Swimming Pool Handbook
THE UK’S
FAVO U R I TE
POOL CARE
PRODUCTS
Swimming Pool
Handbook
CONTENTS
BASICS OF MAINTAINING A GOOD POOL
2
THE FI-CLOR 4 >> POINT POOL CARE PLAN
1 >>DISINFECT THE WATER
(chlorination)
3
2 >>REMOVE IMPURITIES
(shock dosing)
8
PRELIMINARIES
THE BASICS OF MAINTAINING A GOOD POOL
CALCULATE THE VOLUME OF WATER IN YOUR POOL.
Owning your own swimming pool can make every day seem like a holiday, especially if you have an indoor heated pool
that allows you take a dip throughout the year. But, like all good things, a pool needs care and attention if you are to
get the best out of it.
When using Fi-Clor Pool Care Products, it is essential to know
how much water has to be treated, and from this the dose rate
for the various products. Use the chart below to help you
calculate the pool water volume. Measure in feet if you want the
answer in gallons or in metres if you want the answer in litres or
cubic metres. When you have the answer, record it below.
Go on-line and let the Ready Reckoner on the Pool Care page
of www.fi-clor.co.uk calculate your pool volume for you.
3 >>BALANCE THE WATER
pH
10
Total alkalinity
12
Calcium hardness
13
Balancing the water (summary)
14
15
Preventing algae and clarifying
the water
17
Cleaning your pool
19
Green water
21
Stains
22
Scale
22
Eye and skin irritation
23
Discoloured water
23
Cloudy water
24
Too much chlorine
24
Chlorine odour
25
THE Fi-Clor 4 >> POINT POOL CARE PLAN
1 >> DISINFECT THE WATER
3 >> BALANCE THE WATER
Swimming pool water is re-circulated and constantly re-used,
Water must be kept in balance (neither too acidic, nor too
and some of the bacteria, viruses and other micro-organisms
alkaline/basic) to ensure the pool, equipment and fittings come
deposited by bathers must be destroyed before they can pass
to no long-term harm through corrosion or scale formation.
from one bather to another. So the water must be disinfected
The sanitiser you use will also be more effective if the water
using a Fi-Clor POOL SANITISER
is balanced. The products you will need are in the Fi-Clor
POOL TYPE
RECTANGULAR
4 >>PREVENTION OR CURE (of pool water problems)
Stabilising the water
Ideally, you should be able to enjoy swimming in crystal clear water with a minimum of fuss. And with Fi-Clor’s simple
4 >> POINT POOL CARE PLAN you can achieve that ideal – perfect water quality from a complete range of pool care
products that will give you clear, bright water throughout the season.
Max. Length
L
L
x
x
x
W
W
Min. Width
x
x
D
D
x
x
x
Ave. Depth
6.23 galls
1.0 m3
WATER BALANCE range.
2 >> REMOVE IMPURITIES – SUPERCHLORINATE
OVAL
4 >> PREVENT OR CURE POOL WATER PROBLEMS
The impurities introduced by bathers need to be removed
Max. Length
L
L
x
x
x
W
W
Min. Width
x
x
D
D
x
x
x
Ave. Depth
5.54 galls
0.89 m3
ROUND
and by-products from these reactions need to be broken
The regular use of Fi-Clor Prevention or Cure products will
down to achieve good water quality and bather comfort.
avoid staining and scale formation from minerals, enhance
So the pool should be treated at intervals with Fi-Clor
water clarity and prevent algae. A specially formulated algicide
SHOCK products.
is used for winterising.
Follow the Fi-Clor 4 >> POINT POOL CARE PLAN, and you’ll have the reassurance of knowing that the water in your pool
SAFETY
Diameter
Swimming Pool Safety
26
Pool Chemical Safety
26
L
L
x
x
x
L
L
Diameter
x
x
D
D
x
x
x
Ave. Depth
is clear, blue and free from potentially harmful organisms.
4.89 galls
0.79 m3
KIDNEY
Max. Length
L
L
This guide is designed to explain the necessary steps to maintain
your pool. It is not a substitute for reading and following product
labels. If, after reading this guide, you have any pool care questions,
please visit our website at www.fi-clor.co.uk or consult your local
Fi-Clor pool shop.
(L = Length
x
x
x
W
W
W = Width
Max. Width
x
x
D
D
x
x
x
Ave. Depth
5.30 galls
0.85 m3
D = Average Depth)
The size of my pool is:
galls/cu mtrs
GET HOLD OF A GOOD TEST KIT
A good test kit is essential; a cheap one is a false economy. To get the
best from your pool, your test kit should enable you to determine pH,
free available chlorine, total alkalinity and calcium hardness. A special
test kit to measure cyanuric acid would also be an asset. And don’t
forget, in the bathing season testing should be done on a daily basis.
1
2
Pool Sanitiser
1 >>
Pool Sanitiser
DISINFECT THE WATER
1 >>
Chlorine is used to kill those potentially harmful germs and micro-organisms. It is arguably the most successful broad
spectrum sanitiser known to man – broad spectrum because it tackles not only germs which include bacteria, viruses and
fungi, but also microscopic plant life such as algae as well. Fi-Clor chlorine-based sanitisers offer a choice of granular or
tabletted products in which the chlorine is delivered in a solid form that is safe for pool owners to use, but when mixed with
water releases a powerful and effective dose of free available chlorine.
}
UNDERSTANDING FREE CHLORINE
Q. What is free available chlorine?
kept between 1.0 – 3.0mg/l (ppm). To put
A. Free available chlorine (FAC) is the amount
this in perspective - if you were looking at
of chlorine, or sanitiser, left in the pool
Mount Everest, 1ppm would be equivalent
after dealing with bugs and organic matter
to only the top 1cm of the mountain.
already in the water.
DOSE RATES FOR YOUR POOL
DOSE RATE
Premium 5 or
Fi-Clor Granules
90g per 11,000 gallons (50m3) will raise the
free chlorine by approx 1 mg/l (ppm)
Premium 5 Tablets or
Fi-Clor Maxi-Tabs
Approx 2 x 200g tablets per 11,000 gallons (50m3)
per week *
Superfast Granules
65g per 11,000 gallons (50m3) will raise the
free chlorine by approx 1mg/l (ppm)
Supercapsules
Approx 2 capsules per 11,000 gallons (50m3)
every 5 days *
IN MY POOL
Q. Why should the free available chlorine
Q. How does free chlorine kill bugs?
A. By a combination of oxidation and complex
cell disruption processes.
Q. What level of chlorine do I need in
be at those levels?
A. Below 1.0mg/l (ppm) there maybe
Try one of our 5-Buoy units.
They provide a multi-functional
infections, rashes and cloudy water. Very
treatment and can last 4–8 weeks
Care Products?
discomfort, though levels slightly higher
than 4.0 mg/l (ppm) are not a major
are using. With stabilised chlorines, such as
concern with Fi-Clor stabilised chlorines
Fi-Clor or Premium 5 Granules or Tablets
because the release of free chlorine is
the free chlorine in your pool should
controlled by the in-built stabiliser in
always be in the range 2.0 – 4.0 milligrams
the product (for more on this, see pages
per litre (mg/l), often expressed as parts
per million (ppm), even when the pool is
not in use. With unstabilised chlorines,
such as Superfast Granules or
Supercapsules, free chlorine should be
pool chlorinated in your absence?
and algae, and there is a danger of
high levels of chlorine can lead to bather
A. That depends on the type of chlorine you
Want to know how to keep the
insufficient chlorine to kill all the bacteria
my pool when using Fi-Clor Pool
TEST METHOD
GOING AWAY
ON HOLIDAY?
}
DISINFECT THE WATER
* Dosage will vary with chlorine consumption which in turn will depend on such variables as circulation rate, bathing load and temperature
The dose rates of all the chemicals you will need to use in your pool will be calculated for you on the Poolcare page of www.fi-clor.co.uk
depending on the conditions of
IF THE FREE AVAILABLE CHLORINE IS TOO HIGH:
use, e.g. water temperature and
If the chlorine is only a few parts per million above the recommended upper limit for the sanitiser you are using, it will normally fall of
its own accord over a few days. For levels where the chlorine is too high for safe bathing, or where it is necessary to reduce chlorine
levels quickly, add Baquacil Chlorine/Bromine Neutraliser (sodium thiosulphate).
degree of water movement.
DOSE RATE
PER 11,000 GALLONS (50m3)
Baquacil Chlorine/Bromine Neutraliser
350g* will reduce the free chlorine
by approx 1 mg/l (ppm)
15 –16).
Q. How often should I test the chlorine
IN MY POOL
g will reduce the free chlorine
by approx 1mg/l (ppm)
level in my pool?
* For pools on Bromine, the dose rate is 150g per 11,000 gallons (50m3) to lower the bromine level by 1mg/l (ppm)
A. In the bathing season, this should be done
daily, whether the pool is in use or not.
Remove the cap from the Pooltester test kit and rinse it several
times in pool water. Fill the Pooltester to the top with the pool water sample to be tested.
Carefully drop a DPD No 1 test tablet into the chlorine side, replace the cap and invert the
tester several times to ensure the tablet has dissolved. Compare the colour of the sample
Pooltester test kit
5-Buoy
USEFUL TIP
3
4 >> POINT POOL CARE PLAN
4 >> POINT POOL CARE PLAN
with the colour standard on the Pooltester, using natural daylight as a background.
USEFUL TIP
If the colour of the sample fades noticeably when the tablet is dissolving, it can be a sign of excess chlorine. Dilute the sample and test again,
Take great care when using this product as overdosing can introduce a chlorine demand. To minimise the risk of overdosing, the recommended dose
multiplying the answer by the rate of dilution, e.g. take one part of pool water and mix with three parts of tap water, carry out the DPD No 1
of Baquacil Chlorine/Bromine Neutraliser should be split into three equal applications. Test for free chlorine after each application, allowing approximately
test as normal and multiply the reading by four. Increase the dilution factor for suspected higher readings. If in doubt, consult your Fi-Clor dealer
3 – 4 hours for the reaction to take place. If the colour of the sample fades noticeably when the tablet is dissolving, it can be a sign of excess chlorine.
(there may be a charge for water testing).
Dilute the sample and test again, multiplying the answer by the rate of dilution (see p3). If in doubt, consult your Fi-Clor dealer
4
Pool Sanitiser _ stabilised chlorines
Pool Sanitiser
DISINFECT THE WATER
The success of the 4 >>Point Pool Care Plan depends on the use of quality products and there are none better than Fi-Clor,
which also happens to be the most popular brand of sanitiser for domestic swimming pools in the UK.
We set the standard for quality and reliability to give you peace of mind, knowing that you are using top grade products at
value for money prices. Whatever your needs, Fi-Clor gives you a complete product line-up to provide an easy and carefree
way to perfect water quality – the choice is yours.
Fi-CLOR STANDARD SANITISER
Fi-CLOR SUPERFAST SANITISER
The standard Fi-Clor range, available in tablet and granular form,
is the popular choice for outdoor pools. The in-built stabiliser
Possibly one of the most exciting new developments in pool
water treatment for a number of years, Superfast Granules and
Fi-Clor Supercapsules are made from calcium hypochlorite and
contain no stabiliser, which when present in excess, may inhibit
chlorine activity.
1 >>
}
DISINFECT THE WATER
WHICH PRODUCTS ARE BEST FOR MY POOL?
Your choice of sanitiser depends to a large extent on whether you have an indoor pool or an outdoor pool, the properties of the local
water supply (i.e. whether you live in a hard or a soft water area) and personal preference; in particular the amount of time you are able
to devote to maintaining your pool. Whatever you decide, Fi-Clor will be able to provide a product, or a combination of products that will
enable you to get the best results when it comes to achieving perfect water quality.
STANDARD Fi-Clor GRANULES
Fi-Clor MAXI -TABS
Fi-Clor MINI -TABS
prolongs the effective life of the chlorine and makes the water
so comfortable to bathe in you may not even realise the
chlorine's there.
Fi-CLOR PREMIUM 5 SANITISER
4 >> POINT POOL CARE PLAN
Our multi-functional Premium 5 products contain extra
ingredients allowing them to perform five key pool care tasks
simultaneously. They outperform standard stabilised chlorines
because they also contain an algicide to help prevent green
water and a clarifier to keep the water crystal clear. Ideal for use
in outdoor pools where it is necessary to prevent wasteful loss
of chlorine to sunlight.
Superfast Granules are produced by a totally new process
enabling them to dissolve rapidly when added to water and
produce an impressive 78% available chlorine. The 300g
Supercapsules are made from conventional 65% calcium
hypochlorite and dissolve evenly in the skimmer basket leaving
the pool well protected for 2 – 5 days. Ideal for indoor and
outdoor pools, with both granular and tabletted versions helping
to balance the water in soft water areas.
Fi-Clor PREMIUM 5 GRANULES
Fi-Clor PREMIUM 5 TABLETS
5-BUOY
>>
Kills water-borne bacteria
>>
Stabilised – reduces loss of chlorine to sunlight;
ideal for outdoor pools
>>
pH neutral – easier to keep the water in balance
>>
Fine particle size – fast dissolving – quickly raises
free chlorine
>>
Kills water-borne bacteria
>>
No measuring out – convenient to use
>>
Stabilised, but less stabiliser per unit of chlorine than
Granules – ideal for outdoor pools
>>
Low pH – simplifies pH control in hard water areas
>>
Long lasting – less time on routine maintenance
>>
Kills water-borne bacteria
>>
Convenient to use tablets
>>
Inbuilt stabiliser to prevent loss of chlorine to sunlight – ideal for
outdoor pools
>>
Long lasting; less time on routine maintenance
>>
Ideal for small circulatory feeders & refillable floating dispensers
>>
Multi-functional; contains algicide & water clarifier
>>
Kills water-borne bacteria
>>
Helps prevent algae
>>
Improves water quality
>>
Fast acting
>>
Inbuilt stabiliser to prevent wastage to sunlight – ideal
for outdoor pools
>>
Kills water-borne bacteria
>>
Helps prevent algae
>>
Improves water quality
>>
Long lasting disinfection
>>
Helps balance water in hard water areas
>>
Inbuilt stabiliser to prevent wastage to sunlight – ideal
for outdoor pools
>>
5 actions in only one treatment
Multifunctional floating dispenser with shock dose,
clarifier and algicide
User friendly – filled and ready to use
Continuous release of low-level chlorine – prevents loss
to sunlight
Lasts for up to 1 to 2 months – ideal for holidays
>>
>>
>>
>>
>>
Where to dose
Sprinkle required dose
over the surface of
the water
Skimmer* or
circulatory feed
Skimmer*,
circulatory feeder or
refillable floating
dispenser
Sprinkle required dose
over the surface of
the water
Skimmer* or
circulatory feed
Float dispenser
in pool
4 >> POINT POOL CARE PLAN
1 >>
Operates near the pool surface where bugs and algae
proliferate – works even when pool is not circulating
* Dosing chemicals via a skimmer over a long period could cause damage to the circulation system. You are advised to fit a feeder device if using tabletted
products. (If using a skimmer, run the filtration continuously to avoid the build-up of concentrated solutions of chlorine).
5
6
Pool Sanitiser _ Stabiliser-Free Chlorines
1 >>
}
Stabiliser-Free Chlorines
DISINFECT THE WATER
2 >>
WHICH PRODUCTS ARE BEST FOR MY POOL?
SUPERFAST GRANULES
Chlorine
content
(% av.Cl2)
78
>> Stabiliser-free – no risk of over-stabilisation,
so ideal for indoor pools
Calcium
Hypochlorite
SUPERCAPSULES
Where to dose
>> Kills water-borne bacteria and oxidises
organic matter, effective at killing algae
>> Higher pH and calcium base simplifies
balancing water in soft water areas
Chlorine
content
(% av.Cl2)
>> Kills water-borne bacteria and oxidises
organic matter
Calcium
Hypochlorite
68
>> Fast dissolving and fast acting
>> Extra strength. More economical and effective
than standard calcium hypochlorite sanitisers
With the circulation
running, broadcast the
Superfast Granules evenly
over a wide area in the
deepest part of the pool.
If the water is cold or
particularly shallow, it is
advisable to pre-dissolve
the product in a clean
plastic bucket of warm
water, and then dose
as above.
>> Stabiliser-free – no risk of over-stabilisation,
so ideal for indoor pools
>> Long lasting (typically five days) – so less
time on routine maintenance
Skimmer
>> Higher pH and calcium base simplifies
balancing water in soft water areas
In addition to bacteria, algae and viruses, pool water also contains chloramines. Although not a direct health risk, they need to be broken
down to maintain high quality water that’s pleasant to bathe in. High chloramine levels are responsible for eye-sting and that unpleasant,
stale chlorine smell associated with old-fashioned swimming baths. If chloramines are controlled, bathers in pools sanitised by Fi-Clor will
only be aware of a faint, but reassuring trace of chlorine in the water, though in most cases the chlorine will be virtually undetectable.
}
UNDERSTANDING CHLORAMINES
Q. Where do chloramines come from?
A. They are formed when the free chlorine
comes into contact with nitrogen
containing waste such as sweat, soaps,
cosmetics and even urine.
Q. What is the difference between
chloramines and combined chlorine?
A. The two terms are used interchangeably. Combined chlorine simply
means that the some of the free chlorine
has been used up in combining with the
nitrogen compounds.
Q. Can you measure chloramine levels
in a pool?
A. Yes. Carry out a test for Total
Chlorine as described below. The
rest is elementary arithmetic – total
chlorine minus free chlorine equals
combined chlorine.
Q. Apart from bather discomfort, how
do I know if chloramine levels are
too high?
A. The free chlorine level should always
be at least twice the level of combined
chlorine, and combined chlorine should
always be below
1 mg/l (ppm).
Q. How do I get rid of chloramines?
A. Superchlorinate, i.e. raise the free
available chlorine to 5 – 7mg/l (ppm).
Q. Can I use standard Fi-Clor
or Premium 5 Granules to
superchlorinate?
A. This is not best practise as these
products will unnecessarily add extra
stabiliser to the pool. Our Fi-Clor
Superchlorinator will be far more
effective as it contains no stabiliser.
Q. What if I want to use the pool
straight after superchlorinating it?
Won’t the chlorine level be too high?
A. The level will invariably be too high.
The best technique is to
superchlorinate in the evening leaving
chlorine levels to fall overnight.
Q. How frequently should I
superchlorinate?
A. Whenever chloramine levels are
too high, and, in any case, at least
once a fortnight.
TEST METHOD
Drop a DPD No 3 tablet into the cell you used when you tested for free chlorine – the sample containing
the pool water reacted with the DPD No 1 tablet. Allow to stand for 2 minutes, invert several times to mix thoroughly and then
match the colour with the standard. This will give you the total chlorine. Subtract the free chlorine from the total chlorine to give
you the combined chlorine level.
4 >> POINT POOL CARE PLAN
4 >> POINT POOL CARE PLAN
NOTE
Although you may choose to use a combination of stabilised and unstabilised chlorines in the same pool
as part of your treatment strategy, extreme care must be taken not to mix these products, either in the dry state, or by dosing
them together in the same skimmer or feeder device. Never mix Standard Fi-Clor or Fi-Clor Premium 5 sanitisers with the
Fi-Clor Superfast range (Granules, Shock or Superchlorinator) or Fi-Clor Supercapsules.
REMOVE IMPURITIES
USEFUL TIP
1. Keep a close check on chloramines when the pool is being heavily used. The more bathers, the greater chance of impurities being introduced.
7
8
Stabiliser-Free Chlorines _ Shock Treatment
2 >>
}
Water Balance
REMOVE IMPURITIES
3 >>
REMEDIAL ACTION
Once a fortnight, the pool should be superchlorinated using an unstabilised chlorine such as Fi-Clor Superchlorinator.
However, depending on bathing load, it may be necessary to treat the pool more often to reduce high chloramines.
DOSE RATE
PER 11,000 GALLONS (50m )
Fi-Clor Superchlorinator
Half the contents of a 1kg pack of Fi-Clor
Superchlorinator, or the entire contents of the
alternative 450g Superchlorinator pack.
3
IN MY POOL
BALANCE THE WATER
You should balance the water to help keep it crystal clear and protect both the pool and the circulation system from scale or corrosion.
For water to be in balance, the pH, total alkalinity and calcium hardness should all be within recommended limits. We will take these
in turn:
}
UNDERSTANDING pH
Regulating pH is one of the most important aspects of pool care. Low pH can lead to skin irritation and corrosion of equipment. High pH
can result in cloudy water and contribute to scale formation. More importantly, high pH will reduce the effectiveness of the sanitiser,
chlorine based ones especially. The amount of free available chlorine released falls off quite rapidly with increasing pH.
pH Scale
Fi-Clor Superfast Shock
1kg when required
8.6
NON-IRRITATING
Chlorine
content
(% av.Cl2)
78
Calcium
Hypochlorite
SUPERFAST SHOCK
8.4
>> Rapid dissolving, fast acting
>> Breaks down pollutants that cause
eye-sting and odour
>> Kills water borne bacteria
>> Stabiliser-free – no chlorine lock.
Helps restore the effectiveness
of the main sanitiser
With the circulation running, broadcast
the Superchlorinator evenly over a wide
area in the deepest part of the pool
Acidic
Satisfactory
irritating to
eyes etc
Ideal range
Maximum bather
comfort. Effective
bacterial action
Satisfactory
but less
effective
range for
chlorine
Potentially
corrosive
Irritating to eyes, etc
Chlorine effectiveness decreases rapidly
Increased likelihood of scale formation
>> Use the day before a pool party for
sparkling clear water
Chlorine
content
(% av.Cl2)
>> Eliminates green or cloudy water
78
>> Kills algae & oxidises organic matter
Can result in
chlorine loss
>> Rapid dissolving, fast acting
eye-sting and skin irritation
>> Kills water borne bacteria
>> Stabiliser-free – no chlorine lock.
Helps restore the effectiveness
of the main sanitiser
4 >> POINT POOL CARE PLAN
Calcium
Hypochlorite
>> Breaks down pollutants that cause
6.8
With the circulation running, broadcast
the Superfast Shock evenly over a wide
area in the deepest part of the pool
7.0
7.2
Acidic
7.8
8.0
8.2
8.4
8.6
Basic
Q. What is pH?
A. It is a measure oh how acid or how
alkaline (basic) the water is. The word
‘basic’ is sometimes used as an
alternative to alkaline in the context of
high pH. For example, lemons and cooking
apples are sour and acidic and have a low
pH. Soda crystals and bicarbonate of soda
are alkaline and have a high pH.
A. Between 7.2 and 7.6, but keep it as near
as possible to 7.2 if you are using Fi-Clor
Superfast Granules or Supercapsules. This
is a compromise as the chlorine would be
more effective if the pH was below 7.0,
but this would lead to potentially
corrosive conditions. Also, the human
body is most comfortable bathing in
water with a pH of approx. 7.4.
Q. What are the yardsticks?
A. pH is measured on a scale of 0
(very acidic) to 14 (extremely alkaline).
A reading of 7.0 is neutral.
Q. Is accuracy important when
measuring pH?
A. Yes – you should bear in mind that
the pH scale is not a linear one. It is in
fact logarithmic with pH 8.0 being ten
times more alkaline than pH 7.0, and
TEST METHOD
If the water is cold or particularly shallow, it is advisable to pre-dissolve the product in a clean plastic bucket of warm water and then dose as above.
7.6
7.0
Neutral
Q. What should the pH of the pool
water be?
USEFUL TIP
7.4
pH 9.0 one hundred times more
alkaline than pH7.0. So small
differences are worthy of attention.
Q. What effects the pH of the
pool water?
A. In some water areas, especially in the
south of England, the water is hard
because it contains dissolved calcium
(and magnesium) salts which it has
picked by flowing through chalk strata.
It also tends to have a naturally high
pH and alkalinity.
Q. How often should I check the pH?
A. Preferably daily - but at least once
a week.
Dissolve a phenol red tablet in the pool water sample and take the reading by matching the colour of
the sample with the colour on the comparator.
4 >> POINT POOL CARE PLAN
SUPERCHLORINATOR
6.8
USEFUL TIPS
1. In hard water areas it should be easier to keep pH within recommended limits by using Fi-Clor Premium 5, Maxi or Mini Tablets rather than granules. The tablets are
slightly acidic in normal bathing concentrations and therefore tend to balance the higher levels of pH and alkalinity associated with hard water.
2. When correcting out of balance water, always adjust the alkalinity first. This will make pH correction easier.
9
10
Remedial Action
}
BALANCE THE WATER
3 >>
REMEDIAL ACTION
}
If the pH is below 7.2, add Fi-Clor pH Increaser (Soda Ash).
If the pH is above 7.6, add Fi-Clor pH & Alkalinity Reducer (Dry Acid).
DOSE RATE
PER 11,000 GALLONS (50m )
Fi-Clor pH Increaser
500g per day until the pH is correct
Fi-Clor pH & Alkalinity Reducer
500g per day until the pH is correct
IN MY POOL
pH INCREASER
SODA ASH
>> Corrects low pH
UNDERSTANDING TOTAL ALKALINITY
Total alkalinity is also an important parameter that needs to be taken into account in optimising water conditions.
3
pH
BALANCE THE WATER
Pre-dissolve in clean plastic bucket of
pool water and with the circulation
running, distribute evenly around the
pool avoiding the skimmers
Q. What is total alkalinity?
A. Total alkalinity is a measure of the
amount of alkali (or in chemical terms,
bicarbonates, carbonates and hydroxides)
in the water.
Q. How is it different from pH?
A. The two are closely inter-related. pH is
a scale measuring whether the water is
acidic or alkaline (it is in fact a logarithmic
scale measuring the hydrogen ion
concentration – see page 10). Total
alkalinity quantifies how much alkali (mainly
bicarbonates) there is in the water and this
is measured in the usual mg/l (ppm) units.
}
Q. What else can happen if
total alkalinity is outside the
recommended range?
A. Low alkalinity may lead to low
pH, which could cause corrosion and
damage to the pool. Total alkalinity
above 200mg/l (ppm) may cause
cloudy water or scale formation,
especially if the pH is high as well.
Q. How often should I test for
5total alkalinity?
A. At least once a month.
REMEDIAL ACTION
If the total alkalinity is below the recommended lower limit for the sanitiser you are using, add Fi-Clor Alkalinity Increaser (Bicarbonate).
DOSE RATE
PER 11,000 GALLONS (50m3)
IN MY POOL
Fi-Clor Alkalinity Increaser
1.5kg per day until the total
alkalinity is above 80 -150mg/l (ppm)
g per day until the total
alkalinity is between 80 –150mg/l (ppm)
pH & ALKALINITY REDUCER
pH
>> Corrects high pH
and high Alkalinity
Pre-dissolve in clean plastic bucket of
pool water and with the circulation
running, distribute evenly around the
pool avoiding the skimmers
(Do not pour it in one spot or some
alkalinity may be destroyed)
ALKALINITY INCREASER
BICARBONATE
DRY ACID
4 >> POINT POOL CARE PLAN
Q. What is the correct amount of
total alkalinity?
A. The total alkalinity should be between
100 and 150mg/l (ppm), or between
80 – 120mg/l (ppm) for pools sanitised
with Fi-Clor Superfast Granules or Fi-Clor
Supercapsules.
Q. Why is total alkalinity important?
A. It has a big influence on how easy or
difficult it can be to control pH. Low
alkalinity can lead to rapid fluctuations of
pH; high alkalinity makes it difficult to adjust
(reduce) the pH – that’s what they mean
when they say the water is over ‘buffered’.
TA
>> Corrects low Total Alkalinity
Pre-dissolve in clean plastic bucket of
pool water and with the circulation
running, distribute evenly around the
pool avoiding the skimmers
There are various test methods, depending on the type of test kit, but a well established, yet simple
way of measuring total alkalinity is to take a 100ml pool water sample in a stoppered bottle. Add one
Alkalinity M tablet. Shake to disintegrate. Continue adding tablets one at a time until colour changes from yellow to bright pink.
Alkalinity = (No of tablets x 40) – 20mg/l (ppm).
TEST METHOD
}
REMEDIAL ACTION
If the total alkalinity is above the recommended upper limit for the sanitiser you are using, add Fi-Clor pH & Alkalinity Reducer (Dry Acid).
DOSE RATE
PER 11,000 GALLONS (50m3)
IN MY POOL
Fi-Clor pH & Alkalinity Reducer
(Dry Acid)
1kg per day until the total
alkalinity is at the required level
g per day until the total
alkalinity is at the required level
NOTE
4 >> POINT POOL CARE PLAN
3 >>
Water Balance
For best results, dissolve in a clean plastic bucket and with the circulation running, pour the solution in a small area
at the deep end of the pool. Note that this technique is different to that for lowering pH.
99
11
12
Water Balance
3 >>
Summary
BALANCE THE WATER
3 >>
UNDERSTANDING CALCIUM HARDNESS
}
}
It’s wise to keep an eye on calcium hardness, which can lead to problems on pool surfaces or in the circulation system if it is too high
or too low.
Q. What is total calcium hardness?
A. It is a measure of the amount of
dissolved calcium and magnesium in the
pool water. If there is a calcium deposit on
the bottom or the sides of your pool, it is
no longer dissolved.
Q. Why is it important?
A. It is an important factor in balancing your
pool water.
Q. What happens if the calcium
hardness levels are too low?
A. Water is sometimes described as being
calcium hungry - if there is not enough
(dissolved) calcium in the water it will try
to take it from grouting, and in fact from
any cementitous material in the pool (non
liner pools).
See photograph above.
Q. What happens if calcium levels are
too high?
A. Under certain conditions (high pH
and/or high alkalinity), the calcium can
come out of solution, producing cloudy
water and scale formation on pool
surfaces, pipes and fittings. A similar
phenomenon occurs during the formation
of stalagmites and stalactites.
Q. Are high calcium levels a real worry?
A. They are not now thought to be a major
concern unless there are also high levels of
pH and total alkalinity, and the pool is run at
a high temperature.
Q. What is the correct level of calcium
hardness?
A. The calcium hardness should be
above 175mg/l (ppm) for liner pools
and above 250mg/l (ppm) for tiled pools,
with the upper limit in both cases being
1,000mg/l (ppm).
Q. How often should I test for total
hardness?
A. Test 2 or 3 times a season.
BALANCE THE WATER
BALANCING THE WATER – SUMMARY
Handbooks and presentations drive home the importance of ‘water balance’, and in essence what they mean by this is keeping pH, total
alkalinity and calcium hardness within the parameters recommended. This is to ensure that the water is neither corrosive, nor scale
forming to an unacceptable extent. There is, however, a bit more to it.
Q. Is there any further way of finding
out if the water is in balance?
A. Yes. There is a calculation you can do
based on an empirical formula which gives
you the Langelier Index, sometimes also
called the Saturation Index.
Q. What gets taken into account in
the formula?
A. Five factors based on the readings for pH,
total alkalinity, calcium hardness, pool water
temperature and total dissolved solids
(sometimes abbreviated TDS).
Q. What are total dissolved solids (TDS)?
A. In pure chemical terms, TDS is the total
solids remaining after evaporating away all
the water, but in pool water terminology it
represents the dissolved solids that can be
measured with a conductivity meter –
mainly chlorides and sulphates. These ionic
species increase the ability of the water to
conduct electric current, thereby increasing
the risk of corrosion to metalwork.
Q. How do I measure TDS?
A. It needs a special probe which measures
the conductivity of the water. It’s hardly
worth buying one as TDS only needs to
be checked about once a season. It is best
to take a water sample to your pool shop
Q. Can I get my pool water balance
checked?
A. Take a 500ml pool water sample to
your nearest Recommended Fi-Clor Water
Test Centre. This will be tested using our
Fi-Clor WaterLink photometer and the
data analysed by the Fi-Clor WaterChemist
computer software.
Depending on the type of test kit you have, a straightforward way of measuring calcium hardness is
to take a 100ml pool water sample in a stoppered bottle. Add one Calcium Hardness tablet. Shake to
disintegrate. Continue adding tablets one at a time until colour changes from pink to bright violet.
Hardness = (No of tablets x 20) – 10mg/l (ppm).
TEST METHOD
PER 11,000 GALLONS (50m3)
IN MY POOL
Fi-Clor Hardness Increaser
1kg per day until the calcium hardness
is above 175mg/l (ppm)
g per day until the
calcium hardness is above 175mg/l (ppm)
HARDNESS INCREASER
99
13
DOSE RATE
CALCIUM CHLORIDE FLAKE
4 >> POINT POOL CARE PLAN
If the calcium hardness is below 175mg/l (ppm), add Fi-Clor Hardness Increaser (Calcium Chloride Flake).
>> Corrects low Calcium Hardness
With the circulation running, sprinkle
the product directly into the water around
the perimeter of the pool.
Do not pre-dissolve as this could
generate excessive heat.
Only use when bathing has ceased and
avoid areas near the skimmers.
USEFUL TIPS
4 >> POINT POOL CARE PLAN
REMEDIAL ACTION
}
1. Backwash the filter and top up with fresh water regularly (at least fortnightly, but more frequently depending on bathing load). This will not only ensure effective
filtration, but also keep water replacement at a level which will help control the build-up of calcium hardness and total dissolved solids. It will also help control the
level of cyanuric acid (stabiliser).
2. Find your nearest Recommended Fi-Clor Dealer on www.fi-clor.co.uk. They will be able to check your water balance for you.
14
Prevention or Cure
4 >>
}
Prevention or Cure
PREVENTION OR CURE
PREVENTION OF POOL WATER PROBLEMS
There are other things you can do to get the best out of the chemicals you use to sanitise the pool and to keep the water clear, blue
and inviting. For outdoor pools, it makes sense to ensure the water is stabilised to prolong the active life of the chlorine. Also, periodic
use of water clarifiers and algicides will help keep the water in tip-top condition.
}
4 >>
USEFUL TIP
Good pool care requires regular (i.e. at least fortnightly) backwashing of the filter during periods of normal summer use. During backwashing, water from the pool is passed
upwards through a sand filter so that the accumulated debris can be removed from the filter media and drained to waste. The pool is then topped up with fresh water.
Not only will regular backwashing keep the filter in good condition, it will also dilute the pool water and help control TDS and cyanuric acid. You get benefits all round.
Methods vary, but an inexpensive test requires a 'disappearing dot' cyanuric acid test kit. Fill the cell
with a 10ml pool water sample. Add one cyanuric acid test tablet: crush to dissolve and shake to
disperse. Push the plunger into the sample until the dot on the bottom of the plunger is just obscured from view by the turbidity
in the sample. Read the result from the scale on the side of the plunger.
Dilute the sample with tap water if the stabiliser level is above 100mg/l (ppm) and multiply the reading by the rate of dilution.
UNDERSTANDING STABILISERS
Free available chlorine is used up in purifying the pool water, but
it can also be lost in outdoor pools through attack by the ultraviolet rays of sunlight. This plays no part in the water treatment
process and is entirely wasteful.
It can be prevented by having the right amount of stabiliser
(sometimes misleadingly called conditioner) in the water. Tests
have shown that in water that has not been stabilised, chlorine
dosed into the pool first thing can be broken down by sunlight
and lost before noon, leaving harmful organisms and algae an
opportunity to breed.
PREVENTION OR CURE
TEST METHOD
This could happen if you are sanitising an outdoor pool with
Fi-Clor Superfast Granules or Supercapsules and you will need to
add stabiliser to prevent decomposition of chlorine by sunlight.
Fortunately, standard Fi-Clor Granules & Tablets and Premium 5
Granules & Tablets come with their own built in stabiliser, and
unless you are starting the season with completely fresh mains
water, little or no further action will be required.
However, too much stabiliser is also a bad thing so it is best to
check stabiliser levels from time to time to make sure you have
enough to protect the chlorine, but not an excessive amount.
}
DOSING OF CHLORINE STABILISER
It is now considered detrimental to add additional cyanuric acid stabiliser to pools disinfected with stabilised chlorine donors such as
standard Fi-Clor Granules, Premium 5 Granules, Fi-Clor Tablets and Premium 5 Tablets, even at start up with a fresh fill of water, as the
cyanuric acid level will quite quickly rise to the optimum level. Therefore, only add additional stabiliser when using unstabilised chlorine
donors such as Fi-Clor Superfast Granules and Supercapsules.
DOSE RATE
PER 11,000 GALLONS (50m3)
IN MY POOL
Fi-Clor Chlorine Stabiliser
50g will raise the stabiliser level
by 1mg/l (ppm)
g will raise the
stabiliser level by 1mg/l (ppm)
Q. Do all chlorines contain stabiliser?
A. No. Superfast Granules and
Supercapsules have no cyanuric acid in
them. If you are using these products to
sanitise an outdoor pool, you could save
money by adding Fi-Clor Chlorine
Stabiliser to the water.
Q. How much stabiliser do I need to
protect the chlorine in my pool?
A. About 30mg/l (ppm). If you are a
regular user of Fi-Clor or Premium 5
Granules or Tablets, there will almost
certainly be enough stabiliser in the
water without the need for further
NOTE
15
additions of Fi-Clor Chlorine Stabiliser.
Q. Why is too much stabiliser a
bad thing?
A. It slows down the time it takes the
chlorine to kill bugs, germs and algae. To
compensate for this, you will need to run
your pool at higher levels of free chlorine.
If cyanuric acid is 160 ppm, you should let
free chlorine go no lower than 2.5 mg/l
(ppm) at all times.
Q. How high is too high?
A. Opinions vary among experts, but
most would agree that the effectiveness
of the chlorine can be impaired at levels
in excess of 100mg/l (ppm) and in fact
current thinking is that the optimum level
is 30-60mg/l (ppm). Certainly, you should
allow it to go no higher than 200mg/l
(ppm) which is the industry recommended
maximum limit.
Q. What is ‘chlorine lock’?
A. It is a term loosely used to denote the
fact that the stabiliser is at a level where
it is reducing the effectiveness of the
chlorine. It is misleading in that it implies
that the chlorine is entirely locked up and
inactive. This is not in fact the case, as
the chlorine’s activity has only been
reduced below a level where it is
practically effective.
>> Raises stabiliser levels
>> Prevents loss of chlorine to sunlight
>> Reduces wastage of chlorine
>> Essential for outdoor pools
Dose directly into the pool.
Stabiliser can take a few days to dissolve.
Assist dissolution by sweeping any
accumulated product with a pool brush.
4 >> POINT POOL CARE PLAN
Q. What is stabiliser?
A. Its chemical name is cyanuric acid.
With standard Fi-Clor Granules & Tablets
and Premium 5 Granules & Tablets, we
attach atoms of chlorine to cyanuric acid
to present you with chlorine in a solid
form that is safe to handle. That’s why
we say it has its own in-built stabiliser.
CYANURIC ACID
4 >> POINT POOL CARE PLAN
CHLORINE STABILISER
Q. How can I reduce the cyanuric acid
level in my pool?
A. There is no chemical way of doing
this. The only practical way to reduce
stabiliser levels is to partially drain the
pool and top up with fresh water. Do this
in stages so as to avoid putting a strain
on the structure of the pool.
Q. How often should I test for
cyanuric acid?
A. At least once a month during the
swimming season (consult your pool
dealer if in doubt).
For further information on chlorine stabilisation, please ask your Fi-Clor dealer or stockist for the leaflet entitled
‘IS YOUR POOL OVER-STABILISED?, which explains the advantages of using unstabilised chlorine donors such as
Superfast Granules and Supercapsules.
NOTE
If the cyanuric acid is above 100mg/l (ppm): The only practical way to lower cyanuric acid is to partially drain
your pool and then replace it with fresh water. Retest the pool and continue partial water replacement
if necessary.
16
Prevention or Cure
}
PREVENTION OR CURE
4 >>
}
KEEPING THE POOL WATER BLUE AND CLEAR
The guidelines so far should ensure that the water does not pose a health risk to bathers and/or present a
long-term threat to the fabric of the pool. But nothing creates a better impression than having a pool with water that is blue, crystal clear
and with a sparkle on the surface. If algae gets into the pool, or if there are tiny suspended particles in the water, it can spoil the
appearance and in extreme cases even stop you using the pool. The best way to prevent this happening is by occasional use of specially
developed chemicals such as algicides and water clarifiers.
}
PREVENTING ALGAE
Q. What are algae?
A. Algae are microscopic plants that grow
in water. There are many different strains
and they are usually green, but you can
find blue-green, black or mustard algae.
They can grow on a pool surface (a colony)
or float in the water (a suspension).
A suspension can turn pool water
completely green and this can literally
happen overnight if you are unlucky.
Q. Won’t chlorine kill algae?
A. Yes, usually. But there are occasions
when chlorine levels are too low, or the
chlorine is not acting effectively because
the water is out of balance or there are
very high levels of stabiliser. There are
also some strains of algae that are
resistant to chlorine.
Q. What can I do to prevent algae?
A. Firstly, ensure that there is adequate
chlorine in the pool at all times, even
when the pool is not in use. Secondly, use
a long life algicide when you open the
pool up, and if necessary also during the
swimming season. (An algicide is a
chemical that kills algae). ’The ones we
recommend are our Fi-Clor Long Life
Multi-functional Algicide (copper free) and
Fi-Clor Long Life Extra Strong algicide
(copper based). Please consult your Fi-Clor
dealer or stockist for advice on the best
product to use.
DOSE RATE
PER 11,000 GALLONS (50m3)
Fi-Clor Long Life Multi-Functional Algicide
Fi-Clor Long Life Extra Strong Algicide
Q. What about your Premium 5
Granules and Tablets? Don’t they
contain an algicide anyway?
A. Yes, using Premium 5 sanitisers will go
a long way to help. But to give them a
sporting chance, it is best to start off with
a boost dose of Long Life Algicide. This
slowly releases its active ingredients over a
period of time. The algicide in the Premium
5 Granules and Tablets will be more
effective if it is used to replenish the active
ingredients from the Long Life Algicide.
Q. What if the pool has already turned
green with algae?
A. For guidelines on killing algae, see
page 21.
IN MY POOL
dose may be beneficial in removing large
amounts of suspended matter (dead
algae cells).
Q. What can you use to take out these
fine particles?
A. You can use a water clarifier. You will
often find them referred to as flocculants
or coagulents. On the Fi-Clor range you
have the choice of using our Fi-Clor Rapid
Clarifier (a liquid that can be dosed
directly into the pool) or Fi-Clor Clarifier
Tablets (which go in the skimmer). Fi-Clor
Rapid clarifier is especially recommended
after shock dosing to kill algae – a double
Q. Are there any other benefits in
using a coagulent?
A. Yes. Fine particles in the water can
present breeding sites for bacteria and
algae. This creates an additional demand
for chlorine. Remove the particles, and
you should save on chlorine.
Q. How do coagulants work?
A. Suspended particles in the water are
held apart because they all contain a
negative electrical charge (remember like
repels like). With a coagulant, you
introduce a molecule carrying a number
of positive charges. These molecules
attract the negatively charged fine
particles in the water. They are clumped
together into a large enough size to be
trapped by the filter.
Q. What else will a water clarifier do?
A. Good water clarifiers give an attractive
sparkle to the surface of the water.
PER 11,000 GALLONS (50m3)
1.5 litres every 6 months
Fi-Clor Rapid Clarifier
For remedial treatment (if you already have a
clarity problem), pour 200ml of Fi-Clor Rapid Clarifier
into the pool near one of the inlets
0.5 litres every 3 months
Fi-Clor Clarifier Tablets
Add 1 mini sachet into the skimmer. Make sure
there are no other chemicals present in the skimmer
POLYQUAT
>> Eliminates algae
>> Long life protection for the season
>> Clarifies pool water
Distribute evenly around the pool
>> Helps prevent staining and scaling of
pool surfaces
CLARIFIER TABLETS
Distribute evenly around the pool in the
evening after bathing has finished.
>> Destroys all types of typical algae,
even the most resistant
>> Highly concentrated composition
>> Contains copper
N.B. Adding sufficient product in one
dose to provide 6 months
protection could raise the copper
concentration to an unacceptable
level, depending on the existing copper
level before dosing the algicide
ALUMINIUM SULPHATE
EXTRA STRONG ALGICIDE
COPPER BASED
LONG LIFE FORMULA
4 >> POINT POOL CARE PLAN
Q. Isn’t the filter supposed to keep the
water clear?
A. The filter will take out most of the
larger particles in suspension in the pool
water. But water can become cloudy
because minute, colloidal particles are so
small that they can pass through a filter
without being trapped. For instance,
hardness salts can change from being in
solution into very fine solid particles if the
pH or total alkalinity are too high. Or dead
algae may be broken down into a fine
powdery residue. The filter alone cannot
cope with these.
IN MY POOL
RAPID CLARIFIER
COPPER-FREE
LONG LIFE FORMULA
17
VACUUMING
DOSE RATE
MULTI-FUNCTIONAL ALGICIDE
99
PREVENTION OR CURE
>> Maintains crystal clear water
>> Powerful formula
>> Improves efficiency of sand filtration
>> Not suitable for diatomite filtration
systems
To maintain pool water clarity,
use 100ml of Rapid Clarifier once a
week, or after each backwash
>> Used with filter running
>> Clarifies pool water
>> Suitable for all types of sand filtration
>> Compatible with all pool sanitisers
Add one mini-sachet of
Fi-Clor Clarifier Tablets into the skimmer
(or into the pump strainer box)
4 >> POINT POOL CARE PLAN
4 >>
Prevention or Cure
>> Improves efficiency of sand filtration
18
Cleaning your pool
4 >>
CLEANING YOUR POOL
}
PHOTO COURTESY CERTIKIN INTERNATIONAL LTD
During the swimming season, you should
clean your pool thoroughly at least once a
week. A thorough cleaning includes leaf
skimming, brushing, vacuuming, cleaning
the skimmers and checking the circulation
system and the filter.
To keep your pool as clean as possible:
>> COVER YOUR POOL WHEN
NOT IN USE.
}
BRUSHING
PURPOSE
Regular brushing of pool walls and
bottom prevents the unwanted build up
of dirt, dust, leaves and dead insects.
This debris can cause stains on your
pool surface.
METHOD
4 >> POINT POOL CARE PLAN
>> HAVE SWIMMERS SHOWER
BEFORE ENTERING YOUR POOL.
You should use a brush to remove loose
dirt, dust and soil that has collected on
the sides and bottom of your pool. Direct
the collected dirt to the main drain so
that it can be caught by recirculating
currents or easily vacuumed. If your pool
does not have a main drain, you should
vacuum immediately after brushing.
Concrete pools require a stiffer bristle
than do vinyl-lined pools.
}
LEAF SKIMMING
PREVENTION OR CURE
VACUUMING
PHOTO COURTESY CERTIKIN INTERNATIONAL LTD
}
PREVENTION OR CURE
PURPOSE
A weekly vacuuming is essential for
keeping your pool consistently clean and
maintaining sparkling clear pool water.
Vacuuming removes particles in the
water. Particles that are left at the
bottom of the pool can cause staining.
METHOD
If your vacuum attaches to the skimmer
or to a designated vacuum point, be sure
not to allow any air into the hose.
In order to do this, submerge the vacuum
head and hose underwater before
connecting it.
}
CLEANING OFF TIDE MARKS
PURPOSE
Leaf skimming removes debris before it
sinks to the bottom of your pool. Debris
becomes much more difficult to remove
and can also cause a stain if it reaches
the bottom of the pool.
METHOD
Use a long-handled leaf skimmer to
remove leaves, insects, and any other
debris floating on the pool surface.
PURPOSE
Cleaning oily deposits along the water
line (often due to the use of sun screen
or body lotions) not only improves the
appearance of the pool, but perhaps
more importantly removes potential
breeding sites for micro-organisms.
METHOD
Be sure to use Fi-Clor Tile & Liner
Cleaner which is compatible with chlorine.
Some detergent-based preparations can
react with chlorine and cause eye and
skin irritation. Simply squeeze some of
the Fi-Clor Tile & Liner Cleaner gel onto
a cloth or sponge and wipe over the
affected area.
TILE & LINER CLEANER
ADVANTAGES
>> Removes dirt and scale from the
water line
>> Gel based formulation;
very effective on vertical surfaces
APPLICATION
Squeeze some Tile & Liner
Cleaner gel onto a cloth or sponge,
wipe over the affected area
and rinse off
4 >> POINT POOL CARE PLAN
4 >>
Cleaning your pool
>> SHOCK TREAT FORTNIGHTLY.
99
19
20
Curing pool water problems
4 >>
}
Curing pool water problems
PREVENTION OR CURE
GREEN WATER/ALGAE ON POOL SURFACES
Q. Why did my pool go green?
A. At some stage, chlorine levels have
fallen, or chlorine has become ineffective,
allowing algae to become established in
the water.
Q. How do you get rid of algae?
A. Follow these easy steps:
1. Adjust the pH to as near 7.2 as possible.
2. Shock dose the pool with an
unstabilised chlorine such as Fi-Clor
Superfast Shock.* Shock dosing kills the
algae and usually produces the fastest
results. The dose rate for Fi-Clor Superfast
Shock is 1kg per 11,000 gallons (50m3) of
pool water.
3. Brush off any algae that may remain on
pool surfaces. Look for colonies behind
step ladders and around underwater
lighting. If you have a concrete pool, use
a stainless steel brush. If you have a liner
pool, use a soft nylon brush.
4. Run the filter for 24 hours then
backwash to remove dead algae
from the top of the filter media.
5. Vacuum the pool.
6. Any remaining haziness in the water
should be removed by applying a remedial
dose of Fi-Clor Rapid Clarifier. If this is
insufficient to clear the pool, carry out a
total floc using Fi-Clor Granular Floc or
Fi-Clor Liquid Floc.
7. Thereafter maintain chlorine at around
2.0 – 4.0mg/l (ppm) for stabilised chlorine
products such as standard Fi-Clor and
Premium 5, and 1.0 – 3.0mg/l (ppm) for
unstabilised chlorine products such as
Superfast Granules.
8. Finally, to prevent a recurrence, dose
with Fi-Clor Long Life Extra Strong Algicide
(copper based), or if copper levels are
already high with Fi-Clor Long Life MultiFunctional Algicide (copper free). Consult
your Fi-Clor dealer or stockist for advice if
you are uncertain which product to use.
Q. What can I do if the algae keeps
coming back?
A. The recommended procedure is:
1. Lower the pH to as near 7.2 as possible.
2. Superchlorinate the pool at least once a
fortnight using Fi-Clor Superchlorinator. The
dose should be sufficient to raise the free
available chlorine to between 5 – 7mg/l
(ppm) in a pool of 11,000 Gallons (50m3).
4 >>
}
PREVENTION OR CURE
STAINS
Q. What causes stains?
A. Stains can be caused by debris that has
fallen to the bottom of the pool or by
dissolved metals. When pool water pH,
calcium hardness or total alkalinity levels
are consistently low, dissolved metals may
leave deposits on the pool surface.
Q. What should I do if I see a stain?
A. Treat the stain immediately to remove.
STAIN & SCALE REMOVER
3. Apply another dose of Fi-Clor Long Life
Extra Strong Algicide (copper based), or
Fi-Clor Long Life Multi-Functional Algicide
(copper free) if some time has elapsed
since the last application.
If the stain is accessible (above the water
line), use Fi-Clor Stain & Scale Remover * neat,
or diluted at a rate of 1 litre to 30 litres of
water, depending on the severity of the
stain to be removed.
Q. What happens if you don’t treat
stains immediately?
A. An untreated stain may become a
permanent stain.
ADVANTAGES
>> Removes staining and scaling from
4. There may be high levels of phosphate
and/or nitrate present. If this is suspected,
ask your dealer to test a pool water sample.
pool surfaces
>> Effective on all types of pool surface
>> No unpleasant odour
5. Ensure that adequate levels of chlorine
and algicide are maintained at all times.
Q. How can you prevent staining?
A. Keep your water balanced (see p14).
In addition, regular use of Fi-Clor Stain &
Scale Inhibitor will help prevent staining.
The dose rate is 1kg per 11,000 gallons
(50m3) but if levels of dissolved metals
exceed 1.5mg/l (ppm), double the dose.
Use of this product may assist in the slow
removal of existing stains below the
water line.
APPLICATION
Use neat or diluted at a rate of
1 litre to 30 litres of water
depending on the severity of the stain
Brush or wipe on, rinse off
* WARNING: Do not mix Fi-Clor Superfast products with any other types of chlorinating compounds (even other products in the Fi-Clor
range) either in the dry state, or in the skimmer. If using with other products, dose them into the pool separately.
SCALE
4 >> POINT POOL CARE PLAN
Q. What is scale?
A. Scale is a white, grey or brownish
deposit commonly found on metal
surfaces and pool walls.
Q. What causes scale?
A. Scale can be caused by a combination
of the following pool water conditions:
1. Total alkalinity above 150mg/l (ppm).
Green Water
as it is a strongly acidic product.
above 1,000mg/l (ppm).
2. pH above 7.6.
Q. What should you do if your pool
has scale?
A. Use a reliable test kit. If the affected
area is accessible (above the water line),
use Fi-Clor Stain & Scale Remover * neat or
diluted at a rate of 1 litre to 30 litres of
water depending on the severity of the
scaling to be removed.
3. Very high calcium levels, normally
Q. How can you prevent scale?
STAIN & SCALE INHIBITOR
ADVANTAGES
>> Helps prevent stains and scale
>> Phosphate-free, minimises risk
of algae
Algae on pool wall
99
21
* WARNING: Wear gloves and protective eyewear when using Fi-Clor Stain & Scale Remover
A. Maintain total alkalinity, pH and
calcium hardness at the following levels
to keep your water balanced:
1. pH: 7.2 – 7.6.
2. Total alkalinity: 80 –150mg/l (ppm),
depending on sanitiser.
3. Calcium hardness: 175–1,000mg/l
(ppm), depending on sanitiser.
4. Use Fi-Clor Stain & Scale Inhibitor.
APPLICATION
1kg per 11,000 gallons (50m3).
Double dose for metals in excess of
1.5mg/l (ppm)
Dose directly into the pool near
the inlet
4 >> POINT POOL CARE PLAN
}
USEFUL TIP
Ask your recommended Fi-Clor Water Test Centre to do a water balance test for you.
22
4 >>
}
Curing pool water problems
PREVENTION OR CURE
EYE AND SKIN IRRITATION
Q. What causes eye irritation?
A. There are two possible causes –
use your test kit to see which is the
most probable.
1. It could well be a pH problem – the
water could be too acidic or too alkaline.
The pH of the human eye is around
7.4 - 7.5. Anything significantly higher
or lower will irritate.
2. Alternatively, it could be due to high
combined chlorine (chloramines), which are
known to be lachrymatory (see section on
chloramines, page 8).
Also, if you get an unpleasant chlorine
smell, it’s odds on that the problem is
due to high chloramines.
Q. What can I do to the pool water if
eye irritation occurs?
A. Depending on the results of your tests:
1. If it is a pH problem, correct the pH
as necessary.
>>To lower the pH, add Fi-Clor pH &
Alkalinity Reducer once a day at a rate
of 500g per 11,000 gallons (50m3)
until correct reading is obtained.
>>To raise pH, dose at the same rate
with Fi-Clor pH Increaser.
4 >>
}
2. If combined chlorine is too high:
>>Break the chloramines down by
superchlorinating the pool with Fi-Clor
Superchlorinator to temporarily raise
the free chlorine. In a pool of 11,000
Gallons (50m3) use sufficient Fi-Clor
Superchlorinator to raise the free
available chlorine to between 5 – 7mg/l
(ppm), preferably last thing at night so
that chlorine levels can fall naturally
before bathing resumes. The ratio of
free chlorine to combined chlorine
should be 2:1 or better.
PREVENTION OR CURE
CLOUDY WATER
Q. What causes cloudy water?
A. Cloudy water can be caused by several
different water conditions: high pH and
high total alkalinity levels, intense algae
growth, poor pool filtration, or a build-up
of swimmer waste.
Q. What should you do if your pool
water is cloudy?
A. Do the following:
>>Adjust the pH to 7.2 – 7.6 (see pages
10 –11 for information about adjusting
the pH).
>>Adjust the total alkalinity to 80 –
150mg/l (ppm). (See page 12 about
adjusting total alkalinity).
>>Adjust the free available chlorine to
}
4 >> POINT POOL CARE PLAN
23
DISCOLOURED WATER
Q. What causes discoloured water?
A. Excess minerals (such as copper, iron
and manganese) cause discoloured water.
Copper makes the water blue/green, iron
a brown rust colour and manganese a
purple/ black colour.
Q. How do these minerals get into
the water?
A. A variety of causes – for instance
over-use of a copper-based algicide,
corrosion of metal parts in the circulation
system because of low pH, or filling the
pool
99from spring or well water.
Q. What can be done to remove
minerals from pool water?
A.
1. Test the pH and adjust to 7.2 – 7.6
(see pages 10 – 11).
2. Shock dose the pool to a level of around
10mg/l (ppm) with Fi-Clor Superfast Shock.
The dose for a pool of 11,000 gallons
(50m3) will be 650g.
3. Filter continuously until the water is
clear. A dose of Fi-Clor Rapid Clarifier
water clarifier will help with this.
4. Shock dose again if the problem persists.
5. The addition of a sequestrant such as
Fi-Clor Stain & Scale Inhibitor will help
remove minerals by taking them into a
chemical complex, thus rendering them
inactive. For high levels of dissolved
minerals, dose at the rate of 1kg per
11,000 gallons (50m3).
>>Check the colour of the water. If the
cloudy water looks green, your pool
water probably has algae. In this case
treat the pool for algae.
(See page 21 for information about
solving this problem).
>>Ensure you have adequate circulation
& efficient filtration.
>>To remove swimmer waste, lower the
pH to around 7.2 – 7.6 and then
superchlorinate the pool with Fi-Clor
Superchlorinator to temporarily raise
the free chlorine. In a pool of 11,000
Gallons (50m3), use sufficient Fi-Clor
Superchlorinator to raise the free
available chlorine to between 5 – 7mg/l
(ppm). (See pages 7–9 for further
information on superchlorinating).
Q. What should you do if the cloudy
water doesn’t clear?
A. Do the following:
>>Run your filter longer than normal.
>>Use Fi-Clor Rapid Clarifier to help
your filter remove fine particles that
tend to dull the water. (See page 18
for product information).
>>If these actions are unsuccessful,
contact your pool dealer for advice.
TOO MUCH CHLORINE
Q. What happens if there is too
much chlorine?
A. Too much chlorine can cause bleached
hair, bleached swimsuits, and possible eye
irritation.
Q. What should you do if you have too
much chlorine in your pool?
A. Simply stop adding chlorine, allowing it
to fall of its own accord over a few days
until the free available chlorine level is
2.0 – 4.0mg/l (ppm) if you are using
}
1.0 – 4.0mg/l (ppm). (See pages 3 and
4 for information about adjusting the
free available chlorine).
Fi-Clor standard Granules, Maxi Tablets or
Premium 5 sanitisers.
If you are using Superfast Granules
or Supercapsules allow to fall to
1.0 – 3.0 mg/l (ppm).
Q. What should you do if the free
available chlorine is more than
10mg/l (ppm)?
A. If the chlorine level is above
10 mg/l (ppm), and you wish to start
using the pool without waiting for the
levels to fall naturally, use Baquacil
Chlorine/Bromine Neutraliser (sodium
thiosulphate). For a pool of 11,000
Gallons (50m3), 350g are required to
reduce the chlorine level by
approximately 1mg/l (ppm). Dose the
pool a little at a time, testing after each
addition. (See page 4).
Bathers should not use the pool if the
free chlorine is above 10mg/l (ppm).
4 >> POINT POOL CARE PLAN
Curing pool water problems
If the water is discoloured because
of algae growth, follow the method
described in the algae section (see
page 21).
24
4 >>
}
Swimming pool safety / pool chemical safety
PREVENTION OR CURE
CHLORINE ODOUR
Q. What happens if there is strong
chlorine odour?
A. Swimmers may misleadingly complain
that there is too much chlorine in the
water. However, this is invariably not the
cause of the problem.
Q. What causes chlorine odour?
A. High combined chlorine (chloramines)
produces the unpleasant chlorine like
>>
}
odour. It is in fact a sign that there is too
little free available chlorine present,
which is required to break down (‘burn
out’) the combined chlorine (see page 8).
Q. How can you get rid of the chlorine
odour?
A. >> Adjust the pH to 7.2 – 7.6 if
necessary (see pages 10 – 11 for
information about adjusting pH).
>> Superchlorinate the pool with Fi-Clor
Superchlorinator to temporarily raise
the free available chlorine. In a pool of
11,000 Gallons (50m3), use sufficient
product to obtain a level of between 5
– 7mg/l (ppm) (see pages 7 – 9 for
further information on
superchlorinating). This will break down
and remove the combined chlorines.
SAFETY PRACTICES
SWIMMING POOL SAFETY
It makes good sense to establish safety
practices around your pool. Review the safety
rules at the beginning of each pool season.
Some suggested rules are listed below.
GENERAL POOL SAFETY
>> No running, pushing, or horseplay around
the pool.
>> Shower before swimming. This will reduce
the amount of bacteria and contaminants that
swimmers bring into the pool.
>> Keep a life saving ring in the pool area.
>> Keep all glass and other breakables away from the
pool area.
>> Never use electrical appliances around the pool area.
>> DO NOT swim during thunder or lightning storms.
POOL SAFETY FOR YOUNG CHILDREN
>> A supervising adult should be present whenever
children are using the pool.
>> Install a sturdy fence around the pool.
See www.fi-clor.co.uk for further details.
BE PREPARED FOR AN EMERGENCY
>> Keep a complete first aid kit in a clearly marked
and convenient location. Keep this kit out of the
reach of children.
>> Family members should be encouraged to undergo
training in mouth-to-mouth resuscitation. Ideally
this technique should not be practised without the
appropriate training.
ENVIRONMENT TIP :
>> DO NOT back-wash into a stream, river or lake.
POOL CHEMICAL SAFETY
Pool chemicals must be handled with great care.
Certain precautions must be taken when handling
and storing pool chemicals. Read and follow the
dosages, directions and precautionary statements
on each product label. Keep all pool products away
from children! Fire, explosion, or release of gas can
result from misuse. Use these checklists when
handling and storing any pool chemicals. In case of
emergency ring 999
POOL CHEMICAL HANDLING CHECKLIST
>> Keep all chemicals out of the reach of children & pets.
>> Read first aid procedures printed on the product’s
label before using the product. If the product gets on
your skin, in your eyes, is swallowed, or is inhaled,
follow the correct procedure which is clearly printed
on the label.
>> DO NOT use contents of unlabelled containers.
>> Keep an arm’s distance away when opening
the container.
>> Open all pool chemical containers carefully.
>> NEVER mix pool chemicals with any other substance.
>> NEVER mix different types of pool chemicals. Add
each chemical to the pool separately.
>> When pre-dissolving pool chemicals, ALWAYS use a
clean plastic container, and ALWAYS add the chemical
to the water, NEVER add water to the chemical.
>> Use separate, clean utensils and measuring cups for
each pool chemical.
>> Use the exact quantities specified on the product label.
>> Immediately wash your hands after handling any
pool chemical.
4 >> POINT POOL CARE PLAN
POOL CHEMICAL STORAGE CHECKLIST
>> Carefully seal each container tightly after use.
>> Store pool chemicals in a cool, dry place.
>> Keep pool chemicals away from heat or open flame.
>> Keep pool chemicals away from moisture, waste
materials, dirt, chemicals (including other pool
chemicals), pool chlorinating compounds, household
products, soap products, paint products, solvents,
acids, vinegar, beverages, oils, pine oil, dirty rags, or
any other foreign matter.
>> Keep pool chemicals away from your lawn,
shrubs and trees.
POOL CHEMICAL CONTAINER DISPOSAL CHECKLIST
>> Wash empty pool chemical containers before
disposing of them.
>> Dispose of all empty chemical containers according
to the label directions on that product.
USEFUL TIP
For more information, ask your Fi-Clor Dealer for one of our Trouble-shooting cards which cover a wide range of situations on tackling
99water problems.
pool
25
}
4 >> POINT POOL CARE PLAN
Curing pool water problems
FOR AN EMERGENCY CALL: 999
Call 999 if any of your pool chemicals spill. A spill requires emergency handling if there is any sign of activity, such as bubbling,
smoking or fire.
26
Your Local Fi-Clor Pool Shop
Pool Care Products
Arch Water Products Wheldon Road, Castleford, West Yorkshire WF10 2JT
Tel:01977 714100 Fax:01977 714006 watersales@archchemicals.com www.fi-clor.co.uk
The information in this handbook is believed to be correct. It is given without warranty or engagement and no licence or immunity under any patent is either granted or implied.
99
Fi-CLOR and TRI-TABS are Registered Trade Marks
© Arch Chemicals Ltd. 2007
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