training course on weather radar systems

training course on weather radar systems
MODUL-F RADAR INFRASTRUCTURE
TURKEY RADAR TRAINING 1.0 / ALANYA 2005
TURKISH STATE METEOROLOGICAL SERVICE
(TSMS)
WORLD METEOROLOGICAL ORGANIZATION
(WMO)
COMMISSION FOR INSTRUMENTS AND METHODS OF OBSERVATIONS
(CIMO)
OPAG ON CAPACITY BUILDING (OPAG-CB)
EXPERT TEAM ON TRAINING ACTIVITIES AND TRAINING MATERIALS
TRAINING COURSE ON
WEATHER RADAR SYSTEMS
MODULE F: RADAR INFRASTRUCTURE
ERCAN BÜYÜKBAŞ -Electronics Engineer
OĞUZHAN ŞİRECİ -Electronics Engineer
ABDURRAHMAN MACİT -Electronics Technician
ELECTRONIC OBSERVING SYTEMS DIVISION
TURKISH STATE METEOROLOGICAL SERVICE
12–16 SEPTEMBER 2005
WMO RMTC-TURKEY
ALANYA FACILITIES, ANTALYA, TURKEY
TURKEY RADAR TRAINING 1.0 / ALANYA 2005
MODUL-F RADAR INFRASTRUCTURE
MODULE A: INTRODUCTION TO RADAR
MODULE B: RADAR HARDWARE
MODULE C: PROCESSING BASICS IN DOPPLER
WEATHER RADARS
MODULE D: RADAR PRODUCTS AND
OPERATIONAL APPLICATIONS
MODULE E: RADAR MAINTENANCE AND
CALIBRATION TECHNIQUES
MODULE F: RADAR INFRASTRUCTURE
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RADAR INFRASTRUCTURE
CONTENTS
CONTENTS
3
FIGURE LIST
4
ABBREVIATIONS
5
1.
GENERAL OVERVIEW
7
2.
RADAR SITE SELECTION CRITERIA
8
3.
RADAR SITE INFRASTRUCTURE REQUIREMENTS
11
3.1.
3.2.
3.3.
3.4.
3.5.
Tower
Power Supplies
Lightning Protection and Grounding
Communication and Network
Others
11
12
18
22
27
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FIGURE LIST
FIGURE 1:
FIGURE 2:
FIGURE 3:
FIGURE 4:
FIGURE 5:
FIGURE 6:
FIGURE 7:
FIGURE 8:
FIGURE 9:
FIGURE 10:
FIGURE 11:
FIGURE 12:
FIGURE 13:
FIGURE 14:
FIGURE 15:
FIGURE 16:
Radar Coverage Analysis by TUBITAK’s MARS Software
A 3-D Radar Coverage Image
TURKEY Weather Radar Network
Balıkesir Radar
Some Tower Pictures
Some Cabling, Main and Back-up Power Supply and Electric Poles
Destroyed from Severe Weather
Some Lightning and High Voltage Protection Pictures
Lightning at Radar Site
Communication Equipment Pictures
Communication with Centre via VSAT
TURKEY Weather Radar Network General View
VSAT Communication System Overview
Severe Weather Conditions and Transportation with Snow Mobiles.
Fire Extinguishing Systems
Heating and Air Conditioning Systems
Monitoring with CCD Cameras
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9
9
10
11
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15
18
21
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ABBREVIATIONS:
EMC
3-D
TUBITAK
TSMS
RF
WAN
LAN
ISDN
ATM
SONET
VSAT
: Electromagnetic Compatibility
: Three Dimensional
: The Scientific and Technological Research Council of TURKEY
: Turkish State Meteorological Service
: Radio Frequency
: Wide Area Network
: Local Area Network
: Integrated Services Digital Network
: Asynchronous Transfer Mode
: Synchronous Optical Network
: Very Small Aperture Terminal
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1.
GENERAL OVERVIEW
The first step of the each activity is always very important. So, the site selection and
determination of the infrastructure requirements at the design stage of the radar network is very
critical and affect the overall success of the network operation seriously. All issues regarding
the operation of the radar network should be evaluated by considering the data and services
expected from radar network. Meteorological evaluation, e.g. rainfall and flash flood, radar
coverage, big settlements areas, existing infrastructure and the requirements, communication
options for data transmission, etc. should be done by the experts.
A complete review and design of a weather radar network must begin with an analysis of the
rainfall and flood producing weather systems and the applications for which the radar network
is being installed. For example, hail, tornadoes, thunderstorms, and orographically enhanced
rainfall would become all present different problems and may require different hardware
configurations. While it is relatively easy to measure thunderstorms with weather radar, winter
rainfall in a mountainous region represents the worst case scenario due to difficulties with
ground clutter, the shallow nature of the rainfall, occultation of the radar beam, and possible
orographic enhancement at low levels.
The terrain covered by the radars is generally very rough, and this forces the use of high,
relatively isolated, hills as radar sites. This, together with the need to scan at low elevation
angles due to bright band and orographic rainfall considerations, means that ground-clutter may
be a major issue for the network. There are several strategies that can be used to minimise the
effect of ground clutter including the use of a narrow beam, rejecting the pixels that have
clutter on fine days and using the statistical characteristics of the individual pulses.
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2.
RADAR SITE SELECTION CRITERIA
As stated above, there are some critical issues to evaluate while determining the site for
installation radar. These are described briefly as follows:
Radar coverage can be defined simply as the area in which radar beams can travel to detect
the targets without any blockage. Radars are used for the large scale monitoring of the weather
phenomena. So the radar beam should scan a large area as much as possible and the site
selection must be done by considering the radar network concept. A part of the area which can
not be covered by one of the radars in the network can be covered by another radar of the
network. So all required area would be under coverage of entire network.
The meteorological phenomena to be monitored by radar network should be also evaluated
very carefully within the radar coverage area. The general approach to the design of an
appropriate radar network was therefore to understand the applications for which the data are
being collected, to assess the suitability of the proposed network in light of the meteorology of
the area and to assess the level of experience in radar measurements prior to starting a detailed
specification of the radar hardware.
On the other hand, electromagnetic compatibility (EMC) analysis should be performed to
determine the suitability of the site on the basis of interference between the radar and other types
of radio/radar services, and human exposure to the transmitted radar beam. Such analysis
should identify the operating frequency and the power of the radar. Furthermore, the location,
frequency and power of other radio services that are either potential sources of interference for
the radar, or that the radar has the potential to interfere with should be identified. Human
exposure to the radar beam is rarely a problem, but it should still be considered.
There is special software available to make radar coverage analysis by means of digital terrain
elevation data of high resolution. Some examples of radar coverage analysis are given below.
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The software developed by The Scientific and Technological Research Council of Turkey
(TUBITAK) is used by TSMS for radar coverage analysis.
Figure 1: Radar Coverage Analysis by TUBITAK’s MARS Software.
Figure 2: A 3-D Radar Coverage Image.
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Figure 3: TURKEY Weather Radar Network.
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3.
RADAR SITE INFRASTRUCTURE REQUIREMENTS
Figure 4: Balıkesir Radar.
Tower
•
Power
•
Lightning protection and grounding
•
Communication
•
Others
3.1.
•
Tower
In some cases, a tower of certain height is required to install the antenna and radome on the top
of it. There several types of the tower can be designed in accordance with the site condition
and requirements. The tower must be designed strong enough against the heavy storms and
severe weather conditions. Some types of the towers are as follows:
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Figure 5: Some Tower Pictures.
3.2.
Power Supplies
The proximity of the radar site to the main power lines should be considered. It should be noted
that, radar site has to be powered by oil generators if radar site is chosen very far from the
power line. In case of not availability of power at the radar sites, power line from main line to
the radar site can be installed by laying down the cables from underground or via electrical poles
(aerial line). It must be remembered that, electrical poles may be exposure severe weather
conditions and so they must be strong enough against such conditions.
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In general, the power supply to radar sites is expected to be very uncertain with frequent
brown-outs and power cuts of short duration, as well as occasional cuts over extended periods
during and after severe weather. The successful deployment of the radar network therefore
depends on the careful design of a robust power conditioning and backup system suited to the
conditions found at each radar site.
Power supply, transformer, voltage regulator, uninterrupted power supply, generator backup,
oil tank, lightning protection, protection circuits, cabling, by following international standards
should be included in overall design of the radar site.
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Figure 6: Some Cabling, Main and Back-up
Power Supply and Electric Poles Destroyed
from Severe Weather.
3.3.
Lightning Protection and Grounding
Lightning is the most dangerous and hazardous event for radar sites. An effective lightning
protection and grounding system should be designed and installed based on a very detailed
analysis
of
the
site
conditions.
These
protection
systems
should
include
surge
protectors/absorbers. When a surge is input, the absorbers work to arrest the surge not to input
to radar unit.
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The primary purpose of the grounding is to provide a low impedance RF ground path for the
radar system, and to provide a ground point for lightning protection. The grounding system will
typically consist of an underground grid or radials or rods, typically copper, which provide a
ground resistance of not more than one ohm. The grounding system shall have a connection
point at the base of the tower, and shall include a suitable ground wire to the top of the tower.
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Figure 7: Some Lightning and High Voltage Protection Pictures.
Figure 8: Lightning at Radar Site.
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3.4.
Communication and Network
There must be a permanent communication system between radar site and operation centre.
This can be managed several ways. Terrestrial line, fibre optic cables, satellite and microwave
data link can be optional communication methods. Telephone service is required if telephone
circuits are to be used for radar data and/or control. If other communications circuits
(microwave, satellite, etc.) are used for radar data/control, a voice grade telephone circuit is
highly desirable for maintenance technicians at the radar site.
If a microwave data link is required between the radar site and the central site, the EMC aspects
of this must also be surveyed. The microwave link will require a clear, unobstructed "line of
sight" path from the radar site to the central site. That means the microwave antenna at the
radar site must be visible from the microwave antenna at the receiving site, with no buildings,
trees, hills, etc. blocking or interfering with the path. If the microwave antennas are more than a
few miles apart, a small telescope may be required to verify the line of sight path.
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Figure 9: Communication Equipment
Pictures.
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Figure 10: Communication with Centre via VSAT.
To establish a wide area network (WAN) will be needed for operation and communication of
radar network. WAN is interconnected LANs to access to computers or file servers in other
locations. As a result of being networked or connected computers, printers, and other devices
on a WAN could communicate with each other to share information and resources, as well as to
access the Internet.
Some common WAN technologies are:
•
Modems,
•
ISDN (Integrated Services Digital Network),
•
DSL (Digital Subscriber Line),
•
Frame Relay,
•
ATM (Asynchronous Transfer Mode),
•
The T (US) and E (Europe) Carrier Series: T1, E1, T3, E3, etc.,
•
SONET (Synchronous Optical Network).
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Figure 11: TURKEY Weather Radar Network General View.
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TURKSAT
(Ku Band)
MODUL-F RADAR INFRASTRUCTURE
128 Kb/s
STAR Topology
64 Kb/s
Radar
WS
VSAT
Radar
AWOS
Airports
Primary HUB
at DMI
9.6
Ethernet
5 RADARS
64 Kb/s
in Ankara
Router
AWOS
Computer (PC)
Hydrological Stations
AWOS
Airports
1.2 Kb/s
VSAT
DMI
Comput
er
Terrestrial Frame Relay
Ethernet
208 A W O S
64 Kb/s
in Ankara
Serial
Hydrological Station
129 HYDROLOGICAL
Backup HUB,
at DSI
VSAT
Router
DSI
Computer
Network
Airport
Computer (PC)
VSAT
18 A I R P O R T S
Ethernet
Figure 12: VSAT Communication System Overview.
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3.5.
Others
A land survey should be performed to accurately determine the boundaries of the radar site
land area, the location of the entrance road to the site, and the location of any required
easements for access to the radar site property. The survey should also determine water runoff
and drainage of the radar site area.
Soil tests should be performed to determine the load bearing capacity of the soil for the
foundations for both the radar building and for the radar antenna tower. These soil tests should
serve as the basis for the design of the building and tower foundations.
Access road is also very critical issue for the operation of radars. Access roads should be
available or constructed/ improved by considering the need of the access to the radar sites in
any weather conditions with heavy trucks.
Figure 13: Severe Weather Conditions and Transportation with Snow Mobiles.
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Fire Alarm System should be installed with a capability of remote indication via the radar
communications system. This alarm system should be located in the equipment room and also
at the personnel building. Automatic fire extinguishers should be available in the equipment
room.
Figure 14: Fire Extinguishing Systems.
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Heating and air conditioning system is needed for keeping the stability of the temperature at
the equipment room. It is also necessary for the personnel accommodation.
Figure 15: Heating and Air Conditioning Systems.
The security requirement should also be taken into consideration against possible risks.
Figure 16: Monitoring with CCD Cameras.
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