LCR Application Guide 1. MLCC (Multi-Layer Ceramic Capacitors ) p. 1-3 2. Electrolytic capacitors p. 4-6 3. Tantalum capacitors p. 7-8 4. Conductive polymer capacitors p. 9-11 5. Inductors (Coils) p. 12-15 6. Electric Transformers p. 16-19 7. RFID (Contactless IC cards, Contactless IC tags) p.20-22 8. Piezoelectric elements p.23-25 MLCC (Multi-Layer Ceramic Capacitors ) There are two types of MLCC: a high-dielectric-constant type whose capacitance varies with the measurement voltage and a temperature-compensated type whose capacitance does not vary. The measurement conditions used when defining capacitance are set forth by separate JIS standards for temperature-compensated and high-dielectric-constant MLCCs. Setting example of measurement conditions Parameters Frequency DC bias Signal level Measurement range Speed LowZ mode Large capacitance:Cs-D, small capacitance:Cp-D See the table below OFF Rated voltage or less AUTO SLOW2 OFF *Otherwise, default settings are used. *The above settings apply to an example measurement. Since optimal conditions vary with the measurement target, specific settings should be determined by the instrument operator. IEC 60384-21 Fixed surface mount multilayer capacitors of ceramic dielectric(JIS C5101-21) Class 1: Temperature compensating type (EIA type C0G, JIS type CH etc.)(IEC30384-21) Rated capacitance Parameters Rated voltage Measurement frequency Voltage*1 C≦1000pF C,D（tanδ） All C＞1000pF 1MHz or 100kHz (Reference 1MHz) 5Vrms or less 1kHz or 100kHz (Reference 1kHz) DC bias *2 _ IEC 60384-22 Fixed surface mount multilayer capacitors of ceramic dielectric(JIS C5101-22) Class 2: High dielectric constant type (EIA type X5R, X7R, JIS type B, F etc.)(IEC30384-22) Rated capacitance Parameters Rated voltage Measurement frequency Voltage*1 DC bias *2 C,D（tanδ） C≦100pF 100pF＜C ≦10µF C＞10µF All 6.3V or more 6.3V or less All 1MHz 1kHz 1kHz 100Hz or 120Hz 1.0±0.2Vrms 1.0±0.2Vrms 0.5±0.2Vrms 0.5±0.2Vrms _ *1 The measurement voltage (i.e., the voltage applied to the sample) is the voltage obtained by dividing the open-terminal voltage by the output resistance and the sample. *1 The measurement voltage (i.e., the voltage applied to the sample) can be calculated based on the open-terminal voltage, the output resistance, and the sample’s impedance. *2 CV mode is convenient when measuring a sample whose impedance is unknown and when measuring multiple samples that exhibit a large degree of variability. High-dielectric-constant capacitors While high-dielectric-constant capacitors can deliver high capacitance in a small package, their capacitance tends to vary greatly with the measurement voltage and temperature. Capacitance Capacitors bearing temperature characteristics such as B, X5R, and X7R use high-dielectricconstant materials. measured voltage 1 Products used Mass Production Applications Model Measurement frequency Features 3504-40 Ideal for large capacitance inspection 3504-50 120Hz,1kHz High speed CV measurement 3504-60 3506-10 1kHz,1MHz Ideal for small capacitance inspection, high repeatability Research and Development Applications Model Measurement frequency Features IM3570 DC,4Hz to 5MHz Frequency sweep with analyzer mode *For more information, plese see the product catalog. Selecting Parameter, Cs or Cp Impedance according to frequency (when D is sufficiently small) 100Hz 120Hz 1pF 10pF 100pF 1nF 10nF 100nF 1uF 10uF 100uF 16Ω 13Ω Choose CP Depends on the case Choose Cs 1kHz 160kΩ 16kΩ 1.6kΩ 160Ω 16Ω 1.6Ω 100kHz 1.6MegΩ 160kΩ 16kΩ 1.6kΩ 160Ω 16Ω 1.6Ω 160mΩ 16mΩ 1MHz 160kΩ 16kΩ 1.6kΩ 160Ω 16Ω 1.6Ω 160mΩ 16mΩ 1.6mΩ Rp C Rs Equivalent cuircuit of capacitors Large capacitance capacitors: Rp can be ignored since impedance of C is low. Select series equivalent circuit modes. Small capacitance capacitors: Rs can be ignored since impedance of C is high. Select series equivalent circuit modes. Generally speaking, series equivalent circuit mode is used when measuring low-impedance elements (approximately 100Ω or less) such as high-capacity capacitors, and parallel equivalent circuit mode is used when measuring high-impedance elements (approximately 10 kΩ or greater) such as low-capacity capacitors. An actual capacitor will behave as though Rs and Rp have been connected in series and in parallel, respectively, with the ideal capacitor C, as in the figure. Rp is usually extremely large (megaohm-order or greater), and Rs is extremely small (several ohms or less). An ideal capacitor’s reactance can be calculated using the following equation based on its capacitance and frequency: Xc＝1/j 2πf C[Ω]. When Xc is small, the impedance when Rp is placed in parallel can be considered to be approximately equal to Xc. On the other hand, because Rs cannot be ignored when Xc is small, the overall setup can be treated as a series equivalent circuit with Xc and Rs. By contrast, when Xc is large, Rp cannot be ignored but Rs can, so the setup can be treated as a parallel equivalent circuit. 2 Open-Circuit Voltage Mode (V) and Constant Voltage Mode (CV) The no-load voltage is the voltage at the Hc terminal when no sample is connected. The voltage applied to the sample is the result of dividing the no-load voltage by the output resistance and the sample. In constant-voltage (CV) mode, the operator sets the voltage across the sample. The IM35xx reads the voltage monitor value and generates a CV by applying feedback in software. Since the 3504-xx generates a CV in hardware (using an analog circuit), that instrument is capable of constant-voltage measurement at high speeds. Although the 3506-10 offers only no-load voltage (V) mode, it has lower impedance than other models for samples for which the open-terminal voltage is approximately equal to the measurement voltage due to its low output resistance (1Ω for 2.2 mF and greater ranges at 1 kHz and 20Ω for other conditions). Open circuit voltage(V) Output Impeadance Constant voltage(CV) *1 Hc Hp DUT Lc Current detecting circuit Lp voltage detecting circuit Current flowing to DUT *1 The output impedance varies depending on the model and on whether low-impedance high-precision mode has been enabled. Please refer to the product specifications in the instruction manual. 3 Electrolytic capacitors The measurement conditions used to define an electrolytic capacitor’s capacitance are set forth in IEC standards, and the nominal values cited by capacitor manufacturers are measured values obtained in accordance with those standards. However, because the capacitance values of electrolytic capacitors vary greatly with the measurement frequency, capacitance values should be checked at the frequency at which the circuit in question will actually be used. Measure the equivalent series resistance (ESR), which includes factors such as the resistance of the electrolytic capacitor’s internal electrodes and the electrolyte resistance, and the tangent D (tanδ) of the loss angle under the same conditions as the capacitance. Setting example of measurement conditions Parameters Frequency DC bias Signal level Measurement range Speed LowZ mode Cs-D-Rs 120Hz, frequency at which circuit will actually be used ON 1.0V 0.5Vrms AUTO SLOW2 ON *Otherwise, default settings are used. *The above settings apply to an example measurement. Since optimal conditions vary with the measurement target, specific settings should be determined by the instrument operator. Fixed capacitors for use in electronic equipment Part 4: Sectional specification (IEC 60384-1) Aluminium electrolytic capacitors with solid (MnO2) and non-solid electrolyte(JIS C5101-4) Rated capacitance Parameters Rated voltage Measurement frequency Measurement voltage*1 C,D（tanδ） Rs(ESR) All All 100Hz or 120Hz 0.5Vrms DC bias *2 0.7 to 1.0V *1 The measurement voltage (i.e., the voltage applied to the sample) is the voltage obtained by dividing the open-terminal voltage by the output resistance and the sample. *1 The measurement voltage (i.e., the voltage applied to the sample) can be calculated based on the open-terminal voltage, the output resistance, and the sample’s impedance. *2 DC bias need not be applied. Low impedance high accuracy mode 0.1005 LowZ High Precision Model:OFF LowZ High Precision Model:ON 0.1004 Z[Ω] In low impedance high accuracy mode, the instrument’s output resistance is reduced, and the measurement current is applied repeatedly for increased measurement precision. When measuring a capacitor with a high capacitance of greater than 100µF (and therefore low impedance), low-impedance highprecision mode yields more stable measurement. The graph below compares repeatability when using the IM3570 to make measurements with low-impedance high-precision mode enabled and disabled (100kHz, 1Ω range, 1V). 0.1003 0.1002 *The conditions under which lowimpedance high-precision mode can be enabled vary with the instrument model. Please refer to the instruction manual of the instrument you are using. 0 20 40 60 Number of .mes 80 100 Repeated measurement of a resistance of approximately 100 mΩ with the IM3570 4 Products used Mass Production Applications Model Measurement frequency Features IM3523 DC, 40Hz to 200kHz Measurement time: 2ms, high cost performance IM3533 DC, 1mHz to 200kHz Internal DC bias function, touch panel Research and Development Applications Model Measurement frequency Features Frequency sweep with analyzer mode IM3570 DC, 4Hz to 5MHz IM9000 Optional equivalent cuircuit analysis firmware for the IM3570 IM3590 DC, 1mHz to 200kHz Can measure ESR and ESL separately with its equivalent circuit analysis function. *For more information, plese see the product catalog. Equivalent series resistance (ESR) and loss coefficient D (tanδ) The figure below illustrates a standard equivalent circuit for an electrolytic capacitor. At low frequencies (50 Hz to 1 kHz), the reactance (XL) resulting from the equivalent series inductance L is extremely small and can be considered to be zero. The resistance and reactance components of each element at this time are characterized by the vector relationship shown in the figure on a complex plane. An ideal capacitor would have R = 0 and a loss coefficient D = 0, but since actual capacitors have various resistance components, including electrode foil resistance, electrolyte resistance, and contact resistance of leads and other parts, the equivalent series resistance ESR and loss coefficient D (tanδ) serve as useful indicators for use in evaluating electrolytic capacitor quality. Since the IM3533 and IM3536 can simultaneously measure and display four parameters, they can be used to simultaneously check the reactance X, capacitance C, equivalent series resistance Rs, and loss coefficient D as indicators for use in evaluating electrolytic capacitors, as shown in the example screenshots below. r R (ESR) C C：Capacitance r：Equivalent series resistance of anodic oxidation coatings R：Equivalent series resistance（ESR） L：Equivalent series inductance L *General Description of Aluminum Electrolytic Capacitors （NICHICON CORPORATION） Equivalent circuit of Electrolytic capacitors 虚数 R 実数 Xc = Z sinθ= θ 1 ωC R = ESR = Z cosθ δ D = tanδ= Xc cosθ R = = ωCR sinθ Xc Z Vector diagram Display example of IM3536 5 DC bias measurement function Voltage Electrolytic capacitors generally are available in polarized and bipolar variants. A DC bias voltage must be applied to polarized capacitors as necessary to prevent application of a reverse voltage. DC bias voltage ０V Time Since the IM3533and IM3536 provide a built-in DC bias voltage function, they can apply a DC bias to capacitors, eliminating the need for an external DC power supply. Determining Cs and Cp Generally speaking, series equivalent circuit mode is used when measuring low-impedance elements (approximately 100Ω or less) such as high-capacitance capacitors, and parallel equivalent circuit mode is used when measuring high-impedance elements (approximately 10 kΩ or greater) such as low-capacitance capacitors. When the appropriate equivalent circuit mode is unclear, for example when measuring a sample with an impedance from approximately 100Ω to 10 kΩ, check with the component’s manufacturer. 6 Tantalum capacitors Tantalum capacitors are a type of electrolytic capacitor that uses the metal tantalum for the anode. They provide higher capacitance in a smaller package than other types of capacitors, and they offer better voltage and temperature characteristics than high-capacitance ceramic capacitors. Setting example of measurement conditions Parameters Frequency DC bias Signal level Measurement range Speed LowZ mode Cs-D (120Hz), Rs(100kHz) 120Hz, 100kHz OFF 0.5Vrms AUTO SLOW2 ON *Otherwise, default settings are used. *The above settings apply to an example measurement. Since optimal conditions vary with the measurement target, specific settings should be determined by the instrument operator. Surface mount fixed tantalum electrolytic capacitors with manganese dioxide solid electrolyte (IEC 60384-3) (JIS C5101-3) Parameters C,D(tanδ) Rs(ESR), Z Rated capacitance Rated voltage All All All All Measurement frequency Measurement voltage*1 100Hz or 120Hz 100kHz 0.5Vrms or less 0.5Vrms or less DC bias *2 0.7V to 1.0V 0.7V to 1.0V Fixed tantalum capacitors with non-solid electrolyte and foil electrode(IEC 60384-15)(JIS C5101-15) Parameters Rated voltage Rated capacitance C,D(tanδ) All Rs(ESR) Z All Measurement frequency Measurement voltage*1 DC bias *2 100Hz or 120Hz 0.1Vp to 1.0Vp 2.1V to 2.5V *3 0.1Vp to 1.0Vp 2.1V to 2.5V *4 Choose the frequency that yields the lowest impedance value from the following: 100 Hz, 120 Hz, 1 kHz, 10 kHz, 100 kHz, 1 MHz. Surface mount fixed tantalum electrolytic capacitors with conductive polymer solid electrolyte(IEC 60384-24) (JIS C5101-24) Rated capacitance Parameters C,D(tanδ) All Rs(ESR),Z All Rated voltage 2.5V or less 2.5V or greater All Measurement frequency Measurement voltage*1 100Hz or 120Hz 0.5Vrms or less 100kHz 0.5Vrms or less DC bias *2 1.1V to 1.5V 1.5V to 2.0V OFF *1 The measurement voltage (i.e., the voltage applied to the sample) is the voltage obtained by dividing the open-terminal voltage by the output resistance and the sample. *1 The measurement voltage (i.e., the voltage applied to the sample) can be calculated based on the open-terminal voltage, the output resistance, and the sample’s impedance. *2 DC bias need not be applied. *3 DC bias need not be applied to bipolar capacitors. *4 Apply only when using a measurement voltage of 0.5 Vp or greater. Determining Cs and Cp Generally speaking, series equivalent circuit mode is used when measuring low-impedance elements (approximately 100Ω or less) such as high-capacitance capacitors, and parallel equivalent circuit mode is used when measuring high-impedance elements (approximately 10 kΩ or greater) such as low-capacitance capacitors. When the appropriate equivalent circuit mode is unclear, for example when measuring a sample with an impedance from approximately 100Ω to 10 kΩ, check with the component’s manufacturer. Products used Mass Production Applications Model Measurement frequency Features IM3523 DC, 40Hz to 200kHz Measurement time: 2ms, high cost performance IM3533 DC, 1mHz to 200kHz Internal DC bias function, touch panel Research and Development Applications Model Measurement frequency Features Frequency sweep with analyzer mode IM3570 DC, 4Hz to 5MHz Optional equivalent cuircuit analysis firmware for the IM3570 IM9000 IM3590 DC, 1mHz to 200kHz *For more information, plese see the product catalog. Can measure ESR and ESL separately with its equivalent circuit analysis function. 7 Four terminal method When shielding is connected close to the sample Zx, the measurement current I will return via the shielding. Because the magnetic flux generated by the current returning through the shielding negates the magnetic flux generated by the measurement current I, this technique is especially useful as a way to reduce measurement error during low-impedance measurement (IM35xx). Hc Hp Connect all 4 wires to each shield and come as close to the DUT as possible Lp Lc Four terminal method Continuous measurement mode The IM35xx series’ continuous measurement mode can be used to make continuous measurements while varying settings (frequency and level). In the following example, continuous Cs-D (120 Hz) and ESR (100 kHz) measurements are performed: Save the 120 Hz and 100 kHz measurement condition panels. Make the measurements together in continuous measurement mode 8 Conductive polymer capacitors Conductive polymer capacitors have lower ESR (see below) than aluminum electrolytic capacitors and are characterized by greater stability with regard to temperature variations. In addition, they offer excellent stability of capacitance relative to DC bias. Measurement conditions are defined by IEC standards 60384-25-1 and include measurements of equivalent series resistance (ESR) and the tangent D (tanδ) of the loss angle. Setting example of measurement conditions Parameters Frequency DC bias Signal level Measurement range Speed LowZ mode Cs-D (120Hz), Rs (100kHz) 120Hz, 100kHz ON 1.5V 0.5Vrms AUTO SLOW2 ON *Otherwise, default settings are used. *The above settings apply to an example measurement. Since optimal conditions vary with the measurement target, specific settings should be determined by the instrument operator. IEC 60384-25-1 Surface mount fixed aluminium electrolytic capacitors with conductive polymer solid electrolyte Parameters Rated capacitance All C,D（tanδ） Rs(ESR) All Rated voltage 2.5V or less 2.5V or more All Measurement frequency Measurement voltage*1 120Hz 0.5Vrms or less 100kHz±10kHz 0.5Vrms or less DC bias *2 1.1 to 1.5V 1.5 to 2.0V OFF *1 The measurement voltage (i.e., the voltage applied to the sample) is the voltage obtained by dividing the open-terminal voltage by the output resistance and the sample. *1 The measurement voltage (i.e., the voltage applied to the sample) can be calculated based on the open-terminal voltage, the output resistance, and the sample’s impedance. *2 DC bias need not be applied. Low impedance high accuracy mode In low impedance high accuracy mode, the instrument’s output resistance is reduced, and the measurement current is applied repeatedly for increased measurement precision. When measuring a capacitor with a high capacitance of greater than 100µF (and therefore low impedance), low-impedance high-precision mode yields more stable measurement. The graph below compares repeatability when using the IM3570 to make measurements with low-impedance high-precision mode enabled and disabled (100kHz, 1Ω range, 1V). *The conditions under which low-impedance high-precision mode can be enabled vary with the instrument model. Please refer to the user’s manual of the instrument you are using. 0.1005 LowZ High Precision Model:OFF LowZ High Precision Model:ON Z[Ω] 0.1004 0.1003 0.1002 0 20 40 60 80 100 Number of .mes Repeated measurement of a resistance of approximately 100 mΩ with the IM3570 9 Products used Mass Production Applications Model Measurement frequency Features IM3523 DC, 40Hz to 200kHz Measurement time: 2ms, high cost performance IM3533 DC, 1mHz to 200kHz Internal DC bias function, touch panel Research and Development Applications Model Measurement frequency Features Frequency sweep with analyzer mode IM3570 DC, 4Hz to 5MHz IM9000 Optional equivalent cuircuit analysis firmware for the IM3570 IM3590 DC, 1mHz to 200kHz Can measure ESR and ESL separately with its equivalent circuit analysis function. Equivalent circuit analysis function The instrument’s equivalent circuit analysis function can be used to analyze the L, C, and R elements that make up the component separately. In the following figure, a conductive polymer capacitor’s ESR and ESL are measured using the IM3570 and IM9000: ESL & ESR Equivalent circuit of conductive polymer capacitors 10 Continuous measurement mode The IM35xx series’ continuous measurement mode can be used to make continuous measurements while varying settings (frequency and level). In the following example, continuous Cs-D (120 Hz) and ESR (100 kHz) measurements are performed: Save the 120 Hz and 100 kHz measurement condition panels. Make the measurements together in continuous measurement mode. Inductors (Coils) Coils may be coreless (having an air core or a core made of a non-magnetic metal), or they may have a core made of a magnetic metal (i.e., a metal with high magnetic permeability) such as ferrite. Inductors with cores exhibit current dependence. Setting example of measurement conditions Parameters Frequency DC bias Signal level Measurement range Speed LowZ mode Ls,Q,Rdc Self-resonant frequency or less OFF (cannot measure when setting ON) CC (constant current) mode, rated current or less AUTO SLOW2 OFF *Otherwise, default settings are used. *The above settings apply to an example measurement. Since optimal conditions vary with the measurement target, specific settings should be determined by the instrument operator. The phenomenon of LC resonance with the coil’s (inductor’s) inductance and parasitic capacitance is known as selfresonance. The frequency at which self-resonance occurs is known as the self-resonant frequency. When evaluating coils, be sure to measure L and Q at a frequency that is sufficiently lower than the self-resonant frequency. A coil’s inductance, which increases with frequency, can be calculated using the following equation: Z=j2πfL. To measure inductance efficiently while varying the frequency, set the measurement range to AUTO. To measure with a higher degree of precision, set the frequency to produce an impedance that can be measured with a high-accuracy range. Inductance [H] Setting the measurement frequency Frequency region in which L and Q are measured Self-resonant frequency Frequency [Hz] Frequency characteristics of the inductance Setting the measurement signal level When measuring a coil that exhibits current dependence (i.e., a coil with a magnetic core), set the instrument to a signal level such that the magnetic core is not saturated. When measuring a coil that does not exhibit current dependence, it is recommended to set the instrument to the signal level with the best accuracy. With the IM35xx series, the best accuracy is achieved with the V mode’s 1 V setting. With the IM758x series, the measurement signal level is defined for the power when using the DUT port’s 50 Ω termination, and the setting with the best accuracy is +1 dBm. When measuring a coil with a core or a coil with a low rated current, the IM35xx series’ CC (constant current) mode is convenient. The measurement current is controlled in software so that it remains constant. Frequency region in which L and Q are measured Inductance [H] The measurement current can be calculated from the openterminal voltage, the instrument’s output impedance, and the measurement target’s impedance. Set the measurement voltage so that the rated current is not exceeded. When current flows, the magnetic material becomes saturated, causing inductance to decrease. Measurement Current [A] Current dependence of the inductance 12 Products used Mass Production Applications Model Measurement frequency Features Temperature correction function of Rdc IM3533 DC,40Hz to 200kHz Standard model,high-speed,highly stable, cost-effective analyzer IM3536 DC,4Hz to 8MHz High-speed measurement of coils for high frequency IM7581 100kHz to 300MHz Research and Development Applications Model Measurement frequency Features IM3570 DC,4Hz to 5MHz Frequency sweep with analyzer mode *For more information, plese see the product catalog. Selecting Parameter, Ls or Lp Rp Impedance according to frequency (when D is sufficiently small) 10Hz 1kHz 100kHz 5MHz 300MHz 100mH 6.3Ω 630Ω 63kΩ 3.1MΩ 10mH 630mΩ 63Ω 6.3kΩ 310kΩ XL 1mH 63mΩ 6.3Ω 630Ω 31kΩ Rs 100uH 6.3mΩ 630mΩ 63Ω 3.1kΩ 10uH 63mΩ 6.3Ω 310Ω Equivalent cuircuit of inductors 1uH 6.3mΩ 630mΩ 31Ω 1.9kΩ *Low-inductance coils 100nH 63mΩ 3.1Ω 190Ω 10nH 6.3mΩ 310mΩ 19Ω Rp can be ignored since impedance is low. Select series equivalent circuit modes. 1nH 1.9Ω Choose Lp Depends on the case Choose Ls *High-inductance coils Rs can be ignored since impedance is high.Select series equivalent circuit modes. Generally speaking, series equivalent circuit mode is used when measuring low-impedance elements (approximately 100Ω or less), and parallel equivalent circuit mode is used when measuring high-impedance elements (approximately 10 kΩ or greater). When the appropriate equivalent circuit mode is unclear, for example when measuring a sample with an impedance from approximately 100Ω to 10 kΩ, check with the component’s manufacturer. An inductor will behave as though the winding’s copper loss Rs and the core loss Rp have been connected to an ideal inductor L. An ideal coil’s inductance can be calculated as follows: XL＝j2πfL. Although no general formulation is possible since it varies with the magnitude of Rs and Rp, low-inductance coils are characterized by a small XL, allowing the impedance when Rp and L are placed in parallel to be treated as roughly equivalent to XL. Rs can be ignored since Ls is small, so the series equivalent circuit is used. By contrast, when the impedance is high, Rp cannot be ignored but Rs can, so the setup can be treated as a parallel equivalent circuit. 13 The Current flowing to the coil The current flowing to the coil can be calculated based on the open-terminal voltage, the instrument’s output impedance, and the measurement target’s impedance. |Z|=√(〖〖(R〗_out+R_coil)〗^2+ 〖(2πfL)〗^2 ) R_out:Output resistance of coil |I|=|V|/|Z| L:Inductance of coil Open circuit voltage(V) Current (I) Output Output Impedance Impeadance *1 Hc Hp Lc DUT Current detecting circuit Lp voltage detecting circuit Current flowing to DUT *1 The output impedance varies depending on the model and on whether low-impedance high-precision mode has been enabled. Please refer to the product specifications in the instruction manual. Measuring Rdc In coil evaluation, L, Q, and Rdc are measured. Instruments such as the IM3533 and IM3536 can measure L, Q, and Rdc without the need to use any other devices. After measuring L and Q with an AC signal, measure Rdc with a DC signal. *Rs and Rp are not equal to Rdc. Rs and Rp are resistance values that are measured with an AC signal. They include components such as coil loss and winding resistance, which increases due to conductor skin effects and proximity effects. When the winding material has a large temperature coefficient, Rdc will vary with temperature. The IM3533 has temperature correction functionality for Rdc. Trigger Measurement signals AC measurement (L,Q) DC measurement (Rdc) Measurement signals 14 DC superposition characteristics Inductance [H] Coil characteristics include DC superposition characteristics, which indicate the extent to which inductance decreases relative to DC current, an important evaluation item for coils that will be used in circuits such as power supply circuits that handle large currents. The DC bias voltage application function built into Hioki LCR meters is designed for use in measuring capacitors, and it cannot be used to apply a DC current. To superpose a DC signal, either use the DC Bias Current Unit 9269 (or 9269-10) and an external power supply, or create your own circuit for the purpose. DC bias current [A] DC superposition characteristics of L Setting the delay time Trigger signal Trigger delay Generation circuit Data acquisition switching Adjust delay DC measurement after AC measurement Trigger synchronous output:OFF DC adjustment:ON Generation circuit switching DC delay Data acquisition （DC adjustment） Data acquisition （Rdc measurement） Example of measurement timing (IM3536) To reduce measurement error during Rdc measurement, Hioki LCR meters cycle the generated voltage on and off Voltage to cancel the internal offset (DC adjustment function). When the voltage being applied to the inductor changes, the output resistance and inductor’s equivalent series resistance and inductance cause transient phenomena. Set a sufficiently long delay time during Rdc measurement to ensure that the measurement results are not affected by these phenomena. The name given to the delay time setting varies by model, as does measurement timing. For more information, please see the instruction manual for the model you intend to use. Set a sufficiently long delay time not to be affected by transient phenomena. Generated voltage Time Voltage at both ends of inductors Transient phenomena of inductors If you are unsure of the appropriate delay time, first set as long a delay time as possible. Then gradually shorten the delay time while verifying that measured values do not exhibit any variability. 15 Electric Transformers AC voltages can be stepped up or down using a transformer. In terms of their basic structure, transformers consist of primary and secondary windings around an iron core. When current flows, a magnetic field is generated inside the windings, creating a voltage. The size of this voltage is proportional to the number of turns. For example, a primary winding (on the input side of the transformer) with 100 turns and a secondary winding (on the output side of the transformer) with 200 turns would step up an input voltage of 100 V to an output voltage of 200 V since the number of output turns is twice the number of input turns. Note that there is no change in power between the primary and secondary sides of the transformer. V_2/V_1 =I_1/I_2 =N_2/N_1 Setting example of measurement conditions Parameters Frequency DC bias Signal level Measurement range Speed LowZ mode Ls,Q,Rdc Self-resonant frequency or less *1 OFF(ON is NOT applicable) Rated current or less *1 AUTO SLOW2 OFF ※1 Cf. Inductors Application note *Otherwise, default settings are used. *The above settings apply to an example measurement. Since optimal conditions vary with the measurement target, specific settings should be determined by the instrument operator. C R1 R1: Primary winding resistance R2 R2: Secondary winding resistance C1: Primary winding floating capacity C1 L1 M R1: 1次巻線抵抗 C1: 1次巻線浮遊容量 L2 C2 C2: Secondary winding floating capacity R2: 2次巻線抵抗 The Parameter for each electric transformer C2: 2次巻線浮遊容量 The transformer is an application of an inductor, and measurement methods are the same as for other inductors. Transformer measurement includes the following principal evaluation parameters: ・ Primary inductance (L1) and secondary inductance (L2) ・ Leakage inductance ・ Capacitance between windings © ・ Mutual inductance (M) ・ Turn ratio 16 Products used Mass Production Applications Model Frequency Features Temperature correction function of Rdc,transformertesting mode IM3533 DC,40Hz to 200kHz IM3533+ Frequency sweep IM3533-01 DC,40Hz to 200kHz Standard model, high-speed, highly stable, cost-effective analyzer IM3536 DC,4Hz to 8MHz Research and Development Applications Model Frequency Features IM3570 DC,4Hz to 5MHz Frequency sweep with analyzer mode *For more information, plese see the product catalog. Primary inductance (L1) and secondary inductance (L2) Hc As shown in the figure to the right, a measuring instrument can be connected directly to the primary or secondary side of the transformer to measure the primary or secondary inductor. However, all other windings must be left in the open state. Exercise care as inductance measurement results include the effects of the winding’s distributed capacitance. Hp R C open 開放 L Lp Lc Measuring circuit for primary and secondary inductance Leakage inductance 1次巻線 (Primary winding) Hc 2次巻線 (Secondary winding) Φ12 Hp 主磁束 (Main flux) Φσ1 Φσ2 short 短絡 Lp 漏れ磁束 (Leakage flux) Lc Φ21 Measuring circuit for leakage inductance Leakage flux In an ideal transformer, shorting output causes input to be shorted as well. However, in an actual transformer, leakage inductance remains even when output is shorted. As shown in the above figure, the leakage inductance can be determined by shorting the secondary side of the transformer and measuring the primary side’s inductance. 17 What is leakage inductance? The magnetic flux that links the transformer’s primary and secondary windings is known as the main magnetic flux (φ12 or φ21). Apart from the main magnetic flux, the transformer’s magnetic flux also includes primary leakage flux (φs1) , which links the primary winding but not the secondary winding, and secondary leakage flux (φs2), which links the secondary winding but not the primary winding. Although only the main magnetic flux exists in an ideal transformer, actual transformers always have magnetic leakage, and therefore leakage flux. Since this leakage flux does not link only the primary and secondary windings, it does not contribute to the transformer’s voltage-modifying operation. At the same time, the fact that the leakage flux does not link only the primary and secondary windings also means that it contributes as each winding’s inductance. In this way, the primary leakage flux acts as the primary leakage inductance, and the secondary leakage flux acts as the secondary leakage inductance. Capacitance between windings Hc As shown in the figure to the right, the winding capacitance between the primary and secondary sides of the transformer can be measured by connecting each winding to the measuring instrument. Hp Lp Lc 開放 Open Measuring circuit for capacitance between windings Mutual inductance The mutual inductance can be calculated by measuring the inductance in parallel while in phase and then in series out of phase and then using the equation shown below. M=(La-Lo)/4 Hc Hc Hp Hp Lp Lp Lc Lc L measurement Measuring circuit for mutual inductance between coils Lo measurement 18 Turn ratio As shown in the figure to the right, the turn ratio can be approximated by measuring the impedance value Z on the primary side of the transformer after connecting the resistance R to the secondary side. Hc N1 N2 Hp R Lp Lc Measuring circuit for turn ra7o of windings In addition, the turn ratio can be calculated by measuring the primary inductance L1 and the secondary inductance L2. However, the value will only be an approximation due to the effects of factors such as magnetic leakage. Hc N1 N1 N2 Hc N2 Hp Hp L1 L2 L1 L2 Lp Lp Lc L1 measurement L2 measurement Lc Measuring circuit for turn ra7o of windings The LCR Meter IM3533/IM3533-01’s transformer measurement functionality can be used to calculate the mutual inductance, turn ratio, and inductance difference. Turn ratio measurement with the IM3533/IM3533-01 involves measuring the primary and secondary inductance values and then calculating the turn ratio. 19 RFID (Contactless IC cards, Contactless IC tags) The operating frequencies of RFIDs, which are also known as IC tags or contactless IC cards, are defined by standards. When performing L measurement of a board used by a contactless IC card, the measurement must be made near the operating frequency of 13.56 MHz. Setting example of measurement conditions Measurement mode Parameters Sweep parameter Sweep frequency Signal level ANALYZER Z-θ frequency characteristics analysis（L-Q、R evaluation available） FREQ Sweep measurement close to the operating frequency (See the table below) V mode 1V (350x, IM35xx series) or 1dBm (IM758x series) *The above settings apply to an example measurement. Since optimal conditions vary with the measurement target, specific settings should be determined by the instrument operator. RFID standards Category Frequency Effective distance Standard ID cards 13.56MHz Up to 10cm (Proximity applications) ISO14443 Automatic recognition 125kHz 13.56MHz ISO14443 Up to 70cm (Vicinity applications) ISO15693 Structure of RFID tag RFIDs generally consist of an antenna and IC. Signal transmission is accomplished by a resonant circuit formed by the antenna inductor (Ls) and the IC chip’s built-in input capacitance (Cp). Inductor IC chip Loop antenna Circuit model Frequency characteristics of defective and non-defective components As shown in the following figures, the Z-θ frequency characteristics of defective and non-defective components differ. The non-defective component exhibits a resonance point near the operating frequency. Z[kΩ] PHASE[deg] Missing capacitor Short in coil Braking coil wire PASS Missing C Short in coil Braking coil PASS Frequency f[MHz] Frequency f[MHz] Frequency characteristics of impedance Frequency characteristics of phase 20 Products used Production line and R&D applications Model IM758x series IM3570 Measurement frequency RFID 100k to 1.3GHz * Mainly for high-frequency RFID 4Hz to 5MHz Mainly for low-frequwncy to midium frequency RFID *For more information, plese see the product catalog. Pass/fail judgments using analyzer mode Either of two methods can be used to generate pass/fail judgments when using analyzer mode: peak judgment and area judgment. Judgement area Judgement area Judgement method: Whether the resonance points fall inside a judgement area. Judgement method: Whether all measured values fall inside a judgement area. Peak judgement Area judgement PASS FAIL Judgement areas can be set as follows. • A known-good element’s measured value can be used as the reference (±10% of the reference element’s measured value, etc.). • A user-specified value can be entered (1 k±10%, etc.). 21 Ascertaining electrical constants by means of equivalent circuit analysis The instrument’s equivalent circuit analysis function can be used to calculate the constants in a three-terminal circuit model such as an RFID antenna. *Model A should be used for coils with a large core loss (R) in order to facilitate more accurate analysis. Equivalent circuit of an antenna Equivalent circuit analysis result A B Equivalent circuit models C D E 22 Piezoelectric elements Piezoelectric elements are used in a wide range of applications, including buzzers, sensors, and filters. Since resonant and antiresonant frequencies characterize their impedance/frequency characteristics, an impedance analyzer is the ideal instrument for use in analyzing their characteristics. Setting example of measurement conditions Measurement modes Parameters Sweep parameter Sweep frequency Signal level Equivalent cuicuit model ANALYZER Z-θ FREQ Set to a range within which the resonant, antiresonant frequency can be checked. Depends on the measurement items E *The above settings apply to an example measurement. Since optimal conditions vary with the measurement target, specific settings should be determined by the instrument operator. Equivalent circuit of piezoelectric elements Close to its resonant frequency, a piezoelectric element can be depicted as an electrical equivalent circuit. Specifically, such an element can be depicted as a parallel capacitance CO that is connected in parallel to a series circuit consisting of the series inductance L1, the series capacitance C1, and the series resistance R1. The following describes actual measurement and analysis with an IM3570 and IM9000 (optional equivalent circuit analysis software). Equivalent cuicuit model of piezoelectric elements Equivalent circuit analysis results Frequency sweep results Products used Model IM3590 IM3570 IM9000 IM7581 Frequency DC,1mHz to 200kHz DC,4Hz to 5MHz 100kHz to 300MHz Features Analyzer mode (low frequency), equivalent cuircuit analysis Frequency sweep with analyzer mode Optional equivalent cuircuit analysis firmware for the IM3570 Analyzer mode (high frequency), equivalent cuircuit analysis *For more information, plese see the product catalog. 23 Measuring resonant frequency and antiresonant frequency The frequency fm characterized by minimum inductance and the frequency fn characterized by maximum inductance can be calculated from the element’s impedance/frequency characteristics using the instrument’s peak search function. In addition, it is possible to calculate the resonant frequency fr, which is characterized by a phase of 0, and the antiresonant frequency fa. The series resonant frequency fs and the parallel resonant frequency fp can be expressed as follows: fs=1/2𝜋√𝐿1𝐶1 f𝑝=1/2𝜋√𝐿1・C0C1/ (C0+C1) fs is the frequency when the conductance G reaches its maximum, and fp is the frequency when the actual resistance Rs reaches is maximum. These can be calculated from C0, L1 and C1 obtained via equivalent circuit analysis. Anti-resonance frequency fa phase Resonance frequency fr Frequancy [Hz] Frequency of minimum inductance fm Frequency sweep (parameter:Z-θ) Series resonance frequency fs Frequancy [Hz] Frequency sweep (parameter: Y-G) Parallel resonance frequency fp Frequency of maximum inductance fm Frequancy [Hz] Frequency sweep (parameter:Z-‐Rs) 24 Pass/fail judgments using analyzer mode Either of two methods can be used to generate pass/fail judgments when using analyzer mode: peak judgment and area judgment. Judgement area Judgement results (The resonance points fall inside a judgement area) Peak judgement Judgement area Judgement results (All measured values fall inside a judgement area) Judgement areas can be set as follows. • A known-good element’s measured value can be used as the reference (±10% of the reference element’s measured value, etc.). • A user-specified value can be entered (1 k±10%, etc.). Area judgement 25 Note: Company names and Product names appearing in this catalog are trademarks or registered trademarks of various companies. HIOKI (Shanghai) SALES & TRADING CO., LTD. TEL +86-21-63910090 FAX +86-21-63910360 http://www.hioki.cn / E-mail: info@hioki.com.cn DISTRIBUTED BY HIOKI INDIA PRIVATE LIMITED TEL +91-124-6590210 HEADQUARTERS E-mail: hioki@hioki.in 81 Koizumi, Ueda, Nagano, 386-1192, Japan TEL +81-268-28-0562 FAX +81-268-28-0568 HIOKI SINGAPORE PTE. LTD. http://www.hioki.com / E-mail: os-com@hioki.co.jp TEL +65-6634-7677 FAX +65-6634-7477 E-mail: info-sg@hioki.com.sg HIOKI USA CORPORATION HIOKI KOREA CO., LTD. TEL +1-609-409-9109 FAX +1-609-409-9108 TEL +82-2-2183-8847 FAX +82-2-2183-3360 http://www.hiokiusa.com / E-mail: hioki@hiokiusa.com E-mail: info-kr@hioki.co.jp All information correct as of Feb. 1, 2016. All specifications are subject to change without notice. LCR Application Guide - E - 20160201

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