EndOhm Instruction Manual - World Precision Instruments

EndOhm Instruction Manual - World Precision Instruments
WORLD
PRECISION
INSTRUMENTS
Instrumenting scientific ideas
INSTRUCTION MANUAL
EndOhm
Tissue resistance measurement chambers
for tissue culture cups
Serial No._____________________
www.wpiinc.com
051316
EndOhm
CONTENTS
ABOUT THIS MANUAL.................................................................................................................... 1
INTRODUCTION............................................................................................................................... 1
Notes and Warnings.................................................................................................................. 2
Parts List....................................................................................................................................... 2
Unpacking.................................................................................................................................... 2
INSTRUMENT DESCRIPTION......................................................................................................... 3
Instrument Description............................................................................................................ 3
Setup............................................................................................................................................. 3
Adjusting the Height of the Top Electrode..................................................................... 3
Electrode Preparation......................................................................................................... 4
OPERATING INSTRUCTIONS.......................................................................................................... 5
Voltage Measurements............................................................................................................ 5
Resistance Measurements...................................................................................................... 5
MAINTENANCE................................................................................................................................. 6
Cleaning........................................................................................................................................ 6
Storage......................................................................................................................................... 7
Sterilization.................................................................................................................................. 7
Re-Chloriding the Electrode.................................................................................................... 7
ACCESSORIES................................................................................................................................... 8
TROUBLESHOOTING...................................................................................................................... 9
APPENDIX A: RESISTANCE CALCULATIONS.............................................................................10
Resistance..................................................................................................................................10
Resistance value of the “blank” insert.................................................................................11
Unit Area Resistance...............................................................................................................11
APPENDIX B: TESTING THE ENDOHM.......................................................................................12
WARRANTY......................................................................................................................................15
Claims and Returns.................................................................................................................15
Repairs........................................................................................................................................15
Copyright © 2016 by World Precision Instruments, Inc. All rights reserved. No part of this publication
may be reproduced or translated into any language, in any form, without prior written permission of
World Precision Instruments, Inc.
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World Precision Instruments
EndOhm
ABOUT THIS MANUAL
The following symbols are used in this guide:
This symbol indicates a CAUTION. Cautions warn against actions that can cause
damage to equipment. Please read these carefully.
This symbol indicates a WARNING. Warnings alert you to actions that can cause
personal injury or pose a physical threat. Please read these carefully.
NOTES and TIPS contain helpful information.
Fig. 1—Endohm-6, Endohm-12 and Endohm-24
INTRODUCTION
ENDOHM-6
Chamber for 6mm culture cup, 15.8mm ID (24 wells per plate)
ENDOHM-12
Chamber for 12mm culture cup, 23.2mm ID (12 wells per plate)
ENDOHM-24SNAP Chamber for 24mm and COSTAR SnapwellTM culture cup,
37.3mm ID (6 wells per plate)
The EndOhm series of chambers, when used with WPI’s EVOM2 resistance meter
or the Millicell ERS, are designed to provide reproducible and accurate resistance
measurements of endothelial tissue in culture cups. Resistance values obtained
with the EndOhm are consistent with those obtained using a well-designed Ussing
Chamber.
The EndOhm chamber and cap each contain a pair of concentric electrodes. Current
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flows between these symmetrically opposing circular disc electrodes. This design
provides several advantages:
•
Current density across the membrane is more uniform with EndOhm’s circular
disc current electrodes than with the STX2 electrodes.
•
Most importantly, with EndOhm’s fixed electrode geometry, variation between
successive resistance measurements of the same sample is reduced from 10-30Ω
(variation is dependent on the experience of the user) to 1-2Ω.
Notes and Warnings
CAUTION: Long-term storage in a UV hood could cause cracking in the clear
plastic chamber.
CAUTION: DO NOT AUTOCLAVE THE ENDOHM. Autoclaving can cause the
transparent section of the chamber to become crazed. Repeated autoclaving
might also damage the seal of the electrode.
Parts List
After unpacking, verify that there is no visible damage to the unit. Verify that all items
are included:
(1) EndOhm chamber
(1) Spacer disk ( 4mm for ENDOHM-6 or 6mm for ENDOHM-12 or ENDOHM-24SNAP)
(1) Instruction Manual
Unpacking
Upon receipt of this instrument, make a thorough inspection of the contents and
check for possible damage. Missing cartons or obvious damage to cartons should be
noted on the delivery receipt before signing. Concealed damage should be reported
at once to the carrier and an inspection requested. Please read the section entitled
“Claims and Returns” on page 15 of this manual. Please contact WPI Customer
Service if any parts are missing at 941.371.1003 or customerservice@wpiinc.com.
Returns: Do not return any goods to WPI without obtaining prior approval (RMA
# required) and instructions from WPI’s Returns Department. Goods returned
(unauthorized) by collect freight may be refused. If a return shipment is necessary,
use the original container, if possible. If the original container is not available, use a
suitable substitute that is rigid and of adequate size. Wrap the instrument in paper or
plastic surrounded with at least 100mm (four inches) of shock absorbing material. For
further details, please read the section entitled “Claims and Returns” on page 15 of
this manual.
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EndOhm
INSTRUMENT DESCRIPTION
Instrument Description
CONNECTOR
TOP ELECTRODE
TO EVOM2
VOLTAGE
SHIELDING
LOCKING NUT
CURRENT
CAP
VOLTAGE
CHAMBER
CURRENT
BOTTOM ELECTRODE
CONNECTOR
Fig. 2—Schematic diagram of an EndOhm
The structure of the EndOhm is pictured in Fig. 2. Each pair of concentric electrodes
incorporates a voltage-sensing Ag/AgCl pellet in the center and an annular current
electrode. The current electrode is made of silver and coated with gray-colored silver
chloride. The top cap assembly is composed of three parts — cap, locking nut, and
electrode. The cap has two important functions: it helps to center the electrode in
the culture cup and, together with the locking nut, fixes the height of the electrode
in the chamber. The cable connecting the chamber to the EVOM2 can be easily
disconnected from both the top cap assembly and the bottom chamber.
Setup
Adjusting the Height of the Top Electrode
The height of the top electrode of all the EndOhms can be adjusted to fit cell culture
cups from different manufacturers.
1. Before use, place a blank cup into the chamber.
2. Loosen the locking nut on the cap assembly.
3. Rotate the cap on the top electrode to change the height of the electrode.
When the cap is in place on top of the chamber, the clearance between the top
electrode and the culture membrane should be 1–2mm (Fig. 3).
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NOTE: The height setting of the upper electrode is variable, but it must be set low
enough so that the annular current electrode is immersed in the apical media.
Once the upper electrode height is set, it should not be changed. Changing the
height of the upper electrode can change the TEER readings. In general, lowering
the upper electrode decreases the reading , and raising the electrode increases
the reading.
CULTURE CUP
GAP ADJUSTMENT
1-2 mm min.
Fig. 3—Assembled EndOhm showing the appropriate gap between the membrane and
the electrode
Electrode Preparation
For resistance measurement, the EndOhm can be used directly without conditioning
the electrode.
For voltage measurements, silver/silver chloride voltage electrodes may exhibit
a small voltage drift when stored dry and are then newly immersed in electrolyte
solution. This drift may affect potential measurement accuracy, but not resistance
measurements.
In order to stabilize the electrodes:
1. Fill the chamber with saline solution (for example, 0.1-0.15M KCl).
2. Place the upper cap electrodes onto the lower chamber.
3. Connect the upper cap and the lower chamber to the 53330-01 Endohm cable as
shown in Fig. 3.
4. Connect other end of the cable to the EVOM2 with the power off. The voltage
electrodes are shorted together internally when they are connected to the
instrument and the power is off. With the voltage electrode connector pins
short-circuited for several hours, the asymmetrical potential difference across
the low voltage electrodes is reduced. The inter-electrode DC potential may be
a few millivolts or less, but it should be quite stable. Equilibration time will vary
from approximately 2-12 hours. If the offset is greater than 10mV, leave the saline
solution in the chamber overnight with the cable connected to the EVOM2 and
the power off.
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EndOhm
TIP: To check the calibration of the EVOM2, plug a 91750 1000W test resistor into
the port on the front of the EVOM2. The EVOM2 should display 1000W ± 1W. If
necessary, use a small screw driver to adjust R Adj potentiometer on the front of
the EVOM2. Set the resistance to 1000W.
OPERATING INSTRUCTIONS
1. Measurement using the EndOhm requires the cell culture cup to be transferred
into the chamber. Place a blank culture cup in the EndOhm chamber.
2. Add an appropriate electrolyte to the culture cup and the chamber. Make sure
that the height of the fluid inside the chamber is no more than 3–4mm so that
when the cap assembly is inserted, fluid will not overflow the top of the culture
cup. With the cap in place, the height of the fluid in the chamber should be at
the same level as inside the cup in order to avoid hydrostatic pressure on the
membrane.
3. Position the cap on the chamber. To obtain reproducible and accurate readings, it
is important that the cap is well-seated on the chamber, so that the top electrode
is centered.
4. Through the transparent side wall of the chamber, look for air bubbles trapped
between the top electrode and the surface of the electrolyte. Air bubbles will
cause the resistance and voltage readings to be very unstable. Gently shake the
EndOhm or reinsert the electrode to remove any air bubbles.
Voltage Measurements
1. Set the Function switch on the EVOM2 to Millivolts.
2. Turn the EVOM2 Power on (I).
3. Connect the EnhOhm to the EVOM2.
NOTE: The bottom electrode is connected to instrument ground. The top electrode
will produce positive DC voltage readings for positive voltage and negative for negative
voltages, relative to the bottom electrode. This is opposite in sign from the STX2
electrode. For example, a culture cup which produces a reading of 2mV while the
STX2 will produce a –2mV reading with the EndOhm.
Resistance Measurements
1. Set the Function switch on the EVOM2 to Ohms.
2. Turn the EVOM2 Power on (I).
3. Add media to the lower chamber. The media volume should be enough to cover
the basal membrane, but not enough to overflow into the apical side when the
well cup is inserted into the chamber.
4. Add media to a blank cup, a cell culture insert without cells.
5. Insert the electrode into the blank cup. Measure the resistance of a blank culture
cup (no cells). A steady ohms reading of the solution resistance should result. The
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value of the blank always adds to the total resistance measured across a tissue
culture membrane. See “APPENDIX A: RESISTANCE CALCULATIONS” on page
10 for a more detailed discussion of the source of the blank resistance and
information on calculating true tissue resistance and unit areas resistance (the
value that is normally reported).
NOTE: The blank resistance must be measured and then subtracted from the
resistance reading across tissue in order to obtain the true tissue resistance.
NOTE: The resistance of the blank for the EndOhm‑6 is slightly higher than that
of the EndOhm-12 and the EndOhm-24SNAP because of its construction.
MAINTENANCE
Cleaning
After each use of your EndOhm, flush the chamber thoroughly with distilled water,
and allow the lower and upper electrodes to soak in the distilled water for a minimum
of one minute. Discard the water and dry both the upper and lower electrodes with a
Kimwipe (lint-free, absorbent wipe. Do not use anything more abrasive than a cotton
swab for cleaning the EndOhm
Between experiments, rinse old growth buffer from the chamber with distilled water.
Rinse with distilled water before filling the chamber with new growth buffer.
CAUTION: The silver pellets are porous, and alcohol will soak into them. The
final water rinse may pull alcohol from the pellets. Alcohol that has soaked into
the pellet could kill the cell layer and show up as drift.
With use, the electrode surface can become coated with protein or other foreign
materials. This build-up, or contamination, can degrade the performance of the
system. Periodically clean your EndOhm electrodes with Tergazyme, a proteolytic
detergent manufactured by Alconox.
1. Rinse with the electrodes with distilled water and dry them.
2. Make a 1% solution of Tergazyme according to the manufacturer’s instructions.
3. Allow the upper and lower electrodes of the EndOhm to soak in the Tergazyme
solution, with the exposed electrode surfaces fully immersed. During soaking, the
surfaces of the electrodes may be brushed with a soft brush (like a tooth brush), if
desired. The soaking time varies according to your maintenance schedule and the
frequency of your cleaning.
• Soak overnight when electrodes have not been on a routine maintenance
cleaning schedule.
• Soak 30–60 minutes if you are on a weekly cleaning schedule.
• Soak 5 minutes if you clean your electrodes daily.
4. Rinse well with distilled or de-ionized water. Allow them to air dry and store the
electrodes dry away from exposure to sunlight.
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EndOhm
Storage
For long term storage (more than 5 days), store the EndOhm dry.
CAUTION: Long-term storage in a UV hood could cause cracking in the clear
plastic chamber.
Sterilization
The EndOhm may be sterilized with a ethylene oxide (EtO) or a 70/30 mix of alcohol to
water. A bactericide like Cidex (WPI #7364) can be used, as needed. No other solvents
should be used. After sterilization, the electrodes should be thoroughly rinsed with a
sterile perfusing solution (growth buffer) before making membrane measurements.
CAUTION: DO NOT AUTOCLAVE THE ENDOHM. Autoclaving can cause the
transparent section of the chamber to become crazed. Repeated autoclaving
might also damage the seal of the electrode.
Re-Chloriding the Electrode
The current electrodes consist of solid silver. The surface is chlorided with gray
colored silver chloride to enhance stability and provide a faster response time. Over
time, this silver chloride surface may wear off and leave the silver exposed. This
should not change the performance of the EndOhm significantly.
Once a week, or as needed, the electrode can be re-chloridized. Immerse the tips
of the electrode in common a 5% solution of sodium hypochlorite (bleach) for 10
minutes or until a black-purple layer is formed. Do not use a solution stronger than
3–6% sodium hypochlorite. Rinse well in distilled water and flush with the growth
buffer prior to use. Test the electrode with a CaliCell-12 (WPI #CALICELL-12).
Fig. 4 and Fig. 5 show an EndOhm that has been re-chlorided.
Fig. 4—(Left) Endohm-12 shown that has not been chlorided enough
Fig. 5—(Right) Properly chlorided EndOhm (note the brighter color)
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CAUTION: Ensure that only the electrode tip is exposed to the sodium
hypochlorite. The threaded section of the top electrode and the cap are made
of steel or black anodized aluminum. Sodium hypochlorite will attack these
surfaces. The solution must not contact these surfaces while chloriding the electrodes
Once every month or two, as needed, you may remove the biological remnants from
the electrode. Use an enzymatic cleaner like Enzol (WPI #7363-4), and follow the
manufacturer’s instructions to clean the tips of the electrodes. Rinse well in distilled
water. See Fig. 6 and Fig. 7.
Fig. 6—(Left) A clean EndOhm surface with no spots or irregularities
Fig. 7—(Right) Notice the center tip and the small ring on the top section. These may
require the use of a cotton swab to clean.
Rarely you may need to resurface the electrode. Dry the electrodes and lightly “sand”
or buff just the tip of the electrode with a very fine grain Emory paper (600 grit or
more) or used an “ink” eraser to lightly buff the electrode ends. Remove only a very
thin surface layer of the pellet. After sanding the pellet, re-chloride the tips using the
instructions above.
CAUTION: Repeated sanding will eventually remove the Ag/AgCl pellet. When
sanding lo longer improves the voltage readings, the electrode needs to be
replaced.
ACCESSORIES
Table 1: Accessories
Part Number
Description
7364
53330-01
610053
610057
EVOM2
8
Cidex Plus
Replacement Endohm cable
4mm Spacer disk
6mm Spacer disk
Epithelial Tissue Voltohmmeter (includes STX2 electrode set)
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EndOhm
TROUBLESHOOTING
Resistance reading drifts or is
unstable
Issue
Possible Cause
Solution
Charger is
connected to the
meter
The meter reading can become unstable due to
the loss of electrical isolation when the charger is
connected to the AC power. To ensure stability of
readings, always disconnect the charger from the
meter when making measurements.
Meter needs set
Use the R ADJ calibration screw on the front panel to
adjust the resistance value to 1000W, using the test
resistor.
Old electrode probe Use the test resistor to verify the meter is functioning
correctly. The meter display should read 1000W.
Unusually low or high reading
Culture cup is incor- Move electrode to a different height position.
rectly positioned
If you have upper mount cups (usually with a plastic
support cone), verify that there is about 2mm of clearance over the bottom electrode set.
Conductive conInspect the electrode surfaces for material which
tamination between could form a conductive bridge between the upper
electrodes
and lower electrodes causing the upper and lower
electrodes to be in the same contiguous solution without an electrical separation. If the material cannot be
removed, the electrode should be replaced.
Molarity of buffer
solution changed
A 1% change in 100mM molarity can cause large reading errors.
A bad cable
Continuous low resistance readings, even when dry
could be caused by a bad cable. Try a replacement
cable (WPI #53330-01).
Dirty electrodes
Clean the electrodes. (See “Cleaning” on page 6.)
Cell culture or media problem
If the cell culture has been given sufficient time to
achieve confluence, and the reading is stable but significantly lower than expected, then the problem is probably related to the cell culture. Electrode failure will not
generally cause a lower than expected yet stable reading.
Use the test resistor to verify the meter is functioning
correctly. The meter display should read 1000W.
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Voltage reading is unstable
Issue
Possible Cause
Solution
Low battery in the
EVOM2
Ensure that the charger is connected and plugged into
a live wall outlet. Wait one minute and test again. If the
voltage output is not zero (in plain culture media) and
the battery pack is fully charged, the instrument is malfunctioning. Before contacting WPI Technical Support
for assistance, recharge the instrument for 24 hours
and repeat the procedure.
Electrode too close
to strong electromagnetic radiation
device
Move the system to a different area away from
sources of electromagnetic fields. Electromagnetic
field sources could include computers, MRI equipment, magnetic stirrers, etc.
Power line or output jack connected
to a recording device causing noise
Remove the connection to the recording device to
eliminate that problem.
NOTE: If you have a problem/issue with that falls outside the definitions of this
troubleshooting section, contact the WPI Technical Support team at 941.371.1003 or
technicalsupport@wpiinc.com.
APPENDIX A: RESISTANCE CALCULATIONS
Resistance
The value of the blank always adds to the total resistance measured across a tissue
culture membrane. (See below.) The blank resistance must be measured and then
subtracted from the resistance reading across the tissue in order to obtain the true
tissue resistance.
For example, suppose the resistance through a 0.15M KCl solution and across the
membrane support (with no tissue present) of a 12-well cell culture insert measures
130W. This is the blank reading for that cell culture insert. (Resistance may vary for
culture cups made by other manufacturers.) In this example, using 800 W as the
sample measurement, the calculated resistance for the tissue itself (R tissue) is:
RTotal = 800
Rblank = 130 W
Rblank + Rtrue tissue = RTotal
Rtrue tissue = RTotal - Rblank
Rtrue tissue = 800W- 130W = 670W
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EndOhm
Resistance value of the “blank” insert
The resistance measurement of a blank insert is not background resistance due to the
resistance of the blank filter. Rather, if the filter membrane is removed from the insert,
the resistance reading of the insert will remain the same, because the background
resistance reading is due mainly to the small gap between the bottom of the cell
culture insert and the bottom of the cell culture plate.
This gap is about 1mm, with some insert brands having a slightly larger gap than
others. The variation in this gap is the cause of the difference between blank readings
of different brands. The smaller the gap, the higher the electric resistance. The
resistance of the filter membrane itself is actually negligible.
If an Endohm-24SNAP or Endohm-12 chamber is used, the blank resistance
becomes near zero, because the external electrode is directly underneath the filter
and the gap does not exist.
Unit Area Resistance
As the resistance is inversely proportional to the area of the tissue, instead of
reporting resistance, typically the product of the resistance and the area is calculated
and reported. The unit area resistance is independent of the area of the membrane
used and may be used to compare data obtained from inserts of different sizes.
The unit area resistance is obtained by multiplying the meter readings by the
effective surface area of the filter membrane. The dimension is Wcm2. The resistance
is inversely proportional to the surface area. Thus, the larger the membrane, the
lower the resistance.
Resistance of a unit area = Resistance (W) x Effective Membrane Area* (cm2)
* See manufacturing specifications for the particular insert
Unit Area = 1cm2
The unit area resistance is independent of the area of the membrane used and
may be used to compare data obtained from inserts of different sizes.
Continuing with the previous example, in which the Rtrue tissue = 670W, if an effective
membrane diameter (d) were 1.05cm, the unit area resistance would be:
Resistance x Effective Membrane Area = 670W x pd2/4
= 670W x (3.14)*(1.05cm)2/4
= 580Wcm2
580W is the resistance of a unit area of 1cm2.
The larger the membrane, the lower the resistance. The dimension is Wcm2, not W/
cm2. This may be confusing to a new user who might expect to divide to find the
resistance of a unit area.
A further illustration may help to reinforce this concept:
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Assuming a 1cm2 membrane has a resistance of 500W, then a 5cm2 membrane
will have a resistance of 100W, not 2,500W, because the resistance is inversely
proportional to the area. Accordingly, if a 5cm2 membrane has a resistance of 100W,
then the resistance of a 1cm2 membrane will be 100W x 5cm2 = 500Wcm2 because
the smaller membrane is 1/5 the size and the resistance will therefore be five times
greater.
APPENDIX B: TESTING THE ENDOHM
You can use this procedure to verify that your EndOhm is working properly. To
perform this test, you will need:
• EVOM2
• 20mM KCl stock solution
• 80mM KCl stock solution
• Spacer disk included with your EndOhm (4mm gauge for ENDOHM-6 or a
6mm gauge for the ENDOHM-12 or ENDOHM-24SNAP)
1. Check the resistance calibration of the EVOM2 by plugging in a 1000W test
resistor (WPI #91750). The EVOM2 should display 1000W ± 1W. If necessary,
adjust the resistance to 1000W. To adjust the resistance, insert a small
screwdriver through the R ADJ hole on the front panel of the EVOM2 and rotate
the screw to adjust the resistance up or down.
2. Adjust the position of the upper electrode on your EndOhm to the correct
distance from the bottom of the chamber. A plastic spacer disk is provided with
your EndOhm for this purpose. A 4mm gauge disk is provided for an ENDOHM-6,
and a 6mm gauge disk is provided for the ENDOHM-12 or ENDOHM-24SNAP.
a. Place the disk flat side down into the center of the EndOhm lower chamber.
b. Loosen the upper electrode locking nut, and place the upper electrode cap
assembly onto the lower chamber.
c. To set the correct test distance, adjust the position of the upper electrode
until its face comes into contact with the upper surface of the spacer disk.
The underside of the cap should be resting level and in full contact with the
rim of the lower chamber. The cap should not be elevated away from the
lower chamber, tilted or mechanically unstable. This is an indication that the
upper electrode is projecting too deeply into the chamber.
d. When the upper electrode is properly adjusted, secure it by re-tightening the
locking thumb nut.
e. When your height adjustment is complete, remove the spacer disk.
3. Each model of EndOhm requires a different volume of test solution. Use a
pipette or syringe to measure the correct volume of the 80mM KCl stock solution
into the lower chamber of the EndOhm.
• EndOhm-6: Use 2mL
• EndOhm-12: Use 5mL
• EndOhm-24SNAP: Use 11mL
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4. Place the upper cap electrode onto the lower chamber.
5. Connect the EndOhm to the EVOM2 using and EndOhm cable (WPI #53330-01)
with the EVOM2 powered off.
NOTE: The electrodes must be fully wetted to ensure a stable and repeatable reading.
Let the EndOhm soak in the test solution for a minimum of 15 minutes before
taking measurements.
6. Power up the EVOM2 and set it to resistance mode.
7. If the reading is stable, record the resistance measurement. In order to pass the
performance test, the resistance should fall within or very close to the limits for
each test solution as shown below.
Expected Resistance Readings
Test Solution
ENDOHM-6
ENDOHM-12
ENDOHM-24SNAP
20mM KCl
100W ± 10W
55W ± 5W
30W ± 2W
80mM KCl
26W ± 5W
13W ± 2W
5W ± 1W
NOTE: As a general guideline, the resistance at 20mM should be roughly 4 times
greater than the resistance measured at 80mM.
NOTE: The standard readings in the table above have been generated from
statistical data. If test readings do not meet these criteria, it does not mean that
the EndOhm is defective. If resistances are slightly higher or lower than expected,
temperature may be affecting the measurement.
8. Switch the EVOM2 to millivolt mode. Observe the voltage offset. If the offset is
less than 5mV, proceed to the next step.
If the offset exceed 5mV, then the electrodes may be galvanically equilibrated
by allowing them to soak in 80mM KCl while connected to the EVOM2 with the
EVOM2 switched off for several hours or overnight. Check the voltage offset
again.
9. Discard the 80mM KCl solution from the lower chambers, and fill them with
distilled water. Allow the upper and lower electrodes to soak in the distilled water
for a minimum of one minute. Discard the solution.
10. Dry both the upper and lower electrodes with a Kimwipe or similar lint-free
absorbent wipe.
11. Using a pipette or syringe, measure the correct test volume from step 3 of 20mM
KCl stock solution. Fill the lower chamber.
12. Repeat steps 4–7. Check your resistance readings against the table shown in step
7. If your resistance readings fall within the specifications, then your EndOhm is
functioning properly.
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INDEX
Symbols
7364 8
53330-01 8, 9
610053 8
610057 8
A
accessories 8
Ag/AgCl 3
AUTOCLAVE 7
B
battery 10
blank culture cup 5
blank cup 3
blank resistance 10
C
cap 5
cell culture 9
chloridized 7
Cidex 7
cleaning 6
contamination 6
E
electrical isolation 9
electromagnetic radiation device 10
Enzol 8
ethylene oxide 7
H
14
height of the top electrode 3
L
long term storage 7
P
parts list 2
R
R ADJ 9
re-chloridize 7
resistance calculations 10
resistance measurement 4, 5
resurface the electrode 8
returns 2
S
sanding 8
sodium hypochlorite 7
sterilization 7
STX2 5
T
test resistor 9
troubleshooting 9
U
unit area resistance 11
unpacking 2
UV hood 7
V
voltage measurements 4, 5
World Precision Instruments
EndOhm
WARRANTY
WPI (World Precision Instruments, Inc.) warrants to the original purchaser that this equipment, including
its components and parts, shall be free from defects in material and workmanship for a period of
30 days* from the date of receipt. WPI’s obligation under this warranty shall be limited to repair or
replacement, at WPI’s option, of the equipment or defective components or parts upon receipt thereof
f.o.b. WPI, Sarasota, Florida U.S.A. Return of a repaired instrument shall be f.o.b. Sarasota.
The above warranty is contingent upon normal usage and does not cover products which have been
modified without WPI’s approval or which have been subjected to unusual physical or electrical stress
or on which the original identification marks have been removed or altered. The above warranty will not
apply if adjustment, repair or parts replacement is required because of accident, neglect, misuse, failure
of electric power, air conditioning, humidity control, or causes other than normal and ordinary usage.
To the extent that any of its equipment is furnished by a manufacturer other than WPI, the foregoing
warranty shall be applicable only to the extent of the warranty furnished by such other manufacturer.
This warranty will not apply to appearance terms, such as knobs, handles, dials or the like.
WPI makes no warranty of any kind, express or implied or statutory, including without limitation any
warranties of merchantability and/or fitness for a particular purpose. WPI shall not be liable for any
damages, whether direct, indirect, special or consequential arising from a failure of this product to
operate in the manner desired by the user. WPI shall not be liable for any damage to data or property
that may be caused directly or indirectly by use of this product.
Claims and Returns
Inspect all shipments upon receipt. Missing cartons or obvious damage to cartons should be noted on
the delivery receipt before signing. Concealed loss or damage should be reported at once to the carrier
and an inspection requested. All claims for shortage or damage must be made within ten (10) days
after receipt of shipment. Claims for lost shipments must be made within thirty (30) days of receipt of
invoice or other notification of shipment. Please save damaged or pilfered cartons until claim is settled.
In some instances, photographic documentation may be required. Some items are time-sensitive; WPI
assumes no extended warranty or any liability for use beyond the date specified on the container
Do not return any goods to us without obtaining prior approval and instructions from our Returns
Department. Goods returned (unauthorized) by collect freight may be refused. Goods accepted for
restocking will be exchanged or credited to your WPI account. Goods returned which were ordered
by customers in error are subject to a 25% restocking charge. Equipment which was built as a special
order cannot be returned.
Repairs
Contact our Customer Service Department for assistance in the repair of apparatus. Do not return
goods until instructions have been received. Returned items must be securely packed to prevent
further damage in transit. The Customer is responsible for paying shipping expenses, including
adequate insurance on all items returned for repairs. Identification of the item(s) by model number,
name, as well as complete description of the difficulties experienced should be written on the repair
purchase order and on a tag attached to the item.
* Electrodes, batteries and other consumable parts are warranted for 30 days only from the date on which
the customer receives these items.
World Precision Instruments
15
USA
International Trade Center, 175 Sarasota Center Blvd., Sarasota FL 34240-9258
Tel: 941-371-1003 • Fax: 941-377-5428 • E-mail: sales@wpiinc.com
UK
1 Hunting Gate, Hitchin, Hertfordshire SG4 0TJ
Tel: 44 (0)1462 424700 • Fax: 44 (0)1462 424701 • E-mail: wpiuk@wpi-europe.com
Germany
Zossener Str. 55, 10961 Berlin
Tel: 030-6188845 • Fax: 030-6188670 • E-mail: wpide@wpi-europe.com
China & Hong Kong
WPI Shanghai Trading Co., Ltd.
Rm 29a, No8 Dongfang Rd., Pudong District, Shanghai, 200120 PR China
Tel: +86 21 6888 5517 • E-mail:chinasales@china.wpiinc.com
Brazil
Av. Conselheiro Nébias, 756 sala 2611, Santos-CEP: 11045-002, São Paulo Brazil •
Tel: (013) 406-29703 • E-mail: info@brazil.wpiinc.com
Internet
www.wpiinc.com • www.wpi-europe.com • www.wpiinc.cn
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