Chapter 10 - AC-DC Elements

Chapter 10 - AC-DC Elements
ETAP
PowerStation 4.0


User Guide
Copyright  2001
Operation Technology, Inc.
All Rights Reserved
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Chapter 10
AC-DC Elements
Editors are available for each element type in the one-line diagram and in the underground raceway
system. Except for the element IDs, bus connections, and status, all other data that appear in the editors
are considered engineering properties.
One-Line Diagram Element Editors
Each element available on the One-Line Diagram Toolbar has a customized editor.
addresses the AC-DC element editors.
This chapter
AC-DC Elements
UPS (Uninterruptible Power Supply)
VFD (Variable Frequency Drive)
Charger
Inverter
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AC-DC Elements
UPS
10.1 UPS (Uninterruptible Power Supply)
The properties associated with UPSs (Uninterruptible Power Supply) of the electrical system can be
entered in this editor. A UPS consists of two AC terminals (input & output) and one DC terminal. The
DC terminal is located on the side and can be connected to a DC bus (node).
The UPS Editor contains the following nine pages of information.
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Info Page
Rating Page
Loading Page
SC Imp Page
Duty Cycle Page
Harmonic Page
Reliability Page
Remarks Page
Comment Page
10.1.1 Info Page
Within the Info page, specify the UPS ID, connected Bus, In/Out of Service, Equipment FDR Tag, Name,
Description, Data Type, load Priority, Configuration Status, AC Connections, and Demand Factor.
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AC-DC Elements
UPS
Info
ID
Enter a unique alphanumeric ID with a maximum of 25 characters. PowerStation automatically assigns a
unique ID to each UPS. The default IDs consist of the word Ups plus an integer, starting with the number
one and increasing as the number of UPS increases.
The default ID (UPS) for UPS elements can be changed from the Defaults menu in the menu bar or from
the Project View.
In Bus and DC Bus
These are the IDs of the connecting buses for the UPS. If the terminal is not connected to any bus, a blank
entry will be shown for the bus ID. To connect or reconnect a UPS to a bus, select a bus from the list
box. The one-line diagram will be updated to show the new connection after you click on OK. Note that
you can connect the terminals of the UPS to AC & DC buses that reside in the same view where it
resides, or you can connect to buses that reside in other views by connecting the external and internal pins
of the composite networks. You cannot connect to buses that reside in the Dumpster.
If a UPS is connected to a bus through a number of protective devices, reconnection of the UPS to a new
bus in this editor will reconnect the last existing protective device to the new bus, as shown below where
Ups1 is reconnected from Bus10 to Bus4.
Next to the bus ID, PowerStation displays the nominal kV in AC terminal buses and nominal V in DC
terminal buses for your convenience.
In/Out of Service
Operating conditions of a UPS can be selected by choosing either the In Service or Out of Service option.
The properties of an Out of Service UPS can be edited like an In Service UPS; however, an Out of
Service UPS will not be included in any system studies. When Continuity Check is activated, an Out of
Service UPS automatically becomes dimmed in the one-line diagram.
Note that the In/Out of Service option is an engineering property and is independent of the configuration
status. Therefore, you can set a UPS to be In Service for the Base Data and Out of Service in Revision
Data.
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AC-DC Elements
UPS
Configuration
Select the operating status of the UPS(s) for the selected configuration status from the list box. Options
for operating status include:
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•
Continuous
Continuously operating load
Intermittent Intermittently operating load
Spare Spare load (no short-circuit contribution)
Depending on the demand factor specified for each operating status, the actual loading of the UPS is
determined for load flow studies.
Note that status is not a part of the UPS engineering properties. For this reason, the name of the
configuration status is shown, indicating the UPS status under the specific configuration, i.e., you can
have a different operating status under each configuration. In the following example, status of a UPS is
shown to be Continuous under Normal configuration and Spare under Emergency configuration.
Equipment
FDR Tag
Enter the feeder tag in this field, up to 25 alphanumeric characters.
Name
Enter equipment name, up to 50 alphanumeric characters.
Description
Enter equipment description, up to 100 alphanumeric characters.
Data Type
This field provides a convenient way to track data entry. Select one of the data types (such as estimate,
typical, vendor, final, etc.) from the list box. As the data is updated, this field can be changed to reflect
the source of the latest data. There are a total of 10 load types and you can change their name from the
Project menu under Settings and Data Type.
Priority
Select the load priority of this UPS from the list box. This field can be used for load priority, operating
priority, load shedding priority, etc. Ten different priorities are provided to select from. Priority names
can be changed from the Project menu under Settings and Load Priority.
AC Connection
3-Phase
For this release of PowerStation, the connection type for the AC input is set to 3-Phase.
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AC-DC Elements
UPS
1-Phase
For this release of PowerStation, there is no output form the UPS model. Therefore, the connection pin
on the output side is disabled.
Demand Factor
Modify the demand factors for Continuous, Intermittent, and Spare status in the provided entry fields.
The Demand factor is the amount of time the UPS is actually operating. The Demand factor affects the
calculation of UPS loads for different loading categories.
Load kW = Rated kW * % Loading * Demand Factor
The Demand factors for Continuous, Intermittent, and Spare status have a range from 0% to 100%. Since
demand factors are a part of engineering properties, PowerStation uses the same factors for all
configurations.
10.1.2 Ratings Page
In this page, you can specify the UPS ratings and select the UPS operating mode and type.
AC Rating
kW
Enter the kW rating of the UPS (output power at full load). Click on the kW/MW button to choose either
kW or MW units for entering and displaying output power ratings of the UPS. When the kW rating is
modified, the rated power factor (including the operating load and losses for all loading categories) is
recalculated in order to keep the rated kVA fixed. PowerStation limits the entry of kW/MW in such a way
that the power factor cannot exceed 100% or be below 1%.
kVA
Enter the rated output kVA (or MVA) of the UPS. When the kVA rating is modified, the rated kW and
full load current of the UPS are recalculated.
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AC-DC Elements
UPS
kV
Enter the rated AC output voltage of the UPS in kV.
FLA
The rated AC output full load current of the UPS in amperes is displayed here.
% Eff
Enter the rated efficiency of the UPS in percent. When the efficiency is modified, the full load currents
for the AC input and DC sides are recalculated. Efficiency cannot exceed 100% or be below 10%. It
defaults to 90%.
% PF
Enter the rated power factor of the UPS output power. When the power factor is modified, the rated kW
is recalculated. Power factor cannot exceed 100%. It defaults to 85%.
Input
kV
Enter the rated AC input voltage of the UPS in kV. The rated AC input full load current is calculated
based on this value.
FLA
The rated AC input full load current of the UPS in amperes is displayed here.
DC Rating
V
Enter the rated DC input voltage of the UPS in volts. The rated DC full load current is calculated based
on this value.
FLA
The rated DC full load current of the UPS in amperes is displayed here.
Imax
Enter the maximum DC output current of the UPS in percentage of the rated DC full load current. The
UPS becomes a constant current source when the DC load current exceeds the Imax in DC load flow
studies. PowerStation uses Imax as the constant current source value. Imax defaults to 150%.
Operating Mode
Constant Vdc
When you select this option, the rated DC voltage is used as the regulated voltage source of the UPS for
DC load flow studies. With this option, the firing angle is adjusted to keep the DC voltage constant.
Fixed Firing Angle
When you select this option, the DC voltage of the UPS (for DC load flow studies) is calculated using a
fixed value for the firing angle (Alpha) and the input bus voltage.
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AC-DC Elements
UPS
Vdc
This field displays the DC voltage source of the UPS in volts.
Alpha
Enter the fixed firing angle (Alpha) of the UPS in degrees for the calculation of the voltage source value.
This field allows you to enter a value between 0 and 90 degrees, which means the UPS can only transfer
power from its AC terminal to the DC terminal. The DC output voltage is proportional to cosine of alpha.
Options
Auction Diode
When the Auction Diode option is selected, the UPS is treated as a DC load in the DC system, i.e., DC
power can only flow into the UPS. In this case, the UPS will not provide power to the DC system for
load flow or short-circuit studies.
Without the auction diode, DC power can flow in or out of the UPS.
Bypass Switch
The Bypass Switch only affects AC short-circuit studies. When the Bypass Switch is selected, the UPS is
treated as a shorted branch crossed between AC input and output terminals. If Bypass Switch is not
selected, there is no short-circuit current contribution from the AC output side to the input side.
10.1.3 Loading Page
In this page, specify the percent output loading of the UPS for all loading categories. The kW and kvar
input load of the UPS based on the specified efficiency and power factor are calculated and displayed
here. Also, the DC operating load and losses in kW are displayed here.
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AC-DC Elements
UPS
Operating Load
AC Input
This area displays the updated AC input operating load of the UPS in kW/kvar or MW/Mvar when DC
load flow studies are run and Update Operating Load is checked in the DC Load Flow Study Case Editor.
These values will also get updated when the UPS output is connected to an AC system and AC load flow
studies are run with Update Operating Load selected in the AC Load Flow Study Case Editor.
AC Output
This area displays the updated AC output operating load of the UPS in kW/kvar or MW/Mvar when
Update Operating Load is checked in the DC Load Flow Study Case Editor, or when the UPS output is
connected to an AC system and the Update Operating Load option is selected in the AC Load Flow Study
Case Editor.
DC
This area displays the updated DC operating load of the UPS in kW or MW. It is updated when you run
DC load flow studies and the UPS does not have an auction diode and the Update Operating Load option
is checked in the DC Load Flow Study Case Editor.
Loading Category
This section is used to assign a percent loading to each one of the ten loading categories for AC loading
and DC loading of this UPS, i.e., each UPS can be set to have a different operating loading level for each
loading category. To edit the values of the percent loading, click on any one of the edit fields under the %
Loading column. Note that you can select any of these loading categories when conducting AC or DC
load flow studies. To edit the loading category names, select Loading Category from the Project menu.
10.1.4 SC Imp Page
Within the SC Imp page, specify the AC and DC short-circuit multiplication factors and the grounding
resistance of the UPS, and view calculated AC and DC short-circuit contribution currents.
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AC-DC Elements
UPS
SC Contribution to AC System
Kac
Enter the AC short-circuit multiplication factor in percent of the output FLA. PowerStation uses this
value to calculate short-circuit current contribution from the UPS to the AC output side. The AC
multiplication factor defaults to 150%.
Isc
The AC short-circuit current contribution from the UPS to the output side is calculated and displayed here
in amperes.
SC Contribution to DC System
Kdc
Enter the DC short-circuit multiplication factor in percent of DC FLA. PowerStation uses this value to
calculate short-circuit current contribution from the UPS in DC short-circuit studies. The DC
multiplication factor defaults to 150%.
Isc
The DC short-circuit current contribution from the UPS is calculated and displayed here in amperes.
DC Grounding
Grounded
When you select the Grounded option, the UPS is grounded.
R
Enter the UPS grounding resistance in ohms. For a solidly grounded UPS, enter zero for the grounding
resistance.
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AC-DC Elements
UPS
10.1.5 Duty Cycle Page
Within the Duty Cycle page, specify the duty cycle category and load profile for each duty cycle.
PowerStation displays the load profile for random and non-random loads for viewing and printing. The
data in this page are used in battery sizing studies.
Duty Cycle
This section is used to specify load profile for each one of the five duty cycle categories.
Duty Cycle Category
Select a duty cycle category from the list box and view the load profile for it in this page. Each load can
have up to five duty cycle categories with independent load profiles. You can name the duty cycle
categories from the Project menu bar.
Load Profile
To add a load to the load profile, click on either the Ins or Add button, or press the Insert key to create a
row in the load profile table. Each row represents a segment of the load profile for this duty cycle.
To edit the load profile, click on the button under the Active column, and this segment of load will be
considered in studies. Click on the button under the Random column, and this segment of load will be
treated as a random load in studies. Click on the field under the Type column and pick one of the seven
types in the list box. Enter a load name, current in amperes, start time in seconds, and duration in seconds
for this segment of load. After the data of a row is entered, this segment of load curve will be drawn on
the Non-Random or Random window.
To delete a row of data, highlight the row by clicking the number of the row, then click on the Del button
or press the Delete key.
Click on either the <-Print or Print-> button, and the displayed load profile curve (random & nonrandom) for the selected duty cycle will be printed out.
Note that you can select any of the duty cycle categories when conducting battery sizing studies. To edit
the loading category names, select Duty Cycle Category from the Project menu.
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AC-DC Elements
UPS
10.1.6 Harmonic Page
Within the Harmonic page, specify the harmonic source type of the UPS and view the harmonic source
waveform and frequency spectrum of the UPS.
Use Library Data
Get the harmonic source data of the UPS from the Harmonic Library.
Calculate Based on Parameters
Calculate the harmonic source data based on the parameters of the UPS.
Parameters
Enter the parameters of the UPS for the calculation of the harmonic source data.
Harmonic Library
Library Button
Click on the Library button to pick up the UPS harmonic source data including harmonic source type,
device type, and manufacture/model from the library.
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AC-DC Elements
UPS
Type
Display the UPS harmonic source type picked up from the Harmonic Library.
Manufacturer
Display the UPS device type picked up from the Harmonic Library.
Model
Display the UPS manufacturer/model picked up from the Harmonic Library.
Waveform
Display the harmonic source waveform of the UPS.
Spectrum
Display the harmonic frequency spectrum of the UPS.
Print Buttons
Click on either of the Print buttons to print out the waveform or frequency spectrum of the UPS.
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AC-DC Elements
UPS
10.1.7 Reliability
Reliability Parameters
λA
Active Failure Rate in number of failures per year. The Active Failure Rate is associated with the
component failure mode that causes the operation of the primary protection zone around the failed
component and can therefore cause the removal of other healthy components and branches from service.
It should be noted that the failed component itself (and those components that are directly connected to it)
could be restored to service only after repair or replacement of the failed component.
µ
The Mean Repair Rate in number of repairs per year is automatically calculated and based on MTTR (µ =
8760/MTTR).
FOR
It is the Forced Outage Rate (i.e., unavailability) calculated based on MTTR, λA (FOR =
MTTR/(MTTR+8760/λA).
MTTF
The Mean Time To Failure in years is automatically calculated and based on λA (MTTF = 1.0/λA).
MTTR
The Mean Time To Repair in hours is the expected time necessary for a crew to repair a failed component
and/or restore the system to its normal operating state.
Alternative Supply
Switching Time
This is the time in hours necessary to isolate a failure. It is the period of time starting from the moment a
switching operation is requested until the operation is completed.
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AC-DC Elements
UPS
Replacement
Available
Check this box to enable rP
rP
It is the replacement time in hours needed to replace a failed component with a spare.
Library
Library
Click on the Library button to bring up the Library Quick Pick Editor for reliability data.
Interruption Cost
Load Sector
Select the Load Sector name for the load. The Load Sector information is used to obtain interruption cost
information from the Reliability Cost library in order to calculate Expected Interruption Costs.
10.1.8 Remarks Page
User-Defined Info
These fields allow you to keep track of extra data associated with this component. The names of the
User-Defined (UD) fields can be changed from the Settings option in the Project menu in the Menu bar.
UD Field 1 (Eq. Ref.)
This is a number field with the default name Eq. Ref. You can change the name of this field and enter the
equipment reference number or any other number here, up to five digits.
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AC-DC Elements
UPS
UD Field 2 (Last Maint.)
This is an alphanumeric field with the default name Last Maint. You can change the name of this field
and enter any extra data for this element here, up to 12 alphanumeric characters.
UD Field 3 (Next Maint.)
This is an alphanumeric field with the default name Next Maint. You can change the name of this field
and enter any extra data for this element here, up to 12 alphanumeric characters.
UD Field 4 (Tests Req.)
This is an alphanumeric field with the default name Tests Req. You can change the name of this field and
enter any extra data for this element here, up to 12 alphanumeric characters.
UD Field A5
This is an alphanumeric field with the default name UD Field A5. You can change the name of this field
and enter any extra data for this element here, up to 12 alphanumeric characters.
UD Field A6
This is an alphanumeric field with the default name UD Field A6. You can change the name of this field
and enter any extra data for this element here, up to 12 alphanumeric characters.
UD Field A7
This is an alphanumeric field with the default name UD Field A7. You can change the name of this field
and enter any extra data for this element here, up to 18 alphanumeric characters.
Drawing/Diagram
One-Line
Enter the name or ID of a one-line drawing or diagram associated with this element, up to 50
alphanumeric characters. An example is the manufacturer diagram or specifications for this element.
Reference
Enter the name or ID of a reference drawing or document for this element, up to 50 alphanumeric
characters.
Manufacturer
Name
Enter the manufacturer’s name for this element here, up to 25 alphanumeric characters.
Purchasing Date
Enter the date of purchase for this element here, up to 8 alphanumeric characters.
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AC-DC Elements
UPS
10.1.9 Comment Page
Enter any extra data or comments regarding condition, maintenance, tests, or studies, associated with this
element. This field can be up to 64kb with a default size of 4kb. To increase the size of this field, refer to
the entries in the ETAPS.INI file.
When entering information in the page, use Ctrl+Enter to start a new paragraph. Standard keys such as
Ctrl+X, Ctrl+C, and Ctrl+V can be used to cut, copy, and paste information.
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AC-DC Elements
VFD
10.2 VFD (Variable Frequency Drive)
The properties associated with VFDs (Variable Frequency Drive) of the electrical system can be entered
in this editor.
The Variable Frequency Drive Editor contains the following five pages of information:
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Info Page
Rating Page
Harmonic Page
Reliability Page
Remarks Page
Comment Page
10.2.1 Info Page
Within the Info page, specify the VFD ID, connected bus and load IDs, In/Out of Service, Equipment
FDR (feeder) Tag, Name, Description, Data Type, and load Priority.
Info
ID
Enter a unique alphanumeric ID with a maximum of 25 characters. PowerStation automatically assigns a
unique ID to each VFD. The assigned IDs consist of the default ID plus an integer, starting with the
number one and increasing as the number of VFDs increases.
The default ID (VFD) for VFD elements can be changed from the Defaults menu in the menu bar or from
the Project View.
Input Bus and Load
These are the IDs of the connecting bus and load for the VFD. If the terminal is not connected to any bus
or load, a blank entry will be shown for the bus or load ID. To connect or reconnect a VFD to a bus,
select a bus from the list box. The one-line diagram will be updated to show the new connection after you
click on OK.
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AC-DC Elements
VFD
Note that you can connect the terminals of the VFD to AC buses that reside in the same view where it
resides, or you can connect to buses that reside in other views by connecting the external and internal pins
of the composite networks. You cannot connect to buses that are in the Dumpster.
Note that the output terminal of a VFD can only be connected directly to induction motors, synchronous
motors, MOVs, static loads, and lumped loads. You cannot insert any switching devices between the
VFD and the connected load.
If a VFD is connected to a bus through a number of protective devices, reconnection of the VFD to a new
bus in this editor will reconnect the last existing protective device to the new bus, as shown below where
Vfd1 is reconnected from Bus10 to Bus4.
Next to the bus ID, PowerStation displays the nominal kV for your convenience.
In/Out of Service
Operating conditions of a VFD can be selected by choosing either the In Service or Out of Service option.
The properties of an Out of Service UPS can be edited like an In Service VFD; however, an Out of
Service VFD will not be included in any system studies. When Continuity Check is activated, an Out of
Service VFD automatically becomes dimmed in the one-line diagram.
Note that the In/Out of Service option is an engineering property and is independent of the configuration
status. Therefore, you can set a VFD to be In Service for the Base Data and Out of Service in Revision
Data.
Equipment
FDR Tag
Enter the feeder tag in this field, up to 25 alphanumeric characters.
Name
Enter equipment name, up to 50 alphanumeric characters.
Description
Enter equipment description, up to 100 alphanumeric characters.
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AC-DC Elements
VFD
Data Type
This field provides a convenient way to track data entry. Select one of the data types (such as estimate,
typical, vendor, final, etc.) from the list box. As the data is updated, this field can be changed to reflect
the source of the latest data. There are a total of ten load types and you can change their name from the
Project menu under Settings and Data Type.
Priority
Select the load priority of this VFD from the list box. This field can be used for load priority, operating
priority, load shedding priority, etc. Ten different priorities are provided to select from. Priority names
can be changed from the Project menu under Settings and Load Priority.
10.2.2 Rating Page
In this page, you can specify the VFD ratings and select the VFD bypass switch.
Rating
HP/kW
Enter the VFD rating in horsepower (HP) or kW. You can choose from these two options by clicking on
the HP/kW button.
kV
Enter the rated voltage of the VFD in kV.
% Eff
Enter the efficiency of the VFD in percent. Efficiency cannot exceed 100%. PowerStation uses this
value to calculate the losses of the VFD. Losses associated with VFDs are included as part of the
connected load.
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AC-DC Elements
VFD
Bypass Switch
The Bypass Switch only affects AC short-circuit studies. When Bypass Switch is selected, the VFD is
treated as a shorted branch (switch) crossed between input and output terminals. If Bypass Switch is not
selected, there is no short-circuit current contribution from the connected motor to the input side.
10.2.3 Harmonic Page
Within the Harmonic page, specify the harmonic source type of the VFD, and display the harmonic
source waveform and frequency spectrum of the UPS.
Use Library Data
Get the harmonic source data of the VFD from the Harmonic Library.
Calculate Based on Parameters
Calculate the harmonic source data based on the parameters of the VFD.
Parameters
Enter the parameters of the VFD for the calculation of the harmonic source data.
Harmonic Library
Library Button
Click on the Library button to pick up the VFD harmonic source data including harmonic source type,
device type, and manufacture/model.
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AC-DC Elements
VFD
Type
This area displays the VFD harmonic source type picked up from the Harmonic Library.
Manufacturer
This area displays the VFD device type picked up from the Harmonic Library.
Model
This area displays the VFD Manufacturer/model picked up from the Harmonic Library.
Waveform
This area displays the harmonic source waveform of the VFD.
Spectrum
This area displays the harmonic frequency spectrum of the VFD.
Print Buttons
Click on the Print buttons to print out the waveform or frequency spectrum of the VFD.
10.2.4 Reliability Page
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AC-DC Elements
VFD
Reliability Parameters
λA
Active Failure Rate in number of failures per year. The Active Failure Rate is associated with the
component failure mode that causes the operation of the primary protection zone around the failed
component and can therefore cause the removal of other healthy components and branches from service.
It should be noted that the failed component itself (and those components that are directly connected to it)
can be restored to service only after repair or replacement of the failed component.
λP
Passive Failure Rate in number of failures per year. The Passive Failure Rate is associated with a
component failure mode that does not cause the operation of the primary protection zone around the failed
component, and therefore, does not have an impact on the remaining healthy components and branches of
the system. Repairing or replacing the failed component will restore service.
µ
The Mean Repair Rate in number of repairs per year is automatically calculated and based on MTTR (µ =
8760/MTTR).
FOR
It is the Forced Outage Rate (i.e., unavailability) calculated based on MTTR, λA (FOR =
MTTR/(MTTR+8760/λA).
MTTF
The Mean Time To Failure in years is automatically calculated and based on λA (MTTF = 1.0/λA).
MTTR
The Mean Time To Repair in hours is the expected time necessary for a crew to repair a failed component
and/or restore the system to its normal operating state.
Alternative Supply
Switching Time
This is the time in hours necessary to isolate a failure. It is the period of time starting from the moment a
switching operation is requested until the operation is completed.
Replacement
Available
Check this box to enable rP
rP
It is the replacement time in hours needed to replace a failed component with a spare.
Library
Library
Click on the Library button to bring up the Library Quick Pick Editor for reliability data.
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AC-DC Elements
VFD
10.2.5 Remarks Page
User-Defined Info
These fields allow you to keep track of extra data associated with this component. The names of the
User-Defined (UD) fields can be changed from the Settings option in the Project menu in the Menu bar.
UD Field 1 (Eq. Ref.)
This is a number field with the default name Eq. Ref. You can change the name of this field and enter the
equipment reference number or any other number here, up to five digits.
UD Field 2 (Last Maint.)
This is an alphanumeric field with the default name Last Maint. You can change the name of this field
and enter any extra data for this element here, up to 12 alphanumeric characters.
UD Field 3 (Next Maint.)
This is an alphanumeric field with the default name Next Maint. You can change the name of this field
and enter any extra data for this element here, up to 12 alphanumeric characters.
UD Field 4 (Tests Req.)
This is an alphanumeric field with the default name Tests Req. You can change the name of this field and
enter any extra data for this element here, up to 12 alphanumeric characters.
UD Field A5
This is an alphanumeric field with the default name UD Field A5. You can change the name of this field
and enter any extra data for this element here, up to 12 alphanumeric characters.
UD Field A6
This is an alphanumeric field with the default name UD Field A6. You can change the name of this field
and enter any extra data for this element here, up to 12 alphanumeric characters.
UD Field A7
This is an alphanumeric field with the default name UD Field A7. You can change the name of this field
and enter any extra data for this element here, up to 18 alphanumeric characters.
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AC-DC Elements
VFD
Drawing/Diagram
One-Line
Enter the name or ID of a one-line drawing or diagram associated with this element, up to 50
alphanumeric characters. An example is the manufacturer diagram or specifications for this element.
Reference
Enter the name or ID of a reference drawing or document for this element, up to 50 alphanumeric
characters.
Manufacturer
Name
Enter the manufacturer’s name for this element here, up to 25 alphanumeric characters.
Purchasing Date
Enter the date of purchase for this element here, up to 8 alphanumeric characters.
10.2.6 Comment Page
Enter any extra data or comments regarding condition, maintenance, tests, or studies, associated with this
element. This field can be up to 64kb with a default size of 4kb. To increase the size of this field, refer to
the entries in the ETAPS.INI file.
When entering information in the page, use Ctrl+Enter to start a new paragraph. Standard keys such as
Ctrl+X, Ctrl+C, and Ctrl+V can be used to cut, copy, and paste information.
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ETAP PowerStation 4.0
AC-DC Elements
Charger
10.3 Charger
The properties associated with DC chargers of the electrical system can be entered in this editor.
The Charger Editor contains the following eight pages of information:
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
Info Page
Rating Page
Loading Page
SC Page
Harmonic Page
Reliability Page
Remarks Page
Comment Page
10.3.1 Info Page
Within the Info page, specify the charger ID, connected bus, In/Out of Service, Equipment FDR (feeder)
Tag, Name, Description, Data Type, load Priority, Configuration Status, operating Type, and Demand
Factor.
Info
ID
Enter a unique alphanumeric ID with a maximum of 25 characters. PowerStation automatically assigns a
unique ID to each charger. The default IDs consist of the word charger plus an integer, starting with the
number one and increasing as the number of chargers increases.
The default ID (Charger) for chargers can be changed from the Defaults menu in the menu bar or from
the Project View.
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ETAP PowerStation 4.0
AC-DC Elements
Charger
AC Bus and DC Bus
These are the IDs of the connecting buses for the charger. If the terminal is not connected to any bus, a
blank entry will be shown for the bus ID. To connect or reconnect a charger to a bus, select a bus from
the list box. The one-line diagram will be updated to show the new connection after you click on OK.
Note that you can connect the terminals of the charger to AC & DC buses that reside in the same view
where it resides, or you can connect to buses that reside in other views by connecting the external and
internal pins of the composite networks. You cannot connect to buses that are in the Dumpster.
If a charger is connected to a bus through a number of protective devices, reconnection of the charger to a
new bus in this editor will reconnect the last existing protective device to the new bus, as shown below
where Charger1 is reconnected from Bus10 to Bus4.
Next to the bus ID, PowerStation displays the nominal kV of the AC terminal bus and nominal V of the
DC terminal bus for your convenience.
In/Out of Service
Operating conditions of a charger can be selected by choosing either the In Service or Out of Service
option. The properties of an Out of Service charger can be edited like an In Service charger; however, an
Out of Service charger will not be included in any system studies. When Continuity Check is activated,
an Out of Service charger automatically becomes dimmed in the one-line diagram.
Note that the In/Out of Service option is an engineering property and is independent of the configuration
status. Therefore, you can set a charger to be In Service for the Base Data and Out of Service in Revision
Data.
Configuration
Select the operating status of the charger(s) for the selected configuration status from the list box.
Options for operating status include:
•
•
•
Continuous
Continuously operating load
Intermittent Intermittently operating load
Spare Spare load (no short-circuit contribution)
Depending on the demand factor specified for each operating status, the actual loading of the charger is
determined for AC load flow studies.
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ETAP PowerStation 4.0
AC-DC Elements
Charger
Note that status is not a part of the charger engineering properties. For this reason, the name of the
configuration status is shown, indicating the charger status under the specific configuration, i.e., you can
have a different operating status under each configuration. In the following example, status of a charger
is shown to be Continuous under Normal configuration and Spare under Emergency configuration.
Connection
3-Phase
For this release of Power Station the 3-phase connection type cannot be selected by the user, but it used
by PowerStation to model the device.
1-Phase
For this release of Power Station the 1-phase connection type cannot be selected by the user.
Equipment
FDR Tag
Enter the feeder tag in this field, up to 25 alphanumeric characters.
Name
Enter equipment name, up to 50 alphanumeric characters.
Description
Enter equipment description, up to 100 alphanumeric characters.
Data Type
This field provides a convenient way to track data entry. Select one of the data types (such as estimate,
typical, vendor, final, etc.) from the list box. As the data is updated, this field can be changed to reflect
the source of the latest data. There are a total of 10 load types and you can change their name from the
Project menu under Settings and Data Type.
Priority
Select the load priority of this charger from the list box. This field can be used for load priority, operating
priority, load shedding priority, etc. Ten different priorities are provided to select from. Priority names
can be changed from the Project menu under Settings and Load Priority.
Type
Select operating type as charger or converter.
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ETAP PowerStation 4.0
AC-DC Elements
Charger
Demand Factor
Modify the demand factors for Continuous, Intermittent, and Spare status in the provided entry fields.
Demand factor is the amount of time the charger is actually operating. Demand factors affect the
calculation of the charger load.
Load kW = Rated kVA * PF * % Loading * Demand Factor
Load kvar = Rated kVA * RF * % Loading * Demand Factor
Where the PF & RF are rated power factor and reactive factor of the charger.
Demand factors for Continuous, Intermittent, and Spare status have a range from 0% to 100%. Since
demand factors are a part of engineering properties, PowerStation uses the same factors for all
configurations.
10.3.2 Rating Page
In this page, you can specify the charger ratings and DC voltage limits, and select the charger operating
mode.
AC Rating
kVA
Enter the kVA rating of the charger. Click on the kVA/MVA button to choose from kVA and MVA units
for entering and displaying kW/MW and kvar/Mvar data of the charger. When the value of the kVA is
modified, the rated DC power, rated DC full load current, rated AC full load current and the operating
load and losses for all loading categories of the charger are recalculated.
kV
Enter the rated AC voltage of the charger in kV. The rated AC full load current is calculated based on
this value.
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AC-DC Elements
Charger
FLA
Enter the rated AC full load current of the charger in amperes. When the rated AC full load current is
modified, the rated kVA, rated efficiency and the operating load and losses for all loading categories of
the charger are recalculated. PowerStation limits the entry of rated AC full load current in such a way
that the rated efficiency cannot exceed 100% or be below 10%.
% Eff
Enter the rated efficiency of the charger in percent. When the efficiency is modified, the rated kVA, rated
AC full load current, and the operating load and losses for all loading categories of the charger are
recalculated. Efficiency cannot exceed 100% or be below 10%. It defaults to 90%.
% PF
Enter the rated power factor of the charger in percent. When the power factor is modified, the rated kVA,
rated AC full load current, rated firing angle, and the operating load and losses for all loading categories
of the charger are recalculated. Power factor cannot exceed 100%. It defaults to 85%.
Alpha
The rated firing angle of the charger is calculated based on the rated power factor is displayed here in
degrees.
DC Rating
kW
Enter the DC kW rating of the charger. When the rated kW is modified, the rated kVA, rated AC full load
current, rated DC full load current, and the operating load and losses for all loading categories of the
charger are recalculated.
V
Enter the rated DC voltage of the charger in volts. The rated DC full load current is calculated.
FLA
Enter the rated DC full load current of the charger in amperes. When the rated DC full load current is
modified, the rated DC kW, rated kVA, rated AC full load current, and the operating load and losses for
all loading categories of the charger are recalculated.
Imax
Enter the maximum DC output current of the charger in percentage of the rated DC full load current. The
charger becomes a constant current source when DC load current exceeds the Imax in DC load flow
study. PowerStation uses Imax as the constant current source value. Imax defaults to 150%.
Operating Mode
Constant Voltage
When you select this option, a constant voltage is used as the voltage source value of the charger in DC
load flow studies. The constant voltage Vdc is calculated as follows:
Select Float: Vdc = V * %Vfloat / 100
•
Select Equalize:
Vdc = V * %Veq / 100
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ETAP PowerStation 4.0
AC-DC Elements
Charger
Fixed Firing Angle
When you select this radio button, the voltage source value of the charger in DC load flow studies is
calculated using a fixed firing angle (Alpha) and the input bus voltage.
DC Voltage
Vdc
Displays the voltage source value of the charger in volts.
Max Limit
When Equalize is selected, the Max. Limit Equalize voltage threshold of the charger in percent or volts
can be entered. PowerStation limits the entry of Vequalize in such a way that Vequalize cannot exceed
the Max. Limit threshold.
When Float is selected, the Max. Limit Float voltage threshold of the charger in percent or volts can be
entered. PowerStation limits the entry of Vfloat in such a way that Vfloat cannot exceed the Max. Limit
threshold.
Min Limit
When Equalize is selected, the Min. Limit Equalize voltage threshold of the charger in percent or volts
can be entered. PowerStation limits the entry of Vequalize in such a way that Vequalize cannot be less
than the Min. Limit threshold.
When Float is selected, the Min. Limit Float voltage threshold of the charger in percent or volts can be
entered. PowerStation limits the entry of Vfloat in such a way that Vfloat cannot be less than the Min.
Limit threshold.
10.3.3 Loading Page
In this page, specify loading percent of the charger for all loading categories, and view updated AC and
DC operating load from DC load flow studies.
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AC-DC Elements
Charger
Loading Category
Loading Category
This section is used to assign a percent loading to each one of the ten loading categories for the loading of
this charger, i.e., each charger can be set to have a different operating loading level for each loading
category. To edit the values of the percent loading, click on any one of the edit fields under the %
Loading column. Note that you can select any of these loading categories when conducting AC load flow
studies. To edit the loading category names, select Loading Category from the Project menu.
Operating Load
AC
Updated AC operating load of the charger in kW/kvar or MW/Mvar is displayed here when Update
Operating Load is checked in the DC Load Flow Study Case Editor.
DC
Updated DC operating load of the charger in kW or MW is displayed here when Update Operating Load
is checked in the DC Load Flow Study Case Editor.
10.3.4 SC Page
Within the SC page, select the charger short-circuit model, specify AC system short-circuit capacity and
impedance of the charger, and the grounding data.
SC Contribution to DC System
Fixed SC Contribution
When you select the Fixed SC Contribution option, the charger is treated as an ideal constant current
source (K * FLAdc / 100) in DC short-circuit studies.
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ETAP PowerStation 4.0
AC-DC Elements
Charger
Based on AC System Z
When you select the Based on AC System Z option, the charger is treated as a constant voltage source in
DC short-circuit studies.
K
Enter the short-circuit multiplication factor in percent. PowerStation uses this value to calculate the
constant current source value for DC short-circuit studies. The multiplication factor defaults to 150%.
Isc (k*FLAdc)
The constant current source (short-circuit contribution) of the charger is calculated and displayed here in
amperes.
AC System Z
MVAsc
When you enter the AC system short-circuit capacity of the charger in MVA, the system short-circuit
impedance, including %R and %X in 100MVA base, are calculated.
X/R
Enter the X/R ratio of the system short-circuit impedance for calculation of the %R and %X.
%R
Enter the resistance R of the system short-circuit impedance in percent (100 MVA base). When R is
modified, the X/R ratio of the system short-circuit impedance is recalculated.
%X
Enter the reactance X of the system short-circuit impedance in percent (100MVA base). When X is
modified, the X/R ratio of the system short-circuit impedance and the system short-circuit capacity are
recalculated.
DC Grounding
Grounded
When you select the Grounded option, the charger is grounded.
Rg
Enter the grounding resistance of the charger in ohms.
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AC-DC Elements
Charger
10.3.5 Harmonic Page
Within the Harmonic page, specify the harmonic source type of the charger and view the harmonic source
waveform and frequency spectrum of the charger.
Use Library Data
Get harmonic source data of the charger from the Harmonic Library.
Calculate Based on Parameters
Calculate the harmonic source data based on the parameters of the charger.
Parameters
Enter the parameters of the charger for calculation of the harmonic source data.
Harmonic Library
Library Button
Click on the Library button to pick up the charger harmonic source data including harmonic source type,
device type, and manufacture/model.
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ETAP PowerStation 4.0
AC-DC Elements
Charger
Type
This area displays the charger harmonic source type picked up from the Harmonic Library.
Manufacturer
This area displays the charger device type picked up from the Harmonic Library.
Model
This area displays the charger manufacturer/model picked up from the Harmonic Library.
Waveform
Displays the harmonic source waveform of the charger.
Spectrum
Displays the harmonic frequency spectrum of the charger.
Print Buttons
Click on the Print buttons to print out the waveform or frequency spectrum of the charger.
10.3.6 Reliability Page
Reliability Parameters
λA
Active Failure Rate in number of failures per year. The Active Failure Rate is associated with the
component failure mode that causes the operation of the primary protection zone around the failed
component and can therefore cause the removal of other healthy components and branches from service.
It should be noted that the failed component itself (and those components that are directly connected to it)
can be restored to service only after repair or replacement of the failed component.
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ETAP PowerStation 4.0
AC-DC Elements
Charger
µ
The Mean Repair Rate in number of repairs per year is automatically calculated and based on MTTR (µ =
8760/MTTR).
FOR
The Forced Outage Rate (i.e., unavailability) calculated based on MTTR, λA (FOR =
MTTR/(MTTR+8760/λA).
MTTF
The Mean Time To Failure in years is automatically calculated and based on λA (MTTF = 1.0/λA).
MTTR
The Mean Time To Repair in hours is the expected time necessary for a crew to repair a failed component
and/or restore the system to its normal operating state.
Alternative Supply
Switching Time
This is the time in hours necessary to isolate a failure. It is the period of time starting from the moment a
switching operation is requested until the operation is completed.
Replacement
Available
Check this box to enable rP
rP
It is the replacement time in hours needed to replace a failed component with a spare.
Library
Library
Click on the Library button to bring up the Library Quick Pick Editor for reliability data.
Interruption Cost
Load Sector
Select the Load Sector name for the load. The Load Sector information is used to obtain interruption cost
information from the Reliability Cost library in order to calculate Expected Interruption Costs.
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AC-DC Elements
Charger
10.3.7 Remarks Page
User-Defined Info
These fields allow you to keep track of extra data associated with this component. The names of the
User-Defined (UD) fields can be changed from the Settings option in the Project menu in the Menu bar.
UD Field 1 (Eq. Ref.)
This is a number field with the default name Eq. Ref. You can change the name of this field and enter the
equipment reference number or any other number here, up to five digits.
UD Field 2 (Last Maint.)
This is an alphanumeric field with the default name Last Maint. You can change the name of this field
and enter any extra data for this element here, up to 12 alphanumeric characters.
UD Field 3 (Next Maint.)
This is an alphanumeric field with the default name Next Maint. You can change the name of this field
and enter any extra data for this element here, up to 12 alphanumeric characters.
UD Field 4 (Tests Req.)
This is an alphanumeric field with the default name Tests Req. You can change the name of this field and
enter any extra data for this element here, up to 12 alphanumeric characters.
UD Field A5
This is an alphanumeric field with the default name UD Field A5. You can change the name of this field
and enter any extra data for this element here, up to 12 alphanumeric characters.
UD Field A6
This is an alphanumeric field with the default name UD Field A6. You can change the name of this field
and enter any extra data for this element here, up to 12 alphanumeric characters.
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AC-DC Elements
Charger
UD Field A7
This is an alphanumeric field with the default name UD Field A7. You can change the name of this field
and enter any extra data for this element here, up to 18 alphanumeric characters.
Drawing/Diagram
One-Line
Enter the name or ID of a one-line drawing or diagram associated with this element, up to 50
alphanumeric characters. An example is the manufacturer diagram or specifications for this element.
Reference
Enter the name or ID of a reference drawing or document for this element, up to 50 alphanumeric
characters.
Manufacturer
Name
Enter the manufacturer’s name for this element here, up to 25 alphanumeric characters.
Purchasing Date
Enter the date of purchase for this element here, up to 8 alphanumeric characters.
10.3.8 Comment Page
Enter any extra data or comments regarding condition, maintenance, tests, or studies, associated with this
element. This field can be up to 64kb with a default size of 4kb. To increase the size of this field, refer to
the entries in the ETAPS.INI file.
When entering information in the page, use Ctrl+Enter to start a new paragraph. Standard keys such as
Ctrl+X, Ctrl+C, and Ctrl+V can be used to cut, copy, and paste information.
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AC-DC Elements
Inverter
10.4 Inverter
The properties associated with inverters of the electrical system can be entered in this editor.
The DC Inverter Editor contains the following eight pages of information:
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
Info Page
Rating Page
Loading Page
Duty Cycle Page
Harmonic Page
Reliability Page
Remarks Page
Comment Page
10.4.1 Info Page
Within the Info page, specify the ID, connected buses, In/Out of Service, Equipment FDR (feeder) Tag,
Name, Description, Data Type, Load Priority, and Status.
Info
ID
Enter a unique alphanumeric ID with a maximum of 25 characters. PowerStation automatically assigns a
unique ID to each inverter. The default IDs consist of the word Inv plus an integer, starting with the
number one and increasing as the number of inverters increases.
The default ID (Inv) for inverters can be changed from the Defaults menu in the menu bar or from the
Project View.
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AC-DC Elements
Inverter
DC Bus and AC Bus
These are the IDs of the connecting buses for the inverter. If the terminal is not connected to any bus, a
blank entry will be shown for the bus ID. To connect or reconnect an inverter to a bus, select a bus from
the list box. The one-line diagram will be updated to show the new connection after you click on OK.
Note that you can connect the terminals of the inverter to AC & DC buses that reside in the same view
where it resides, or you can connect to buses that reside in other views by connecting the external and
internal pins of the composite networks. You cannot connect to buses that are in the Dumpster.
If an inverter is connected to a bus through a number of protective devices, reconnection of the inverter to
a new bus in this editor will reconnect the last existing protective device to the new bus, as shown below
where Inv1 is reconnected from DCBus10 to DCBus4.
Next to the bus ID, PowerStation displays the nominal voltage of DC terminal buses and nominal kV of
AC terminal bus for your convenience.
In/Out of Service
Operating conditions of an inverter can be selected by choosing either the In Service or Out of Service
option. The properties of an Out of Service inverter can be edited like an In Service inverter; however, an
Out of Service inverter will not be included in any system studies. When Continuity Check is activated,
an Out of Service inverter automatically becomes dimmed in the one-line diagram.
Note that the In/Out of Service option is an engineering property and is independent of the configuration
status. Therefore, you can set an inverter to be In Service for the Base Data and Out of Service in
Revision Data.
Configuration
Select the operating status of the inverter for the selected configuration status from the list box. Options
for operating status include:
•
•
•
Continuous
Continuously operating load
Intermittent Intermittently operating load
Spare Spare load (no short-circuit contribution)
Depending on the demand factor specified for each operating status, the actual loading of the inverter is
determined for DC load flow studies.
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AC-DC Elements
Inverter
Note that status is not a part of the inverter engineering properties. For this reason, the name of the
configuration status is shown, indicating the inverter status under the specific configuration, i.e., you can
have a different operating status under each configuration. In the following example, status of an inverter
is shown to be Continuous under Normal configuration and Spare under Emergency configuration.
Equipment
FDR Tag
Enter the feeder tag in this field, up to 25 alphanumeric characters.
Name
Enter equipment name, up to 50 alphanumeric characters.
Description
Enter equipment description, up to 100 alphanumeric characters.
Data Type
This field provides a convenient way to track data entry. Select one of the data types (such as estimate,
typical, vendor, final, etc.) from the list box. As the data is updated, this field can be changed to reflect
the source of the latest data. There are a total of 10 load types and you can change their name from the
Project menu under Settings and Data Type.
Priority
Select the load priority of this inverter from the list box. This field can be used for load priority,
operating priority, load shedding priority, etc. Ten different priorities are provided to select from.
Priority names can be changed from the Project menu under Settings and Load Priority.
Output Connection
Phase
Select the phase connection type of the inverter from the list box. If a single phase connection is set in
the AC terminal, the connection pin on the AC side is disabled.
Demand Factor
Modify the demand factors for Continuous, Intermittent, and Spare status in the provided entry fields.
Demand factor is the amount of time the inverter is actually operating. Demand factor affects the
following calculations:
Operating kW = Rated kW * % Loading * Demand Factor
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AC-DC Elements
Inverter
Demand factors for Continuous, Intermittent, and Spare status have a range from 0% to 100%. Since
demand factors are a part of engineering properties, PowerStation uses the same factors for all
configurations.
10.4.2 Rating Page
In this page, you can specify the inverter ratings, select the AC Output Voltage model, and display the
AC short-circuit current of the inverter.
DC Rating
kW
Enter the kW rating of the inverter. Click on the kW/MW button to choose between kW and MW units
for entering rated DC power and displaying data for the inverter. When kW rating is modified, the rated
AC kVA, rated DC full load current, rated AC full load current, and the operating load and losses for all
loading categories of the inverter are recalculated.
FLA
Enter the rated DC full load current of the inverter in amperes. When the rated DC full load current is
modified, the rated DC power, rated efficiency, and the operating load and losses for all loading
categories of the inverter are recalculated. PowerStation limits the entry of rated DC full load current in
such a way that the rated efficiency cannot exceed 100% or be below 10%.
Imax
Enter the maximum DC input current of the inverter in percentage of the rated DC full load current. Imax
defaults to 150%.
Eff
Enter the rated efficiency of the inverter in percent. When the efficiency is modified, the rated DC
power, rated DC full load current, and the DC operating load and losses for all loading categories of the
inverter are recalculated. Efficiency cannot exceed 100% or be below 10%. It defaults to 90%.
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AC-DC Elements
Inverter
V
Enter the rated DC voltage of the inverter in volts. The rated DC full load current is calculated from this
value.
Vmax
Enter the maximum DC voltage of the inverter in percent of the rated voltage. It defaults to 110%.
Vmin
Enter the minimum DC voltage of the inverter in percent of the rated voltage. It defaults to 90%.
AC Rating
kVA
Enter the rated AC kVA of the inverter. When the rated AC kVA is modified, the rated AC full load
current, rated DC power, rated DC full load current, and the operating load and losses for all loading
categories of the inverter are recalculated.
FLA
Enter the rated AC full load current of the inverter in amperes. When the rated AC full load current is
modified, the rated DC power, rated AC kVA, rated DC full load current, and the operating load and
losses for all loading categories of the inverter are recalculated.
kV
Enter the rated AC voltage of the inverter in volts. The rated AC full load current is calculated.
PF
Enter the rated power factor of the inverter in percent. When the power factor is modified, the rated DC
power, rated DC full load current, and the operating load and losses for all loading categories of the
inverter are recalculated. PowerStation limits the entry of power factor in such a way that it cannot
exceed Max. PF or be below Min. PF. It defaults to 85%.
Min. PF
Enter the minimum power factor in percent. It defaults to 80%.
Max. PF
Enter the maximum power factor in percent. It defaults to 100%.
SC Contribution to AC System
K
Enter the short-circuit multiplication factor in percent. PowerStation uses this value to calculate the
short-circuit current contribution from the inverter for AC short-circuit studies. The multiplication factor
defaults to 150%.
Isc
The short-circuit current contribution from the inverter (Isc = K * FLAac / 100) is calculated and
displayed here in amperes.
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AC-DC Elements
Inverter
AC Output Voltage
Regulate Vac
When you select the Regulate Vac option, the AC output voltage can be regulated to a value other than
the rated AC voltage of the inverter. The regulated voltage is calculated as follows:
Vac = kV * % Adjustment / 100 in kV
otherwise, the AC output voltage is regulated at the rated value.
%
Enter the percentage value (% Adjustment) for the calculation of the regulated AC output voltage Vac.
Vac
The regulated AC output voltage of the inverter is calculated and displayed here in kV.
10.4.3 Loading Page
In this page, specify the loading percent of the inverter for all loading categories, and view updated DC
and AC operating load from AC load flow studies.
Loading Category
Loading Category
This section is used to assign a percent loading to each one of the ten loading categories for the loading of
this inverter, i.e., each inverter can be set to have a different operating loading level for each loading
category. To edit the values of the percent loading, click on any one of the edit fields under the %
Loading column. Note that you can select any of these loading categories when conducting AC load flow
studies.
To edit the loading category names, select Loading Category from the Project menu.
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ETAP PowerStation 4.0
AC-DC Elements
Inverter
Operating Load
AC
This area displays the updated AC operating load of the inverter in kW/kvar or MW/Mvar when the
Update Operating Load is checked in the AC Load Flow Study Case Editor.
DC
This area displays the updated DC operating load of the inverter in kW or MW when Update Operating
Load is checked in the AC Load Flow Study Case Editor.
10.4.4 Duty Cycle Page
Within the Duty Cycle page, specify the duty cycle category and load profile for each duty cycle.
PowerStation displays the load profile for random and non-random loads for viewing and printing. The
data in this page are used in battery sizing studies.
Duty Cycle
This section is used to specify load profile for each one of the five duty cycle categories
Duty Cycle Category
Select a duty cycle category from the list box and view the load profile for it in this page. Each load can
have up to five duty cycle categories with independent load profiles. You can name the duty cycle
categories from the Project menu bar.
Load Profile
To add a load to the load profile, click on either the Ins or Add button, or press the Insert key to create a
row in the load profile table. Each row represents a segment of the load profile for this duty cycle.
To edit the load profile, click on the button under the Active column, and this segment of load will be
considered in studies. Click on the button under the Random column, and this segment of load will be
treated as a random load in studies. Click on the field under the Type column and pick one of the seven
types in the list box. Enter a load name, current in amperes, start time in seconds, and duration in seconds
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for this segment of load. After the data of a row is entered, this segment of load curve will be drawn on
the Non-Random or Random window.
To delete a row of data, highlight the row by clicking the number of the row, then click on the Del button
or press the Delete key.
Click on either the <-Print or Print-> button, and the displayed load profile curve (random & nonrandom) for the selected duty cycle will be printed out.
Note that you can select any of the duty cycle categories when conducting battery sizing studies. To edit
the loading category names, select Duty Cycle Category from the Project menu.
10.4.5 Harmonic Page
Within the Harmonic page, specify the harmonic source type of the inverter, and view the harmonic
source waveform and frequency spectrum of the inverter.
Use Library Data
Get the harmonic source data of the inverter from the Harmonic Library.
Calculate Based on Parameters
Calculate the harmonic source data based on the parameters of the inverter.
Voltage Regulation Parameters
Enter the parameters of the inverter for the calculation of the harmonic source data.
Harmonic Library
Library Button
Click on the Library button to pick up the inverter harmonic source data including harmonic source type,
device type, and manufacture/model.
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Type
This area displays the inverter harmonic source type picked up from the Harmonic Library.
Manufacturer
This area displays the inverter device type picked up from the Harmonic Library.
Model
This area displays the inverter Manufacturer/model picked up from the Harmonic Library.
Waveform
This area displays the harmonic source waveform of the inverter.
Spectrum
This area displays the harmonic frequency spectrum of the inverter.
Print Buttons
Click on the Print buttons to print out the waveform or frequency spectrum of the inverter.
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10.4.6 Reliability Page
Reliability Parameters
λA
Active Failure Rate in number of failures per year. The Active Failure Rate is associated with the
component failure mode that causes the operation of the primary protection zone around the failed
component and can therefore cause the removal of other healthy components and branches from service.
It should be noted that the failed component itself (and those components that are directly connected to it)
could be restored to service only after repair or replacement of the failed component.
λP
Passive Failure Rate in number of failures per year. The Passive Failure Rate is associated with a
component failure mode that does not cause the operation of the primary protection zone around the failed
component, and therefore, does not have an impact on the remaining healthy components and branches of
the system. Repairing or replacing the failed component will restore service.
µ
The Mean Repair Rate in number of repairs per year is automatically calculated and based on MTTR (µ =
8760/MTTR).
FOR
It is the Forced Outage Rate (i.e., unavailability) calculated based on MTTR, λA (FOR =
MTTR/(MTTR+8760/λA).
MTTF
The Mean Time To Failure in years is automatically calculated and based on λA (MTTF = 1.0/λA).
MTTR
The Mean Time To Repair in hours is the expected time necessary for a crew to repair a failed component
and/or restore the system to its normal operating state.
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Alternative Supply
Switching Time
This is the time in hours necessary to isolate a failure. It is the period of time starting from the moment a
switching operation is requested until the operation is completed.
Replacement
Available
Check this box to enable rP
rP
It is the replacement time in hours needed to replace a failed component with a spare.
Library
Library
Click on the Library button to bring up the Library Quick Pick Editor for reliability data.
10.4.7 Remarks Page
User-Defined Info
These fields allow you to keep track of extra data associated with this component. The names of the
User-Defined (UD) fields can be changed from the Settings option in the Project menu in the Menu bar.
UD Field 1 (Eq. Ref.)
This is a number field with the default name Eq. Ref. You can change the name of this field and enter the
equipment reference number or any other number here, up to five digits.
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UD Field 2 (Last Maint.)
This is an alphanumeric field with the default name Last Maint. You can change the name of this field
and enter any extra data for this element here, up to 12 alphanumeric characters.
UD Field 3 (Next Maint.)
This is an alphanumeric field with the default name Next Maint. You can change the name of this field
and enter any extra data for this element here, up to 12 alphanumeric characters.
UD Field 4 (Tests Req.)
This is an alphanumeric field with the default name Tests Req. You can change the name of this field and
enter any extra data for this element here, up to 12 alphanumeric characters.
UD Field A5
This is an alphanumeric field with the default name UD Field A5. You can change the name of this field
and enter any extra data for this element here, up to 12 alphanumeric characters.
UD Field A6
This is an alphanumeric field with the default name UD Field A6. You can change the name of this field
and enter any extra data for this element here, up to 12 alphanumeric characters.
UD Field A7
This is an alphanumeric field with the default name UD Field A7. You can change the name of this field
and enter any extra data for this element here, up to 18 alphanumeric characters.
Drawing/Diagram
One-Line
Enter the name or ID of a one-line drawing or diagram associated with this element, up to 50
alphanumeric characters. An example is the manufacturer diagram or specifications for this element.
Reference
Enter the name or ID of a reference drawing or document for this element, up to 50 alphanumeric
characters.
Manufacturer
Name
Enter the manufacturer’s name for this element here, up to 25 alphanumeric characters.
Purchasing Date
Enter the date of purchase for this element here, up to 8 alphanumeric characters.
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10.4.8 Comment Page
Enter any extra data or comments regarding condition, maintenance, tests, or studies, associated with this
element. This field can be up to 64kb with a default size of 4kb. To increase the size of this field, refer to
the entries in the ETAPS.INI file.
When entering information in the page, use Ctrl+Enter to start a new paragraph. Standard keys such as
Ctrl+X, Ctrl+C, and Ctrl+V can be used to cut, copy, and paste information.
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