including
connectors and vias, so that these errors will be equal
and cancel.
Resistor Power Rating and Thermal Issues
The power dissipated by the sense resistor can be calculated from:
PD = IMAX2 x RSENSE
where PD is the power dissipated by the resistor in Watts,
IMAX is the maximum load current in Amps, and RSENSE
is the sense resistor value in ohms. The resistor must
be rated for more than the expected maximum power
(PD), with a margin for temperature derating. Be sure to
observe any power derating curves provided by the resistor
manufacturer. Running the resistor at higher temperatures
will also affect the accuracy. As the resistor heats up, the
resistance generally goes up, which will cause a change
in the measurement. The sense resistor should have as
much heatsinking as possible to remove this heat through
the use of heatsinks or large copper areas coupled to the
resistor pads. A reading drifting slightly after turn-on can
usually be traced back to sense resistor heating.
Layout Guidelines
Because of the high currents that may flow through
RSENSE based on the application, take care to eliminate
solder and parasitic trace resistance from causing errors
in the sense voltage. Either use a four-terminal currentsense resistor or use Kelvin (force and sense) PCB layout
techniques. For noisy digital environments, the use of a
multilayer PCB with separate ground and power-supply
planes is recommended. Keep digital signals far away
from the sensitive analog inputs. Unshielded long traces
at the input and feedback terminals of the amplifier can
degrade performance due to noise pick-up.
Maxim Integrated │ 13
MAX44299
Current and Voltage Sense with
Power Measurement
Ordering Information
PART
TEMP RANGE
MAX44299UWE+
0°C to +85°C
Package Information
BUMP-PACKAGE
16 WLP
+Denotes a lead(Pb)-free/RoHS-compliant package.
Chip Information
PROCESS: BiCMOS
www.maximintegrated.com
For the latest package outline information and land patterns
(footprints), go to www.maximintegrated.com/packages. Note
that a “+”, “#”, or “-” in the package code indicates RoHS status
only. Package drawings may show a different suffix character, but
the drawing pertains to the package regardless of RoHS status.
PACKAGE
TYPE
PACKAGE
CODE
16 WLP
W162P2+1
OUTLINE
NO.
LAND
PATTERN NO.
21-100005
Refer to
Application
Note 1891
Maxim Integrated │ 14
MAX44299
Current and Voltage Sense with
Power Measurement
Revision History
REVISION
NUMBER
REVISION
DATE
0
3/16
DESCRIPTION
Initial release
PAGES
CHANGED
—
For pricing, delivery, and ordering information, please contact Maxim Direct at 1-888-629-4642, or visit Maxim Integrated’s website at www.maximintegrated.com.
Maxim Integrated cannot assume responsibility for use of any circuitry other than circuitry entirely embodied in a Maxim Integrated product. No circuit patent licenses
are implied. Maxim Integrated reserves the right to change the circuitry and specifications without notice at any time. The parametric values (min and max limits)
shown in the Electrical Characteristics table are guaranteed. Other parametric values quoted in this data sheet are provided for guidance.
Maxim Integrated and the Maxim Integrated logo are trademarks of Maxim Integrated Products, Inc.
© 2016 Maxim Integrated Products, Inc. │ 15
Was this manual useful for you? yes no
Thank you for your participation!

* Your assessment is very important for improving the work of artificial intelligence, which forms the content of this project

Download PDF

advertising