Cleaning Brk BrocArtRev/4.6.00
Brick
Industry
Southeast
Region
Good
Practice
for
Cleaning
New
BR CK
Work
General
Technical
Reference
Brick
Industry
Southeast
Region
Good Practice
for Cleaning
New Brickwork
Table of Contents
Introduction
Table of Contents
Introduction
Building Clean Brick Walls
1
Brick Cleaning Systems
2
1. Bucket and Brush Cleaning
2
2. High Pressure Water Cleaning
3
3. Sandblast Cleaning
4
4. Special Cleaning Systems
for Type “S” Mortar
6
Cleaning Guide
7
Specialty Cleaning
7
General Information
Inside Back Cover
The introduction of new face brick colors and
textures has brought about changes in materials
and methods used in cleaning new brick walls.
Also, the continual search for more efficient ways
to construct buildings has been responsible for
the introduction of several new systems for
cleaning masonry.
This publication is a report of many cleaning
methods being used currently and a guide to
cleaning most types of brick found in this area
and is prefaced with recommendations for
minimizing the need for cleaning new work.
The information and recommendations made
herein are based on our own research, and
research and experience of others, and are
believed to be accurate. However, no guarantee
of their accuracy is made because we cannot
cover every possible application of the products
described, nor anticipate variations encountered
in masonry surfaces, job conditions and
cleaning methods used.
Building Clean Brick Walls
Building Clean Brick Walls
(continued)
Building Clean Brick Walls
At the end of each workday the boards on the scaffold closest to the wall should be removed or tilted
up to dump excess mortar droppings and prevent
possible rainfall from splashing mortar and dirt from
the boards onto newly laid masonry.
The optimum way of ensuring an unblemished
appearance for any structure is to keep brickwork
clean as walls are being built. Recognizing that the
nature of job site environments makes this objective
a challenge to bricklayers and other construction
personnel, the following tips are provided.
1. Brick should be protected from mud when placed
at a job site. The contractor should provide boards,
plastic sheeting or other protective material when
bricks are unloaded on ground.
In certain cases, brick should be completely covered
for protection from weather until used.
2. Protect wall as work progresses. This includes
protecting the base of wall after the first course of
brick is laid and protecting the wall from the top at
the end of the work day.
Use sand, straw, sawdust or plastic sheeting along
the ground to prevent mud splashes. Mud removal
is much more expensive than ground cover materials.
Base protection also minimizes mortar dropping
damages.
The wall must be covered at the end of each workday to prevent washout of fresh joints, and to keep
excessive water out of the wall to avoid efflorescence.
Covering is also essential for cold weather protection.
3. Scaffold should be set far enough away from the
wall to allow mortar droppings to fall to the ground.
If scaffolds are not set away, mortar may lodge on
diagonal bracing and adhere to wall. However, when
scaffold brackets are used for the bricklayers platform, bracing presents no problem.
4. If the bricklayer follows good practices he can
install clean brick walls. Some good procedures are
as follows: After spreading mortar (but before laying
brick) use trowel edge to cut mortar even with wall
face. This prevents mortar from running down face
of wall.
After laying brick, cut off excess mortar with a forward lifting and rolling motion of trowel that will
collect mortar and prevent smearing of this mortar
back onto brick face. Mortar should not be cut so
that surplus drops to base of wall.
Tool joints when mortar is “thumbprint” hard. After
tooling, cut off mortar tailings with trowel and brush
excess mortar burrs and dust from face of brick.
Bagging or sacking very often rubs mortar particles
into the brick face if done too soon, making it almost
impossible to remove these embedded mortar particles with conventional cleaning methods. Brushing
is safer and thus preferable to bagging or sacking.
Use a bricklayer’s brush made with medium soft hair.
5. Keep the wall clean. Once the bricklayer and
mason contractor leave the job, it is important to
protect the completed masonry. Make sure that other
workers (i.e. the structural concrete crew, the terrazzo
crew, welders, roofers, painters, landscape contractors) do not damage the job. They may not realize
that almost nothing can be removed from masonry–
easily. Keep the mud protection around base of walls
until final landscaping work is being completed.
If the preceding techniques are followed a final
cleaning should be easy. Very often a water hose
with high pressure nozzle will be adequate to
remove the construction dust and the occasional
mortar smear found on wall.
1
Brick
Industry
Southeast
Region
Good Practice
for Cleaning
New Brickwork
Brick Cleaning Systems:
1. Bucket and Brush Cleaning
Recommended Cleaning Compounds
Recommended Procedure
Brick Cleaning Systems
The following procedure is recommended for
cleaning by the Bucket and Brush Method:
1. Bucket and Brush Cleaning
1. Wait for mortar to harden. While industry standards generally require masonry to be 7 days old
before cleaning, it is possible to start cleaning operations 24 to 36 hours after completion of masonry
work, depending on the type of brick and weather
(drying) conditions.
Bucket and Brush Cleaning is the most widely used
method of cleaning newly constructed brick walls in
both small and large jobs. A minimum amount of
equipment is needed and workmen do not need to
be highly skilled. Only the job foreman or supervisor
need to be knowledgeable and experienced.
This method may be used for cleaning all colors
and textures of brick. However, care must be used in
selecting the proper cleaning solution for the job.
The safest way to determine the proper cleaning
solution for a given type of brick is to ask the brick
manufacturer for his recommendation.
As a general policy statement, the Brick Industry does
not recommend the use of muriatic acid to clean brick.
Although muriatic acid has been used successfully in
the past in select situations, too frequently its improper use has caused problems. If a request to use muriatic
acid is received, permission to do so should be
obtained from the brick manufacturer.
3. Mask and otherwise protect adjacent metal,
glass, wood, etc. surfaces as recommended by
product manufacturers.
There are many commercial cleaning compounds on
the market today that will clean new masonry. Many
of these cleaners contain small amounts of hydrochloric acid as well as “wetting” and “buffering” agents
to improve the solution’s action and to minimize
deterioration of mortar joints and damage to surrounding materials.
Hose should be trained upon wall until brick is saturated. If wall appears to be drying on surface, reapply
water until worker is ready to apply cleaning solution.
Failure to completely saturate the wall is a major cause
of cleaning stains. Cleaning solutions containing dissolved mortar particles can be drawn into a dry masonry wall, causing future staining. Such staining from
portland cement dissolved in cleaning materials is
extremely difficult, if not impossible, to remove since
it is insoluble in most masonry cleaning solutions.
Listed below are some of the recommended
commercial cleaning compounds:
S U R E K L E A N 101, 600 A N D VA N AT R O L
S U P E R I O R 800 S E R I E S
G O L D B L AT T B R I C K B AT H
D I E D R I C H 200, 202, 202 VA N A -S T O P
Formulation of most commercial cleaners is so complicated that the users should not necessarily try to
understand terminology such as wetting agents, buffering agents, oxidizing, chelating, inhibitors, etc., but
should rely on chemical manufacturers’ recommendations as found on containers, and on recommendations
of brick manufacturers.
2
2. Remove all large mortar particles with hand tools
before applying water or cleaning solutions. Use
wooden paddle, the rough edge of a brick, or metal
scrape hoe. Chisels may be used, if necessary, to
remove hardened mortar or concrete. This is a very
important point in cleaning new masonry.
Don’t expect cleaning solutions alone to remove
large particles of hardened mortar.
4. Saturate the wall with clean water. The area to
be cleaned must be saturated as well as all masonry
areas below.
A saturated wall will not draw particles from its surface into brick pores. Water is available, and usually
free to the cleaning contractor. Use it generously!
5. Use brush to apply cleaning solution to saturated
wall. Start cleaning at the top of wall. Solution should
be approved by architect/engineer and brick supplier.
Concentration and method of application should be
as recommended on container or by manufacturer.
Brick Cleaning Systems:
1. Bucket and Brush Cleaning
Recommended Procedure (continued)
2. High Pressure Water Cleaning
Brick Cleaning Systems:
2. High Pressure Water Cleaning
(continued)
Cover small area, using long handled fiber brush.
Scrub brick, not joints. Allow solution to remain on
wall three to six minutes (or as recommended on
label) as workmen scrape and scrub vigorously.
Nozzle pressures generally range between 400 PSI
and 800 PSI. However, many available units are capable of producing pressures well over 1000 PSI and
should be used with caution. Flow is normally
between 3 and 8 gallons per minute.
6. Rinse thoroughly as small areas are cleaned.
To avoid rapid evaporation of water on areas being
cleaned, keep crew just ahead of sunshine. This
permits ideal conditions for cleaning walls, and also
allows walls to dry soon after being washed, permitting crews to learn if all stains are being removed
before going too far ahead.
A good phrase to remember in cleaning brickwork is
“procedure is more important than the product used.”
If the above procedures are followed, cleaning should
be relatively easy and trouble free.
(Test clean a sample area to determine effectiveness
of cleaning compound and the total cleaning system
and to check wall for possible damages caused by the
system. Approval of owner or owner’s representative
should be obtained before proceeding with operation.)
2. High Pressure Water Cleaning
High Pressure Water Cleaning is another method
of cleaning newly-constructed masonry and has
been used for many years.
The more sophisticated high pressure cleaning systems feature a high pressure gun and nozzle with
remote control switch allowing an operator to automatically apply cleaning solution while operating
the gun several hundred feet from base unit. Other
systems provide two separate hoses, one with plain
high pressure water and the other with solution of
cleaning material, also under pressure. Care must
be taken in selecting cleaning material compatible
with the pumping equipment as recommended by
pump manufacturer.
All units must be portable in order to be taken within close range of job. Compact units are mounted on
skids, wheels, trailer, etc. More elaborate systems are
truck mounted, complete with pump, engine or motor,
cleaning material containers, water storage tank, and
water heater.
Many cleaning contractors are using high pressure systems in an effort to reduce high labor costs associated
with traditional cleaning systems. Most contractors
agree the high pressure system is more efficient.
However, hand labor is still needed to remove large
mortar particles from the wall surface before applying
water and cleaning solutions. Also, extreme caution
should be used in applying cleaning solutions under
high pressure. This practice is economical but could
be harmful to the operator, to adjoining property,
and could drive the cleaning solution further into the
wall than is necessary for surface cleaning, causing
further staining.
Cleaning solutions may be applied more effectively
and safely by brush or by low pressure (maximum
40 PSI) orchard type sprayer.
In many cases, high pressure water without any
special cleaning materials will successfully clean new
masonry walls. When hot water is used, high pressure
without chemicals is even more efficient. High pressure water cleaning may be used on most hard burned,
textured clay brick. This includes reds, buffs, grays and
other through-the-body colors. However, it is safest to
keep pressure well below 1000 PSI when cleaning buffs,
grays, etc., since these colors are more susceptible to
mineral oxidation which could be aggravated by excessively deep penetration of water. Also, high pressure
water cleaning should be used only with approval of
brick manufacturer.
This system is generally acceptable for cleaning lightly
sanded or sandblast textures where a fine application of sand is well bonded to the brick body.
Caution should be exercised in using high water
pressure on slurry or “sandblast” textures where
an excessive coating of sand adheres loosely to
body. High nozzle pressures may cut streaks in
the relatively soft sand facing.
High pressure water cleaning may be detrimental
to handmade brick and any underburned product.
Also high pressure water can erode mortar joints.
3
Brick
Industry
Southeast
Region
Good Practice
for Cleaning
New Brickwork
Brick Cleaning Systems:
2. High Pressure Water Cleaning (continued)
Recommended Procedure
3. Sandblast Cleaning
The following procedure is recommended for High
Pressure Water Cleaning:
and to check wall for possible damages caused by system. Approval of owner or owner’s representative should
be obtained before proceeding with operation.)
1. Wait for mortar to harden, but cleaning with
high pressure water should not start before mortar
is 7 days old.
2. Remove all large mortar particles with hand
tools before applying water or cleaning solutions.
Use wooden paddle, the rough edge of a brick or
metal scrape hoe. Chisels may be used, if necessary,
to remove hardened mortar or concrete. This “precleaning” is a very important part in cleaning new
masonry. Don’t expect cleaning materials and/or
water alone to remove large particles of hardened
mortar. These can only remove thin smears.
3. Mask and otherwise protect adjacent metal,
glass, wood, etc. surfaces as recommended by
product manufacturers.
4. Saturate wall with clean water. All immediate
areas to be cleaned must be saturated as well as
masonry areas below.
5. When wall is completely saturated, apply cleaning
solution, starting at the top of wall. Solution should
be approved previously by architect/engineer and
brick supplier. Concentration should be as recommended on container. Solution may be applied to wall
with masonry cleaning brush or low pressure (maximum 40 PSI) sprayer. Application of cleaning solution
by high pressure should be previously approved by
architect/engineer and brick supplier.
Fifty degree nozzle is generally recommended for
applying cleaning solutions.
Let cleaning solution remain on wall for 3 to 6 minutes, or as directed on product label.
6. Rinse wall with high pressure water from top to
bottom so all dissolved mortar particles will be completely flushed from wall surfaces. The most efficient
sprayer is the fan type, stainless steel tip, dispersing
a 25 degree to 50 degree fan spray. Never use less
than a 15 degree fan spray tip.
(Test clean a sample area to determine effectiveness
of cleaning compound and the total cleaning system
4
See Section 4 when using high pressure water systems to remove type “S” mortar from light colored
(buff, gray, white, etc.) brick.
3. Sandblast Cleaning
Dry sandblast cleaning is a relatively new method
of cleaning newly built masonry, although the system
has been used for many years in masonry restoration work.
Many architect/engineers prefer sandblast cleaning
over conventional wet (acid) cleaning because of
possible adverse acid reactions with certain types of
brick. Other designers are reluctant to permit sandblast cleaning from fear the blasting will erode the
face of the brick and mortar joints.
Sandblast operators can be compared with other
construction tradesmen: some are artisans and others
are incompetent. However, with a qualified operator,
proper specifications and good job inspection, sandblast cleaning is as good as any other system and is
sometimes superior in many ways.
Basically, sandblast cleaning involves the following equipment: Portable air compressor, blasting
tank, blasting nozzle, operators’ protective clothing and hood.
Air pressure delivered by compressor to blasting tank
may range from 40 lbs. to 100 lbs. per square inch.
Blasting tank is charged with the specified abrasive
material and pressurized to force the mixture of abrasive material and air into blasting hose and to nozzle.
Blasting pattern is determined by nozzle size, type
and air pressure. Speed of cleaning is determined by
type of abrasive used, nozzle size, type, air pressure,
nozzle-to-wall distance and of course, condition of
surface to be cleaned.
Abrasive material used in brick cleaning is usually
sand, quartz, or granite and must be clean and finely graded.
Sandblast cleaning material should conform to one
of two particle size graduations outlined in the specifications below.
Brick Cleaning Systems:
3. Sandblast Cleaning (continued)
Recommended Procedure
Brick Cleaning Systems:
3. Sandblast Cleaning
Recommended Procedure (continued)
Specifications
Type “A” gradation is to be used when the masonry
is very lightly soiled or when only a very light or
fine texturing of the brickwork is permitted.
Operator should clean a small area with the nozzle
first close to wall, and then at varying distances from
the wall, trying to select a working distance that will
give the best cleaning job with the least damage to
brick and mortar work.
Type “B” gradation is used for cleaning heavy mortar
stains from brickwork and where medium texturing of
the masonry is permitted.
Sandblast cleaning may be used for cleaning all hard
burned, non-glazed, smooth or textured brick. Included
in this category are reds, buffs, whites, grays, chocolates, etc.
Lightly sanded, coated, slurry, or sandbox brick should
not be cleaned by sandblasting, unless cleaning cannot be accomplished by any other method, as the
brick face can be permanently damaged.
Handmade or reclaimed brick may also be permanently disfigured by sandblasting.
As a further precaution, approval of the brick manufacturer must be obtained before permitting sandblast
cleaning.
Job superintendent and architectural inspector should
be present at this time to confirm acceptable practice.
Approved areas should be marked and identified as
acceptable standard for the entire job.
Specifications for Sandblast Cleaning
I. Scope
This section includes cleaning of newly constructed
clay masonry with dry abrasive material forced by
compressed air from tank through hose and nozzle.
II. Material
Cleaning material must be dust-free and abrasive.
Hardness should be approximately 6 on Mohs’ Scale.
Material size shall conform to one of the two categories listed below according to acceptable finish
of masonry surface.
Type “A” (Fine Texturing)
The following procedure is recommended for
Sandblast Cleaning:
1. Wait for mortar to harden, Brickwork should be
completely dry and at least 7 days old, preferably
14 days.
2. Remove all large mortar particles with hand tools
before blasting. Use wooden paddle, the rough edge
of a brick, or metal scrape hoe. Chisels may be used
if necessary to remove hardened mortar or concrete.
This “pre-cleaning is a very important part of sandblast cleaning. Sandblast operator would irreparably
damage wall if large droppings are left for him to
remove by blasting.
Typical Screen Analysis
U.S. S I E V E S I Z E
P E R C E N T PA S S I N G
30 Mesh
98-100
40 Mesh
80-85
50 Mesh
50-60
100 Mesh
5-20
140 Mesh
0-10
The following material is acceptable for “fine texture”
sandblasting: Blast Sand Size No. 120 furnished by
KMG Minerals, Inc., Kings Mountain, NC.
Type “B” (Medium texturing) For concrete work and
extremely difficult masonry cleaning jobs.
Typical Screen Analysis
3. Provide adequate protection for all non-masonry
surfaces adjacent to work areas, Use plastic sheeting
and duct tape to protect windows, doors, etc. If possible, painting, caulking, etc. should be done after
sandblast operation is completed.
4. When all surfaces are prepared and protected, the
operator can begin a first test cleaning.
U.S. S I E V E S I Z E
P E R C E N T PA S S I N G
16 Mesh
87-100
18 Mesh
75-95
30 Mesh
25-50
40 Mesh
0-15
50 Mesh
0-10
5
Brick
Industry
Southeast
Region
Good Practice
for Cleaning
New Brickwork
Brick Cleaning Systems:
3. Sandblast Cleaning
Specifications (continued)
4. Special Systems for Wet Cleaning
Through-The-Body Light Brick Where
Type “S” Mortar Is Used
Recommended Procedures
The following material is acceptable for “medium
texturing” sandblasting: Blast Sand No. 55 furnished
by KMG Minerals, Inc., Kings Mountain, NC. Local
materials may be used when dried and screened to
meet required size and hardness and when determined to be free of grease or other impurities.
E. All brick and mortar joint areas considered by
the architect to be severely damaged by the cleaning
operation must be replaced at the expense of the
cleaning contractor.
III. Equipment
Air compressor must be capable of producing pressure between 60 pounds and 100 pounds per square
inch at the machine and should have a minimum air
flow capacity of 125 cu. ft. per minute.
Nozzle inside orifice or bore size may vary from 3/16"
diameter to 5/16" diameter.
Sandblast machine (or tank) must be equipped with
controls to regulate flow of abrasive materials to nozzle,
and shall be capable of supplying sand at a minimum
rate of 300 pounds per hour.
Operator must wear O.S.H.A.– approved hood and
protective clothing.
IV. Workmanship
A. Brickwork must be dry and at least 7 days old,
preferably 14 days.
B. Before blasting, all large mortar particles must be
removed with hand tools. Use wooden paddles, metal
scrape hoes or chisels if necessary to remove hardened mortar.
C. Provide adequate protection for all non-masonry
surfaces adjacent to work area. Use plastic sheeting
and duct tape to protect windows, doors, etc.
D. Sandblast operation may begin if representatives
of architect and/or prime contractor are present to
inspect trial cleaning areas.
Operators must test clean several areas, with nozzle
trained at varying distances from wall, finally selecting working distance that affords best cleaning job
with least damage to brick and joints.
Test areas approved by representative of architect
and/or prime contractor must be marked and identified as acceptable standard for entire job.
6
F. If directed by the architect or engineer all brickwork cleaned by sandblasting shall be waterproofed
with an approved clear coating as designated by
architect or engineer.
4. Special Systems for Wet Cleaning Through-the
Body Light Brick Where Type “S” Mortar is Used
Type “S” (and Type “M”) mortar is very difficult to
remove from the face of all brick, but is a special
problem when through-the-body or light colored
brick is used due to the sensitivity of these brick
to strong cleaning materials.
The following cleaning procedures are recommended
according to age of masonry work:
A. A F T E R W O R K I S 10 D AY S O L D :
1. Remove all large mortar particles with hand tools
before applying cleaning solutions.
2. Mask and otherwise protect adjacent non-masonry
materials.
3. Saturate wall with clean water.
4. Use cleaning brush to apply solution of S U R E
K L E A N VA N AT R O L , D I E D R I C H 202 VA N A -S T O P
(or equal) mixed 4 to 6 parts of water to 1 part
of solution.
5. Allow solution to remain on wall for 3 to 5 minutes while brushing and scraping, reapply solution.
6. Thoroughly rinse and brush clean.
B. A F T E R W O R K I S 30 D AY S O L D :
1. Use procedure described above in steps 1–5.
2. Use high water pressure equipment to rinse wall,
using pressure not greater than 800 PSI with a 40
degree nozzle fan tip. Consult brick manufacturer
before using high pressure water system.
(Test clean a sample area to determine effectiveness of
cleaning compound and the total cleaning system and
to check wall for possible damages caused by system.
Approval of owner or owner’s representative should
be obtained before proceeding with operation.)
Cleaning Guide
Specialty Cleaning
Specialty Cleaning (continued)
Cleaning Guide
out, and as successive rains wash the walls, the
“Bloom” should disappear.
Red Brick–Textured
This category includes all textured red through-thebody brick.
Brick in this category may be cleaned by the bucket
and brush method, high water pressure method, or
by sandblasting.
Red Brick–Heavy Sand Finish
This category includes all red through-the-body brick
with various applied heavy sand finish faces.
Brick in this category may best be cleaned by the bucket and brush method, using plain water and scrub
brush, or with lightly applied high pressure water
system, with plain water being used. Sandblast cleaning is not recommended. If mortar stains are excessive,
use of cleaning compounds may be required.
White, Buff, Gray & Chocolate Brick
This category includes all textured and sand finish
brick with through-the-body colors other than natural red.
Brick in this category may be cleaned by the bucket
and brush method, or by lightly applied high pressure
water system. Sandblast cleaning is also recommended except in the cases where heavy sand finish is
involved. In the two wet cleaning systems, no muriatic
acid or compounds containing muriatic acid may be
used. Only plain water and detergent, or Sure Klean
Vanatrol, Diedrich 202V Vana-Stop or equal may
be used.
See Section 4 for special cleaning systems where
Type “S” mortar is used.
Specialty Cleaning
White Efflorescence
White efflorescence is a water soluble salt that is
brought to the surface of masonry by evaporation of
either construction water or by evaporation of rain
water that has penetrated the wall.
Water used in mortar, grout, etc. will sometimes
cause this “New Building Bloom.” As the wall dries
If the masonry has received its regular cleaning and
white efflorescence appears or reappears, no further
action should be taken until this wall has had an
opportunity to dry out completely. Application of
additional cleaning solutions may only aggravate the
problem at this point. Also, application of clear water
repellent materials may lock in moisture and crystalline growth, causing more scumming and possible
spalling of brick.
If efflorescence stains persist, it is likely that rainwater
is penetrating the wall. An inspection of the stained
areas should be made to determine if sizeable cracks
or openings exist, permitting water penetration. Faulty
flashing or a lack of flashing will contribute to staining.
Any large openings should be repaired. Where only
very fine hairline cracks are assumed to be allowing
water penetration, application of a penetrating water
repellent may be the only solution to the problem
short of a complete tuckpointing job.
Before applying water repellent materials, all possible
repairs should be made and all efflorescence removed.
This may be removed by applying plain water and
brushing the affected area. If water fails to remove
stain, use dilute solution of commercial cleaning compounds such as S U R E K L E A N 600, D I E D R I C H 202
N E W M A S O N RY D E T E R G E N T (or equal) for red brick
and S U R E K L E A N VA N AT R O L , D I E D R I C H 202V VA N A S T O P (or equal) for all others. Some heavy white
stains, known as “lime runs” or “silicone deposits”
may require special cleaning procedures for removal.
Contact Brick Industry Southeast Region for further
details. Allow entire wall to dry out completely (over
a period of little or no rainfall) before applying waterproofing solutions.
Green Stains
Green staining is caused by presence of vanadium
salts. Color and solubility of these salts are dependent
upon acidity of the brick. Very often green stains are
brought about by wrongful use of muriatic acid or
compounds containing muriatic acid. When green
stains appear, brick manufacturer should be consulted
before attempting to remove stain.
7
Brick
Industry
Southeast
Region
Good Practice
for Cleaning
New Brickwork
Specialty Cleaning
(continued)
Green Stains may be removed by using S U R E K L E A N
800 S TA I N R E M O V E R , S U R E K L E A N F E R R O U S S TA I N
R E M O V E R , D I E D R I C H 940 I R O N A N D M A N G A N E S E
S TA I N R E M O V E R , D I E D R I C H 950 A C I D B U R N
R E M O V E R (or equal).
Mud Stains
Brown Stains
Brown staining can be caused by presence of soluble
manganese or iron oxides. Very often brown or manganese stains are brought on by wrongful use of muriatic acid or compounds containing muriatic acid.
If these stains are light, B R I C K K L E N Z may take them
off with little difficulty.
Also, oxalic acid (one pound mixed in a gallon of
water) may do the job if stains are new and light
in color.
Many brown stains can be removed with S U R E K L E A N
800 S TA I N R E M O V E R , S U R E K L E A N F E R R O U S S TA I N
R E M O V E R , S U R E K L E A N R E S T O R AT I O N C L E A N E R ,
DIEDRICH 950 ACID BURN REMOVER, DIEDRICH
940 I R O N A N D M A N G A N E S E S TA I N R E M O V E R ,
D I E D R I C H 101G B R I C K C L E A N E R (or equal).
Each product should be tested for effectiveness and
possible bleaching action on joints.
White Scum–Insoluble
Insoluble white scum is generally caused by faulty
cleaning– failure to adequately saturate wall before
cleaning and failure to flush wall after applying clean
ing compound. As opposed to white efflorescence,
this stain cannot be removed with detergents or regular cleaning compounds.
Currently known method of removal is to use S U R E
K L E A N W H I T E S C U M R E M O V E R , D I E D R I C H 930
W H I T E S C U M R E M O V E R (or equal).
Smoke Stains
Smoke Stains can generally be removed by using one
of the following cleaners: B R I C K K L E N Z or S U R E
K L E A N S M O K E R E M O V E R . A follow-up cleaning with
S U R E K L E A N R E S T O R AT I O N C L E A N E R , D I E D R I C H
101G B R I C K C L E A N E R (or equal) may be required
after using smoke removal products.
Follow the directions found on containers.
8
Mud stains are the most difficult of all to remove.
Currently known method of removal is as follows:
Apply S URE K LEAN R ESTORATION C LEANER , D IEDRICH
101G B R I C K C L E A N E R (or equal) full strength, with
stainless steel pressurized “orchard” sprayer. Allow to
remain on wall 5 minutes. Flush off with high pressure water spray. Repeat if necessary. Sprayer nozzle
should be held at 90 degree angle to wall, as should
rinse water nozzle. S U R E K L E A N L I G H T D U T Y C O N C R E T E C L E A N E R or D I E D R I C H 960 H E AV Y D U T Y
C O N C R E T E C L E A N E R might be less likely to bleach
joints than S URE K LEAN R ESTORATION C LEANER or
D IEDRICH 101G B R I C K C L E A N E R .
Paint Stains
Paint stains are very difficult to remove from masonry.
Probably sandblasting is the fastest way to remove
paint, but this process is sometimes harmful to the
masonry surface.
Commercial paint removers are effective in some cases.
S U R E K L E A N D E FA C E R E R A S E R , S U R E K L E A N H E AV Y
D U T Y PA I N T S T R I P P E R , D I E D R I C H 505 PA I N T S T R I P P E R or D I E D R I C H 606 M U LT I -L AY E R PA I N T R E M O V E R
(or equal) are very good for paint removal. If these
products do not completely remove all paint particles
after following printed directions, apply S U R E K L E A N
R E S T O R AT I O N C L E A N E R , D I E D R I C H 101G B R I C K
C L E A N E R (or equal) to the stained area. Allow to
remain on wall several minutes, then “blast” the area
with water hose. Follow directions found on containers.
Cleaning Masonry Laid with Colored Mortar
Colored mortar is highly sensitive to masonry cleaning
solutions. While mineral oxide pigments are inert and
are not affected by most cleaning materials, the materials will dissolve surrounding cement paste, allowing
pigment to be washed away, exposing sand grains
and causing a change in mortar color and texture.
Most manufacturers of colored mortar recommend
cleaning with detergent and water only. Where mortar
stains are heavy, a 1 to 6 solution of S U R E K L E A N
VA N AT R O L , D I E D R I C H 202V VA N A -S T O P (or equal)
and water may be used; but a curing period of 3 to 5
weeks is recommended before cleaning with anything
other than detergent and water.
Specialty Cleaning (continued)
General Information
General Information (continued)
Sandblast cleaning is usually acceptable, as is high
pressure water cleaning with approved cleaning
compounds. Protection of brick face must also be
considered in selecting a cleaning system. (As with
all cleaning jobs, test clean a sample area to determine
effectiveness of cleaning compound and the total
cleaning system and to check wall for possible damages caused by system. Approval of owner or owner’s
representative should be obtained before proceeding
with operation.)
Clear Water Repellent Application
General Information
Care must be used in deciding where and when to
use clear water repellent materials on masonry walls.
Generally the industry considers applications of
clear coatings to be a remedial process rather than a
new construction process – to be used only if water
penetration cannot be stopped by all other reasonable means. The use of penetrating water repellents
which allow the wall to breath are recommended.
Please refer to “White Efflorescence” under
Specialty Cleaning on page 7 for basic information
on this subject.
Light & Dark Joints
Color change in mortar joints may be attributed to
change in quality of masonry cement, type of masonry cement, change in type or gradation of sand and
change in methods of cleaning. Also, color of joints
can be affected by variations in moisture content of
individual brick surrounding the joint.
Joints struck while excessively wet can become light
in color. Joints struck when “thumbprint” hard should
dry to a uniform color if mortar and sand properties
remain consistent.
Normal variations in joint color will be eliminated
after completion of one of the wet cleaning processes. Where wide color variations are found, a mild
bleaching of all joints with increased concentration
of cleaning solutions usually brings improvement.
Caution should be taken in using this process with
acid-sensitive brick and colored mortars.
Light joints may be darkened by staining the joints
with pigments specially selected to produce the
required shade.
For these reasons architects may be inviting trouble
when they indiscriminately specify clear water repellent on all newly built, newly cleaned walls.
If materials are being used only to protect masonry
walls from atmospheric stains, the same precautions
outlined under “White Efflorescence” should also
be observed.
Brick
Industry
Southeast
Region
Good Practice
for Cleaning
New Brickwork
800.62. BRICK
gobricksoutheast.com
8420 University Executive Park Drive
Suite 800
Charlotte, NC 28262
Although this document
has been provided for
your use, it should not be
reproduced in part or
in whole without prior
written permission.
Additional copies
are available from
Brick Industry
Southeast Region
800.62.BRICK
Copyright 2009
Brick Industry
Southeast Region
7.09
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