Charge/Discharge Rectifier for Conditioning of Traction and

Charge/Discharge Rectifier for Conditioning of Traction and
RECTIFIERS FOR FORMATION
AND CONDITIONING
Multiple Circuit Rectifier for
Container Formation
Charge / Discharge Rectifier for
Conditioning of Traction and
Stationary Batteries
Charge / Reverse Charge
Rectifier for Tackless
Plate Formation
Battery Manager
Formation Software
MULTIPLE CIRCUIT RECTIFIER FOR CONTAINER FORMATION
MCR/MCDR
MCR Series (charge only) and MCDR Series (charge/
discharge) are designed for wet container formation.
Each cabinet contains multiple circuits for various types of
batteries. Energy is fed back to the AC power line during
discharge.
MCR/MCDR Series rectifiers are available with current
ranges from 5 to 100 amps per circuit. They can be used
for air-cooled or water-cooled formation processes.
Optionally, depolarization capability with constant
resistance discharge is available for MCR Series, and
pulse formation capability with constant current pulses is
obtainable for MCDR Series.
The number of batteries per circuit determines the
maximum DC output voltage of the rectifier, e.g. a 360 V
circuit can charge/discharge up to 20 batteries (12 V) in
series.
Each circuit is galvanically isolated using separate
secondary windings, equipped with an output contactor
and protected by a 3-phase AC breaker and two DC fuses.
Battery Manager formation software controls circuits
independently, in groups or in parallel for higher current
output.
Construction
The MCR/MCDR Series cabinets are constructed
with framework made of welded steel. Its rugged
design allows forklift transportation without
additional supports. The cabinets can be installed
side by side or back to back.
High circuit density results in a reduced cabinet
footprint which requires less floor space.
Hinged front doors with safety interlocks
protect operators and permit easy access to
DC connections. AC power line and DC output
connections are readily accessible.
The protection mode is IP 20.
Fan cooling guarantees optimum heat dissipation.
The cabinet’s standard painting is gray (RAL 7032)
and has an acid resistant epoxy finish.
2
Drop-Down Modules
All essential circuit components such as fuses, pulse control boards, SCR’s, contactors are housed in drop-down modules.
These modules can be easily serviced in the event of a component failure.
1 circuit
2 circuits
2 circuits
10 circuits
2 circuits
100A
60A
30A
5A
50A
SCR
SCR
SCR
SCR
IGBT
charge only
charge only
charge only
charge only
charge only
charge/discharge
charge/discharge
charge/discharge
charge/discharge
Model Designation
Current
[A]
Voltage
[V]
Circuits
per
Cabinet
Total
Batteries
per Cabinet
Dimensions
HxWxD
[cm]
Weight
approx.
[kg]
Power
Supply
[kVA]
MCR 5-360-60
0-5
10-360
60
1200
195x160 x100
1400
140
MCR 30-360-12
0-30
10-360
12
240
195x160x100
1500
170
MCR 30-360-16
0-30
10-360
16
320
195x210x100
2500
225
MCR 50-360-12 IGBT
0-50
10-360
12
240
195x160x100
2000
280
MCR 50-360-16 IGBT
0-50
10-360
16
320
195x210x100
2300
375
MCR 60-360-12
0-60
10-360
12
240
195x160x100
2100
340
MCR 60-360-16
0-60
10-360
16
320
195x210x100
2300
450
MCR 100-360-6
0-100
10-360
6
120
195x160x100
1900
280
MCR Series rectifier is charge only. MCDR Series rectifier is charge/discharge and available in same current and voltage
ranges as listed above. Other current and voltage ranges available on request.
3
CHARGE / DISCHARGE RECTIFIER FOR
CONDITIONING OF TRACTION AND STATIONARY BATTERIES
CR/CDR
CR Series (charge only) are designed for
tank formation or other applications which
do not require discharge or reverse polarity
charge.
CDR Series (charge/discharge) are
designed for formation and conditioning,
i.e. charging and discharging industrial
batteries with at least one cycle charge,
discharge, charge.
The energy is regenerated to the AC power
line during discharge.
The CDR can be integrated into electrolyte
circulating systems.
The number of cells or tanks per circuit
or cabinet determines the maximum DC
output voltage, e.g. a 320 V circuit can be
connected to 110 cells or tanks in series.
Data loggers monitoring the voltage of
each cell permit calculation of cell capacity.
The rectifiers are controlled by Battery
Manager PC software.
Model
Designation
Current
[A]
Voltage
[V]
Circuits
per
Cabinet
Number of Cells
or Tanks per
Circuit / Cabinet
Dimensions
HxWxD
[cm]
Weight
approx.
[kg]
Power
Supply
[kVA]
CDR 150-320-4
3-150
10-320
4
440
220x160x100
2400
255
CDR 200-320-2
4-200
10-320
2
220
220x160x100
1900
170
CDR 150-320
3-150
10-320
1
110
220x100x100
1100
65
CDR 200-320
4-200
10-320
1
110
220x160x100
1300
85
CDR 300-320
6-300
10-320
1
110
220x160x100
1600
130
CDR 500-320
10-500
10-320
1
110
220x160x100
2100
210
CDR 600-320
12-600
10-320
1
110
220x160x100
2400
255
Cell numbers refer to Pb cells.
CR Series rectifier is charge only. CDR Series rectifier is charge/discharge and available in same current and voltage ranges
as listed above. Other current and voltage ranges available on request.
4
CHARGE / REVERSE CHARGE RECTIFIER FOR
TACKLESS PLATE FORMATION
TCR
TCR Series (charge/reverse
charge) are designed for
tackless plate formation,
also called dry charge
formation. It features an
initial charge with reverse
polarity and automatic
change over to normal
charge.
The voltage range depends
on the on-site tank
installation, e.g. a circuit of
320 V can be connected to
80 tanks.
Typical current ranges are
between 400 and 700 A.
The recifiers are controlled
by Battery Manager PC
software.
Model
Designation
Current
[A]
Voltage
[V]
Number of
Tanks
Dimensions
H x W x D [cm]
Weight
approx. [kg]
Power Supply
[kVA]
TCR 500-120
10-500
10-120
30
220x160x100
1700
80
TCR 500-180
10-500
10-180
45
220x160x100
1800
120
TCR 500-240
10-500
10-240
60
220x160x100
1900
160
TCR 500-320
10-500
10-320
80
220x160x100
2000
210
TCR 600-120
10-600
10-120
30
220x160x100
2000
95
TCR 600-180
10-600
10-180
45
220x160x100
2100
145
TCR 600-240
10-600
10-240
60
220x160x100
2200
190
TCR 600-320
10-600
10-320
80
220x160x100
2300
255
TCR 700-320
10-700
10-320
80
220x160x100
2500
295
Tank number refers to Pb plates.
Other current and voltage ranges available on request.
5
RECTIFIER COMPONENTS
Circuit Controller CCT
• Single board design, containing digital regulator, firing control, pulse
transformers and power supply.
• Plug-in board with automatic set-up after replacement.
• Voltage sense input to compensate for voltage drop.
• Safety shut down for all critical conditions.
• Soft start after each mode change.
• Manual or automatic restart after power interruptions.
• Reverse phase, under/over voltage protection.
Rectifier Circuit SCR
• Fully controlled six pulse three phase SCR bridge.
• Regenerative operation on discharge with energy feedback to the AC power line.
• Fuses with failure indication and safety shut down.
• Snubber network protects against transients.
• Overcurrent trip relay.
• Electronic fast switch over from charge to discharge optionally.
• Pulse formation or depolarization optionally.
Rectifier Circuit IGBT
• AC/DC switch mode IGBT bridge.
• Current output ripple less than 3% over the full range.
• Depolarization discharge capability optionally.
• Negligible harmonics to the AC power line.
• Power factor 1 over the full range.
Cabinet Controller Micro ME
• Industrial “diskless” PC communicates to each individual circuit (CCT) via CANBus. High speed TCP/IP communication between host PC and all circuits.
• Critical data are backed up regularly to the host PC.
• No information loss - even if Micro ME is replaced during formation.
• Any standard monitor and keyboard can be connected directly to the Micro ME
in each cabinet for service purposes.
• Circuits restart and resume automatically after a power failure.
• Logger port accepts input channels for individual cell monitoring, temperature
sampling and digital I/Os.
• RS 232 for control of climatic chambers and RS 422 for additional video terminal.
SAFETY AND ENERGY BENEFITS
• Vacuum varnish impregnated transformers and chokes.
• Circuits electrically isolated from each other by separate secondary windings.
• Electrical performance optimized by six pulse SCR or IGBT bridges.
• Designed for 100 % utilization assuming all circuits at maximum output.
utput.
• Restricted access to all high voltage components.
• Remote HALT if the formation area’s ventilation stops.
• Load free switching of main contactors.
• Overtemperature protection.
• Energy feedback to the AC power line during discharge.
• Reduced iron loss due to special transformer sheet metal.
• Special transformer design ensures balanced load across three phases.
• Calibration and maintenance service for optimum parameter settings.
6
EXTERNAL CONTROL COMPONENTS
Water Bath Control
If water cooling techniques are used to enhance
the dissipation of heat during formation, we
recommend a water bath interface (WBI) that
eliminates the need for a costly PLC controller.
The WBI enclosure is typically mounted on the
water bath and its interface communicates with
the cabinet controller via CAN-Bus. The water bath
interface monitors electrolyte temperature and
the status of digital inputs and communicates
these values to the cabinet controller. The cabinet
controller evaluates the data and initiates the
appropriate control action defined by the formation
regime. Control actions include regulating charge
current, opening or closing water bath valve for
refill and drain and status display. The status display
indicates process status by color coded lights representing
the operation modes ACTIVE, INTERRUPT, and ERROR.
Data Logger
The data logger offers multi-channel data acquisition for single cell,
battery or tank voltages. All collected data are recorded sequentially
and can be used for comparison, limit evaluation, grading or
sampling conditions, or for display only.
Modular by design, the data logger can be customized for each
specific application. The data logger communicates via CAN-Bus
with the cabinet controller.
7
TEMPERATURE-CONTROLLED FORMATION PROCESS
Container formation of automotive and industrial batteries faces certain
challenges resulting from high temperatures during the process.
Dissipation of heat is limited due to low electrolyte volume, the insulating
properties of the container, and the insufficient surface area available to
benefit from evaporation. The most critical objective of the formation
process is to maintain optimum electrolyte temperature while charging
at the maximum current rate. The results will be a higher quality product,
produced more efficiently in a shorter time span with minimal gassing.
Our rectifiers utilize specially developed software algorithms which
consider electrolyte temperature, battery voltage, formation current, and
total charge (Ah) simultaneously as process control parameters in a threestep formation program.
Initial period
After starting the formation process, batteries are charged with the
programmed constant current IDC. During this period, temperature
increases.
If the electrolyte temperature of the pilot batteries exceeds the
programmed temperature limit A1, the charging current will be
reduced.
Constant current period
I [A]
T [C]
Temperature related current control, A<A2
T [C]
A2
A1
I DC
I [A]
Initial Period
Constant current period
Control Period
t
I [A]
T [C]
Temperature related current control, A>A2
T [C]
A2
A1
I DC
I [A]
Initial Period
Constant current period
During the constant current period the negative or positive temperature
gradient is evaluated.
If the temperature exceeds the programmed limit temperature A2, or if
the temperature gradient becomes zero, the system starts the control
period.
Control Period
t
Control period
During the control period the system uses the temperature to regulate
the charging current IDC. This may result in increasing or decreasing the
charging current.
This 3-stage formation process ensures maximum utilization of the
charging rectifier while maintaining electrolyte temperature within an
acceptable range.
Program Editor
The Program Editor of the Battery Manager
formation software can be used to define
the factor of current reduction applied to
the constant current period and to define
the temperature limits. Dynamic regulator
parameters similar to PID can be entered
into the editor to adapt the formation
process environment.
8
ELECTROLYTE CIRCULATING FORMATION PROCESS
Electrolyte circulating formation processes are mainly
applied to traction or stationary batteries to considerably
reduce their formation time by means of acid cooling.
During the formation process, precise adjustment of
acid density improves the process reproducibility and
product quality. Only raw sulfuric acid and deionized
water are required. Waste water is not generated and
excess electrolyte is reused for the next batch.
Digatron offers specific charge/discharge rectifiers that
communicate with the supervising PC of the electrolyte
circulating system and allow to handle the respectively
high currents.
Digatron can integrate formation rectifiers with
electrolyte circulating modules for a turn-key
installation including:
• Acid buffer
• Acid mixing
• Acid filling
• Electrolyte cooling without energy consumption
• Droplet separator
• Process control with acid density and temperature
control
• Leakage and flow control
• Electrolyte circulating using special cell adapter
Traditional Formation Process Applying Separate Plate Formation
Plate
Production
Formation
Finishing
Cell
Production
Battery
Production
Commissioning
Dispatch
Electrolyte Circulating Formation Process Applying Battery Formation
Plate
Production
Cell
Production
Battery
Production
Battery
Formation
Dispatch
9
BATTERY MANAGER FORMATION SOFTWARE
The All-In-One Software Solution
The knowledge of a worldwide company with over
40 year’s experience in the battery industry has been
incorporated in Battery Manager - the battery testing
and formation software solution developed by Digatron.
It provides enhanced formation process efficiency by
connecting all Digatron devices, as well as external
devices such as temperature chambers, water baths or
densitiy meter to one common database.
Battery Manager is a stable Windows XP based software
that has networking capability to control circuits from
various workstations. All recorded data collected from
the formation process is stored in a Microsoft SQL server
database. The data can be used to create an unlimited
number of management and production reports by
using third-party software like “Crystal Reports” . Battery
Manager software modules are accessible via a shortcut
bar and described hereafter.
Status View
Floor View
• Offers a graphical representation of the formation area.
Features like walls, doors, windows, etc. can be used to
give an accurate representation of the formation area.
• Provides a general overview over the formation process
and complete control of the circuits (each small colored
box represents one charging circuit, whereas the color
indicates the circuit’s status (charging, discharging,
error, end of formation, etc).
• If the cursor is placed over one of the circuits, a quick
view window pops up to show further status details
(location, status, battery type, amps, volts, temp and
total amp hours).
• Double-clicking a circuit opens a split screen window
which contains detailed information on the formation
process including: the Quick View window, the running
schedule, and the Data View window that depicts
all formation process data in tabular and graphical
formats. The Data View can be customized to show
various parameters such as voltage, current, amp hours,
temperature, etc.
10
• Gives a complete listing of all circuits in a spread sheet
format. Columns can be customized and sorted by
ascending or descending values.
• Multiple status views can be opened at one time.
• Supports viewing options by writing simple filters:
“Snapshot” filters show circuits that match the criteria
at the time the filter is applied. “Continuous” filters
update the display each time the status of the circuits
changes.
• Direct control of all charging circuits (start, stop, break,
continue). The operator only needs to know the circuit
number and battery type to start a circuit.
Program Editor
• For creating new formation programs as well as
viewing, editing, and deleting existing programs.
• Handling similar to Windows Explorer.
• Visualization of a program‘s function in a diagram.
• Registration format can be defined for each program step.
Battery View
• For defining battery types.
• General details such as capacity, voltage, number of
cells, etc. are listed in the top box.
• The lower box is used to link the battery type to a
formation program.
Add-on: Capacity Planning System
• Optimizes the efficiency of test and formation schedules
considering process requirements and the proximity of
equipment to the product to be processed.
• In-process and scheduled jobs are clearly displayed on a
freely-scalable time axis.
• Provides an interface to receive and transmit relevant job
data from other job management systems such as SAP.
11
www.digatron.com
Aachen, Germany
Shelton, (CT), USA
Qingdao, China
Pune, India
Tel: +49 241 168 090
Tel: +1 203 446 8000
Tel: +86 532 8608 9988
Tel: +91 20 27472532
Fax: +49 241 168 0919
Fax: +1 203 446 8015
Fax: +86 532 8608 9909
Fax: +91 20 27475817
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