Stage 3: Saturn
SATURN
StageThree
54
SATURN
Requirements
1. THE WRITTEN PHASE
The cadet is required to pass an examination on how to determine a model rocket's altitude
at the apogee of its flight. The cadet is required to pass a second component of the examination that deals with model rocket engines.
2. THE OFFICIAL WITNESS LOG (OWL) AND TESTING
The Squadron Testing Officer (STO) must administer the written examination and once
passed, sign the OWL for the cadet.
3. THE HANDS-ON PHASE
The cadet is required to build one of the following options:
a. The cadet may elect to build a two-stage rocket that requires two engines to reach
altitude.
b. OR The cadet may elect to build a model rocket that is capable of carrying a payload of at least 3 ounces to an altitude of 300' or more.
c. OR..If the cadet lives in an area where solid-fuel rockets are banned, he/she may
elect to take the Air Power Option. If this is the case, the cadet is required to scratchbuild a model rocket that works on a commercial launcher (like one of those featured in the Titan section). This rocket must achieve an altitude of at least 100 feet
and proof must be given by either mathematical calculations or an altitude tracking
device.
d. OR..If the cadet is taking the Air Power Option, he/she must also build a static plastic model of a rocket that was significant in aerospace history. This rocket and a short
presentation must be made to the squadron.
e. All cadets in this program must have a working knowledge of the NARs Safety
Code.
4. THE OFFICIAL WITNESS LOG FOR FLIGHT AND RECOVERY OF
MODELS
A Qualified Senior Member must witness the launch of all flights. Once it is determined, by
the QSM, that the cadet has met the requirements, he/she will sign the OWL for the HandsOn Phase.
5. THE ROLE OF THE SQUADRON COMMANDER
The Squadron Commander will sign the OWL and in an awards ceremony, present the
cadet with the Model Rocketry Badge.
55
Model Rocket
SAFETY CODE
This official Model Rocketry Safety Code has been developed and promulgated by the National Association of Rocketry.
(Basic Version, Effective February 10, 2001)
1. MATERIALS. I will use only lightweight,
7. SIZE. My model rocket will not weigh more
non-metal parts for the nose, body and fins of my
rocket.
I will use only certified, commercially-made rocket motors, and will not tamper with these motors or use them for any purposes except those recommended by the manufacturer.
than 1500 grams (53 ounces) at liftoff and will not
contain more than 125 grams (4.4 ounces) of
propellant or 320N-sec (71.9 pound-seconds) of
total impulse. If my model rocket weighs more
than one pound (453 grams) at liftoff or has more
than 4 ounces (113grams) of propellant, I will
check and comply with Federal Aviation
Administration regulations before flying.
3. IGNITION SYSTEM.
8.
2. MOTORS.
FLIGHT SAFETY. I will not launch my
rocket at targets, into clouds or near airplanes,
and will not put any flammable or explosive payload in my rocket.
I will launch my
rockets with an electrical launch system and
electrical motor igniters. My launch system will
have a safety interlock in series with the launch
switch, and will use a launch switch that returns
to the “off” position when released.
9. LAUNCH SITE.
I will launch my rocket
outdoors, in an open area at least as large as
shown in the accompanying table, and in safe
weather conditions with wind speeds no greater
than 20 miles per hour. I will ensure that there is
no dry grass close to the launch pad, and that the
launch site does not present risk of grass fires.
4. MISFIRES.
If my rocket does not launch
when I press the button of my electrical launch
system, I will remove the launcher’s safety interlock or disconnect its battery, and will wait 60
seconds after the last launch attempt before
allowing anyone to approach the rocket.
5. LAUNCH SAFETY.
I will use a countdown before launch, and will ensure that everyone is paying attention and is a safe distance of
at least 15 feet away when I launch rockets with
D motors or smaller, and 30 feet when I launch
larger rockets. If I am uncertain about the safety
or stability of an untested rocket, I will check the
stability before flight and will fly it only after warning spectators and clearing them away to a safe
distance.
Installed Total
Impulse (N-sec)
Equivalent
Motor Types
Minimum Site
Dimensions (ft)
0.00 - 1.25
2.26 - 2.50
2.51 - 5.00
5.01 -10.00
10.01 - 20.00
20.01 - 40.00
40.01 - 80.00
80.01 - 160.00
160.01 - 320.00
1/4A,1/2A
A
B
C
D
E
F
G
Two G’s
50
100
200
400
500
1,000
1,000
1,000
1,500
10. RECOVERY SYSTEM.
I will use a recovery system such as a streamer or parachute
in my rocket so that it returns safely and undamaged and can be flown again, and I will use only
flame-resistant or fireproof recovery system
wadding in my rocket.
6. LAUNCHER. I will launch my rocket from
a launch rod, tower, or rail that is pointed to within 30 degrees of the vertical to ensure that the
rocket flies nearly straight up, and I will use a
blast deflector to prevent the motor’s exhaust
from hitting the ground. To prevent accidental eye
injury, I will place launchers so that the end of the
launch rod is above eye level or will cap the end
of my launch rod when it is not in use.
11. RECOVERY SAFETY. I will not attempt
to recover my rocket from power lines, tall trees,
or other dangerous places.
56
SATURN
Written Phase
ALTITUDE TRACKING
It's great fun to launch and recover model rockets,
but let's face it, after so many it "loses some of its
excitement" and the average builder wants more. So
what is the "next step?" Most model rocket builders
advance to longer bodies, larger engines, multiple
stages and various experiments with payloads. If you
are short on cash and still have the excitement, there is
another way to enjoy your current "inventory," yet still
keep the interest alive.
It is recommended that you take the time to learn
more about the science of model rockety. In other
words, the cadet is urged to study performance variables. Two very important parameters are altitude
determination and engine performance. Both are covered as part of the Written Phase of the Saturn Stage.
ALTITUDE DETERMINATION
By definition, apogee is the highest point in the flight
of a model rocket. It is the point at which a rocket reaches its highest altitude and begins a return to Earth.
There are several ways to determine the altitude at
which a rocket reaches its apogee. The method
described in Aerospace Dimensions, Module 4, ROCKETS, uses a sighting device called an "Altitude Tracker."
It is part of Activity Three-Altitude Tracking. The cadet is
urged to read the text, on pages 29, 30, 31, and to build
the "Altitude Tracker" and use it as described. The cadet
may also elect to purchase a commercially-built one like
the Estes AltitrakÔ (retails for around $24.00).
With permission from Estes, the author will explain
how to determine the altitude of a model rocket using
simple trigonometry. In the illustration "Using the degree
scale to calculate altitude," first notice the term "baseline distance." This is essentially the base of a right triangle and the length is the distance from an observer to
the launch pad of a model rocket. Refer now to number
“1”, in their diagram that shows how to use the Altitrak.
The observer is asked to pace off a distance of 500’, or
in other words, make a baseline distance of 500' (150
meters). Once the observer is ready, he/she signals the
launcher. The AltitrakÔ, or astrolabe as it is know in scientific terms, is aimed at the rocket. This is shown in
illustration "2." As the rocket is launched it will climb to
its apogee and then start a return to earth. The trigger
is released and this will record the desired angle.
Refer now back to "Using the degree scaled to calculate altitude." Once this angle is known, the observer,
or team, looks up the corresponding tangent on the
Angle Tangent Chart. The altitude at which the rocket
reached its apogee is found by:
Baseline Distance X Angle Tangent = Altitude.
Example: Baseline Distance is 500'; Angle observed is
50°; Tangent number from chart 1.19.
500' x 1.19 = 595' altitude at apogee
Forward Sight
Angle
Scale
Height
Scale
Swing Arm
Trigger-Pull to release
swing arm.
Release to lock
swing arm.
57
1.
Pace off 500 ft. from launch pad at a right angle to the
wind. ( A pace equals the average walking stride of a 1012 year old - approximately 21/2 ft.)
NOTE: For low altitude rockets, pace off 250 ft. and divide height
by 2. For high altitude rockets, pace off 1,000 ft. and multiply height by 2.
Release
trigger
here.
2.
Hold the Altitrak Ô at arm’s length, pointed at
rocket. Pull & hold trigger then signal for launch.
3.
Track rocket through forward sight. When rocket reaches apogee
(maximum altitude) release the trigger. Read the height indicated on
swing arm.
To convert feet to meters: 1 foot x 3.28 = 1 meter
Using the degree scale to calculate altitude:
Altitude
= Angle Tangent x Baseline Distance
o
30 Angle = .58, Baseline = 500 ft.
Altitude = .58x500 ft. (150 m)
= 290 ft. (84 m)
Angle
Baseline Distance
ANGLE TANGENT CHART
Angle
Tan. Angle
Tan. Angle
Tan.
Angle
Tan.
1
2
3
4
5
6
7
8
9
10
11
12
13
14
15
16
17
18
19
20
0.02
0.03
0.05
0.07
0.09
0.11
0.12
0.14
0.16
0.18
0.19
0.21
0.23
0.25
0.27
0.29
0.31
0.32
0.34
0.36
0.38
0.40
0.42
0.45
0.47
0.49
0.51
0.53
0.55
0.58
0.60
0.62
0.65
0.67
0.70
0.73
0.75
0.78
0.81
0.84
0.87
0.90
0.93
0.97
1.00
1.04
1.07
1.11
1.15
1.19
1.23
1.28
1.33
1.38
1.43
1.48
1.54
1.60
1.66
1.73
61
62
63
64
65
66
67
68
69
70
71
72
73
74
75
76
77
78
79
80
1.80
1.88
1.96
2.05
2.14
2.25
2.36
2.48
2.61
2.75
2.90
3.08
3.27
3.49
3.73
4.01
4.33
4.70
5.14
5.67
21
22
23
24
25
26
27
28
29
30
31
32
33
34
35
36
37
38
39
40
41
42
43
44
45
46
47
48
49
50
51
52
53
54
55
56
57
58
59
60
58
Cadets Brandon Ybarra and Bronson Montield demonstrate
the use of the Estes AltitrakÔ
SATURN
Written Phase
MODEL ROCKET ENGINES
The model rocket engine is a very powerful, yet reliable source of thrust. Several companies market these
engines including Quest, Estes and Pitsco. All engines
comply with the National Fire Protection Association
and are certified by the National Association of Rocketry
(NAR).
Paper
The model rocket engine is made up of a ceramic
nozzle, a solid propellant for lift-off and acceleration, a
delay and smoke tracking chemical, an ejection charge,
a clay retainer cap and all of this is enclosed in a heavy
paper casing.
Ejection
Charge for
Ejection Charge
Deployment
of of
for Deployment
Recovery System
Clay Retainer
Ejection
Delay and
Solid
Ejection
Charge
High
High Thrust
Thrust Charge
Charge
for Lift-off
for and
LiftAcceleration
Ceramic Nozzle
59
Thrust—Push Power!
The model rocket engine is designed to provide
thrust and to provide forward motion. When the solid
fuel is ignited, usually by electrical means, a chemical
reaction occurs and the gases created in this reaction
are forced out the nozzle. According to Newton's Third
Law of Motion, this is an action and propels the rocket
skyward as a reaction. The altitude, speed and weightlifting capability is determined by amount of solid fuel
and the duration of the chemical reaction.
The thrust that an engine creates is measured in
terms of "Newtons" over a period of time in "seconds."
When the two terms are spoken in terms of performance, it is said "maximum thrust was achieved in ‘so
many' Newton Seconds." Another term is total impulse
and this is the total power produced by the engine. The
engines are classified according to letters of the alphabet. The further into the alphabet, the more powerful.
Here's how it works:
ENGINE
IMPULSE
ENGINE TYPES
1/4 A
0.313-0.625 (Newton-seconds) Mini
1/2 A
0.626-1.25 (Newton-seconds) Standard (also Mini)
A
1.26-2.50 (Newton-seconds) Standard (also Mini)
B
2.51-5.00 (Newton-seconds) Standard
C6
5.01-10.00 (Newton-seconds) Standard
C11
5.01-10.00 (Newton-seconds) In “D” size
D
10.01-20.00 (Newton-seconds) D size
E
20.01-30.00 (Newton-seconds) E size
should be noted that engine types that end in
"O" have no time delay, or ejection, and are
used for booster stages only.
Engine Coding for Quick and Easy
Identification
Material Courtesy Estes-Cox Corporation. Used with permission.
Label color indicates recommended use of the
engine.
a. Green...........Single stage rockets
b. Purple...........Upper stage or Single stage,
if used in very light rockets
c. Red.............*Booster and intermediate
stages of multi-stage rockets
d. Black...........*Special plugged engines for
R/C gliders
*These contain no delay or ejection charge.
TOTAL IMPULSE
CLASSIFICATION
Using a common engine, the B6-4, let's investigate
what the lettering on the rocket engine means:
The "B" is the total impulse, or power, (in
Newton-seconds) produced by the engine. Each
succeeding letter has up to twice the total power
as the previous letter. An example of this is the
letter "B." It has up to twice the power of an "A"
engine and this, in turn, means that it should
reach approximately twice the altitude, given the
same rocket. In higher powered engines, for
example, a "G" has 160 Newton Seconds of total
impulse!
CODE
POUNDSECONDS
NEWTONSECONDS
1/2 A
A
B
C
D
O.14 - 0.28
1.26 - 2.50
2.51 - 5.00
1.12 - 2.24
2.24 - 5.00
O.625
1.26
2.51
5.01
10.01
-1.25
2.50
5.00
- 10.00
- 20.00
HOW HIGH WILL YOUR ROCKET GO?
The chart below shows the approximate altitudes that
can be achieved with single stage rockets.
ENGINE
SIZE
The "6" shows the engine's average thrust,
or how fast the engine powers the rocket. This
parameter is measured in just Newtons. It might
be noted that the 4.45 Newtons = 1 pound of
thrust, or 0.225 pounds equal one Newton.
The next letter, in this case the "4" means the
"Time Delay." This number gives you the time
delay in seconds between the end of the thrust
burn-out and ignition of the ejection charge. It
ALTITUDE RANGE
DEPENDING ON ROCKET
SIZE AND WEIGHT
APPROXIMATE ALTITUDE IN A TYPICAL
1/2A6-2
100’
to
400’
190’
A8-3
200’
to
650’
450’
B6-4
300’
to
1000’
750’
C6-5
400’
to
1500’
1000’
(Some high performance rockets will reach higher
altitudes than shown above.
Material Courtesy Estes-Cox Corporation. Used with permission.
60
61
This illustration was provided courtesy of Pitsco, Inc.
Safety First and Foremost
The model rocket engine of today is a very safe, reliable powerplant. Cadets, students, seniors and teachers must, however, take every precaution to maintain a high level of safety. The National Association fo
Rocketry has eleven guidelines that will help promote safety in the building of model rockets. It is highly
recommended that these rules be followed during every launch. The Model Rocketry Safety code is found
on page 54.
62
63
SATURN
Official Witness Log
WRITTEN PHASE
The cadet is required to have a basic knowledge of ALTITUDE TRACKING and MODEL ROCKET ENGINES.The cadet is also required to have a
working knowledge of the NAR Safety Code. Once the cadet has studied the
text and feelsready, he/she must take an examiniation The cadet is required
to take an examination administered by the Squadron Testing Officer (STO)
The minimum passing score is 70%. Upon successful passage of this test,
the cadet must have the STO sign this document.
CADET______________________________________________________
of___________________________________________________________
squadron has successfully passed the written examination required of the
Saturn Stage on altitude tracking and model rocket engines.
As the STO I have administered the test and found that Cadet passed
with a score that meets or exceeds the minimum requirements of the Saturn
Stage of the Model Rocketry Achievement Program
________________________________________
STO
64
SATURN
Hands-on Option One
A MODEL ROCKET DESIGNED TO CARRY A PAYLOAD
This Elite rocket has a fresh egg sealed in its nose section. The object is to launch it to an altitude of
at least 300' and return the egg safely to the ground.
OBJECTIVE: The purpose of this project is to acquaint the cadet with advanced
rockets. The cadet is required to build a model rocket capable of carrying load to an altitude of at least 300 feet and returning it safely to the
ground. In the example featured in this unit, the author used an eggcarrying model offered by Custom Rocket Company. If you're interested in this model, you may write them at P.O. Box 1865, Lake Havasu
City, AZ 86405.
65
It's always a good idea to lay out the parts and make sure nothing is
missing.
A good quality white or yellow glue is used to properly mount
the fins.
Because of the size of the egg-carrying nose
compartment, two small pieces have to be
installed so that the nose cone stands away
from the launch rod.
After carefully reading the instructions, it's time to get started.
Matching, sanding and preparing the fins for mounting is the first
step.
The rocket engine structure is constructed as shown in the Elite plans.
Always make sure that your measurements are exact. A model rocket is
engineered by experts and it is the cadet's responsibility to build it according to their specifications.
A simple skewer stick was used to align
the launch lugs.
It is highly recommended that the builder
use sanding sealer on all wood parts. This
keeps the final paint coat from soaking in.
Once the glue sets, it is time to prepare the model for painting. If the cadet wants the model to be "show quality," it is recommended
that the procedures featured on the Alpha rocket (in the Redstone Stage) be followed. However, the object with this model is to lift weight
and paint adds weight. If color is to be added, the minimum preparation would be brushing in sanding sealer on the wooden parts and then
spraying one mist and two color coats of satin or flat black.
66
One of the most important parts of this model is
the parachute. Since the parachute is going to
have to bring both a rocket and an egg safely
back to earth, it's important that it is constructed properly and fully operational when ejected
during flight.
The egg is first put in a plastic bag “…just in
case it breaks!"
When the egg is loaded, the front cone
is held in the plastic with black electrical
tape.
Make sure that the shroud lines are all To prepare for a flight, the proper amount of
exactly the same length. This is important wading is first stuffed into the body. Read
when maximum drag is required.
the instructions and follow their recommendations.
A folded tube or dowel rod can hold the A folded tube or dowel rod can hold the rockrocket while paint is applied. The recom- et while paint is applied. The recommended
mended color for the elite was flat or satin color for the elite was flat or satin black.
black.
The egg fits and is ready to be sealed in the
payload compartment.
The black Elite has some interesting silver graphics.
Your rocket is ready for its engine. It's time to head
out to the launch site!
67
The payload compartment is sealed.
The finished rocket on the launch pad.
68
SATURN
Hands-on Option Two
BUILDING A TWO-STAGE
MODEL ROCKET
The finished sample of the Quest Zenith II Payloader
OBJECTIVE: The second option is to have the cadet build a rocket that requires two
engines to achieve its maximum altitude. Each stage must be safely recovered. The QSM and cadet must discuss, before launching, the performance
and altitude expectations of the model as recommended in the commercial
kit application. Using knowledge gained in the written phase, the cadet and
QSM must work together to determine the proper engines to use and to calculate the altitude each rocket achieved.
69
For our example model, the author selected the Quest Zenith II Payloader On the package that contained the
rocket parts, it states, "Skill level 3 for Advanced Modelers." It also stated, "High-performance, two-stage rocket
(that) flies up to 1500 ft. (457m)." It has a 14" parachute for recovery and features die-cut balsa fins. It is 22.75
inches long, weighs 1.4 ounces. The engine recommendations are A6-4,B6-4, C6-3 or C6-5 for the upper stage
and B6-0 or C6-0 for the booster stage. For a Quest catalog of other fine rockets, it is recommended that the cadet
write Quest Aerospace, P.O. Box 42390, Phoenix, AZ 85080-2390.
MATERIALS:
1.
2.
3.
4.
5.
6.
7.
8.
White glue
plastic cement
a hobby knife
sandpaper
masking or office tape
scissors
sandpaper
sanding sealer
The paint preparation is featured in this “how-to” and it is recommended, by the author, that the
finish prodecure be followed for a
professionally built model.
It’s always a good idea to lay
out the parts and check everything
against the “parts list” as in the picture to the right.
The first 8 steps involves building the Motor
Mount Assembly. Follow the instructions
carefully. The Kevlar cord keeps the first and
second stages together.
The tube marking guide gives the exact
placement of fins and launch lug.
The black tube coupler joins the main body
and payload section. Using plastic cement,
these components are glued together.
Follow your instructions for insertion depth.
The booster section is now assembled.
When gluing, make sure the booster fins
align with the main body fins. After the glue
has cured, paint the fins with several coats
of sanding sealer.
Automotive sandable primer was used by
the author. This can be purchased at most
automotive aftermarket supply stores. It is
also called "automotive primer surfacer."
Regular sandpaper in the grit range of 240320 can be used to carefully smooth out the
cured primer. Another technique is to use
sanding pads, such as 3M's Scotchbrite.
These work very well on rounded surfaces.
70
After two or three primer coats, even finer
sandpaper can be used to perfect the finish.
A white undercoat will make all other colors,
applied over it, much more vivid. Since the
author elected to use a candy final coat,
Tamiya Pure White was sprayed first.
Testor's Gold and Candy Red are applied in
separate stages. The gold is applied first and
then the red. The final finish is spectacular.
The upper section is taped off using masking tape and paper. Supermarket bags,
plastic trash bags and newspaper work well.
The gold is applied first to the body section…
…then the nose cone.
The Translucent Candy Apple Red is
applied over the gold. Apply two mist coats
and then, after at least 30 minutes, two wet
color coats. Let dry overnight.
Don't get in a hurry. Let the candy finish dry
thoroughly.
The parachute is very important to proper
recovery. Remember that this chute will be
supporting more weight than usual so build
it correctly.
Once assembled properly, the
parachute is attached to the shock
cord, which is attached to the
engine assembly which is attached
to the body tube—a very well-engineered recovery system!
71
The payload compartment can carry, "…insects, electronics or other
experiments" according to the Quest package. The nose cone is
held in place with electrical tape so that the payload remains in
place during flight.
The rocket is finished with the CAP seal. The candy finish and payload compartment all blend together to make a very professionallooking model.
Cadet Ryan Lacy and Dylan Stark prepare the two-stage Quest
Rocket for Launch.
The moment of truth....Zenith II blasts off!
72
SATURN
Official Witness Log
HANDS-ON PHASE
The cadet is required to build two model rockets to complete this requirement. One of the rockets must be have two engines that fire in two stages
and the other must be capable of carrying a payload. The launch must be witnessed by a designated Qualified Senior Member (QSM). Finally, the cadet
must have a working knowledge of the NAR Safety Code.
CADET______________________________________________________
of __________________________________________________________
squadron, has successfully built, launched and recovered one of the following options:
1.
2.
3.
4.
A model rocket capable of carrying a payload to an altitude of 300'.
A two-stage model rocket.
A rocket equipped with a glider both of which return safely to earth.
OR, in the event a cadet is required to take the air-power option
due to local restrictions, a scratch-built, air-powered rocket is
required as stated in the text. The cadet is required to track and
record the altitude of the air-powered rocket.
The cadet must have a working knowledge of the 11 parts of the NAR
Safety Code.
As a Qualified Senior Member (QSM), I have found that the cadet has
successfully met the requirements of this phase of the Saturn Stage.
________________________________________
(QSM)
73
SATURN STAGE
Squadron Commander’s
Approval
I have reviewed the Official Witness Logs, both written
and hands-on, of Cadet
_________________________________________________
and have found that this individual has successfully
passed the Saturn Stage requirements.and is now qualified to receive the official Model Rocketry Badge of the
Civil Air Patrol Cadet Program.
___________________________________________
Squadron Commander
74
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