instructor manual - Fyns Dykkercenter

instructor manual - Fyns Dykkercenter
Open
Water
Diver
INSTRUCTOR MANUAL
PUBLISHED BY
www.diveSSI.com
All
be
or
or
rights reserved throughout the world. No part of this publication may
reproduced, stored in a retrieval system, or transmitted in any form
by any means—electronic, mechanical, photocopying, recording,
otherwise—without the prior written permission of the publisher.
1st Edition
Copyright ©1973 Robert Arthur Clark, Fort Collins, Colorado
2nd Edition
Copyright ©1980 Concept Systems International GmbH
3rd Edition
Copyright 1983 Concept Systems International GmbH
4th Edition
Copyright ©1985 Concept Systems International GmbH
5th Edition
Copyright ©1987 Concept Systems International GmbH, Revised 1989
6th Edition
Copyright ©1990 Concept Systems International GmbH, Revised 1994
7rd Edition
Copyright 1995 Concept Systems International GmbH, Revised 1996
8th Edition
Copyright ©1998 Concept Systems International GmbH
9th Edition
opyright ©2002 Concept Systems International GmbH,
C
Revised 2005, 2006, 2008
10th Edition
Copyright ©2010 Concept Systems International GmbH
ISBN-13:
978-1-880229-34-7
REORDER #2101ins-e
Contents
PREFACE...................................................................................................................... i
INTRODUCTION.................................................................................................. ii
SCHEDULING OPEN WATER DIVER COURSES......................... v
REQUIRED MATERIALS.................................................................................vii
RECORD KEEPING............................................................................................ xi
ACADEMIC SESSIONS
CI Course Introduction...........................................................................................CI-1
Instructor Answer Keys — SSI Open Water Diver Study Guide................CI-5
1 Section 1: Your Diving Equipment................................................................. C1-1
Questions & Answers — Video Review & Class Discussion ......C1-12, C1-13
2 Section 2: Using Your Diving Equipment....................................................... C2-1
Questions & Answers — Video Review & Class Discussion ..........C2-8, C2-9
3 Section 3: Your Body and the Underwater World......................................... C3-1
Questions & Answers — Video Review & Class Discussion ......C3-13, C3-14
4 Section 4: Planning and Executing Your Dive............................................... C4-1
Questions & Answers — Video Review & Class Discussion ..........C4-7, C4-8
5 Section 5: Your Underwater World................................................................. C5-1
Questions & Answers — Video Review & Class Discussion ..........C5-8, C5-9
6 Section 6: Your Scuba Diving Experiences and Beyond................................ C6-1
Questions & Answers — Video Review & Class Discussion ..........C6-7, C6-8
CS Course Summary............................................................................................... CS-1
POOL SESSIONS
1
2
3
4
5
6
Pool
Pool
Pool
Pool
Pool
Pool
Session
Session
Session
Session
Session
Session
1................................................................................................... P1-1
2................................................................................................... P2-1
3................................................................................................... P3-1
4................................................................................................... P4-1
5................................................................................................... P5-1
6 (optional)................................................................................. P6-1
OPEN WATER SESSIONS
1
2
3
4
5
6
Open
Open
Open
Open
Open
Open
Water
Water
Water
Water
Water
Water
APPENDIX
Session
Session
Session
Session
Session
Session
1.................................................................................. OW1-1
2.................................................................................. OW2-1
3.................................................................................. OW3-1
4.................................................................................. OW4-1
5.................................................................................. OW5-1
6 ................................................................................. OW6-1
OPEN
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INSTRUCTOR
MANUAL
10TH EDITION • 10/10
i
Introduction
By now you should realize that your SSI Open Water Instructor Manual is part of
a sophisticated, integrated teaching system. To fully appreciate the features of this and the
teaching system and this manual, please read the following information carefully.
SSI Total Teaching System
SSI has developed an effective system for teaching divers, called the Total Teaching
System. The System includes the Diver Training Record, the Open Water Diver Manual and Study
Guide, the videos and DVDs (for the purposes of this manual the term “video” encompasses
both video cassette and DVD), dive tables, examinations, and the Total DiveLog System. All
components of the Total Teaching System are integrated and designed to work together as a
whole.
Even though the SSI Total Teaching System is highly structured, it is flexible enough to
be adapted to any Instructor and any training location or situation. All Instructors have their own
teaching styles, and the words they use in training sessions should be their own. To make the
system work, Instructors require thorough knowledge and expertise in the theory and practice of
diving and instruction, as well as training in assessing student needs and comfort level.
USING THE OPEN WATER INSTRUCTOR MANUAL
The SSI Open Water Instructor Manual is the heart of the Total Teaching System. The
purpose of the SSI Instructor Manual is to provide SSI Instructors with clearly defined objectives
and procedures for each Academic, Pool and Open Water training session. Below are the key
points covered in this manual.
Required Student and Instructor Materials
The required student and instructor materials for the Academic, Pool and Open Water
sessions can be found on page vii of this section. This information has been consolidated into
one section for your ease of use. It provides a quick reference of what materials or equipment
are needed for each session.
Record Keeping
The record keeping for the Academic, Pool and Open Water sessions can be found on
page x of this section. This information has been consolidated into one section for your ease of
use. It provides a quick reference of what record keeping is required for each session.
If you have any further questions, please ask the SSI Authorized Dealer with whom you
are affiliated, or contact SSI Headquarters.
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Objectives
Each Academic, Pool and Open Water session clearly states the defined objective(s) for
the session.
Notes to Instructors
Italicized sentences are notes to the Instructor. These notes provide direction to
the Instructor as to the intent and purpose of topics so they may be conveyed to students.
Underlined sentences are important points. These points should be emphasized to students
during the presentation, as they are valuable to student understanding.
Classroom and Video Discussion Questions
Each presentation also contains Classroom and Video Discussion questions. They are
tools that can be used by the Instructor as necessary, for a variety of purposes. They can be
asked during class, assigned as homework, used to evaluate if students understand the video, or
used to clarify a student’s understanding of material for home-study courses.
Study Guide Answer Keys
The answer keys for the Open Water Diver Study Guide can be found at the end of the
Course Introduction Session of this Instructor Manual.
Appendix
This manual contains an Appendix with reference information. It is recommended for
Instructors to add additional reference information to this section from either SSI’s Dive Business
International magazine or other trade publications.
Equipment Sales and Specialty Training
The SSI Open Water Instructor Manual is intended to promote equipment sales and
specialty training by helping Instructors educate divers about the value of owning equipment
and taking specialty courses. This should be done in an educational context as a natural part of
the course, not a sales presentation. The objective is to provide students with all the information
they will need to become avid, well-trained, well-equipped divers. The assumption is that, as avid
divers, they will want and need scuba equipment and additional training at some point. Based
on that assumption, if that information is omitted from the course, you are in effect cheating the
students from the quality of training for which they paid.
STATEMENT OF RELATIONSHIP
As a diving professional, it is important to understand the relationship of each
participant in the diver certification process, and the responsibilities of each participant during
the teaching process.
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MANUAL
iii
Scuba Schools International
Scuba Schools International (SSI) is a company whose primary function is to develop,
produce and distribute educational programs for the training of recreational dive leaders and
recreational scuba divers through a network of Authorized Dealers. SSI provides the products
and programs used by the Authorized Dealer for the training and certification of recreational
divers. SSI provides the dealer and its staff with training in the use of the SSI educational
programs and materials based on established training guidelines and standards.
SSI Authorized Dealer
Authorized Dealers of SSI products and programs are select, independently-owned
and -operated dive businesses. These dive businesses, including retail dive stores, resorts and
charter boats, are the cornerstone of the SSI system. The business owner’s financial and personal
commitment to the business is the best assurance of quality service to the consumer. Because of
these commitments and the fact that SSI cannot physically monitor each and every program, the
business is best positioned to ensure that the consumer receives the best quality product. The
business accomplishes this by monitoring the quality of its training programs, the adherence to
standards by its instructors, and the performance of its instructors.
Thirty years of experience with this system has proven that such dive businesses
unquestionably provide the highest quality products and programs available to the consumer.
SSI Instructor
The SSI Authorized Instructor uses the SSI programs in the training of recreational
divers and follows the procedures established by the SSI Authorized Dealer in accordance with
the SSI training guidelines and standards. The Instructor’s commitment is to ensure the integrity
of the program and to provide the student with sufficient time to develop the necessary scuba
skills. This includes the Instructor making the students clearly aware that the SSI programs are
a progressive process. During training the students become less dependent on the Instructor
and more dependent on themselves, so that by the time they have completed the course of
instruction they are prepared to go diving without the supervision of an Instructor.
SSI Student
The SSI student may expect state-of-the-art training programs from SSI, assurance of
quality programs and equipment from the SSI Authorized Dealer, and quality instruction with the
opportunity to learn at the student’s own pace from the SSI Authorized Instructor. The student
should clearly understand that the SSI programs are progressive and that the goal of the program
is to make the student feel comfortable scuba diving without the Instructor. The student should
also clearly understand that SSI designs the systems but does not do the actual instruction, and
therefore its ability to control anything beyond the system itself is necessarily limited.
In Closing …
The SSI system as outlined allows for several options should the student feel dissatisfied
or uncomfortable with any phase of the scuba training program. If this occurs, the student may
choose to inform one or all of the following: the SSI Instructor, the SSI Authorized Dealer, or SSI.
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Scheduling Courses
The Open Water Diver course is designed to be flexible enough to fit a variety of
scheduling options, depending on the type of course your customers require. The academic, pool
and open water sessions can be configured to create courses from one weekend in length, to a
college semester.
Determine the Number of Academic Sessions
A course structure differs in how many times the Instructor meets with the students and
how the Instructor makes use of academic sessions. With home study, the number of academic
sessions which require lectures can be cut to a minimum.
Most courses require a minimum of two sessions (a Course Introduction and a Course
Summary), and may consist of 6 or more sessions. The number of sessions should be determined
by the amount of money you can charge for your course and the amount of time you feel is
required to develop customer loyalty.
Using Home Study For Academics
These scheduling options all assume that the academics (reading the OWD
manual, watching the OWD video and completing the OWD Study Guide) will be during
class time if necessary, but additional time will need to be scheduled during those
academic sessions.
EXTENDED COURSE (6-8 ACADEMIC SESSIONS)
This option is a traditional course based on multiple academic sessions to develop a
bond between the instructor and customer. This course usually lasts from 3 to 6 weeks.
Day 1: Course Introduction 1 to 1.5 hours
Day 2: A
cademic Presentations (sections 1 & 2)
Pool Session 1
2 to 3 hours
2 hours
Day 3: A
cademic Presentation (section 3)
Pool Session 2
1.5 hours
2 hours
Day 4: Academic Presentation (section 4)
Pool Session 3
1.5 hours
2 hours
Day 5: Academic Presentation (sections 5)
Pool Session 4
1.5 hours
2 hours
Day 6: A
cademic Presentation (section 6)
Pool Session 5
1.5 hours
2 hours
Day 7: Course Summary & Final Exam
Pool Session 6
1 to 1.5 hours
2 hours
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MANUAL
10TH EDITION • 10/10
MODIFIED COURSE (4-5 ACADEMIC SESSIONS)
This option is a modified version of the traditional course. It eliminates some of the
academic sessions to shorten the course, without sacrificing a bond between the Instructor and
customer. This option relies heavily on home-study academics. This course usually lasts from 2
to 4 weeks, or 2 weekends.
Day 1: Course Introduction
1 to 1.5 hours
Day 2: A
cademic Presentations (sections 1 & 2)
Pool Session 1 & 2 2 hours
3 hours
Day 3: A
cademic Presentation (sections 3 & 4)
Pool Session 3 & 4
2 hours
3 hours
Day 4: A
cademic Presentation (sections 5 & 6)
Pool Session 5 & 6
2 hours
3 hours
Day 5: Course Summary & Final Exam
1 to 1.5 hours
WEEKEND COURSE (2-3 ACADEMIC SESSIONS)
This option is a one weekend course for either private classes, or for customers who
need certification quickly. It eliminates most of the academic sessions without sacrificing pool
time. This option will only work with home-study academics.
Friday night:
Course Introduction
1 to 1.5 hours
Saturday: C
ourse Summary (sections 1-6)
Pool Session 1, 2 & 3
2 to 3 hours
4.5 hours
Sunday:Wrap up & Final Exam
Pool Session 4, 5 & 6
1 to 1.5 hours
4.5 hours
COLLEGE COURSE (1 QUARTER TO 1 SEMESTER)
If you are interested in putting together a course for your college or university, contact
SSI for information about our accreditation program. This booklet includes an entire course
schedule you can modify, but here is a quick summary you can use.
Course Introduction
Academic Section 1
Academic Section 2
Academic Section 3
Academic Section 4
Academic Section 5
Academic Section 6
Course Summary
Pool (sessions 1-6)
1 session of 1.5 hours
2 sessions of 1.5 hours each
2 sessions of 1.5 hours each
2 sessions of 1.5 hours each
2 sessions of 1.5 hours each
2 sessions of 1.5 hours each
2 sessions of 1.5 hours each
1 session of 1.5 hours
6 sessions of 2 hours each
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Required Materials
An organized Instructor makes sure he or she has all of the required materials for each
academic, pool or open water session. You should refer to this list when preparing for teaching.
The required materials are quite repetitious between the sessions, so only the materials pertinent
to a particular session are listed. Note: Remember, if you are combining multiple academic or pool sessions into one, you will
need to provide the required materials for each particular session.
ACADEMIC SESSIONS
If you conduct the Course Introduction Presentation, you should be able to get all of the
required paperwork out of the way, leaving only minor record keeping for the remaining
academic sessions.
Note: It is assumed the academics will be completed through home study, and the Open
Water Diver videos will not be shown during class time. This is, however, optional.
Course Introduction Presentation
A.
Student Materials
1. SSI Open Water Diver Manual and Study Guide
2. Completed Study Guide Answer Sheets
3. SSI Total DiveLog
B.
Instructor Materials
1. SSI Open Water Instructor Manual
2. SSI Dive Leader DiveLog
3. Diver Training Records
4. Open Water Diver Video (optional)
5. PEGs (Presentation Enhancement Guides)
6. Risk Awareness DVD (TV and DVD player)
7. Risk For Children Video (children ages 10 & 11), if applicable
8. Parental Statement (children ages 10 & 11), if applicable
9. Guidelines for Recreational Scuba Divers Physical Examination
Section 1 Presentation: Your Diving Equipment
From this point on, “Items” listed below refers to materials listed in the Course Introduction.
A. Student Materials
1. Items 1 – 3 (if applicable)
B. Instructor Materials
1. Items 1 – 5
2. Variety of equipment for demonstration (brands sold by your store)
Section 2 Presentation: Using Your Diving Equipment
A. Student Materials
1. Items 1 – 3 (if applicable)
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B. Instructor Materials
1. Items 1 – 5
2. Variety of scuba equipment for demonstration (brands sold by your store)
Section 3 Presentation: Your Body and the Underwater World
A. Student Materials
1. Items 1 – 3 (if applicable)
B. Instructor Materials
1. Items 1 – 5
Section 4 Presentation: Planning and Executing Your Dives
A. Student Materials
1. Items 1 – 3 (if applicable)
2. SSI Dive Tables and/or dive computer
B.
Instructor Materials
1. Items 1 – 5
2. SSI Dive Table Wall Chart
3. Variety of dive computers for demonstration (brands your store sells)
Section 5 Presentation: Your Underwater World
A. Student Materials
1. Items 1 – 3 (if applicable)
B. Instructor Materials
1. Items 1 – 5
2. Photos, videos or visual aids on local diving and local marine life (optional)
Section 6 Presentation: Your Scuba Diving Experiences and Beyond
A. Student Materials
1. Items 1 – 3 (if applicable)
B.
Instructor Materials
1. Items 1 – 5
2. Total DiveLog and posters for explanation
3. Open Water Diver Exams and Answer Keys (if applicable)
4. Risk Awareness Video, part 2 (if applicable)
5. Universal Referral Forms (if applicable)
Course Summary Presentation
A. Student Materials
1. Items 1 – 3 (if applicable)
B. Instructor Materials
1. Items 1 – 5
2. Open Water Diver Exams and Answer Keys (if applicable)
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3. Risk Awareness Video, part 2 (if applicable)
4. Universal Referral Forms (if applicable)
POOL SESSIONS
The equipment required for the pool sessions is very repetitious. The only major difference
is with Pool 1, snorkeling, because no scuba equipment is required.
Pool Session 1
A. Student Materials
1. Equipment:
ask, snorkel, fins, boots, buoyancy compensator or
M
snorkeling vest, weight system, (exposure suit, hood
and gloves optional)
2. SSI DiveLog
3. Personal Items: B.
Instructor Materials
1. SSI Open Water Instructor Manual
2. SSI Instructor Q-Cards
3. SSI Dive Leader DiveLog
3. Diver Training Records
4. Equipment: mask, snorkel, fins, boots, buoyancy compensator
or snorkeling vest, weight system (exposure suit,
hood and gloves optional)
5. Recommended Equipment: extra set of student snorkeling equipment
6. Personal Items: swimsuit and towel
swimsuit and towel
Pool Sessions 2 through 6
A. Student Materials
1. Equipment:
ask, snorkel, fins, boots, buoyancy compensator
M
with power inflator, weight system, cylinder,
regulator with submersible pressure gauge and
alternate air source (exposure suit, hood and gloves
optional)
depth gauge and timing device
2. Recommended Equipment: 3. SSI Total DiveLog
4. Personal Items: B.
Instructor Materials
1. SSI Open Water Instructor Manual
2. SSI Instructor Q-Cards
3. SSI Dive Leader DiveLog
3. Diver Training Records
4. Equipment: Mask, snorkel, fins, boots, buoyancy compensator
with power inflator, weight system, cylinder,
regulator with submersible pressure gauge, depth
gauge and alternate air source, compass, timing
device, and emergency signaling device (exposure
suit, hood and gloves optional)
5. Recommended Equipment: extra set of student scuba equipment
6. Personal Items: swimsuit and towel
swimsuit and towel
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ix
OPEN WATER SESSIONS
The equipment required for the open water sessions is very repetitious. The only difference
is with Open Water 1, snorkeling, because no scuba equipment is required.
Open Water Session 1
A. Student Materials
1. Equipment: ask, snorkel, fins, boots, buoyancy compensator,
M
weight system, (exposure suit, hood and gloves
optional)
2. SSI Total DiveLog
3. Personal Items: swimsuit and towel
4. Universal Referral Documents (if applicable)
B.
Instructor Materials
1. SSI Open Water Instructor Manual
2. SSI Instructor Q-Cards
3. SSI Dive Leader DiveLog
4. Diver Training Records
5. Emergency Equipment (see SSI Training Standards)
6. Emergency Management Plan
7. Personal Items: swimsuit and towel
8. Equipment: mask, snorkel, fins, boots, buoyancy compensator,
weight system, compass, knife (exposure suit, hood
and gloves optional)
9. Recommended Equipment: extra set of student snorkeling equipment
Open Water Sessions 2 through 6
A. Student Materials
1. Equipment: ask, snorkel, fins, boots, buoyancy compensator
M
with power inflator, weight system, cylinder,
regulator with submersible pressure gauge and
alternate air source (exposure suit, hood and gloves
optional)
2. Recommended Equipment: depth gauge, timing device, compass, knife
3. SSI Total DiveLog
4. Personal Items: swimsuit and towel
5. Universal Referral Documents (if applicable)
B. Instructor Materials
1. Items 1 – 7 (see above)
2. Equipment: ask, snorkel, fins, boots, buoyancy compensator
M
with power inflator, weight system, cylinder,
regulator with submersible pressure gauge, depth
gauge, alternate air source, timing device, knife,
compass and emergency signaling device (exposure
suit, hood and gloves optional)
3. Recommended Equipment: extra set of student scuba equipment
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Record Keeping
This section organizes all of the record keeping for the course into one easy-to-use section.
We recommend storing all of the students’ homework and other paperwork in their Diver
Training Records as a way of organizing your record keeping. At the end of the course, the
entire Diver Training Record should be completed. The only exception would be if a student is
sent on referral for open water training.
ACADEMIC SESSIONS
The most efficient way to complete the required record keeping during the academic
training is to hold a Course Introduction Presentation to get the preliminary paperwork out
of the way. This can include the Risk Awareness video and waiver, medical history, Diver
Training Record, and even correcting the OWD Study Guide questions which should have
been completed through home study. This leaves only the most basic record keeping for the
remaining academic sessions, with the final signing of the DiveLog and Training Record, and the
Universal Referral form (if applicable) for the final academic session.
Course Introduction Presentation
A. Diver Training Record
1. Have students fill out personal information on Diver Training Record.
2. Complete (or turn in) medical history form.
B.Study Guide Questions. Turn in OWD Study Guide questions to Instructor for review.
C.Risk Awareness Video, Part 1. Show the Risk Awareness Video, Part 1 and have the
students complete the Assumption of Risk Waiver/Release form.
D.Risk For Children. Show the Risk For Children Video (if applicable) to both the
children and their parents, then have the parents sign the Parental Statement.
Sections 1 through 6 Presentations
A.Diver Training Record. Both the student and instructor should sign off and date the
appropriate spaces on the Diver Training Record.
ote: If the multiple academic sessions are combined, or if the academics are presented
N
as one Course Summary, the record keeping for those sections should each be filled out
completely.
Course Summary Presentation
If no Course Summary Presentation is given, the record keeping that is listed here should be
completed in the final academic session.
A. OWD Final Exam
1. Have the students complete the Open Water Diver written exam and record their
answers on the back of their Diver Training Records.
2. Grade the exam. Students must score an 80% or higher to pass.
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3. Review the exam with the students, discussing all missed answers. Students should
initial missed questions after they understand the correct answer.
4. The instructor and the student should sign off the exam on the Diver Training
Record.
B. Diver Training Record
1. Date and initial the appropriate spaces in the Classroom Training Record.
2. Complete the final statement of completion (if there are no more pool sessions).
C.Total DiveLog. Sign and date the Classroom Training statement of completion in
the student’s Total DiveLog. Emboss the page with the SSI Embosser to give it a more
formal look.
D.Dive Leader DiveLog. After completing all student classroom, pool and record
keeping requirements, record the course on a Certification Sign-Off page in your Dive
Leader DiveLog. Classroom and pool students are worth one Experience Point each.
Experience points count toward Century Instructor, Gold 500 Instructor, Platinum
100 Instructor and Platinum Pro 500 Instructor recognition ratings.
If you are conducting the optional pool session, you should wait until the session is
completed before recording the points.
E.Risk Awareness Video, Part 2 (optional). You have the option of covering part 2 of
the Risk Awareness information now. The decision should be based on how the open
water training dives will be completed. The procedures are defined in Open Water
Session 1.
1. Through Your Facility. If the dives will be completed with your facility soon after
the completion of academic and pool training, it is easier to cover Risk Awareness
now.
2. By Referral. If the dives will be completed by referral, you must cover the Risk
Awareness, Part 2 information prior to the student’s departure. Unless the students
will attend a separate pre-referral presentation session, it is easier to cover Risk
Awareness now.
POOL SESSIONS
The most efficient way to complete the required record keeping for the pool sessions is
immediately following each class. After everyone has had a chance to clean up their equipment
and dry off, have everyone meet for a quick post-class meeting. Use this meeting to quickly sign
off everyones’ Diver Training Record, and discuss any problems or questions that may have
arisen during the pool session.
If you will not be conducting the optional pool 6, complete all of the final sign-offs on the
Training Record and DiveLog after pool session 5.
Pool Session 1-4 (and 5, if conducting optional pool class 6)
A.Diver Training Record. Complete the appropriate class in the Pool/Confined Water
Training Record section of the Diver Training Record. Students should date and initial
the appropriate spaces. Then you initial.
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Pool Session 5 (or 6, if conducting optional pool class 6)
A.Diver Training Record. There are two record keeping tasks to complete in the Diver
Training Record.
1. T
raining Record. Complete the class 5 (or 6) in the Pool/Confined Water Training
Record section of the Diver Training Record. Students should date and initial the
appropriate spaces. Then you initial.
2. F
inal Sign-Off. If all skill work is complete and both you and the student are
satisfied with the student’s performance, you and the student sign and date the
statement of completion.
B.Total DiveLog. Sign and date the Pool/Confined Water Training statement of
completion in the student’s DiveLog. Emboss the page with the SSI Embosser to give it
a more formal look.
C.Dive Leader DiveLog. After completing all student open water training and record
keeping requirements, record the course on a Certification Sign-Off page in your
Dive Leader DiveLog. Classroom/Pool students are worth one Experience Point each. Experience Points count toward Century Instructor, Gold 500 Instructor, Platinum 1000
Instructor and Platinum Pro 5000 Instructor recognition ratings.
OPEN WATER SESSIONS
The Risk Awareness, Video Part 2 must be shown, and the Waiver completed, prior to
any students entering the open water. This step may have already been completed in the final
academic session. If not, then it must be completed at this point, or during a pre-open water
orientation session.
Make sure all paperwork is complete after the final open water session so the students can
receive their certification cards. Incomplete paperwork can be a liability issue should the student
become involved in a diving-related accident either during training, or after certification. Open Water Session 1
A.Risk Awareness, Part 2. Prior to open water training, students must sign the Waiver
and Release of Liability, Assumption of Risk and Indemnity Agreement. Students need
to be informed about the potential risks of training in the open water, as they differ
from training in the pool. There is no need to scare the students, but they should be
aware that the new environment they are about to enter has inherent risks, and that
by signing the Waiver and Release of Liability, Assumption of Risk and Indemnity
Agreement, they are assuming responsibility for those inherent risks.
1. Show Risk Awareness video, part 2.
2. D iscuss Waiver and Release of Liability, Assumption of Risk and Indemnity
Agreement. Answer any questions.
3. Have students complete and sign the “Risk Awareness Video, Part 2” portion of the
“Entry Level Training” side of the Waiver and Release of Liability, Assumption of Risk
and Indemnity Agreement. Tell the students to have a witness sign beneath in the
“witness” area.
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4. If the student is a minor, it is recommended that both parents watch the video and
sign the Waiver. If the minor has only one parent, have that parent watch and sign.
5. Referral Considerations. If the referral student is from any non-SSI agency, you can
still show the video prior to signing the Waiver.
B.Diver Training Record/Universal Referral Form. If all skill work is complete and you
are satisfied with the students’ performance, they should date and initial the appropriate
space in class 1 of the Open Water Training Record section. If you are not satisfied with
their performance, the students should practice more in the next open water session.
C.Total DiveLog. All students should log the dive on a Level 1 log page. This
promotes the habit of logging dives. For this dive there is a special Snorkeling
log page.
Open Water Sessions 2 - 4
A.Diver Training Record/Universal Referral Form. If all skill work is complete and you
are satisfied with the students’ performance, they should date and initial the appropriate
space of the Open Water Training Record section. If you are not satisfied with their
performance, the students should practice more in the next open water session.
B.Total DiveLog. All students should log the dive on a Level 1 log page. This promotes
the habit of logging dives.
Open Water Session 5
A.Diver Training Record/Universal Referral Form
1. Open Water Training Record. If all skill work is complete and you are satisfied
with the students’ performance, they should date and initial the appropriate space in
class 5 of the Open Water Training Record section. Do not sign the Training Record
if you are not comfortable with a student’s performance.
2. P
ass/Not Pass (Universal Referral Form Only). Indicate if the student has passed
or not passed the dives. If the student did not pass, you may want to indicate the
reasons to the Initiating Instructor.
3. F
inal Sign-Off. If all spaces have been dated and initialed, review the final
statement with the students. Students should sign and date the statement, then you
sign.
B.Total DiveLog. There are three record keeping tasks in the student’s
Total DiveLog.
1. Open Water Training Record. Duplicate the procedure for the Diver Training
Record in the Student’s DiveLog. The two training records should be identical.
2. L
og the Dive. All students should log the dive on a Level 1 log page. This
promotes the habit of logging dives.
3. L
evel 1 Sign-Off. You and the student sign the page indicating the student is a
“Level 1” diver. You can also adhere a yellow Level 1 sticker and emboss the page
with the special SSI embosser.
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C.Dive Leader DiveLog. After completing all student open water training and record
keeping requirements, record the course on a Certification Sign-Off page in your
Dive Leader DiveLog. Open water students are worth one Experience Point each. Experience Points count toward Century Instructor, Gold 500 Instructor, Platinum 1000
Instructor and Platinum Pro 5000 Instructor recognition ratings.
D.Ordering Certification Cards. To ensure the students receive their certification cards
in a timely manner. According to SSI Standards, certification cards must be ordered
within 10 days of completion of the students last open water training dive.
Open Water Session 6 (optional)
A.Diver Training Record. Complete the Optional Class space in the Open
Water Training Record section. The student should date and initial, and you
should initial.
B.Total DiveLog. Make sure everyone logs the dive in their DiveLog. You can either
use the sixth page in Level 1, or the first page in Level 2. Have their buddies sign as
“witness.”
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Contents
CI-1
Course
Introduction
OBJECTIVES
INTRODUCTION
I. O BJECTIVES. After completing this
Welcome
• H ave completed all of the required
paperwork for the course.
Personal Introductions
Diver Training Record
• Have a thorough understanding of the
required fees, materials and equipment
for the course.
Risk Awareness
Risk For Children
• R eceive a thorough course overview,
including what to expect from the
course, and what will be expected
of them.
• Have an opportunity to have all of their
questions answered.
SSI recommends holding a Course
Introduction prior to each Open Water
Diver course as a way of introducing
students to what they should expect
from the course, to get the required
paperwork out of the way, and to orient
students to the scuba equipment they
will be encouraged, or required to
purchase—especially if equipment must
be purchased by the first pool session.
C o u r s e I n t r o d u c t i o n s c a n b e
conducted in many ways. They can be
held as a formal academic session before
the actual class begins, or they can be
held informally, one-on-one, at the store
with either the instructor or salesperson
on duty. You and your diving facility
can customize the Course Introduction to
fit your particular needs.
Course Introductions are particularly
helpful when conducting weekend
programs where class time is minimal.
PRESENTATION
section, the student should:
Course Overview
QUESTIONS
SUMMARY
ASSIGNMENT
CI-2
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II. INTRODUCTION
A.Welcome. The beginning of this first session is extremely important. Try to
establish a mood of fun and enthusiasm. Help break the ice and put everyone at
ease.
B.Personal Introductions. Introduce yourself and any assistants immediately and
briefly describe your qualifications and teaching experience. Take roll out loud
or ask students to introduce themselves. Encourage students to get to know each
other right away, and make an effort to learn all names as soon as possible.
C.Diver Training Record. Go through the four sides of the Diver Training Record,
so each student understands what it is and how it will be used during the course.
1. Statement of Understanding
a. Y ou can read the Statement of Understanding to the students. This
provides an opportunity to clarify many key points.
b. S tudents must check or initial each point to indicate they heard and
understood it.
c. Sign Statement of Understanding. Minors must have parents sign as well.
2. Classroom, Pool and Open Water Training Records
a. Show how each session will be dated and initialed.
b. S SI Total DiveLog — Explain that their SSI DiveLog also contains a
Training Record page for classroom, pool and open water training. Have
the students look at their DiveLog.
3. Waiver and Release of Liability, Assumption of Risk and Indemnity Agreement
— Tell the students they will see a short video and sign the waiver. For details,
see Risk Awareness, item D.
4. Medical History
a. You can read the top portion of the Medical Statement to the class.
b. Have students complete and sign the Medical History section.
c. I f any question is answered “yes,” supply the student with a set of
Guidelines for Recreational Scuba Diver’s Physical Examination. Have the
student copy the medical onto another Medical History form. The student
should then see a licensed medical practitioner to evaluate their fitness to
dive. If the doctor signs the Medical History form, put the signed copy into
the student’s Training Record. If the licensed medical practitioner does not
sign, the student may not participate in training activities. Note: A student cannot participate in any water activity until the medical
has been completed and signed off. You may want to hand out the medical
at a pre-dive session or when the students sign up for class so they can be
ready to participate in Pool 1.
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CI-3
D.Risk Awareness. Prior to signing the Waiver and Release of Liability,
Assumption of Risk and Indemnity Agreement, the students need to be informed
about the risks and rewards of recreational scuba diving. There is no need to scare
the students, but they should be aware of the potential risks inherent in scuba
diving.
1. Show Risk Awareness video, Part 1.
2. Discuss the Waiver and Release of Liability, Assumption of Risk and Indemnity
Agreement. Answer any questions.
3. Have students complete and sign the “Risk Awareness Video – Part 1” portion
of the Waiver and Release of Liability, Assumption of Risk and Indemnity
Agreement. It is not recommended that Instructors sign as the witness.
4. If the student is a minor, it is recommended that both parents watch the video
and sign the Waiver. If only one parent is available, have that parent watch the
video and sign the waiver.
E.Risk For Children (if applicable). If there are minor children in the class ages
10 or 11, you must have these children and their parents or guardians watch the
Risk For Children video. This video is designed to fit the needs of the younger viewing audience. 1. Show Risk For Children video.
2. Discuss the Parental Statement with the parents and answer any questions
before the parents sign the Parental Statement.
III. PRESENTATION
A.Course Overview. Give the students an overview of how the course will be
conducted, and what is expected of them to pass. While there are many important
points, make sure your students understand at least the following details and
course procedures:
1. Payment Procedures
2. Equipment Policy — Explain what equipment students are expected to buy or
rent, and what equipment the dive store will supply.
3. Academic Overview — Overview of how to complete academic assignments
(explain home study requirements), the importance of reading assignments,
written examination and skill evaluation for certification, and the importance of
completing assignments on time.
4. Academic sessions. Outline how many sessions there will be.
a. Dates
b. Times
c. Location
CI-4
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5. Pool sessions. Outline how many sessions there will be.
a. Dates
b. Times
c. Location
6. Open water sessions.
a. Options
1) Local
2) Referral
b. Dates
c. Times
d. Locations
7. Location of dressing and bathroom facilities.
With both payment and equipment policies,
the students need to understand exactly what
is required of them. NO SURPRISES.
IV. QUESTIONS. Give the students plenty of time to ask any questions they might have
about the course or the course requirements.
V. SUMMARY. Take a moment to summarize what was discussed during this session as
a chance to clarify that the students understand what is expected of them.
VI. ASSIGNMENT
A. Academic assignment (Manual, Video or Study Guide) if applicable.
B. Academic session — Give date, time and location of next session
if applicable.
C. Pool session — Give date, time and location of next session if
applicable.
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CI-5
MANUAL
10TH EDITION • 10/10
INSTRUCTOR ANSWER KEY
SSI Open Water Diver Study guide
SECTION 1
SEE OPEN WATER DIVER
MANUAL, PAGE:
1. Nose pockets built into masks are used for equalizing pressure in
the ears and sinuses. 1-4
2. T
he fin that is best suited for you will depend on your physical size,
leg strength, environmental conditions and, most of all, comfort and fit.
1-6
3. Water absorbs body heat twenty-five times faster than air. 1-9
4. The amount of lead weight you will need will vary based on a number
of things including the type, size and thickness of the suit you are using.
1-9
5. Most recreational diving is done in temperatures between about
50 F - 80 F (10 C- 27 C). Coverage and thickness preferences come into play at the warm and cold extremes of this range, but it is generally agreed that full wet suits should be worn from 65 F - 80 F (18 C - 24 C).
1-11
6. A good fit is one of the most important considerations when
choosing a wet suit.
1-12
7. You may want to consider using a dry suit in waters below 65 F (16 C).
1-12
8. The acronym S.C.U.B.A. stands for self contained underwater
breathing apparatus.
1-13
9. A
luminium cylinders will affect your buoyancy more than steel, because
there is a greater weight difference between a full and empty cylinder.
1-14
10. B
1-17
CI-6
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INSTRUCTOR ANSWER KEY
SSI Open Water Diver Study Guide
SECTION 1 (CONTINUED)
SEE OPEN WATER DIVER
MANUAL, PAGE:
11. There is no excuse for running out of air. Divers are equipped with a
submersible pressure gauge to monitor their air supply.
1-19
12. Using a computer provides the diver with many advantages over
conventional analog gauges and dive tables.
1-20
13. T
he compass helps the diver maintain a sense of direction when
natural navigation is not not possible due to lack of distinct underwater features or low visibility.
1-22
14. W
hen using the manual control button, extend the inflator hose to
the highest point in order to get the greatest efficiency in deflation.
1-26
15. D
iver’s Luggage is often the most important piece of equipment when
it comes to the protection of your Total Diving System.
1-30
16. T
he two kinds of flags used are the recreational diver’s flag and the
alpha flag, or the international “diver down” flag.
1-31
17. M
any live-aboard dive boats and dive boat operators now require that
each diver have and use inflatable surface markers so that they
can be more easily seen on the surface for pickup after the dive.
1-32
18. W
hen traveling it is recommended to carry an extra mask, and
extra high and low pressure hoses.
1-33
19. In the U.S. a cylinder must be hydrostatically tested every five years
and visually inspected every year.
1-39
20. W
ork with your local SSI Dealer and Instructor in determining your
needs, and acquire your own equipment as soon as you can.
1-40
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MANUAL
10TH EDITION • 10/10
INSTRUCTOR ANSWER KEY
SSI Open Water Diver Study guide
SECTION 2
SEE OPEN WATER DIVER
MANUAL, PAGE:
1. T
he exposure suit needs to be put on in the proper order at the proper
time. Follow the steps in the right order. A general rule for dressing is to do it right before the dive.
2-2
2. D
epending on the type of equipment you are using, you may need to
put the weight belt on last.
2-3
3. S
ometimes you’ll need to walk with your fins on, which can be awkward.
It is easier and safer to shuffle backwards on pool and boat decks, on
the shore, and while entering and leaving shallow water.
2-6
4. T
he most common kick used with diving fins is a modified version of
the swimmer’s flutter kick.
2-8
5. T
he power gained by using fins while swimming all but eliminates the need to use the hands or arms, which can be left relaxed at the
sides, clasped in front of the body or carrying extra equipment.
2-9
6. Y
our fins extend well past your feet and can cause damage to the reef
by breaking coral structures, disturbing marine life or stirring up the bottom. Always look down down to see where you are kicking.
2-10
7. A
s you ascend, look where you are going and extend one arm above
your head to protect against obstructions. 2-12
8. W
hen snorkeling with your buddy, it’s a good safety plan to follow
the one up, one down system.
2-12
9. E
xhale gently through your nose to equalize the pressure inside
your mask.
2-13
10. E
ar squeezes are avoided by pinching the nose closed with thumb and
index finger, then attempting to gently exhale through the nose.
2-13
11. B (6,5,3,7,2,1,4)
2-16 thru 2-19
12. R
egardless of your method of putting on the unit, make sure the BC
does not interfere with the weight belt, which must be free and positioned for easy ditching. (2-21)
2-21
13. If for any reason you or your buddy are not completely confident that
all systems are go, don’t enter the water until you are.
2-21
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INSTRUCTOR ANSWER KEY
SSI Open Water Diver Study Guide
SECTION 2 (CONTINUED)
SEE OPEN WATER DIVER
MANUAL, PAGE:
14. You may go under water when entering, so always keep your mask on
so you can see, the regulator in your mouth so you can breathe, and
the BC inflated so you can float.
2-22
15. T
he method for breathing through the second stage is a slow,
steady inhalation followed by a relaxed exhalation. 2-23
16. If you cannot locate your primary second-stage, another option is to
breathe off your alternate air source until your primary can be located.
2-24
17. A
s you approach the depth at which you would like to stabilize, add
more air th the BC, if needed, to become suspended in the water. 2-26
18. Y
ou and your buddy should decide when you want to ascend, signal
each other that you are ready, then ascend together. Your goal is a slow, effortless ascent with a safety stop at 15 feet (4.5 metres). 2-27
19. K
eep an eye on your computer or depth gauge and timing device, making
sure you do not exceed 30 feet (9 metres) per minute. If you are using a depth gauge and timer to monitor your ascent rate, 30 feet (9 metres) should take 60 seconds to complete
2-27
20. A
s a general rule, when exiting leave your equipment in place and
your BC inflated until you are safely out of the water. 2-28
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MANUAL
10TH EDITION • 10/10
INSTRUCTOR ANSWER KEY
SSI Open Water Diver Study guide
SECTION 3
SEE OPEN WATER DIVER
MANUAL, PAGE:
1. E
ar equalization, or “clearing,” should be started immediately upon
descending and continued as you dive deeper, and should never be done forcefully. 3-4
2. If your sinuses are blocked, it is best not to dive until the problem
is resolved and they are open again.
3-5
3. A
common reaction to anxiety or fear is a rapid, shallow
breathing pattern.
3-8
4. U
nless a diver stops, thinks and gets breathing under control, stress,
and even panic may result.
3-11
5. T
o prevent carbon dioxide excess, avoid overexertion and dive with
high quality, well maintained equipment. 3-11
6. A
lways breathe normally, never hold your breath; even if the regulator
is out of your mouth while under water, develop a habit of exhaling
a steady stream of bubbles. 3-11
7. P
roper weighting is what allows the diver to get under water and
begin a descent. With proper weighting achieved, adjustment of buoyancy under water is accomplished by adding air to or
subtracting air from the BC. 3-15
8. O
nce neutrally buoyant at any depth, if you move into shallower water,
the air in your BC will expand and you will need to release air from
the BC until you become suspended. 3-16
9. H
earing is affected (underwater) because soundwaves travel about four
times faster in water than in air. 3-17
10. A
sound all divers need to know is the clanking of a diver’s tool or
other device against a scuba cylinder. This is a signal to get another
diver’s attention.
3-20
11. T
he body loses heat faster in water than it does in air — twenty-five
times faster.
3-20
12. W
hen body temperature is allowed to drop to 95 F (35 C),
hypothermia sets in.
3-21
13. F
ailure to keep an open airway to the lungs upon ascent can result in
one of four overexpansion injuries.
3-22
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INSTRUCTOR ANSWER KEY
SSI Open Water Diver Study Guide
SECTION 3 (CONTINUED)
SEE OPEN WATER DIVER
MANUAL, PAGE:
14. D
uring the process of releasing nitrogen from the tissues, it is important
that the diver comes up slowly enough to allow the nitrogen to stay in
solution in the tissues and blood while it is being released.
3-24
15. The proper rate of ascent is 30 feet (9 metres), per minute.
3-27
16. Write all contact information in your SSI Total DiveLog. 3-29
17. W
hile it is important to know emergency precautions, properly trained
divers who use good judgement should never need to use them, or
make it necessary for others to use them.
3-30
18. A
fter your ascent, when you reach the surface, inflate the BC, do a weight
system check, keep you mask in place, and either keep the regulator in
place or switch to snorkel breathing.
3-31
19. A
n emergency swimming ascent is essentially the same as a normal ascent
except that you are prepared to ditch your weight system for immediate positive buoyancy if necessary.
3-34
20. If you are confused or panicked while at depth, start to the surface using the
emergency swimming ascent.
3-35
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10TH EDITION • 10/10
INSTRUCTOR ANSWER KEY
SSI Open Water Diver Study guide
SECTION 4
SEE OPEN WATER DIVER
MANUAL, PAGE:
1. D
ive computers and the dive tables are designed to allow you to make
as many repetitive dives per day as you would like, as long as you remain within the no-decompression limits.
4-3
2. T
he amount of elapsed time from the start of your descent to the time
you begin your direct ascent to the surface is called the bottom time.
4-3
3. T
he deepest point you reached during a dive, no matter how briefly you
stayed there is called depth.
4-5
4. T
he letter assigned after a dive which indicates the amount of residual
nitrogen remaining in the diver’s tissues is called the group
designation letter.
4-6
5. A
ny dive started more than 10 minutes and less than 12 hours after a
previous scuba dive is called a repetitive dive.
4-6
6. R
esidual Time (RT) is defined as excessive nitrogen pressure still residual
in the diver at the beginning of a repetitive dive. 4-6
7. T
he Surface Interval (SI) is defined as the amount of time the diver stays
out of the water or on the surface between dives. 4-6
8. S
uppose you make a dive to 51 feet (15.5 metres) for 31 minutes.
What is your group designation? G After a surface interval of one hour,
what is your new group designation? F page
9. U
sing your new group designation from question 8, suppose you want to make a
second dive to a depth of 40 feet (12 metres). What is your adjusted no-decompression time limit? 69 minutes. What is your Residual
Time (RT)? 61 minutes. page
10. D
ive computers plan and monitor your data throughout the diving day,
and, when used properly, can add many minutes to your dives while
remaining within the no-decompression limits.
4-14
11. It is important to remember that no tools, dive tables or dive computers can
guarantee that you will not suffer decompression sickness. 4-15
CI-12
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SSI Open Water Diver Study Guide
SECTION 4 (CONTINUED)
SEE OPEN WATER DIVER
MANUAL, PAGE:
12. W
hen diving at altitude, your nitrogen absorption rate is different than
at sea level because of the lower atmospheric pressure, and because
diving at altitude is generally done in fresh water.
4-16
13. T
o avoid problems it is recommended that you wait 18 hours before
flying in a pressurized airplane, and 24 hours if you plan to fly, or
even drive, above 8000 feet (2.4 km) in a nonpressurized aircraft of vehicle.
4-17
14. A
dding additional equipment to the Total Diving System and being in
the best physical and mental condition possible cannot entirely compensate
for the increased risk associated with diving alone.
4-19
15. P
ressuring an unprepared diver is a sure way of causing stress that can
lead to an accident.
4-20
16. T
he dive profile in your SSI DiveLog will help you record your parameters
and plan a repetitive dive.
4-21
17. E
ach diver has the right at any time, for any reason, to call off a dive, even
if you are dressed and ready to enter the water.
4-22
18. D
iving should always be fun. To help ensure that you do have fun,
always dive within you ability and comfort level.
4-24
19. S
ome things you can do to make your diving more enjoyable include
drinking adequate, non-alcoholic liquids to prevent dehydration and
eating sensibly throughout the day.
4-26
20. In addition to tracking number of logged dives, your SSI DiveLog is an
important source of information for subsequent dives, for keeping track of your training, and for recording memories.
4-29
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INSTRUCTOR ANSWER KEY
SSI Open Water Diver Study guide
SECTION 5
SEE OPEN WATER DIVER
MANUAL, PAGE:
1. T
he surface of this planet is actually made up of very little earth. In is in
fact about 70% water.
5-2
2. It is estimated that plant production in the oceans may be ten times
more than that on land. More than 85% of the oxygen is produced by
marine plants. Even the photosynthesis that takes place on land requires water, which originates in the oceans. 5-3
3. F
or us as divers, the oceans may be playgrounds, but playgrounds are
only fun and exciting if we keep them clean and well maintained.
5-4
4. T
he force that originally acts on the water to create tide is the gravity
of the moon and sun, primarily the moon, pulling at the side of the
earth nearest the moon.
5-5
5. N
ear shore, the best time for diving would probably be during periods of
minimal exchange of water between the tides.
5-6
6. B
ecause dense, cold water tends to sink underneath warm water, layer
of various temperatures are found at different depths. The boundaries between these layers are called thermoclines. 5-8
7. Y
ou should keep in mind when freshwater diving that the temperature
at the surface may be much warmer than the temperature at your
destination depth. 5-9
8. T
he longer and harder the wind blows, the larger the waves become.
The longer the fetch, the further the wave action will be extended. 5-10
9. It is important to hold on when entering the boat because while your
equipment feels weightless in the water, as soon as you emerge from
the water it will weigh you down and you may instantaneously feel the full weight of your body and equipment transferred to your arms. 5-12
10. T
ake these precautions in case you accidentally slip back into the water:
Keep your mask in place so you can see, your regulator or snorkel in
place so you can breathe, and your BC inflated so you can float. 5-13
11. W
hen entering or exiting from shore, the diver’s primary concern is to
avoid being knocked down and buffeted by surf and backwash. 5-15
12. A
ny time waves reach shoreline, the water must return to sea. This
returning water creates a back current, or rip current.
5-18
CI-14
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INSTRUCTOR ANSWER KEY
SSI Open Water Diver Study Guide
SECTION 5 (CONTINUED)
SEE OPEN WATER DIVER
MANUAL, PAGE:
13. A
ny time you do find yourself facing into a rip current, turn and
swim at a right angle or diagonal to it until you catch a shoreward
water movement, or at least move out of the main force of the current. 5-19
14. In drift diving you simply float along with the current, and so does the
boat. when you surface, the boat picks you up. 5-21
15. M
any dive sites throughout the world are considered marine parks and are
protected by law. This protection helps keep these dive sites in pristine condition by protecting the coral and other aquatic marine life from
hunters and collectors. 5-22
16. S
ea stars, brittle stars, sea urchins, sand dollars, and sea cucumbers all
belong to the group of animals known as the Echinoderms.
5-26
17. T
he vertebrates, fishes and mammals, are well known and are the most
visible life forms in the open waters.
5-26
18. The creatures capable of inflicting injury will do so only defensively. They
will react when surprised by being touched or having their territory invaded,
or when taunted or molested.
5-28
19. T
here is no doubt that some sharks are unpredictable and can be
dangerous —but almost exclusively when provoked.
5-32
20. D
epending on the area of the world where you are diving, you are likely
to run into one of a number of fish belonging to a few freshwater
families, including Bass, Pike, Perch, Catfish, Trout, Carp, Crappie and Gar.
5-34
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INSTRUCTOR ANSWER KEY
SSI Open Water Diver Study guide
SECTION 6
SEE OPEN WATER DIVER
MANUAL, PAGE:
1. T
here are two ways in which you can complete the open water dives.
The first is with your SSI Training Facility, and the other is by referral.
To select which method is best for you, talk to your instructor.
6-1
2. D
ivers in the United States can earn college credit for scuba courses,
thanks to Scuba Schools International’s association with the American Council on Education (ACE).
6-3
3. M
ost facilities have “buddy boards” that list other people who want to go
diving.
6-4
4. N
o matter where you live, you can have fun diving. It does not matter
if you live near an ocean, lake, river or quarry, underwater adventure and
exploration awaits you. 6-5
5. L
ocal diving is an opportunity to have fun with your dive buddies, use your
equipment and gain valuable diving experience anytime you want.
6-5
6. F
or many divers, dive travel means a relaxing vacation to tropical islands,
nice hotels, good food and romantic evenings. For other divers it means adventure travel to the remote corners of the world where primitive conditions equate to pristine dive sites rarely seen by humans. 6-5
7. G
roup trips through your SSI Dealer are a relaxing, hassle-free way to
travel. They take care of the accommodations, dive boats, transfers, dive
equipment, luggage and often the food as well.
6-6
8. D
iving is an awesome sport because people of all ages and abilities can
have fun diving together. This means that the whole family can get
involved in scuba diving.
6-6
9. E
ven though your certification is valid for a lifetime, it is important to
keep your scuba skills proficient. The only way to stay proficient is by diving. While there is no magic number, a good rule f thumb is to dive at
least four to five times per year. 6-7
10. M
any dive destinations require that you have recent diving experience.
The Scuba Skills Update tab in your Total DiveLog shows at-a-glance
that you have kept your skills proficient.
6-7
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INSTRUCTOR ANSWER KEY
SSI Open Water Diver Study Guide
SECTION 6 (CONTINUED)
SEE OPEN WATER DIVER
MANUAL, PAGE:
11. L
earning about specialty activities, such as diving on wrecks, fish watching,
photography and night diving, is the next logical step in your adventure.
6-8
12. S
pecialty activities can be combined to open up limitless possibilities
for adventure. For instance, you could combine nitrox diving and
photography, navigation and wreck diving, or dry suit diving and boat diving.
6-8
13. S
cuba Schools International offers a large menu of specialty courses.
A menu allows you to pursue whatever diving adventures you want,
because you can select the courses that interest you. 6-9
14. C
omparing the SSi Advanced Open Water Diver rating to those from
other organizations is like comparing apples to oranges. SSI advanced divers are more comfortable, more confident and have more ability. Most
importantly, they have more fun! 6-10
15. A
mazingly, Scuba Schools International is the only organization with an
experience requirement, even though it produces more confident,
comfortable divers.
6-12
16. If you have an interest in leading dives, teaching divers, or making a career
out of scuba diving, talk to your SSi Instructor about a Personal Orientation. 6-14
17. S
SI Dive Control Specialists are really tow ratings in one. DiveCons combine
the duties of dive masters and assistant instructors, and is the highest
entry level leadership program in the industry. 6-14
18. It is easy to upgrade to a new Level of Experience by visiting an SSI Dealer.
A staff member simply verifies the number of dives recorded in your SSI Total DiveLog.
6-15
19. S
SI Levels of Recognition can be earned for major milestones of
Level 5 (100 dives), Level 9 (500 dives), Level 10 (100 dives) and Pro Level (5000 dives).
6-16
20. T
o keep our sport strong, it is important to cultivate the next generation
of divers. The Platinum Pro Foundation is an independent, non-profit
group formed in 1997 with a mission of education children about the waters of the world.
6-17
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Contents
OBJECTIVES
ACADEMIC REVIEW
Correct & Discuss Study Guide
Video Presentation
Video Review Questions
PRESENTATION
The Total Diving System
Snorkeling System
Exposure System
Air Delivery System
Information System
Total DiveLog System
Buoyancy Control System
Specialty Training and Accessory Academic
Section 1:
Your Diving
Equipment
I. OBJECTIVES. After completing this
section, the student should be able to:
• Identify each subsystem, and the
equipment that make up each one.
• Identify why we need each piece of
equipment.
• Describe how to choose and fit Total
Diving System elements to meet your
personal diving needs.
• List the benefits of owning a personal
Total Diving System.
The purpose of this section is to
introduce the student to the diving
equipment they will be using during
training. This is an explanation of
everything the student must know to
select the right items for need and fit.
It is important to be aware of
the impact this session has on future
purchas-ing habits by the students.
This does not mean you need to be a
salesperson rather than an Instructor.
To the contrary, by doing your job
as an Instructor, you will make the
salesperson’s job easier.
System
Maintaining the Total Diving System
REVIEW QUESTIONS
SUMMARY
ASSIGNMENT
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If store policy requires students to
have already purchased any equipment
prior to Session 1, the portion of the
presentation concerning equipment
may be omitted.
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II. ACADEMIC REVIEW. If students have completed the academics (video, manual,
study guide questions) through home-study before this course began, you can skip
this section. If you are conducting a traditional course or college course, you can
adapt this section to fit your classroom needs.
A. Correct and Discuss the Study Guide (see Course Introduction). If
students were given Manuals and Study Guides before this class, then this
presentation will cover Section 1 of the Open Water Diver Manual and the
corresponding Study Guide Questions.
B. Video Presentation. SSI Open Water Diver, Part 1: Your Diving Equipment.
If the students have not already watched the video before class, do so before
beginning the lecture presentation.
C. Video Review Questions (page 17 of this section). If you’re using
home-study academics, you can incorporate the Video Review Questions in
with the Class Discussion questions for your summary. III. PRESENTATION: YOUR DIVING EQUIPMENT
A.The Total Diving System. The Total Diving System is made up of seven
distinct sub systems, which are:
1. 2.
3.
4.
5.
6.
7.
Snorkeling System
Exposure System
Air Delivery System
Information System
Total DiveLog System
Buoyancy Control System
Specialty Training and Accessory System
B. The Snorkeling System. The basic equipment used for snorkeling.
1. The Mask. The mask is one of the most important pieces of equipment
you will ever purchase.
a. Purpose. Human eye must be surrounded with a pocket of air, its natural environment.
b. Types of Masks
1) Low Volume or High volume
2) Corrective Lenses — Some masks can accept stock replacement
lenses that correct nearsighted vision. This should only be done in
conjunction with an eye doctor.
c. Mask Features. Some masks offer a one-way purge valve, which may
make it easier to clear your mask.
1) Mask Lens — Should have tempered glass; before using, clean off
film on lens from factory.
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2) Frame or Frameless — Should be made of noncorrosive material
such as hard or molded plastic.
3) Strap — Split at back; may want to replace with neoprene. Should
adjust easily and lock in place.
4) Positive Locking Device — Should adjust easily and lock in place.
5) Nose Pockets — Used to equalize pressure inside ears.
6) Possibility of attaching optical lenses.
d. Fitting the Mask
1) Each person’s face is unique. A professional fitting is recommended. 2) Fit Technique — Tilt head back; lay mask on face; inhale gently
through nose; tilt head forward; look straight ahead.
2. The Snorkel. Allows divers to breathe air while keeping head under water.
a. Choosing a Snorkel. Two main considerations are breathing comfort and
fit.
b. Snorkel Features.
1) Bore Style and Size — Flexible bore allows mouthpiece to hang
out of way of regulator. Solid bore should be contoured for proper
positioning.
2) Self-draining Purge Valve — Makes clearing snorkel easier.
3) Mouthpiece — Should be soft and comfortable; also may swivel and
be replaceable.
4) Dry or Semi-Dry Vent — Supposed to keep water from splashing
into top of snorkel.
3. Fins and Footwear. Fins move body through water efficiently.
a. Fin Features
1) Materials — Black rubber, polyurethane, thermoplastic, plastic
composites.
2) Paddle, Vented and Split Fins — Design is your preference. Should
give you most power for least amount of work.
3) Length and flexibility — Larger, stiffer fins require more leg
strength. Softer fins are easier to kick.
b. Fitting the Fins. Fins should fit comfortably, feel good to use, not chafe
with prolonged use, and give you most power for least effort.
1) Open-heeled fins should fit a variety of wet suit boot thicknesses.
2) Full-foot fins should fit snug but not tight over bare foot or foot
with dive skin socks.
4. Snorkeling Vest. Fits like a bib and provides “lift” at the surface. Snorkeling
vests cannot be used for scuba, however, scuba BCs can be used for
snorkeling.
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5. Mesh Personal Snorkeling System Bag. A mesh bag keeps your Personal
Snorkeling System organized, and allows you to rinse your equipment in
fresh water at end of day.
C. Exposure System. We need appropriate protection for varying diving
conditions. Water absorbs heat 25 times faster than air.
1. Warm Water Dive Skins. For warm water 91°F (33°C) and above. Protects
from sunburn, marine environment, equipment chafing.
2. Wet Suits. Water trapped between wet suit and your skin provides
insulation. Wet Suits are used in water from 50°F to 80°F (10°C-17°C).
a. Choosing a Wet Suit
1) Thickness — 1 to 7 mm. Styles are vest, shorty, farmer john, onepiece. Used from 65°F-75°F (18-24°C).
2) Hood and Gloves — Hood is required below 65°F (18°C). Gloves
offer protection from cold and abrasion.
b. Wet Suit Features. Zippers at wrists and ankles, waist, pockets, knee
and elbow pads, spine pads, color stripes
c. Wet Suit Fit. Suit should be snug, not tight, so water does not circulate. Your instructor will help you fit your suit.
3. Dry Suits. A suit that keeps the diver dry. Worn in waters below 60°F
(16°C). Divers should not use dry suits unless they have had an orientation
or an SSI Dry Suit Specialty course.
D.The Air Delivery System. The Air Delivery System compensates for the
changes in pressure by supplying air at ambient pressure to the diver on
demand. The Air Delivery System is a necessary part of the Total Diving System.
1. S.C.U.B.A. The Air Delivery System, combined with the cylinder is what
makes it possible for divers to breathe under water untethered to the
surface. The acronym S.C.U.B.A. describes these two systems: Self Contained
Underwater Breathing Apparatus.
2. Components of Air Delivery System. The Air Delivery System is made up of
three components:
a. The Cylinder
b. First Stage Regulator
c. Second Stage Regulator
3. The Cylinder. The vessel which contains the air we breathe under water.
Combined with the Air Delivery System, forms the SCUBA unit.
a. Choosing a Cylinder. The size and construction materials affects your
weighting and buoyancy under water.
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1) Size — Common sizes include 50 cubic feet (1415 litres), 65 cubic feet
(1840 litres), 70 cubic feet (1981 litres), 80 cubic feet (2264 litres).
2) Materials — Steel and aluminum.
b. Cylinder Valves. Threaded and screwed into the cylinder top.
1) K-Valve — Most common on-off valve. Up to 3000 psi (200 bar).
a) Check O-ring before putting on regulator.
b) Burst disk prevents explosion of over-inflated tanks.
2) DIN Valve — Stands for Deutsches Institute for Normung.
a) Regulator screws into valve, rather than over the valve.
b) Can be used with tank pressures over 3000psi (200 bar).
c. Cylinder Features
1) Markings — Show students tank pressure and hydrostatic date.
Cylinders without correct markings are illegal.
2) Cylinder Boots — Plastic or rubber cap which fits over bottom of
cylinder.
4. The Regulator. The scuba regulator has two separate mechanisms: the firststage and the second-stage.
a. Choosing a Regulator. Select a system that breathes easy at depth.
Exertion, fatigue, depth, getting chilled, sharing air, and low cylinder
pressure all affect how well the regulator breathes.
b. The First-Stage
1) The first-stage of the Air Delivery System attached to the cylinder.
2) Purpose — Reduces tank pressure to an intermediate pressure of
around 140 psi (10 bar) above ambient pressure, and keeps the
pressure constant as diver descends and ascends.
c. The Second-Stage
1) Purpose — Reduces intermediate hose pressure to a more
breathable ambient level.
2) How it works — Inside the second-stage is an air chamber. When
diver inhales, a flexible diaphragm is pulled inward, lifting a valve
away from its seat, and letting in air from the hose. Exhaled air
escapes through a one-way exhaust valve.
3) Purge Valve — Button on outside of mouthpiece. Allows air to
enter air chamber. Used to clear water from the mouthpiece and
vent air before removing it from the tank.
5. Alternate Air Sources. All scuba units should include a second air source
for safety. This allows two divers to breathe from the same scuba system.
Used for out-of-air or regulator-failure emergencies. There are several
design options of alternate air sources available.
a. Alternate Second-Stage. Two second-stages on same first-stage. One is
called the primary, the other is called the secondary.
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b. Inflator-Integrated Air Source. A second-stage built into the buoyancy
compensator power inflater mechanism, or onto the low pressure
inflator hose.
c. Redundant Breathing System. Small reserve tank with its own
regulator, separate from the primary scuba system.
E.The Information System. Instruments that allow you to monitor your life
support systems and dive plan parameters (air supply, depth, time, direction,
theoretical nitrogen absorption and elimination) while under water.
1. Instruments. The Information System is made up of a variety of instruments.
a. Dive Computer. Data processor that monitors depth and time while
computing your theoretical nitrogen loading. Computers offer many other
features which vary with brand and style.
1) Dive computers use a theoretical model that approximates average
human physiology, so an individual diver’s body may differ from the
computer’s model.
2) It is recommended that divers seek specialty training from your SSI
Dealer prior to using a dive computer.
Note: Dive computers will be discussed in more detail in Section 4:
Planning and Executing Your Dive.
b. S
ubmersible Pressure Gauge (SPG). Diver’s “fuel gauge.” Divers should
monitor their SPG continually throughout the dive.
1) Purpose — Attaches to high pressure port on the first-stage of the Air
Delivery System. Tells how much air pressure, or breathing gas,
remains in the cylinder.
2) Choosing an SPG — Look for swivel head, large markings, scratch
resistant glass. Imperial vs. metric. Digital vs. analog.
c. Depth Gauge. Monitoring current depth ensures that planned depth limits
are not exceeded. This is very important for following dive plans.
1) Purpose — Tells divers how deep they are.
2) Choosing a Depth Gauge — Digital gauges are more accurate than
analog and are standard in all dive computers. Look for maximum
depth indicator, large markings, luminous panel.
d. Timing Device. Tells divers how long they have been under water. Also
very important for making and following dive plans.
1) Dive Computer — All dive computers come standard with a dive
timer.
2) Dive Watch — Analog or digital. Analog should have one-way bezel.
Should be rated to at least 200 metres or 20 ATMs.
3) Dive Timer — Digital. Activates with pressure as diver descends/
ascends. Standard feature on dive computers.
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e. Compass. Helps divers maintain a sense of direction when natural
navigation is not possible.
1) Side-Reading Compass — Attaches to wrist or fits in gauge console.
Can be read from either top or side.
2) Top-Reading Navigational Compass — Indicates course headings
accurately to aid in return navigation. Fits on wrist or in console.
3) Digital Compass — Provide more information than standard
compasses.
Note: While compass use will be practiced in this course, to learn
underwater navigation skills well it is recommended to take an SSI
Navigation specialty course.
f. Thermometers. Record temperatures at the dive site. Many digital gauges
and dive computers come with a built-in thermometer.
2. Information System Configurations. There are three main information system
configurations you are likely to encounter.
a. System 1: Air Integrated Computer and Compass. Best combination to
provide diver with most information.
b. System 2: Dive Computer, Analog SPG and Compass. Very common
configuration. Meets needs but doesn’t offer benefit of air-integrated
computations.
c. System 3: Analog Gauge Console. Traditional system with analog SPG,
depth gauge, and possibly a compass. Does not offer nitrogen absorption
computations like a dive computer.
F.The Total DiveLog System. Provide an introduction to the SSI DiveLog. A
complete presentation will be done in Section 6. The objective here is to begin
emphasizing the importance of the DiveLog as a record keeping tool.
1. The DiveLog as a Training Tool — Records your training and continuing
education, as well as valuable dive information you can use on future dives. 2. The DiveLog as a Recognition Tool — Records your logged dives, which count
toward future advanced ratings and certification cards, and recognition cards
such as the Century, Gold 500, Platinum 1000 and Platinum Pro 5000 Diver.
G.The Buoyancy Control System
1. The Buoyancy Compensator (or the BC)
a. Purpose. Makes ascending, descending, neutral buoyancy and surface
flotation quite easy by counteracting negative buoyancy under water. The
BC design is based on Archimedes’ Principle. b. Archimedes’ Principle. An object (the diver) is buoyed up by a force equal
to the weight of the water it displaces. The BC displaces weight of diver
and equipment, and type of exposure system so diver can ascend, descend
or achieve neutral buoyancy.
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2. Buoyancy Control System Features a. Inflators. The inflator mechanism includes both a power and oral inflator.
1) Power Inflator — Uses low-pressure air from cylinder to inflate BC.
2) Oral Inflator — Manually inflates BC by blowing air into mouthpiece.
b. Deflators. Air can be released from the BC using two methods.
1) Manual Control Button — Depressing deflate button on inflator
mechanism slowly releases air from BC.
2) Dump valve — Pull string or lever, or pull on inflator hose.
c. Integrated Weight System. Built into BC, weight belt not needed. See
manufacturer’s instructions for information on releasing the weight system.
d. Lift. The amount of weight the BC can support. Determined by volume of
air the BC will hold.
e. Other Features. Pockets, buckles, cumberbund, belts and straps for utility,
convenience and adjustment.
3. Proper Weighting. Weights counteract natural buoyancy of diver’s body and
the buoyancy of the exposure suit. Diver’s objective is neutral buoyancy.
a. Weight Belts
1) Belt — Webbed nylon, neoprene belt with weight pockets, mesh belt
with weight pockets. Trim length of belt so it does not have excess
material when buckled.
2) Buckle — Quick release.
3) Weights — Lead, coated lead, shot-filled packets.
b. Choosing Your Weighting. Estimate weight needed on land, determine
exact amount in water. Extremely important part of achieving neutral
buoyancy.
c. Proper Weighting Technique
1) Belt should be snug, with weights evenly distributed and
positioned near front of hips.
2) Buckle should open opposite of BC buckle strap. Right- or lefthand release (right is more standard).
3) Get into confined water wearing all equipment.
4) When diver inhales, eyes should be about water level. When diver
exhales, should start to sink slightly below surface.
5) Add or subtract weight to achieve this result.
6) Weight needed will change for salt/fresh water, different
equipment configurations.
Note: Use SSI Total DiveLog to help track weighting needs. Show
students these pages in the DiveLog.
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H.The Specialty Training and Accessory System
1. Diver’s Luggage. Protect, store and travel with equipment.
a. Size. Large enough to hold equipment.
b. Durable and Versatile. Withstand travel, yet easy to carry.
c. Locking Device. To lock bag when traveling.
d. Wheels. For ease of movement during travel.
2. Flags and Floats. Used on surface to show boaters that divers are
under water.
a. Recreational Diver’s Flag
b. Alpha Flag (international)
3. Signaling Devices. Used to attract attention when problems occur. Types:
a. Whistles and Alarms
b. Signal Flares
c. Inflatable Surface Marker
d. Underwater Audible Devices
4. Save-a-Dive system. Basic parts and tools that could save a dive. List what
is in Open Water Diver manual.
5. Underwater Lights. Adds color on dives. Necessary for dives at night.
a. Battery Powered Underwater Flashlight
1) Waterproof with varying sizes, durability and candle power.
2) Rechargeable battery and non-rechargeable battery.
b. Chemical Glow Lights. Mix chemicals for illumination. Used to keep
track of buddy during night dive.
c. Battery Powered Glow Lights. Personal locator light. Reusable, unlike
chemical lights.
6. Diver’s Tool. A handy tool, not a weapon.
I.Maintaining Your Total Diving System. One of the best ways to make scuba
equipment last is to clean it properly after each dive, store it properly, and have it
serviced regularly.
1. Buoyancy Control System (BC or Snorkeling Vest)
a. Cleaning. Drain inside of water. Clean inside and outside with fresh water.
Store with air inside.
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b. Storage. Allow BC to dry, half full of air, to keep insides from sticking.
c. Maintenance. Check for leaks by submerging BC in water and watching for
air bubbles. Have repaired by Authorized SSI Dealer.
2. Regulator
a. Cleaning. Clean with fresh water, do not let water into regulator hose.
b. Storage. Do not store by hanging on hose.
c. Maintenance. Use hose protectors. Service according to manufacturer’s
recommendations.
3. Information System a. Cleaning. Clean with fresh water. Do not allow water inside hose.
b. Storage. Do not store by hanging on hose, or with hosed tightly coiled.
Remove batteries from device for extended storage.
c. Maintenance. Change batteries periodically. Service according to
manufacturer’s recommendations.
4. Cylinder
a. Cleaning. Clean outside with fresh water.
b. Storage. Never store empty. Keep some air pressure to prevent moisture
from getting in. Store and transport lying down. Keep out of direct
sunlight.
c. Preventing Damage to Cylinder. To make sure your cylinder is dry and
uncontaminated inside, follow the “look and feel, smell and listen” rule.
d. VIP (Visual Inspection Program). Should be done once a year by your SSI
Dealer. Visually looks for flaws in cylinder.
e. Hydrostatic Testing. In the U.S. a cylinder must be hydrostatically tested
every 5 years. Varies internationally.
5. Exposure Suits
— Rinse in fresh water after use. Occasionally wash in mild detergent. When
washing, keep all snaps and zippers open. Baking soda can remove
odor. Hang on wooden or plastic hangers. Keep zippers lubricated with
silicone. Do not use petroleum lubricants on neoprene.
6. Equipment Consultation and SSI Equipment Techniques Specialty. If these two
services are offered at your facility, students should know about them because
they help make more informed equipment purchasing decisions and longer
lasting equipment.
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IV. REVIEW QUESTIONS. Evaluate the student’s knowledge using the Video and
Classroom Discussion Questions (pages 1-17 and 1-18 of this section). If you are
teaching more than one section of the academics in this session, you can combine the
questions into one review session.
V. SUMMARY. Use the summary to clarify key points and concepts discussed in this
section. If you are teaching more than one section of the academics in this session,
you can combine the summaries together. In this section, students have learned:
A.The seven subsystems of the Total Diving System, and the equipment
that make up each one.
B.To identify why we need each piece of equipment.
C.How to choose and fit Total Diving System elements to meet their
personal diving needs.
D.The benefits of owning a personal Total Diving System.
VI.ASSIGNMENT
A. Academic assignment (Manual, Video or Study Guide) if applicable.
B. Academic session — Give date, time and location of next session
if applicable.
C. Pool session — Give date, time and location of next session
if applicable.
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VIDEO REVIEW QUESTIONS & ANSWERS: PART 1
Refer to SSI Open Water Diver Video, Part 1
1. What is the best way to check for mask fit?
— Tilt your head back and lay the mask on your
face without using the strap. Make sure the entire
mask skirt is touching your face evenly. Now
inhale and tilt your head forward. The mask
should easily stay in place by gently inhaling.
2. Name the basic types of fins.
— Full-foot fin (worn with bare feet)
— Open-heel adjustable (worn with wet suit boots)
3. How many times faster is body heat absorbed in water
than in air?
— 25 times
4. What is the most common exposure suit?
— Neoprene wet suit ranging from two to seven millimeters thick — depending on water
temperature it will be used in.
5. What is the difference between a wet and a dry suit?
— With a wet suit, a thin layer of water between
the diver’s body and the suit serves as insulation.
A dry suit uses insulated clothing and air under
a protective shell for warmth. Divers need additional training before using a dry suit.
6. What type of air is the scuba cylinder filled with?
— Dry, filtered, compressed air
7. What materials are used to make scuba cylinders?
— Steel or aluminum
8. What do the first- and second-stages of a scuba regulator do?
— First-stage reduces the high pressure in the
cylinder down to an intermediate pressure.
— Second-stage reduces that air to a breathable
pressure equal to surrounding water pressure.
9. Which instruments should a diver own?
— SPG (submersible pressure gauge)
— Depth gauge
— Timing device
— Compass
— Dive Computer
10. Quality BCs should be equipped with what features?
— Oral inflator, power inflator, and an overexpansion relief valve.
11. What is a BC or buoyancy compensator used for?
— At the surface, it can be inflated so a diver can
float. At depth, small amounts of air can be put in
the BC to help the diver become neutrally buoyant.
12. What do divers use to offset positive buoyancy from their
exposure suit and their bodies?
— A weight system with the proper amount of
weight for them to be neutrally weighted at the
surface.
13. What is a diver’s tool used used for?
— General purpose tool for prying, cutting, or
hammering, or for signalling your buddy by
tapping on your cylinder.
14. Proper maintenance steps of the scuba unit consist of what?
— Suitable cleaning, yearly overhaul by a
certified technician, and a proper storage
procedure.
15. Why do you want to be sure your dust cap is in place,
and why would you avoid pushing the purge button while
rinsing your regulator?
— To prevent water from getting into the air hose
and damaging the regulator internally.
16. How often must you have your cylinder hydrostatically tested ?
— Every five years
17. Why do you usually have your cylinder visually inspected
once a year?
— To detect oxidation and contaminants such as
water, rust and charcoal in your cylinder.
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CLASS DISCUSSION QUESTIONS & ANSWERS:
SECTION 1
Refer to: SSI Open Water Diver Manual, Section 1
1. The mask and fins help us overcome two major obstacles
in the water. What are they?
— Not being able to see.
— Not being able to move easily.
2. List features that a person should look for when choosing
a mask.
— Tempered lens, non-corrosive retaining band,
wide or split strap, nose or finger pockets, fit and
comfort, considerations for corrective lenses,
material, and large or small volume.
3. What is the procedure for fitting a mask?
— Tilt your head back, lay the mask on your face
without securing the strap around your head,
check around the skirt for gaps. Then, inhale
lightly to make a seal, tilt your head forward,
and look straight ahead to make sure the seal will
hold. Finally, put a mouthpiece in, as this changes
the mouth shape which could cause a leak.
4. Name different types of exposure suits and where they
would be worn.
— Warm Water Dive Skins—warm tropical
waters.
— Wet suit—depending on thickness of neoprene
and the amount of protection worn, they can
be worn from warm tropical to cold ocean or
fresh water diving.
— Dry suit—cold water only.
5. Name the components of the Air Delivery System.
— Scuba cylinder, regulator, alternate air source.
6. What factors affect breathing resistance in your regulator?
— Work load
— Depth
— Tank pressure
— Maintenance
— Design
7. What are the functions of the regulator’s first- and
second-stages?
— First-stage reduces the cylinder pressure to an
intermediate pressure and keeps it as constant
as possible. Second-stage gives the diver air at
breathable pressure no matter what the depth.
8. What are the most important instruments that divers need
to carry?
— SPG, or Submersible Pressure Gauge—
monitors how much air you have remaining in
your cylinder.
— Depth gauge—tells how deep you are.
— Timing device—watch or timer. Tells how long
you have been down on your dive.
— Compass
— Dive Computer
9. What are the main functions of the Total DiveLog System?
— To track your continuing education and
record your number of logged dives.
10. How does the weight and BC interact?
— The weight counteracts the positive buoyancy
in the diver’s body and/or exposure suit. Once at
depth, the exposure suit starts to compress, which
decreases its buoyancy. Then the diver puts air in
the BC to offset loss of buoyancy.
11. How can you prevent interior moisture and contamination
in your scuba cylinder?
— Make certain that cylinder fittings, openings
and o-rings are dry before system assembly.
12. What are the benefits of owning your own Total Diving
System?
— You will be more comfortable diving because
you can customize your system to meet your
needs, you can fit your equipment properly, and
learn to dive with it during training. Plus you will
be certain of it’s quality and maintenance.
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Contents
OBJECTIVES
ACADEMIC REVIEW
Correct & Discuss Study Guide
Video Presentation
Video Review
PRESENTATION
The Snorkeling System
• Putting on the Equipment
• Entering the Water
• Using the Snorkel
• Using the Fins
• Using the Snorkel Vest (BC)
• Surface Dives
• Equalizing Pressure
• Exits
Scuba Diving
• Assembling the Scuba Unit
• Putting on the Scuba Unit
• Pre-Entry Buddy Check
• Scuba Entries
• Using the Mask
• Using the Second Stage
• Surface Procedures
• Descending
• Neutral Buoyancy
• Ascending and Surfacing
• Exits
REVIEW QUESTIONS
SUMMARY
ASSIGNMENT
C2-1
Academic
Section 2:
Using Your Diving Equipment
I. OBJECTIVES. After completing this
section, the student should be able to:
• Describe basic snorkeling and scuba
diving skills as they relate to your
equipment, including:
• Dressing
• Putting on Your Equipment
• Using Your Equipment
• List proper procedures for:
• Entering the Water
• Descending and Equalizing Pressure
• Establishing & Maintaining Neutral
Buoyancy
• Ascending
• Safety Stops
• Exiting the Water
Section 1 introduced the students to
the basic equipment systems used for
both snorkeling and scuba diving. In this
section you will explain how to use this
equipment to perform the basic skills of
snorkeling and scuba diving.
These basic skills are not difficult,
but are very important as the divers need
to know how to use the equipment in
order to learn how to dive.
Plus, knowing these skills will
reduce their apprehension about being
in the water the first time. SSI believes
in comfort through repetition, and
practice makes all the difference
in becoming a comfortable and confident
diver.
C2-2
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II. ACADEMIC REVIEW. If students have completed the academics (video, manual,
study guide questions) through home-study before this course began, you can skip this
section. If you are conducting a traditional course or college course, you can adapt this
section to fit your classroom needs.
A. Correct and Discuss the Study Guide (see Course Introduction for
answer keys). If applicable.
B. Video Presentation. SSI Open Water Diver, Part 2: Using Your Diving
Equipment. If applicable.
C. Video Review Questions (page 11 of this section). If you’re using homestudy academics, you can incorporate the Video Review Questions in with the
Class Discussion questions for your summary. III. PRESENTATION: USING YOUR DIVING EQUIPMENT
A. The Snorkeling System
1. Putting on the Equipment. After the exposure suit is on, the rest of the
snorkeling equipment can be donned.
a. Exposure Suit. The exposure suit needs to be put on in the proper order
at the proper time. Dress right before the diver to avoid over heating.
1)
2)
3)
4)
5)
6)
Pants
Boots
Hood
Jacket
Gloves
Weight Belt
b. Snorkeling Vest/Buoyancy Compensator. Make sure it’s snug.
c. Mask. Place on face, then pull strap over head. Strap should be snug but
not tight.
d. Snorkel. Attach to left side of mask using a snorkel keeper.
e. Fins. Either sit down or stand using the figure “4” position. Use help
from buddy.
2. Entering the Water
a. Pre-Entry Buddy Check. Make an equipment check with buddy.
1)
2)
3)
4)
5)
6)
Decide on entry and direction.
Decide on exit location.
Check for currents.
Complete an equipment check.
Inflate BC before entry.
Decide who will enter first.
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b. Types of Entries. Use easiest, safest, least disorienting way.
1) Controlled Seated Entry — Easiest and least disorienting, done from
low decks and platforms in calm water.
2) Step-in (“giant stride”) Entry — Most common entry, done from
standing position on docks or decks.
3) Feet-First Jumping Entry — Done with feet together, from higher
platforms.
4) Beach Entry — Shuffle backwards until deep enough to swim
(covered further in Section 5).
3. Using the Snorkel
a. Breathing. Use a three-step process to breathe without interference from
water: Clear, Breathe, Hold.
b. Snorkel Clearing. Tell students these will be practiced in the pool.
1) Popping — A quick, sharp blast of air on the surface.
2) Expansion — Clearing under water while ascending to the surface.
4. Using the Fins
a. Fin Safety. Do not walk with fins, shuffle backwards. Do not climb pool
and boat ladders with fins, unless the ladder is designed for this use.
b. Fin Power. The power gained by using fins eliminates the need to use the
hands or arms. Relax them at the sides.
c. Fin Kicks. Tell students these will be practiced in the pool.
1) Flutter Kick — Most basic and most often used.
2) Dolphin Kick — Uses whole body, not just legs.
3) Be aware when treading water in a vertical position over the reef. This could cause damage to the reef if it is kicked.
5. Using the Snorkel Vest (BC)
a. On Surface. When swimming on the surface, keep a small amount of air
in the vest.
b. Deflation. When making a surface dive, deflate the vest.
c. Bobbing Method. A procedure for inflating the vest on the surface; it will
be practiced in the pool.
6. Surface Dives. Tell students these will be practiced in the pool.
a. Head-first Dive. Started from horizontal, face-down position.
b. Feet-first Dive. Started from vertical, head-up position.
c. One-up, One-down. When one buddy dives, the other stays on the surface
as a safety procedure.
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7. While You Descend — Equalizing Pressure
a. Equalizing Mask Pressure. To prevent mask squeeze, exhale gently
through nose.
b. Equalizing Ear Pressure
1) To prevent ear squeeze, pinch the nose closed with the thumb and
index finger while gently exhaling through nose. This equalizes
middle ear.
2) Yawning, swallowing and wiggling jaws are other techniques.
c. Equalizing Sinus Pressure. Sinuses normally equalize themselves. If sinuses
are blocked you may experience a painful sinus squeeze.
8. Exits
a. Types of Exits 1) Boat Exit — Usually remove fins, climb up a ladder or platform.
2) Shore Exit — Divers usually swim until they can stand, take off fins,
walk out. In heavy surf, divers usually crawl out with fins on.
b. Safety Tips
1) Use safest and easiest way.
2) Keep air in BC to float in case you fall back in water.
3) Never climb a ladder wearing fins unless it is designed for this.
B. Scuba Diving. Information in this section should be balanced between what can
be presented in the classroom and what can be demonstrated in the pool.
1. Assembling the Scuba Unit. A demonstration with a cylinder, BC and regulator
can be done either in the classroom or at the pool.
2. Putting on the Scuba Unit. Make sure scuba unit does not cover or interfere
with weight belt.
a. Sitting position. Done from a bench or stable platform.
b. Standing position —Buddy Lift. One diver holds unit for the other. Stronger
diver is fitted first.
c. In-water. Use positive buoyancy and buddy assistance.
3. The Pre-Entry Buddy Check. Inspect equipment prior to entering the water.
a. Visual Inspection. Visually inspect buddy from top to bottom.
1) Look for — Mask straps, hoses in place, weight system accessible,
twisted straps, buckles clipped, air on, alternate air source accessible.
2) Point out that there is an Equipment Check and a Safety Check on
each SSI DiveLog page.
b. Hands-On Inspection. Use hands to check if air is on, check air supply on
SPG. Check AAS is secure. Check how to release weight system.
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4. Scuba Entries
a. Technique. Same technique (seated, step-in, jump-in) as snorkeling,
difference is weight and bulk of scuba unit.
b. Safety Tip. Hold mask to see, regulator in mouth to breathe, BC inflated to
float.
5. Using the Mask
a. Cleaning Your Mask
1) Anti-fogging — A commercial solution used before entering water will
keep mask from fogging. Do not recommend spitting into the mask.
2) New Masks — Clean the silicone film off the inside of the lens with a
commercial mask cleaning agent and water.
b. Clearing Your Mask. Tell students they will practice procedure in the pool
to clear the mask of water.
1) Mask Clearing — Forcing water out of mask by blowing air into it.
This technique will be demonstrated and practiced in the pool.
2) Mask Clearing With Purge Valve — Blow air out of mask without the
need to lift the mask away from the face. 6. Using the Second-Stage Regulator
a. Breathing. Slow, steady inhalation, followed by a relaxed exhalation. Never
hold your breath!
b. Clearing the Second Stage. Getting water out of the regulator. Exhale
lightly but continuously when the regulator is out of the mouth.
c. Retrieving the Second Stage. Finding the regulator if it comes out of the
mouth. If you cannot locate your primary, breathe off the AAS.
7. Surface Procedures
a. Using the BC. When on the surface, always have air in BC to float. Explain
this is part of proper Surface Procedures skill.
b. Snorkel Use in Scuba. Use snorkel on surface to preserve cylinder air.
8. Descending
a. Procedures. Always descend in a feet-first position. Never help your buddy
by pulling him/her under water on descent.
1) Divers lose buoyancy on descent, adding air to the BC compensates
for that.
2) Adding air also helps control the rate of descent. Too much air will
make you ascend.
3) Look down occasionally to watch where you are going and protect
marine life.
4) Objective after descent is to establish neutral buoyancy.
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In scuba diving the BC is used in four basic ways:
1) Floating at the surface,
2) Controlling descents,
3) Maintaining neutral Buoyancy,
4) Aiding in ascents.
9. Neutral Buoyancy During Your Dive. BCs help divers obtain weightlessness
(neutral buoyancy) under water. This will be explained in greater detail in
Section 3.
10. Ascending and Surfacing. Breathe normally at all times when ascending!
a. Procedures
1) Divers gain buoyancy on ascent. Releasing air from the BC
compensates for that.
2) Releasing air also helps control the rate of ascent.
b. Rate of Ascent. The rate of ascent should not exceed 30 feet (9 metres) per
minute.
c. Dive Lines. Lines better help you control rate of ascent/descent, stay with
buddy, equalize pressure and handle minor emergencies.
d. Safety Stop. Stop your ascent at 15 feet (4.5 metres) for 3 to 5 minutes for
a safety stop (this will be explained in Section 4).
e. Surface Procedures. Always keep mask and regulator in place and inflate
BC, so you can “see, breathe and float” at all times.
11. Scuba Exits
a. Boat Exits
1) In General — Leave mask on, BC inflated, and snorkel or regulator in
place until safely out of water.
2) Boat Exits — Follow captain’s instructions.
b. Shore Exits. Swim until about waist-deep. Stand. Remove fins using figure
“4” technique and buddy assistance. Walk out carefully, or crawl out.
IV. REVIEW QUESTIONS. Evaluate the student’s knowledge using the Video and
Classroom Discussion Questions (pages 2-11 and 2-12 of this section). If you are
teaching more than one section of the academics in this session, you can combine the
questions into one review session.
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V. SUMMARY. Use the summary to clarify key points and concepts discussed in this
section. If you are teaching more than one section of the academics in this session, you
can combine the summaries together. In this section, students have learned:
A. How to dress and put on the basic snorkeling and scuba diving
equipment.
B. How to use their equipment to perform the basic snorkeling and scuba
diving skills.
C. The proper safety procedures for entering and exiting the water.
D.How to safely descend, and establish and maintain neutral buoyancy
under water.
E.The proper ascent procedures and reasons for making a safety stop
on every dive.
VI.ASSIGNMENT
A. Academic assignment (Manual, Video or Study Guide) if applicable.
B. Academic session — Give date, time and location of next session
if applicable.
C. Pool session — Give date, time and location of next session
if applicable.
C2-8
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VIDEO REVIEW QUESTIONS & ANSWERS: PART 2
Refer to SSI Open Water Diver Video, Part 2
1. When is the best time to get dressed for diving?
— Right before the dive so you do not over heat.
2. Which side of the head is the snorkel worn on? Why?
— The left side. When a person is using scuba equipment, the regulator will be on the right side.
Positioning the snorkel on the left side eliminates
confusing the two mouthpieces.
3. How do you keep the mask from fogging?
— When you first purchase it, clean the lens with a
non-abrasive commercial cleanser to remove any
coating sprayed on at the factory. This may need to
be repeated periodically in the future. Before each
dive, a commercial defogger should be used.
4. How should you enter the water?
— The safest and easiest way depending on
conditions.
5. If you begin to tire at the surface while snorkeling, what can
you do?
— Inflate your BC and rest, or turn over on your
back and kick, but make sure you watch where you
are going.
6. What BC oral inflation technique do you use at the surface?
— The bobbing technique—Kick up out of the
water and take a breath. As you sink into the water
slightly, exhale into your BC with your face down
into the water. Continue to do this until you’re
positively buoyant.
7. What is the best way to clear a mask?
— Large purge valve—with the purge at the lowest
point, press in on the mask lens, exhale through
your nose, and force the water out the purge.
— Small or no purge valve—press on the top of
your mask, exhale through your nose as you look
up at about a 45-degree angle.
8. How do you prevent the mask from squeezing against your
face when you descend?
— Exhale gently into your mask through your nose.
9. How do you equalize the pressure in your ears?
— Pinch your nose and blow gently.
— Wiggle the jaw.
— Swallow.
10. What is the best way to assemble a scuba unit?
— Slip the BC over the cylinder on the same side
as the O-ring and secure it tightly. Attach the
regulator to the cylinder valve after checking the
O-ring. Before turning on the air, connect the BC
inflator hose, and dry-breathe off the regulators to
check for leaks.
11. Why should you do a pre-entry buddy check before your dive?
— To make sure everything is adjusted correctly
and functioning properly, and that both of you feel
comfortable making the dive.
12. How do you clear a regulator of water?
— Either by exhaling into it after placing it in your
mouth or lightly pushing the purge button on the
regulator after placing it in your mouth.
13. What are the proper surface procedures so you can always
see, breathe and float whether you’re entering, exiting or
floating on the surface?
— Keep your mask and regulator in place, and
keep enough air in your BC so you can float.
14. What is the purpose of a BC for scuba diving?
— You inflate the BC at the surface to float, deflate
it to sink, and at depth, you can inflate it partially
with air to stay neutral at one depth.
15. When ascending, what should you do?
— Extend your left hand above your head, find the
weight belt buckle or integrated weight release with
your right hand, look up to watch for obstructions,
and gently kick to surface. Rotating on the way up
improves your vision.
16. What is the proper rate of ascent?
— 30 feet (9 metres) per minute or less.
17. When should you rinse your equipment?
— After each dive and every time you use it —
whether it be in a pool, fresh water lake, or salt water.
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CLASS DISCUSSION QUESTIONS & ANSWERS:
SECTION 2
Refer to: SSI Open Water Diver Manual, Section 2
1. In what order should you put on your exposure suit?
— Pants, boots, hood, jacket, gloves, and then the
weight belt.
2. What is the best method for putting on your fins while
standing?
— Secure yourself with one arm, then cross one
leg over the other forming a figure “4” and pull
on your fin.
3. What is the best way to put on your mask?
— Place it on your face, pull the strap down over
your head until it is positioned comfortably on
the crown of your head and make sure there is no
hair caught in the mask seal.
4. When performing a step-in entry, how should you secure
your equipment to prevent it from moving or dislodging?
— Hold your mask and regulator in place with
one hand and the weight release with the other.
5. What is a good safety plan to follow with your buddy
when snorkeling?
— The one up, one down method. One snorkeler
stays on surface for safety, while other is diving
below surface.
6. Where would a feet-first surface dive best be used?
— Primarily in a kelp bed where a small opening
is all a diver has to get below the surface.
7. What are some common methods divers use to equalize
their ears?
— Pinching the nose, yawning, swallowing,
wiggling the jaw.
8. What is the last thing you do before turning your air on
before a dive?
— Exhale through your regulator to make sure
exhaust valves are not stuck shut. Attempt to
inhale to make sure there are no leaks in the
exhaust valve or diaphragm.
9. Why is it important to make sure the BC does not
interfere with the weight belt when putting on the scuba unit?
— So the weight belt can be easily ditched in an
emergency.
10. Why is a pre-entry buddy check important?
— To make sure that you have all your
equipment on, that it is assembled correctly, that
there is air in your tank, and that you both feel
comfortable to make the dive.
11. Why should you descend in a feet-first position?
— Easier for equalizing ears and controlling
rate of descent.
12. How often should you monitor your instruments?
— Frequently during your dive.
13. Why is it important to keep the BC deflator in your right
hand at all times on ascent ?
— So you can vent the air from your BC as
it expands on ascent, preventing you from
becoming too positively buoyant and ascending
too quickly.
14. After your dive, what considerations do you need to keep
in mind when rinsing your equipment?
— Dry and replace dust cap in the first-stage of
the regulator. Do not push purge button when
rinsing the second-stage. Rinse all equipment
with clean, fresh water and let dry completely,
but not in direct sunlight. Store in a cool, dry
place. Drain water from the BC, rinse with fresh
water, drain completely, and store half full of air
so that the insides don’t stick together.
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Contents
OBJECTIVES
ACADEMIC REVIEW
Correct & Discuss Study Guide
Video Presentation
Video Review
C3-1
Academic
Section 3:
Your Body and the Underwater
World
I. OBJECTIVES. After completing this
section, the student should be able to:
PRESENTATION
• D escribe the effects of increasing
pressure on your body and Total Diving
System.
Effects of Increasing Pressure
Breathing Under Water
• Describe how breathing compressed gas
affects your body.
The Functioning of the Lungs
• Describe the basic functions of
respiration.
Effects of Breathing Compressed • Describe partial pressures and how they
apply to you as a diver.
• Describe basic procedures to adapt to
the underwater environment.
• Describe proper ascent procedures under
normal and emerging conditions.
• List the causes, treatment and prevention
of nitrogen nar-cosis, decompression
sickness and overexpansion injuries.
This section discusses how the
human body adapts to and functions in
the underwater environment, and the
different challenges this environment
presents.
Air: Partial Pressures
Adapting to the Underwater Environment
Effects of Decreasing Pressure
Ascent Procedures
REVIEW QUESTIONS
SUMMARY
ASSIGNMENT
C3-2
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II. ACADEMIC REVIEW. If students have completed the academics (video, manual,
study guide questions) through home-study before this course began, you can skip this
section. If you are conducting a traditional course or college course, you can adapt this
section to fit your classroom needs.
A. Correct and Discuss the Study Guide (see Course Introduction for Keys).
If applicable.
B. Video Presentation. SSI Open Water Diver, Part 3: Your Body and the
Underwater World. If applicable.
C. Video Review Questions (page 19 of this section). If you’re using homestudy academics, you can incorporate the Video Review Questions in with the
Class Discussion Questions for your summary.
III. PRESENTATION: YOUR BODY AND THE UNDERWATER WORLD
A. Effects of Increasing Pressure
1. Pressure
a. Definition. A force per unit area, commonly expressed in pounds per
square inch (psi, bar and atmospheres (ATM).
b. Pressure and Diving. As a diver you need to know how changes in
pressure affect your body and how to compensate for them.
2. Atmospheric Pressure. At sea level, atmospheric pressure is 14.7 psi (1 bar), the
amount of downward force of a one inch (25 mm) square column of air from
the top of the atmosphere to the earth’s surface, which is about 60 miles (100
km).
3. Ambient Pressure. The total pressure surrounding the diver. Pressure will
increase as divers descend under water.
a. Water is Heavier Than Air. It only takes 33 feet (10 metres) under salt
water to equal the same amount of pressure, which is 14.7 psi (1 bar).
1) 33 feet of salt water = 14.7 psi = .445 psi per foot
2) 34 feet of fresh water = 14.7 psi =.433 psi per foot
3) 10 metres = 1 bar
b. Deeper = More Pressure. Each atmosphere increases ambient pressure on
the diver.
1)
2)
3)
4)
Sea level = 1 atmosphere = 14.7 psi (1 bar)
33 feet (10 m) = 2 atmospheres = 29.4 psi (2 bar)
66 feet (20 m) = 3 atmospheres = 44.1 psi (3 bar)
99 feet (30 m) = 4 atmospheres = 58.8 psi (4 bar)
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4. Equalizing Pressure
a. How does pressure affect the human body?
1) Human body made of 70% water and 30% solids and gases.
2) Parts of body made of water and solids are not affected; parts made of
gases are.
3) Air spaces in body (sinuses, middle ears, lungs) are subject to
squeezes, so therefore need equalization.
b. Boyle’s Law. Boyle’s Law explains why gases are compressible: Given
a constant temperature, the volume of a gas decreases at the same rate
surrounding pressure increases.
1) Must equalize the air spaces to the surrounding ambient pressure.
2) Equalizing is done by injecting additional air into the air space
to compensate for the reduced volume caused by the original air
compressing under pressure.
3) By injecting a greater amount of air into a given volume, the pressure
of the air remains equal to the ambient pressure, but the volume of
the space in which the gas is held stays the same.
c. Ears Under Water
1) Ear squeeze — Occurs when water pressure in the ear canal pushes
harder against the outside of the eardrum than the air pressure
pushing from the inside.
2) To equalize — Pinch nose shut, blow gently. You can also wiggle the
jaw, yawn and swallow.
3) Equalizing allows air to pass through eustachian tubes into middle ear.
d. Sinuses
1) Sinus passageways are normally open, so they self-equalize.
2) Sinus equalization can be hampered by swelling and congestion due
to colds, allergies, etc.
3) If sinuses are blocked, it is best not to dive.
e. Equipment
1) Mask — Gently exhale through the nose to equalize.
2) Hood — Pull the hood away from the head to equalize.
f. Lungs. Breathe regularly to equalize the pressure.
B. Breathing Under Water. While gases are exchanged in underwater breathing
just as they are on land, pressure changes affect the amounts of those gases and
the rates of their exchange. Below are the factors that contribute to breathing
efficiently under water.
1. Diving Fitness. Divers in good physical condition increase their enjoyment and
comfort, and reduce risk.
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2. Cardiovascular Fitness
a. Importance of Good Circulation. Diver stays warmer, more alert, has better
problem solving abilities, consumes less air.
b. Improve Circulation With Exercise. Jogging, cycling, swimming, aerobics,
other sports.
3. Healthy Lungs
a. Healthy Lungs are Important. Unrestricted breathing is a vital aspect of
diving safety, which will be explained later.
b. Lung Problems. Asthma, colds, diving with medication, smoking.
4. Breath Control: Stress Control
a. Breathing Pattern. Should be normal slow, deep and regular.
b. Anxiety. Can cause an irregular breathing pattern — Rapid and shallow.
c. To Control Anxiety. Stop, Breathe Normally, Think, Act.
C. The Functioning of the Lungs
1. What are lungs?
a. Function. To bring fuel (oxygen) to the cells of the body and eliminate
their waste (carbon dioxide).
b. Windpipe splits into a “Y,” leads to smaller airways called bronchial tubes,
leads to smaller clusters of tiny sacs called alveoli. Each sac is an alveolus
and is constructed of blood capillaries. The alveolus is where exchange of
gases takes place.
2. Gas Exchange. The alveolus “diffuses” (exchanges) oxygen and carbon dioxide
from the lungs to the bloodstream with each breath. This is how the body
replenishes oxygen and eliminates carbon dioxide.
a. Carbon Dioxide (CO2). It is a buildup of carbon dioxide rather than a lack
of oxygen that signals the body to inhale.
b. Nitrogen. An inert gas that is not used by the body.
c. C
arbon Dioxide Excess. Sustained shallow breathing can lead to CO2
buildup in the body. To prevent this avoid shallow breathing, overexertion,
and dive with a well maintained Total Diving System.
D. Effects of Breathing Compressed Air: Partial Pressures
1. Breathing at the Surface. At sea level, air is breathed at 14.7 psi (1 bar)
of pressure.
a. Air is a Mixture of Gases. Oxygen and Nitrogen make up a portion of the
total pressure (14.7 psi or 1 bar at surface).
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1)20% of the 14.7 psi (1 bar) is Oxygen — 2.94 psi (.2 bar).
2) 80% of the 14.7 psi (1 bar) is Nitrogen — 11.76 psi (.8 bar).
b. Dalton’s Law of Partial Pressures 1) These percentages of gases in air are called Partial Pressures.
2) Dalton’s Law:
“The total pressure exerted by a mixture of gases is equal to the
sum of the pressures of each of the different gases making up the
mixture — each gas acting as if it alone was present and occupied the
total volume.”
c. Function of Oxygen and Nitrogen in Body 1) Oxygen is needed by the body to sustain life. After the body uses the
oxygen, it produces carbon dioxide as a by-product, which is carried
back to the lungs and exhaled.
2) Nitrogen is not needed by the body. An amount of nitrogen is stored
in the body’s tissues in liquid form.
2. Breathing Air Under Water
a. At Depth. Under water, the volume of air in the lungs is the same as sea
level, but the air breathed is more dense because of increased pressure.
As the ambient pressure increases, the partial pressures of oxygen and
nitrogen increase as well.
1) 20% of the total pressure is oxygen.
a) At 1 atm: 14.7 psi X .2 = 2.94 psi (1 bar X .2 = .2 bar).
b) At 2 atm: 29.4 psi X .2 = 5.88 psi (2 bar X .2 = .4 bar).
c) At 3 atm: 44.1 psi X .2 = 8.82 psi (3 bar X .2 = .6 bar).
2) 80% of the total pressure is nitrogen.
a) At 1 atm: 14.7 psi X .8 = 11.76 psi (1 bar X .8 = .8 bar).
b) At 2 atm: 29.4 psi X .8 = 23.52 psi (2 bar X .8 = 1.6 bar).
c) At 3 atm: 44.1 psi X .8 = 35.28 psi (3 bar X .8 = 2.4 bar).
b. Henry’s Law. As the partial pressure of nitrogen increases, a larger amount
of nitrogen is absorbed into the body’s tissues.
1) This is expressed in a law of physics called Henry’s Law:
“The amount of a gas that will dissolve in a liquid at a given
temperature is almost directly proportional to the partial pressure of
that gas.”
2) Two problems can result from breathing higher partial pressures of
nitrogen — Nitrogen Narcosis and Decompression Sickness.
3. Nitrogen Narcosis
a. Cause. A high partial pressure of nitrogen has a narcotic effect
on humans.
b. Symptoms. Symptoms can be mild at first, and increase as a diver
goes deeper.
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1) Difficulty doing things that are normally easy — reading, interpreting
instruments, making decisions, operating a BC, communicating with
a buddy.
2) Dizziness, disorientation, possible unconsciousness.
c. Treatment. Ascend to a shallower depth as soon as narcosis is recognized.
Problem should disappear with no side effects.
d. Prevention. Depth at which it occurs is different for each diver, and
possibly on each dive, but most often at 80-100 feet (18-24 metres). Stay
above 100 feet (30 metres), and take Deep Diving specialty courses.
e. Recreational Diving Limit. Nitrogen narcosis is one of the primary reasons
for the 100 foot (30 metre) recreational diving limit.
E. Adapting to the Underwater Environment
1. Buoyancy. The individual’s body will fall into one of three buoyancy
categories.
a. Positive Buoyancy. An object floats. A diver’s goal is to be positively
buoyant while on the surface.
b. Negative Buoyancy. An object sinks. A diver rarely desires to be negatively
buoyant.
c. Neutral Buoyancy. An object neither floats nor sinks. A diver’s goal is to be
neutrally buoyant while under water.
2. Proper Weighting
a. Purpose
1) Wearing the least amount of weight possible and still accomplishing
neutral buoyancy during the dive. New divers have a tendency to
wear too much weight.
2) Allows diver to get under water to begin descent. Once under water,
can maintain buoyancy with adjustments to BC.
b. Proper Weighting Technique. Wear all equipment including weight system
to test for proper weighting.
1) Enter water and test you are not greatly over weighted.
2) Move to water over your head. You should neither sink nor float at the
surface with weights on and BC deflated.
3) As you inhale, eyes should rise above surface. As you exhale you
should sink to top of your head.
4) Add or remove weights to achieve floating at eye level.
5) Track weighting needs in Total DiveLog.
3. Controlling Buoyancy Under Water. Buoyancy control is an essential diving skill
that takes practice to learn. Buoyancy control is practiced in the pool and open
water during the SSI Open Water Diver course.
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a. On Descent. Exposure suit compresses on descent, making diver
negatively buoyant. Use BC to add small amounts of air to control descent.
b. At Depth. Once stabilized, add or subtract air from BC to stay suspended
at desired depth.
c. Neutrally Buoyant. When you are neutrally buoyant you will rise slightly
when you inhale, and sink slightly when you exhale.
d. Reasons For Having Good Buoyancy Control
1)
2)
3)
4)
5)
Make proper descents and ascents.
Stay off reef to avoid damaging the environment.
Stay off bottom to maintain visibility.
Saves diver’s energy, makes diving more fun and relaxing.
One of the amazing sensations of diving.
4. Vision
a. Refraction. Bending of light waves.
1) Light is refracted differently in water than in air due to water’s
increased density over air.
2) Light refracts in water, again through the mask lens, and then into
the eye.
3) The mask lens in combination with water refracts to make objects
under water appear 25% closer and 33% larger.
b. Limited Visibility (Turbid Water). Suspended particles in water which absorb
light and impair vision. Explain need for SSI Limited Visibility Specialty
course.
5. Communication
a. Problems With Communicating Under Water
1) Sound travels four (4) times faster in water than in air due to density
of water compared to air.
2) Sound travels so fast under water that the human ear cannot tell
its direction.
3) Humans can’t speak because sounds made by vocal cords run into a
“wall of water.”
b. Communication Techniques
1) Divers have developed hand signals to communicate.
2) Sound of a diver’s tool (knife) on a scuba cylinder is universal
attention-getting signal.
3) Some underwater communication systems are available that enable
divers to talk while diving.
4) Slates and markers.
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6. Exposure — Protection From the Environment
a. Body Heat Loss. Body heat is lost 25 times faster in water than air due to
the conductivity of water.
1) Shivering — When body adjusts to cold water, blood flow is reduced,
and body will attempt to generate heat by shivering.
2) Hypothermia — When core body temperature is allowed to drop to
95°F (35°C) or below. Average body temperature is 98.6°F (37°C).
b. Prevention 1) Use exposure suit components to maintain body temperature stability.
2) Staying warm is a primary reason for a warm, well-fitting exposure
suit (wet or dry suit).
F. Effects of Decreasing Pressure
1. Decreasing Pressure
a. Decreasing Pressure Occurs When Ascending to the Surface
1) Decreasing pressure allows volume of gas to expand.
2) Balloon filled with air at 66 feet (20 metres) under 3 atmospheres of
pressure would need to expand to three times its volume by the time
it reached the surface. Would the balloon hold that volume of air?
3) Sinuses and ears equalize naturally on ascent — Air escapes as
it expands.
b. Prevention of Problems. Lungs equalize by breathing regularly at all times
— Divers should never hold their breath on scuba under water. Breathe
normally all the time!
2. Overexpansion Injuries. Failure to keep an open airway on ascent can result in
an overexpansion injury.
a. Air Embolism
1) Air bubbles pass into the blood stream. If bubbles travel to the brain,
it can cut off circulation to brain tissue.
2) Symptoms — Slight numbness in arm or leg, temporary loss of vision,
hearing or speech, paralysis and unconsciousness, death.
b. Mediastinal and Subcutaneous Emphysema
1) Air escapes into space between the heart, lungs and windpipe causing
mediastinal emphysema.
2) Air escapes and gathers under skin in the neck or upper chest causing
subcutaneous emphysema.
3) Symptoms — Pressure against heart, chest pain, breathing difficulty,
faintness.
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c. Pneumothorax
1) Air escapes into space between the lungs and the pleural lining.
2) Symptoms — Shortness of breath, chest pain, collapsed lung.
3. Decompression Sickness
a. Definition/Causes. These points help define Decompression Sickness.
1) As divers descend, additional nitrogen is absorbed into the body’s
tissues, due to the increased ambient pressure.
2) As long as the ambient pressure is maintained, the nitrogen will stay
in solution in the body’s tissues.
3) When ambient pressure is decreased, the additional nitrogen will
come out of solution.
4) If the ambient pressure is decreased slowly (a normal rate of ascent),
the additional nitrogen will come out of solution slowly, through
respiration.
5) If the ambient pressure is decreased quickly (ascent rate is too fast):
a) The additional nitrogen will come out of solution and form gas
bubbles in the tissues and blood.
b) This can cause blockage and create symptoms of Decompression
Sickness.
b. DCS Symptoms 1) If bubbles occur in the capillaries near the surface of the skin —
Irritable rash may break out.
2) Breathing difficulty and burning sensation in the chest may signal
problem in the lungs.
3) If bubbles occur in a joint or muscle — Pain will be felt in that area.
4) If bubbles occur in the spinal cord — Loss of feeling and paralysis
will result.
5) The worst form is if bubbles occur in the brain — Can cause
dizziness, paralysis, temporary blindness, convulsions and
unconsciousness.
6) Symptoms usually appear within 15 minutes to 12 hours after
surfacing, but can appear sooner.
c. First Aid and Treatment
1) First Aid — 100% oxygen, comfortable position, drink water if fully
conscious.
2) Treatment — Recompression in a hyperbaric chamber.
d. Prevention. Key factors to prevent DCS:
1) Depth — The deeper a diver goes, the denser the air breathed and the
more nitrogen absorbed.
2) Time — The longer a diver stays under water, the more time there is
to absorb nitrogen.
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3) Slow ascent rate — 30 feet (9 metres) per minute.
4) Safety Stop — As an extra safety measure, make a safety stop of 3-5
minutes at 15 feet (5 metres), regardless of the depth and time of
your dive.
5) Repetitive Dives — On subsequent dives, nitrogen must be taken into
careful consideration. This will be discussed in the Dive Tables section.
6) No-Decompression diving — Diving within accepted recreational
diving depths and times.
4. First Aid for Divers. Overexpansion injuries and decompression sickness (DCS)
have such similar symptoms that they should be treated as decompression
illness (DCI) until it is determined otherwise.
a. Asphyxiation. When the gas exchange process completely breaks down,
asphyxiation occurs. In the water, this leads to drowning.
b. Be Prepared. How to be prepared for respiratory emergencies.
1)
2)
3)
4)
5)
6)
7)
Take a CPR and Rescue Breathing course.
Know emergency contact information for diving locale.
Know phone location.
Recognize stress.
Alert others, get help.
Get victim out of the water.
Training in how to deal with diving emergencies is available from SSI
Dealers. Recommend SSI Diver Stress & Rescue, Respond Right First Aid
and CPR, and oxygen administration courses.
c. First Aid. Be prepared to stabilize the victim until professional medical
attention is available.
1)
2)
3)
4)
5)
Remove injured person from danger.
Manage the ABC’s of basic life support.
Provide 100% oxygen.
Activate the local EMS immediately.
DAN emergency phone number. This is found in the DiveLog on the
Personal Page.
d. Treatment. Any victim of DCI may require recompression in hyperbaric
chamber.
G. Ascent Procedures
1. Normal Ascents
a. Purpose. Used on every dive to reach the surface normally. Exact
procedures will be practiced in the pool.
b. Key Points. Stay with buddy, ascend at 30 feet (9 m) per minute or less,
look up, breathe continuously at all times. Explain that safe ascent
procedures will be demonstrated and practiced in the pool.
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2. Air Sharing. When training in cold water (below 10ºC / 50ºF) adhering to the
equipment manufacturers guidelines and the use of a manifold valve with
additional first stage and attached alternative air source is recommended.
a. Purpose. Purpose — Out of air emergency technique where two divers
share one air supply.
1) Get the needer breathing.
2) Get to the surface.
b. Terms
1) Needer — Diver who needs air.
2) Donor — Diver who has air and assists the needer.
3. Alternate Air Sharing Ascents. Used when buddy is near by.
a. Key Points. Donor is in control; donor gives an air source to needer;
establishes physical link; makes as normal ascent as possible to surface.
b. Equipment Determines Procedures 1) Inflator-Integrated air source — Donor offers primary second stage to
needer.
2) Double second-stage — Donor has option of passing primary or
alternate second-stage to needer.
3) Independent air source — Needer uses. Donor keeps primary.
4. Emergency Ascents. Used when buddy is not near by — Used as last resort.
a. Emergency Swimming Ascent. Essentially a normal ascent, but diver is
prepared to ditch weight system for immediate positive buoyancy if
necessary.
b. Emergency Buoyant Ascent. Diver immediately ditches weight system to
establish positive buoyancy.
c. Key Safety Points
1) Keep regulator in mouth at all times, vent air from lungs during
emergency ascent, flare if necessary to slow ascent.
2) If you are confused or starting to panic and are not sure you can
make it to the surface with an emergency swimming ascent, as a last
resort you may want to ditch your weighting system to guarantee you
will reach the surface.
IV. REVIEW QUESTIONS. Evaluate the student’s knowledge using the Video and
Classroom Discussion Questions (pages 3-19 and 3-20 of this section). If you are
teaching more than one section of the academics in this session, you can combine the
questions into one review session.
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V. SUMMARY. Use the summary to clarify key points and concepts discussed in this
section. If you are teaching more than one section of the academics in this session, you
can combine the summaries together. In this section, students have learned:
A.The effects of increasing pressure on your body and Total Diving
System.
B.How breathing compressed gas affects your body.
C. The basic functions of respiration.
D. Partial pressures and how they apply to you as a diver.
E. Basic procedures to adapt to the underwater environment.
F. Proper ascent procedures under normal and emerging conditions.
G.The causes, treatment and prevention of nitrogen narcosis,
decompression sickness and overexpansion injuries.
VI.ASSIGNMENT
A. Academic assignment (Manual, Video or Study Guide) if applicable.
B. Academic session — Give date, time and location of next session
if applicable.
C. Pool session — Give date, time and location of next session if
applicable.
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VIDEO REVIEW QUESTIONS & ANSWERS: PART 3
Refer to SSI Open Water Diver Video, Part 3
1 Why can divers experience pain in their ears in as little as
10 feet?
— Divers experience pain in their ears because
water is denser and heavier than air, and its
pressure increases rapidly as you go deeper.
2. Explain how “equalizing” eliminates the problem from
increasing pressure called a squeeze?
— By injecting a greater amount of gas (air)
into a given volume, the pressure of the gas will
remain equal to ambient pressure, but the volume
of the space will stay the same. This is called
equalizing.
3. To what depth must we dive to exert an additional 14.7
psi (1 bar) on our bodies?
— 33 feet/10 metres
4. The air we breathe is made up of what two gases?
— Approximately 20% oxygen and 80% nitrogen.
5. How can a diver stop stress from turning into a panic
attack under water?
— By stopping, thinking and getting their
breathing under control.
6. If an object floats, what type of buoyancy is it said to have?
— Positive
7. The human body is made up mostly of what material?
— Water—therefore, most people are close to
neutrally buoyant in water.
8. What piece of equipment will offset the positive
buoyancy of the wet suit?
— A weight system with the proper amount of
weight will offset the positive buoyancy of the wet
suit to make the diver neutrally buoyant at the
surface.
9. We talked about using a BC at the surface for positive
buoyancy and at depth for neutral buoyancy. What is the
third way to use a BC?
— As you ascend, the air in the BC will start to
expand, and you’ll need to vent air from the BC to
control your ascent.
10. How much closer and larger do objects appear under water?
— 25 percent closer, 33 percent larger
11. What can a diver use to bring back natural colors while
diving?
— An artificial light will bring back the true
colors of the reef and fish. When taking pictures
under water, use a flash on your camera to
capture the pictures in true color.
12. How much faster does sound travel in water compared to air?
— Four times faster. Noises seem to be omnidirectional, and it is hard to determine the origin
of them.
13. How do divers communicate under water?
— Hand signals
— Slate
14. What are some of the most common hand signals?
— OK
— go up
— go down
— low on air
— out of air
— let’s share air
15. What is the proper ascent rate for scuba divers?
— 30 feet (or 9 metres) per minute
16. Why should you never hold your breath while on scuba?
— As we ascend, water pressure decreases which
causes the air in our lungs to expand and may
cause damage to the lungs if we hold our breath.
17. What is the most severe lung expansion problem?
— Air embolism, because air bubbles will
normally travel toward the brain, blocking blood
flow to the brain.
18. What is the cause of decompression sickness?
— If a diver ascends too quickly, the nitrogen
absorbed into the body comes out of solution and
forms gas bubbles in the tissues and blood which
can cause blockages and create symptoms of
decompression sickness.
19. Most out-of-air emergencies can be eliminated by doing what?
— Dive planning
— Monitoring your pressure gauge
20. What procedure can a diver perform in an emergency to become buoyant?
— Drop the weight system.
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CLASS DISCUSSION QUESTIONS & ANSWERS:
SECTION 3
Refer to: SSI Open Water Diver Manual, Section 3
1. Describe what a squeeze is and some areas affected.
— The increasing water pressure compressing the
air spaces of a diver’s body and equipment.
— Body: ears, sinuses, lungs
— Equipment: mask, suit, hood
6. If air is made up of both nitrogen and oxygen, why are
we only concerned with the effects of nitrogen at depth?
— Because our body absorbs nitrogen from the
lungs and carries it in liquid solution out to our
tissues. Once delivered it simply stays there, it
is not used, as is oxygen. As we go deeper the
partial pressure of nitrogen increases, and the
higher the pressure, the more nitrogen the body
will absorb as a liquid.
2. What is the function of carbon dioxide in respiration?
— Carbon dioxide tells the body when to breathe.
It is a build up of carbon dioxide rather than
a lack of oxygen that stimulates the respiratory
center of the brain and creates the urge to inhale.
7. At what depth do symptoms of nitrogen narcosis usually
begin to show?
— Between 80 and 100 feet / 24 and 30 metres.
3. Name and describe the different types of buoyancy.
— Positive buoyancy is when an object floats. A
diver inflates his BC for flotation or for positive
buoyancy. When an object sinks it is said to be
heavier than water or have negative buoyancy.
Neutral buoyancy is what all divers want to
achieve at depth so that they hover at one depth
and are not fighting to stay up or down.
4. What is the procedure for checking that you are properly
weighted for your dive?
— Move into water just deeper than you are tall,
wearing all the equipment you’ll need for the
dive. Deflate your BC, hold a normal size
breath. You should float at eye level. When you
exhale you should start to sink.
— Another way to check proper weighting is to
do the same as above without the cylinder on.
If you are using an aluminum cylinder, you
might need a little more weight, because as
the cylinder pressure decreases, the cylinder
becomes positively buoyant.
8. What is the cure for nitrogen narcosis?
— Ascend to a shallower depth to decrease the
partial pressure of nitrogen in your body.
9. When diving too deep for too long a time period, or
ascending too fast, nitrogen in a diver’s system will form
bubbles in various areas. What is this called?
— Decompression sickness
10. Who can a diver contact to find out information on the
hyperbaric chamber nearest to their dive site?
— The nearest emergency medical service (EMS),
and in the U.S., DAN (Divers Alert Network). DAN’s emergency number is (919) 684-8111.
— This can be found in the student’s SSI DiveLog
on the Personal Page.
11. List the steps for making a proper ascent.
— Check with your buddy and make sure you’re
both ready to ascend.
— Check your time to monitor your rate of ascent.
— Establish neutral or slightly positive buoyancy.
— Face your buddy, look up, kick as you ascend,
locate your weight belt buckle with your right
hand, hold your oral inflator in your left hand
so you can bleed air from your BC to control
your rate of ascent as you ascend.
— Use a 30-foot- / 9-metre-per-minute ascent rate.
— Breathe normally all the way to the surface.
— Make a safety stop at 15 feet (4.5 metres) for 3-5
minutes.
5. Name and demonstrate some of the most common hand signals.
— go up
— go down
— OK
— OK on the surface
— low on air
— out of air
— let’s share air
— distress
— stop
NEVER
HOLD YOUR BREATH.
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Contents
OBJECTIVES
ACADEMIC REVIEW
Correct & Discuss Study Guide
Video Presentation
Video Review
PRESENTATION
Dive Planning
Using Computers for Repetitive C4-1
Academic
Section 4:
Planning and Executing Your Dive
I. OBJECTIVES. After completing this
section, the student should be able to:
• Why divers need to use a dive computer
on every dive.
• Common dive computer features and
functions.
• The benefit of owning and using a dive
computer.
• How other factors can affect nitrogen
absorption and decompression.
• The value of diving with a buddy and
buddy team functioning and.
REVIEW QUESTIONS
• How to execute your dive.
SUMMARY
This section introduces the student
to the basics of dive planning, and how
both dive tables and computers are
essential to executing safe dives (which
are free from problems with nitrogen
absorption).
Diving
Other Factors Affecting
Nitrogen Absorption and Decompression
Executing Your Dive
Avoiding Panic Situations
Taking Care of Yourself
Executing Your Dive
ASSIGNMENT
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II. ACADEMIC REVIEW. If students have completed the academics (video, manual,
study guide questions) through home-study before this course began, you can skip this
section. If you are conducting a traditional course or college course, you can adapt this
section to fit your classroom needs.
A. Correct and Discuss the Study Guide (see Course Introduction for Keys).
If applicable.
B. Video Presentation. SSI Open Water Diver, Part 4: Planning and Executing
Your Dive. If applicable.
C. Video Review Questions (page 13 of this section). If you’re using homestudy academics, you can incorporate the Video Review Questions in with the
Class Discussion Questions for your summary.
III. PRESENTATION: PLANNING AND EXECUTING YOUR DIVE
A. Dive Planning
1. The Dive Profile. Keeps track of multiple dives. A simple graph which
includes relevant information for recording no-decompression and
repetitive dives.
Note: There is no guarantee that staying within the limits will insure
safety. Divers should not make dives requiring decompression stops, and
should not “push” the limits.
2. Decompression Theory Terminology.
a. Depth
b. Bottom Time (BT)
c. Residual Nitrogen
d. Surface Interval (SI)
e. Repetitive Dive
f. No-Decompression Limits
g. No-Decompression Dive
h. Decompression Dive
B. Using Dive Computers for Repetitive Diving. Although dive computers
were introduced in Section 1, students could not fully appreciate them. Now that
they understand decompression theory, they can understand the convenience of
dive computers.
1. Benefits of Computers. They plan and monitor diving throughout the day, and
can add minutes to dives while remaining within no-decompression limits.
Note: It is strongly recommended that computer users read their owner’s
manuals thoroughly and seek some form of training, such as an SSI Computer
Diving specialty course.
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2. Common Computer Features
a. Planning Mode
b. Dive Mode
c. DiveLog Mode
d. Time to Fly
e. Alarms
f. Display Lighting
g. Units. Set computer for Imperial or Metric.
h. Personal Computer Integration. Can down load data to personal computer.
i.
Advanced Features. I.e. Nitrox programmable, integrated compass.
3. Computer Guidelines you should follow:
a. Always have your own dive computer. Do not share a computer with your
buddy.
b. Check the computer’s battery life before diving.
c. Adhere to the limits of the computer. Make sure all safety warnings are
observed.
d. Follow the ascent display or audible warning to stay within the proper ascent
rate for the computer.
Note: Check your manufacturer’s manual for ascent rate. SSI recommends
to stay within 30 feet per minute (9 metres).
e. Remain within your limits and be conservative.
f. Plan and execute your dive carefully and have a contingency plan, if your
computer fails.
Note: If you experience a computer failure, let your buddy know
immediately and start your ascent. Monitor ascent rate on your buddy’s
computer. Do a longer than normal safety stop as an added precaution.
Do not enter the water again for at least 24 hours and watch for the signs
of Decompression Sickness (DCS).
C. Other Factors Affecting Nitrogen Absorption and Decompression
1. Physical Factors. Age, obesity, alcohol and drug abuse, medication, extreme
heat or cold, loss of sleep, old injuries, extreme fatigue, proneness to blood
clotting, dehydration.
2. Altitude. Diving above 1000 feet (305 metres), nitrogen absorption is
different due to lower atmospheric pressure. US Navy tables were designed
for use at sea level. For diving at altitude, consider an Altitude Diving
specialty course.
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3. Flying After Diving. Airline cabins are not pressurized to sea level pressure.
Follow these guidelines:
ait 24 hours before flying in a non-pressurized airplane or driving above
W
8000 feet (2400 metres).
D. Executing Your Dive
1. Pre-Dive Briefing and Buddy Team Functioning
a. The Buddy System
1) Sharing experience
2) Teamwork and assistance
3) Safety (in case of emergency)
b. Solo Diving. Adding additional equipment and being in the best physical
and mental condition possible cannot entirely compensate for the
increased risk associated with diving alone (Not recommended by SSI).
c. Pre-Dive Briefing. Briefing by dive leader, charter boat operator about dive
site. May include:
1) Dive site specifics
2) Dive parameters (depth, time, direction, returning air supply)
3) Some charters require you to follow their pre-planned dives and to
stay with the group.
d. Dive Planning. You and your buddy should make a basic dive plan based
on the SSI DiveLog page.
1) Objective of dive
2) Conditions of the dive
3) Equipment — Complete, functioning and ready?
4) Communication techniques
5) Lost buddy procedure
6) Emergency skills training — Discuss how to handle emergencies.
7) Equipment familiarization
8) Entry and exit procedures
9) No-decompression dive plan and dive parameters
10) Go, no-go diving decision
E. Avoiding Panic Situations
1. The Causes of Panic. Avoiding panic situations when diving is a matter of
understanding the causes of panic.
a. Breathing Distress. Caused by actually being low or out of air, or by the
feeling of not getting enough air.
b. Mistaking Fiction for Reality. Sharks and other embellished facts can add to
fears.
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c. Environmental Conditions. Water movement, poor visibility, underwater
drop-offs, entanglement, marine life, cold water, claustrophobia, separation
from buddy may lead to panic.
d. Equipment. Improperly maintained equipment or lack of equipment.
e. Comfort and Ability. Dive within your limits.
2. Identifying the Panic Response. SSI Diver Stress and Rescue Specialty course is
helpful for dealing with stress and panic.
a. Ways to Identify Panic Responses in Divers
1)
2)
3)
4)
5)
6)
Erratic, uncoordinated movements
Wide-eyed, fearful look
Erratic breathing pattern
Vertically oriented in water
Flailing arms, trying to climb out of water
Difficulty obtaining positive buoyancy on surface
b. If you observe signs of panic in your buddy at depth:
1) Ready your alternate air source in case it is needed. When training
in cold water (below 10oC / 50oF) adhering to the equipment
manufacturer’s guidelines and the use of a manifold valve
with additional first stage and attached alternative air source is
recommended.
2) Approach your buddy and look for the source of the problem.
3) Face your buddy and get his/her attention.
4) Back off until your buddy calms down.
c. If you observe signs of panic in your buddy on the surface:
1)
2)
3)
4)
5)
Completely fill your BC.
Calmly talk to your buddy.
Instruct your buddy to establish positive buoyancy.
Roll your buddy to his/her back to allow for unrestricted breathing.
Get help if required. Do not endanger yourself.
3. Prevention of Panic. You can avoid panic situations with proper planning,
training, preparation, and by making good diving decisions.
F. Taking Care of Yourself. Your diving and travel will be more enjoyable if you
eat right, stay hydrated, sleep, stay warm and avoid alcohol, smoking and drugs.
G. Executing Your Dive
1. Review of Dive Procedures. Review the entire dive process from planning
the dive and assembling the equipment, to entering, diving and exiting
the water.
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2. Post Dive Briefing: Logging Your Dive. There are numerous reasons why it is
important to take the time to log your dive.
a. Record for future dive planning. Provides information of depth, direction
location, weather, water.
b. Record of equipment used. Track weight and exposure suit used,
buoyancy, cylinder used and air consumption. Valuable planning tool.
c. Record of training, logged dives and memories. Use your DiveLog to qualify
for advanced ratings such as Advanced Open Water Diver, or recognition
ratings such as Century, Gold 500, or Platinum 1000 Diver.
IV. REVIEW QUESTIONS. Evaluate the student’s knowledge using the Video and
Classroom Discussion Questions (pages 4-13 and 4-14 of this section). If you are
teaching more than one section of the academics in this session, you can combine the
questions into one review session.
V. SUMMARY. Use the summary to clarify key points and concepts discussed in this
section. If you are teaching more than one section of the academics in this session, you
can combine the summaries together. In this section, students have learned:
A. Why divers need to use SSI Dive Tables or a dive computer on
every dive.
B. How the SSI Dive Tables work.
C.Common dive computer features and functions.
D.The benefit of owning and using a dive computer.
E.How other factors can affect nitrogen absorption and decompression.
F.The value of diving with a buddy and buddy team functioning.
G. How to execute a dive.
VI.ASSIGNMENT
A. Academic assignment (Manual, Video or Study Guide) if applicable.
B. Academic session — Give date, time and location of next session
if applicable.
C. Pool session — Give date, time and location of next session if
applicable.
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VIDEO REVIEW QUESTIONS & ANSWERS: PART 4
Refer to SSI Open Water Diver Video, Part 4
1. What is the main reason for using dive tables and
computers?
— To allow you to plan dives while remaining
within your no-decompression time limits.
2. Define depth and bottom time.
— The deepest point of the dive, no matter how
long a diver spends there.
— Time is measured from the time a diver begins
descent to the time a direct ascent to the surface
is begun.
3. What is the maximum Doppler time we can dive to 60
feet/18 metres?
— 50 minutes
4. Since everyone is different and individual absorption
rates vary, what should we keep in mind when dive
planning?
— Use dive tables and dive computers
conservatively and do not push the limits they
establish.
— Make the deepest dive first.
5. What functions will a diving computer track during
planning mode?
— Planning mode allows divers to view
no-decompression times for the planned depth
and current surface interval time. The user
can scroll through various depths and times
based on the desired type of dive.
6. What functions will a diving computer track during dive mode?
— Depth, actual bottom time and remaining nodecompression time for the dive.
— Computers that are air-integrated will also report dive time remaining based on the
current amount of air in the cylinder, air
consumption rate and depth.
7. How long after diving should you wait before flying?
— 24 hours
8. How does diving at altitude vary from diving at sea level?
— Your nitrogen absorption rate is different
because of the lower atmospheric pressure. Special high altitude dive tables or computers
must be used when diving at an altitude over
1000 feet or 305 metres above sea level.
9. List some environmental conditions that can potentially
lead to diver stress or panic.
— Water movement, poor visibility, underwater
drop-offs, entanglement, cold, hazardous
marine life, buddy separation.
10. What is the number one factor that contributes to a
diver’s ability to execute the dive according to the dive plan ?
— Experience.
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CLASS DISCUSSION QUESTIONS & ANSWERS:
SECTION 4
Refer to: SSI Open Water Diver Manual, Section 4
1. What are some simple rules to follow to avoid
decompression problems?
— Use dive tables and dive computers
conservatively.
— Plan your dive.
— Make your deepest dive first.
— Make a safety stop at 15 feet for 3-5 minutes or 5 metres for 5 minutes.
2. What are some of the most referred-to terms when using
the U.S. Navy Dive Tables?
— No-Decompression Limit­­­­—maximum time a
diver can stay down on a dive without having
to decompress.
— Depth—deepest point of the dive no matter how
long you were at that depth.
— Bottom Time—from the time you start your
descent until you begin your direct ascent to
the surface.
— Repetitive Dive—a dive done more than 10
minutes and less than 12 hours from the
previous dive.
— Surface Interval Time—time you spend on the
surface between dives.
— Residual Nitrogen—excess nitrogen you have
in your body after a dive.
— Group Designation Letter—denotes how much
residual nitrogen you have in your body. “A” is
a little; “K” is a lot.
— Residual Time—is a penalty time that you have
to consider when making a repetitive dive, due
to the excess nitrogen you already have in your
body.
— Total Time—The residual nitrogen time added
to the actual bottom time on a repetitive dive.
3. What is the major benefit of diving with a computer vs.
with dive tables?
— Computers monitor data throughout your
entire diving day which simplifies dive planning
and adds minutes to your diving day.
4. How long does it take for nitrogen to be vented from
your body after a single dive?
— 12 hours
5. If you have a surface interval time of less than 10
minutes, what must you do?
— You must count both dives as one continuous
dive.
6. Name some factors that interfere with the efficient
entrance and exit of nitrogen?
— Age, alcohol use, extreme heat or cold, old
injuries, obesity, medication, lack of sleep,
fatigue, dehydration, proneness to blood
clotting.
7. How does the buddy system add to the diving
experience?
— Dive buddies increase the safety and enjoyment
of diving. Buddies are there to assist you, aid
in emergencies and share in the pleasure and
memories of the dive.
8. What causes need deprivation, or the feeling of being out
of air, when diving?
— A build up of carbon dioxide levels, which
reduces oxygen levels. In most cases this is
caused by an improper breathing pattern in
which the diver does not exhale sufficiently.
9. What is the best way that divers can avoid stress and
accidents when diving?
— Divers should be prepared, fully equipped,
and stay within their comfort limits and diving
abilities.
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Contents
OBJECTIVES
ACADEMIC REVIEW
Correct & Discuss Study Guide
Video Presentation
Video Review
PRESENTATION
The Ocean Environment
Water Movement and Diving
C5-1
Academic
Section 5:
Your Underwater
World
I. OBJECTIVES. After completing this
section, the student should be able to:
• List the fundamentals of wave, tide and
current action.
• Explain how wave, tide and current
action affect divers.
• Tides
• Tidal Currents
• Ocean Currents
• Describe what surge and surf are.
• Thermoclines
• Waves
• Define proper diving techniques as they
relate to surge and surf.
• Entries and Exits When Boat
• Explain how coral reefs form and their
global importance.
• I dentify many species of marine
life including potentially hazardous
marine life.
This section is intended to
familiarize the students with water
conditions and aquatic life in their local
area. Instructors should enhance this
section with additional video or slides of
local diving.
Explain that the information and
training students received in this
program does not prepare them for
every type of diving. When they choose
to dive in conditions other than they
were trained in, it is recommended that
they seek additional training.
Diving
• Surf and Surge
• Entering and Exiting Surf
• Localized Currents
• Diving with Localized
Currents
Underwater Life
Marine Life Around the World
REVIEW QUESTIONS
SUMMARY
ASSIGNMENT
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II. ACADEMIC REVIEW. If students have completed the academics
(video, manual, study guide questions) through home-study before
this course began, you can skip this section. If you are conducting a
traditional course or college course, you can adapt this section to fit your
classroom needs.
A. Correct and Discuss the Study Guide (see Course Introduction for Keys).
If applicable.
B. Video Presentation. SSI Open Water Diver, Part 5: Your Underwater World. If
applicable.
C. Video Review Questions (page 11 of this section). If you’re using homestudy academics, you can incorporate the Video Review Questions in with the
Class Discussion Questions for your summary.
III. PRESENTATION: YOUR UNDERWATER WORLD
A. The Ocean Environment. The surface of the earth is about 70% water (about
1.5 billion cubic kilometers of water).
1. Salt Water
a. Salinity. Salinity of oceans (about 3.5%) came from minerals from prehistoric volcanic activity. It forms the basic food for the ocean’s plants and
animals.
b. Photosynthesis. Photosynthesis in ocean plants creates oxygen in oceans.
More than 85% of the oxygen is produced by marine plants.
2. Fresh Water. Fresh water lacks salinity due to:
a. Evaporation. Water evaporating and leaving minerals behind.
b. Freezing. Salinity is also removed by freezing.
c. Ice Melt. As ice melts, freshwater lakes and rivers are formed.
B. Water Movement and Diving
1. Tides
a. Causes. The force that originally acts on the water to create tide is the
gravity of the moon and sun, primarily on the moon, pulling at the side of
the earth nearest the moon. This creates a fairly steady bulge of water on
the earth’s surface.
b. High and Low Tide. When the bulge approaches a coastline the water level
rises and engulfs more shore, creating high tide. The water pulled from
the other end of bulge is a low tide.
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2. Tidal Currents. The water movement to and away from shore which can affect
entries and exits, and cause resistance when swimming.
a. Flood Current. When tide comes to shore.
b. Ebb Current. When tide moves outward from shore.
c. Slack Time. The period between the currents, when no movement occurs.
d. Diving in Tidal Currents. The best time to dive is during slack time. If
this differs in your area, provide the correct information for your
diving conditions.
3. Ocean Currents. The sun heats different areas of the earth with varying
intensity which, combined with the effect of the earth’s rotation, results in
different water temperatures. The differing water temperatures transplant
warmer waters northward or colder waters southward along the coasts.
4. Thermoclines
a. Definition. Dense, cold water tends to sink underneath warm water. Layers
of various temperatures are found at different depths. The boundaries
between these layers are thermoclines.
b. Freshwater Diving. The temperature at the surface may be much warmer
than at the diving depth.
c. Dressing for Thermoclines. Wear an exposure suit adequate for temperature
of planned depth, not surface temperature.
5. Waves
a. Causes. Generated by wind or seismic activity on or near the ocean floor.
By far the most common cause is wind.
b. Size of Waves is Determined by:
1) Velocity — How hard the wind blows.
2) Time — How long the wind blows.
3) Fetch — Over what distance the wind blows unimpeded.
c. Wavelength. Measured from the wave’s crest, to the crest of the
next wave.
d. Trough. The space between the crests of two waves.
e. Confused Sea. Wave energy from conflicting directions, resulting in a sea
that essentially moves in two or more directions.
f. Wave Energy. Waves do not result in moving water. Energy is moving
through the water, causing motion. Demonstrate by snapping a length
of rope.
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6. Entries and Exits When Boat Diving
a. Procedures
1) Keep mask and regulator in place.
2) Mount and dismount ladders and platforms when the boat dips into a
wave trough.
3) Consider an SSI Boat Diving Specialty course.
b. Avoiding Seasickness. Consult a physician before taking medication.
Describe common methods of avoiding seasickness. Get dressed on way
to dive site so you’re ready for entry upon arrival.
7. Surf and Surge
a. Surf. Wave energy coming into contact with the shoreline, which results in
steepening of the wave. The top of the wave collapses (breaks), which is
surf.
b. Surf Zone. Area between the points at which the largest and smallest
waves break.
c. Types of Breakers:
1) Spilling — Wave breaks slowly and spills evenly over the top.
2) Plunging — Water curls over and breaks all at once in a crash.
3) Surging — Water peaks up and spouts.
d. Surge. The back and forth movement of water caused by the energy of
waves. To avoid surge, move deeper, under the energy.
8. Entering and Exiting Surf. If the procedures for your local area differ, provide
students with that information.
a. Surf conditions vary widely throughout the world, so there is no
absolute method for entry or exit that will cover all conditions. In new
environments, it is recommended to dive with a local SSI facility.
b. When choosing a dive site, stay away from rocky shores and heavy water
action.
c. If surf is not large — Enter in knee-to-waist deep water, put on fins using
“figure 4.” Then swim out through surf line.
d. If surf is large enough to cause loss of balance — Enter with
all equipment in place (including mask, fins, regulator) and shuffle
backwards or sideways until deep enough to swim. Then swim under
waves.
e. Exit surf by swimming until water is shallow enough to stand. Stand up
and remove fins. Then walk ashore.
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9. Localized Currents
a. Longshore Currents. Flow parallel to shoreline. Are generated by waves
which approach shore at an angle, but are kept from immediately
returning oceanward by other incoming waves.
b. Rip Currents. Caused by converging longshore currents that push
oceanward. It is often channeled through a sand bar or rocky point,
creating a current of water.
10. Diving With Localized Currents
a. Rip Current. Swim at a right or diagonal angle until you move out of flow,
or into shoreward movement.
b. Boat Diving in Currents. Dive down anchor line. Swim into the current at
start of dive. Use trail or current line on surface.
c. Drift Diving. Both the boat and divers move with current.
d. S
afety Stops in Currents. To avoid moving with current, hang on anchor
line or drop bar.
e. If Caught in Current. Stabilize on surface with positive buoyancy. Signal for
help with whistle or surface marker. Don’t swim against current.
C. Underwater Life. Do not overwhelm students with too much information.
Make them familiar with aquatic life, and make it seem interesting.
1. The Coral Reef
a. Coral Reef Development. Corals are colonial animals which construct
skeletal structures of limestone, often forming extensive reefs in the
shallow tropical seas where sunlight and warmer waters prevail.
1) Polyps — The animal that attaches to a surface and slowly builds a
protective structure around itself, which we see as reefs.
2) Reefs — May form as deep as 250 feet (80 metres), but most are much
shallower. Most reefs were formed 200-300 million years ago.
3) Function of reef — Provides protection for many species. Source of
food for others.
4) Diving around coral — Some corals can be brittle, and some are
capable of inflicting abrasions or cuts. Coral is easily damaged by
divers by kicking with fins, hitting with tanks, or touching. It is best to
stay neutrally buoyant and 3 feet (1 metre) away from coral.
b. Hard Corals. Elkhorn, staghorn, brain, star, fire. Fire coral inflicts a
burning sting if it is touched.
c. Soft Corals. Gorgonians, sea fans, black, red.
2. Worms. (not like normal land worms) — Dig into sand. Usually only see the
filter-feeding end. Feather duster, Christmas tree worms.
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3. Mollusks
a. Gastropod. Snails, abalone, conch.
b. Bi-valves. (two-shelled) — Clams, oyster, mussels, scallops.
c. Cephalopods. (largest of all invertebrates) — Squid, octopus.
4. Crustaceans. Lobsters, crabs and shrimp.
5. Echinoderms. (have an internal skeleton of small bones) — Starfish, brittle
stars, sea urchins, sand dollars, sea cucumbers.
6. Vertebrates. Fish and mammals. Most well-known and visible life forms in the
open water; 40,000 species.
7. Tropical Reef Fish. Describe some of the fish and mammals seen in local waters
and trips.
8. Potentially Harmful Marine Life
a. Basic rule. The creatures capable of inflicting injury will only do so
defensively.
b. Sculpin/Scorpion Fish/Stone Fish. Camouflaged fish which sting.
c. Eels. Normally quite shy and will avoid confrontation if possible.
d. Stinging Animals. Portuguese man-of-war, purple coral, reef coral, jellyfish,
sea wasp, sea fans, sea anemones.
e. Sea Urchin. Common cause of puncture wounds.
f. Sharks. Unpredictable and dangerous, but almost exclusively when
provoked.
g. Barracuda. Does not deserve it’s reputation as a hostile predator. They are
normally gentle and intelligent, and follow divers out of curiosity.
9. Cold Water Marine Environments
a. Kelp. Cold-water marine plant which provides a habitat for many
oceangoing fish. It is suggested you receive training or dive with a trained
dive leader when diving in kelp beds for the first time.
b. Cold Water Formations. Comprised mostly of rock and kelp beds. Kelp
forests hold abundant life forms. Kelp is not difficult to move through if
done slowly and carefully, without a struggle.
c. Artificial Reefs. Artificial structures such as oil rig platforms and ship
wrecks serve as reefs in colder areas.
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D. Freshwater Environments
1. Freshwater Environments. Lakes, rivers, quarries, springs.
2. Freshwater Diving. A variety of specialty diving is available. Wreck diving, dry
suit diving, navigation, limited visibility, night diving, deep diving, spearfishing.
Diving is what you make of it.
3. Freshwater Life. Not as wide a variety, but includes fish (bass, catfish, pike,
perch, trout), crustaceans (crawfish), and bivalves (clams).
IV. REVIEW QUESTIONS. Evaluate the student’s knowledge using the Video and
Classroom Discussion Questions (pages 5-11 and 5-12 of this section). If you are
teaching more than one section of the academics in this session, you can combine the
questions into one review session.
V. SUMMARY. Use the summary to clarify key points and concepts discussed in this
section. If you are teaching more than one section of the academics in this session, you
can combine the summaries together. In this section, students have learned:
A. The fundamentals of wave, tide and current action.
B. How wave, tide and current action affect divers.
C.What surge and surf are.
D. Proper diving techniques as they relate to surge and surf.
E. How coral reefs form and their global importance.
F.To identify many species of marine life including potentially hazardous
marine life.
VI.ASSIGNMENT
A. Academic assignment (Manual, Video or Study Guide) if applicable.
B. Academic session — Give date, time and location of next session
if applicable.
C. Pool session — Give date, time and location of next session if
applicable.
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VIDEO REVIEW QUESTIONS & ANSWERS: PART 5
Refer to SSI Open Water Diver Video, Part 5
1. What percentage of the earth is covered by water?
— 72 percent
2. What causes tides?
— The gravitational pull of the moon and sun on
the water in the oceans.
3. Why are tides important to divers?
— Because if a diver starts a dive in the slack
time before an ebb tide, it could mean a long
swim against a current at the end of a dive.
Also, if the diver started a dive in the slack
before the flood, possibly all of the equipment
on shore could be under water if it had not
been placed far enough up on the beach.
4. Waves are primarily caused by what?
— The wind blowing over the surface causing a
ripple which creates more surface for the wind
to blow against, causing bigger waves.
5. Regular wave action is referred to as sea. Wave energy
entering from two different directions is known as what?
— A confused sea
6. If the surf and the slope of the beach are gentle, how
would you enter the water?
— With all equipment in place except fins and
regulator, walk into the water until waist deep.
Assist each other getting your fins on, place the
regulator in your mouth, submerge, and swim
out.
7. If you get caught in a rip current, what direction should you swim to get out of it?
— Do not swim against it, swim at a right angle
to get out.
8. Different layers of water have varying temperatures. What are these layers called?
— Thermoclines
9. Name three of the most common corals you’ll see while
diving in warm waters.
— Elkhorn
— Brain
— Staghorn
— Fire
10. Are all corals hard?
— No. The sea fan is an example of a soft coral.
11. Kelp provides in cold water what coral provides in warm water. What is that?
— Protection and a food chain for marine life
that inhabit these waters.
12. Name three marine animals that have a reputation that is unearned.
— Sharks—are unpredictable but rarely
aggressive.
— Barracuda—are curious but not aggressive
unless you have speared fish near them,
causing blood to enter the water.
— Moray eels—are shy and will go to great
lengths to avoid confrontation, but will bite if trapped.
13. Since most of the poisons in marine stings are mostly
protein based, what can you do for first aid?
— Apply heat or commercial meat tenderizer,
clean with fresh water and antiseptic.
14. What should we as humans remember to do while diving
in the underwater world?
— Respect it and leave it the way we find it by not
damaging reefs or marine life.
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CLASS DISCUSSION QUESTIONS & ANSWERS:
SECTION 5
Refer to: SSI Open Water Diver Manual, Section 5
1. What three things determine how big a wave will become?
— How hard the wind blows, how long it blows,
and over what distance it blows.
2. What is the primary safety concern for divers when
entering or exiting from shore?
— When entering or exiting from shore, the diver’s
primary concern is to avoid being knocked
down and buffeted by surf and backwash.
3. What is the proper technique for swimming out of a rip current?
— Any time you find yourself facing into a rip
current, turn and swim at a right angle or
diagonal to it until you catch a shoreward
water movement, or at least move out of the
main force of the current.
4. How do coral reefs form?
— Coral animals, or polyps, attach permanently to
a surface such as a rock face, and slowly build
around themselves the protective structures and
networks we see as the coral reefs.
5. What are two marine animals that have an undeserved reputation?
— Sharks—mostly dangerous when provoked.
— Barracuda—curious, gentle, and intelligent;
can even be friendly.
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Contents
OBJECTIVES
ACADEMIC REVIEW
Correct & Discuss Study Guide
Video Presentation
Video Review
C6-1
Academic
Section 6:
Your Scuba Diving
Experiences and Beyond
PRESENTATION
Your Open Water Dives
College Credit for Scuba Courses
Your Diving Adventures
• Finding Dive Buddies
• Joining a Club
• Diving at Home
• Diving on Vacation
• Getting the Family Involved
• Staying Proficient
• Keep Learning
Beyond Open Water Diver
• Continuing Your Adventure
• Frequently Asked Questions
• Sharing Your Adventure
• Lifetime of Adventure
Keep Scuba Diving Strong
REVIEW QUESTIONS
SUMMARY
ASSIGNMENT
I. OBJECTIVES. After completing this
section, the student should be able to:
• List the reasons you should complete
referrals through the Universal Referral
Network.
• Describe how to maintain proficiency
with scuba skills.
• List the SSI Continuing Education Ratings.
• Describe why experience is required for
SSI Continuing Education Ratings.
• E xplain why having Specialty and
Continuing Education cards are
important.
The purpose of this section is to
show the students how to put everything
they have learned together. That is,
how to prepare for and conduct a dive
properly, and what their options are after
the course is completed.
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II. ACADEMIC REVIEW. If students have completed the academics (video, manual,
study guide questions) through home-study before this course began, you can skip this
section. If you are conducting a traditional course or college course, you can adapt this
section to fit your classroom needs.
A. Correct and Discuss the Study Guide (see Course Introduction for Keys).
If applicable.
B. Video Presentation. SSI Open Water Diver, Part 6: Your Scuba Diving
Experiences and Beyond. If applicable.
C. Video Review Questions (page 7 of this section). If you’re using homestudy academics, you can incorporate the Video Review Questions in with the
Class Discussion Questions for your summary.
III. PRESENTATION: YOUR SCUBA DIVING EXPERIENCES AND BEYOND
A. Your Open Water Dives
1. With Your SSI Dealer
2. By Referral. Your instructor can refer you to another instructor, store, resort for
open water training with Universal Referral Program.
a. Universal Referral Procedures
1) URP paperwork valid for 30 days.
2) Referral instructor signs paperwork, original instructor issues card.
B. College Credit For Scuba Courses
1. ACE (American Council on Education). Divers in U.S. can earn college credit for
SSI scuba courses.
2. ACE Recommendation for Credit. The following SSI courses have been
recommended for college credit by the ACE.
a. SSI Open Water Diver
b. SSI Diver Stress & Rescue
c. SSI Dive Control Specialist
d. SSI Open Water Instructor
C. Your Diving Adventures
1. Finding Dive Buddies
2. Joining a Dive Club. SSI training facilities offer Club Aquarius for nominal
membership fee.
3. Diving At Home. No matter where you live there is local diving near you.
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4. Diving On Vacation. Most SSI facilities offer individual and group travel, and
are familiar with international travel and dive destinations.
5. Getting the Family Involved. Diving is a great family sport for people of all ages
and abilities.
a. Scuba Rangers. For children 8 to 12 years of age.
b. Junior Open Water Certification (special). For children 10 to 11 years of age.
Allows children to dive with a certified parent/guardian or dive leader due
to a depth of 12 m.
c. Junior Open Water Certification. For children 12 to 15 years of age. Allows
children to dive with a certified adult.
6. Staying Proficient. SSI recommends a Scuba Skills Update if you have not been
diving within a year or more. Some resort destinations require recent diving
experience or a Scuba Skills Update.
7. Keep Learning. You can keep up to date on education, equipment, local diving
and dive travel through your local SSI training facility.
D. Beyond Open Water Diver
1. Continuing Your Adventure. Specialty activities can be combined to open up
limitless possibilities for adventure.
a. Specialty Courses. Individual courses for specialized training activities.
b. Continuing Education Ratings. Specialty course training is combined with
actual diving experience to earn continuing education ratings.
1) Specialty Diver — 2 courses + 12 logged dives
2) Advanced Diver — 4 courses + 24 logged dives
3) Master Diver — 4 courses + Stress/Rescue + 50 logged dives
c. Record Keeping. You can track all specialty training, continuing education
ratings, and diving experience in your Total DiveLog.
2. Frequently Asked Questions. Refer to the Open Water Diver manual for a list of
these questions and answers.
3. Sharing Your Adventure. Dive leadership is an extension of the training path.
a. Dive Guide. SSI Dive Guides can lead and guide certified divers.
Additionally, after passing the Snorkeling Instructor program, a Dive
Guide can teach and issue Snorkeling certifications. This program
approaches training using practical application and background
information. The goal is to create well-prepared, versatile and marketable
Dive Professionals.
b. Divemaster. Dive Guide plus the Science of Diving equals Divemaster.
Divemasters can perform Try Scuba’s (pool only) and assist SSI Instructors
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with pool/confined water and open water training under direct
supervision.
c. Dive Control Specialist. Becoming a Dive Control Specialist can be
accomplished three ways; take Dive Guide, Science of Diving and Dive
Control Specialist as separate programs, all as one program or enter
the program as a Divemaster from any approved agency. You can lead
and guide certified divers, assist SSI Instructors and teach skills in the
classroom and pool under indirect supervision. In addition you can teach
Scuba Skills Update, Snorkeling and Try Scuba as well as upgrade to a
Training Specialist.
d. Open Water Instructor. Being a Dive Control Specialist plus enrolling in the
Instructor Training Course with an Instructor Evaluation upon completion
equals Open Water Instructor (OWI). As an Open Water Instructor, you
can teach and issue certifications for Indoor Diver, Scuba Diver, Junior
Open Water Diver, Open Water Diver, Advanced Adventurer, Scuba Skills
Update, Try Scuba, Try Scuba Diving, Enriched Air Nitrox, and Diver Stress
& Rescue.
e. Advanced Open Water Instructor. Once you have four Specialty Instructor
certifications and you have issued 15 Specialty certifications, you will
automatically be upgraded to Advanced Open Water Instructor. An AOWI
is qualified to teach Advanced Open Water Diver/Junior Advanced Open
Water Diver, Dive Guide, Science of Diving, Divemaster and Snorkel
Instructor programs, plus any additional Specialties that you are qualified
to teach.
f. Dive Control Specialist Instructor. After issuing an additional 30 Open
Water Diver certifications, you qualify to upgrade to Dive Control
Specialist Instructor. A Dive Control Specialist Instructor can teach and
issue certifications for all the same programs as an Advanced Open
Water Instructor, plus the Dive Control Specialist program and can
assist Instructor Trainers under indirect supervision during an Instructor
Training Course (ITC).
4. Lifetime of Adventure. With every dive you add experience and become a
better diver. SSI recognizes that diving experience.
a. Levels of Experience. SSI has 11 Levels of Experience which recognize
your logged dives from 5 dives to 5000 dives. Tracked in Total DiveLog.
b. Levels of Recognition. Certifications to recognize your experience.
1)
2)
3)
4)
Century Diver — 100+ logged dives
Gold 500 Diver — 500+ logged dives
Platinum 1000 Diver — 1000+ logged dives
Platinum Pro 5000 Diver — 5000+ logged dives
E. Keep Scuba Diving Strong
1. Platinum Pro Foundation. Non-profit organization with a mission of educating
children about the waters of the world.
2. www.WaterExplorer.com. Official web site of Platinum Pro foundation.
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RECOMMENDED DEPTH LIMITS IN RECREATIONAL DIVING
Scuba Diver - 40 ft / 12 m
Junior Scuba Diver - 40 ft / 12 m
(Diving only with Dive Leader!)
Open Water Diver - 60 ft / 18 m
Junior Open Water Diver Age: 15 years - 60 ft / 18 m
Junior Open Water Diver Age: 11 years - 40 ft / 12 m
(After certification without further training)
Advanced Adventurer - 100 ft / 30 m
(If a Deep Dive was conducted within the program!)
Junior Advanced Adventurer - 60 ft / 18 m
Deep Diving Specialty Course - 130 ft / 40 m
IV. REVIEW QUESTIONS. Evaluate the student’s knowledge using the Video and
Classroom Discussion Questions (pages 6-7 and 6-8 of this section). If you are teaching
more than one section of the academics in this session, you can combine the questions
into one review session.
V. SUMMARY. Use the summary to clarify key points and concepts discussed in this
section. If you are teaching more than one section of the academics in this session, you
can combine the summaries together. In this section, students have learned:
A.The reasons you should complete referrals through the Universal
Referral Network.
B.How to maintain proficiency with scuba skills.
C.The SSI Continuing Education Ratings, and why experience is required
to achieve these ratings.
D.Why having Specialty and Continuing Education cards are important.
E. The requirements to earn SSI Levels of Recognition.
F.The types of training included in the SSI Dive Control Specialist course.
VI.ASSIGNMENT
A. Academic assignment (Manual, Video or Study Guide) if applicable.
B. Academic session — Give date, time and location of next session
if applicable.
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C. Pool session — Give date, time and location of next session if
applicable.
D. Open water session — Give date, time and location of next session
if applicable.
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VIDEO REVIEW QUESTIONS & ANSWERS: PART 6
Refer to SSI Open Water Diver Video, Part 6
1. What are the two ways you can complete your open water
training divers?
— With your SSI Training Facility, or by referral.
2. What opportunities can local diving provide for divers?
— A chance to have fun with dive buddies.
— A chance to use your equipment regularly.
— A chance to gain valuable diving experience.
3. What are the advantages of traveling with your local SSI Dealer?
— Dealers provide hassle-free travel to many great dive destinations your travel agent wouldn’t know
about, plus it’s a great way to meet and travel with
other divers.
4. Why does SSI offer a menu of specialty courses rather than
prepackaged Specialty and Advanced Programs?
— A large menu of specialty courses allows you to select
the adventures that interest you so you can custom build
your own Specialty and Advanced Programs.
5. What are the major milestones divers can earn a Level of
Recognition for?
— Level 5 (100 dives) Century Diver
— Level 9 (500 dives) Gold 500 Diver
— Level 10 (1000 dives) Platinum 1000 Diver
— Level 11 (5000 dives) Pro 5000 Diver
6. Why is the DiveCon program the highest entry-level leadership
program in the industry?
— Because it combines the ratings of dive master and
assistant instructor into one rating.
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CLASS DISCUSSION QUESTIONS & ANSWERS:
SECTION 6
Refer to: SSI Open Water Diver Manual, Section 6
1. How does the Universal Referral Program make open water
training easier for traveling divers?
— The program allows divers to complete their open
water training at destinations throughout the world
with resorts and instructors who are certified with
agencies other than SSI.
2. Are divers required to re-certify if they haven’t been diving lately ?
— While certifications are valid for a lifetime, it is
important for divers to keep their skills proficient by
diving at least four or five times a year. If divers have
not been in the water lately, SSI recommends (and
many resorts will require) that a Scuba Skills Update is
completed before diving again.
3. Why is SSI the only agency that requires both training and
experience to become an Advanced Open Water Diver?
— While training may provide the knowledge needed to
learn advanced diving techniques, SSI believes that
divers need to use those skills in the real world. A high level of “diving experience” is what
makes divers comfortable in the water, and truly advanced divers.
4. What is unique about the SSI Levels of Recognition cards, and
how do they differ from regular certification cards?
— The SSI Levels of Recognition are the first cards in the
scuba industry that recognize divers for their diving
experience. No training is needed to receive these
cards, just logged dives.
5. Why is the Dive Control Specialist rating really two ratings
in one?
— Because SSI Dive Control Specialist rating combines the duties of both a dive master and
assistant instructor.
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Contents
OBJECTIVES
CS-1
Course
Summary
ACADEMIC REVIEW
PRESENTATION
SSI Total DiveLog
Planning a Trip
Pre-Trip
Dive Planning
Dive Tables & Computers
During the Dive
After the Dive
Continuing Education
Leadership Opportunities
SUMMARY
ASSIGNMENT
OPEN WATER COMPLETION
Through Your Facility
By Referral
RISK AWARENESS (Optional)
WRITTEN EXAM
I. OBJECTIVES. After completing this
section, the student should be able to:
• Apply the academics of this course to
real world diving situations.
• Describe why the Total DiveLog is a
critical planning and diving tool.
• Complete and review the final exam.
The purpose of this Academic
Session is to show the students how
to put everything they have learned
together. That is, how to prepare for and
conduct a dive properly, and what their
options are after the course is completed.
However, we have not organized this
section as a complete review of sections
1 through 6, you can do that yourself,
simply by reviewing those outlines.
Instead, we have organized it so you can
apply the information to a student who
is planning an actual diving trip. From planning a trip, to planning
the dive at the site, this section follows
the layout of the Total DiveLog so you
can apply the academics to the real
world, and to the importance of the
DiveLog.
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II. ACADEMIC REVIEW. The academics (including the manual, video and study guide
questions) for the course should have been completed, either through home-study or
traditional means by this time. If however, you have not corrected and reviewed the
study guide questions, do so at this time (see Course Introduction for Answer
Keys).
III. PRESENTATION: COURSE SUMMARY. Remember, in this section you will be
applying the academics to real-world diving by covering how to use the Total DiveLog.
Explain how the DiveLog is used to plan trips, record equipment and training, plan
dives at the site, etc..
A. The SSI Total DiveLog. Get out the actual DiveLog and go through it with
your students so they can follow along. The Total DiveLog is a record of diving
experiences and accomplishments.
1. Personal Page. Have the students fill out the personal page if they haven’t do
so already.
2. Training Record. Record of Open Water Diver training (academic, pool, ow).
3. Level 1. Explain that students will be Level 1 divers after completion of
training dives. Can show sticker and embosser system.
4. Scuba Skills Update Page. Tracks your annual Scuba Skills Update.
5. Equipment Pages. Tracks purchase, maintenance of equipment.
B. Planning a Trip. Take information from course and apply to planning a trip.
Use your own knowledge of travel to supplement this section.
1. Location. Discuss how to select a location.
a. Cost. Varies considerably between in-state, out of state, out of country.
b. Season. On/off season, hurricane season, rainy season, etc...
c. Other. Other concerns include travel time, access to medical aid, language,
health concerns, etc.. Add others you would like to discuss. 2. Required Paperwork. Some international travel requires proof of US
citizenship, a passport, a visa, customers forms, even proof of vaccinations.
3. Group Trips. Promote convenience of group travel with store.
C. Pre-Trip. Discuss how to prepare yourself and your equipment before ever
leaving for a dive site.
1. Physical Fitness. Exercise, fitness for diving.
2. Mental Fitness. Mentally strong, confident, prepared, rested, etc...
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3. Equipment. Equipment is ready for diving. Use equipment pages to track.
a. Snorkeling. Complete, clean and maintained equipment.
b. Scuba Diving. Complete, clean, current and maintained equipment.
c. Maintenance. Discuss maintenance schedules and the SSI Equipment
Service Program for varying equipment.
d. Accessories/Specialized Equipment. May need specialized equipment for
safety, communication or comfort. Specialized equipment needed for night
diving, navigation, etc...
D. Dive Planning. Use of DiveLog to plan actual dives.
1. Use of the DiveLog (Log Page). Go through a log page with students and
explain how to use it to plan dive at site.
a. Dive Number. Record number. Explain why.
b. Location Information. To remember site site, location and directions if
possible (for future use).
c. Conditions. Conditions can explain need for extra equipment, air
consumption, diving difficulties.
d. Equipment. Equipment used on dive such as cylinder, air pressure, etc..
Type of exposure suit (and if it was right choice for conditions)
e. Weight. Amount of weight used (and if it was right choice for exposure
suit and cylinder size).
2. Buddy Procedures. Log page provides a reminder for buddy checks and
procedures. Finalize and agree on all dive parameters and procedures.
a. Communication/Signals. Go over basic signals and forms of
communication you will be using on dive.
b. Emergency Procedures.
1) Out of Air Emergency. Share air or emergency ascent? Discuss with
buddy.
2) Lost Buddy Procedure. Discuss a procedure if you become separated.
E. Dive Tables and Computers. Discuss how to use dive tables and computers to
plan an actual dive at a dive site.
1. Terminology. Cover the basic dive table terminology. See Session 4.
2. Tables (optional). Use the dive table slates and dive table wall chart to make a
planned dive using the 3 dive tables.
a. Table 1. Explain how to complete a no-decompression dive using the
No-Decompression Limits table.
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b. Table 2. Explain how to find the surface interval for the planned dive
using the Surface Interval Table.
c. Table 3. Explain how to find the adjusted no-decompression time limit for
the planned dive using the Residual Nitrogen Times Table.
3. Use of Dive Computers. Explain how computers complete the same task as the
dive tables, only faster and easier. Go over other features of computers.
4. Flying After Diving. Eighteen hours in pressurized aircraft, 24 hours in nonpressurized aircraft. Explain this.
5. Diving at Altitude. Need for high-altitude tables.
F. During the Dive. Cover the basic information of what will occur on the actual
dive. The basics are listed here. Feel free to embellish this section as needed.
1. Entries. You and your buddy should use the safest and easiest entry for dive
site. May need to enter as boat captain instructs.
2. Effects of Pressure. Briefly discuss the effects of increasing and decreasing
pressure and they relate to descents and ascents.
a. Descents. As pressure increases, will cause pressure in ears and
equipment.
1) Squeezes. Equalize pressure in ears to relieve pain. Inflate BC to
counteract squeeze in exposure suit.
2) Nitrogen Narcosis. Causes, prevention of narcosis.
b. Ascents. As pressure decreases on ascent, air will expand in body (air
spaces) and equipment (buoyancy compensator) if it is not vented.
1) Reverse Block. If air is not released from sinuses, air can become
trapped and cause a reverse block.
2) Lung Expansion Problems. Breathe normally all the time to avoid
overexpansion problems. Never hold your breath.
3) Decompression Sickness. Problems occur if you ascend faster than
nitrogen can release back into solution. Ascend slowly, safety stop.
3. Adapting to Underwater World. Explain how the body must adapt from being
on land, to being under water.
a. Vision. Mask allows you to see. Everything appears closer and larger.
b. Exposure. Body heat is absorbed faster. Warm temperature on land will be
cold under water. Exposure suits protect from cold.
c. Sound. Sound travels faster, making it difficult to determine direction.
4. Buddy System. Buddies make diving safer and more fun.
5. Neutral Buoyancy. Will make diving easier, protects reef/marine life.
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6. Surface Procedures. Upon surfacing, inflate BC, keep mask and regulator or
snorkel in place — so you can breathe, see and float at all times.
G. After the Dive. How to use DiveLog after the dive to record important
information for memories, and future dive planning. Explain the need to go ahead and finish logging dive by recording final air
consumption, if you were weighted properly, should you have dressed differently, make notes on equipment that needs fixing, adjusting or replacing. These are the
notes that will help you become a better diver in the the future.
1. Equipment. Discuss how to care for equipment between dives, and the end of
the day, the end of the trip, and after returning home from trip.
a. Disassembly
b. Cleaning
c. Storage
2. Logging the Dive. Explain the need to log dives and how it will benefit you in
the future.
a. Narrative. Writing details about the dive will allow you to look back and
remember your diving experiences. Help you decide whether to dive a
location again.
b. Levels of Recognition. Logging your dives will help you work toward the
SSI Levels of Recognition such as Century Diver, Gold 500 Diver, Platinum
1000 Diver, and Platinum Pro 5000 Diver.
H. Continuing Education. Promoting continuing education at the Open Water
Diver level will get divers thinking about where they want to go. Students are
there most enthusiastic at this point, and can be encouraged to further their
training.
1. Where Do You Go From Here? Open Water training is only the
beginning. Explain concept of individual specialty courses and the need for
logged dives to receive certification.
a. Specialty Courses. Additional training for specialized diving such as night/
limited visibility, deep, photography, computers. Whatever meets your
interests and needs.
b. Diver Stress & Rescue Course. Requirement for Master Diver rating. Teaches you to be safer diver, better buddy.
c. Specialty Diver Rating. Can receive Specialty Card after 2 courses and 12
logged dives.
d. Advanced Diver Rating. Can receive Advanced Card after 4 specialty
courses and 24 logged dives.
e. Master Diver Rating. 4 specialty courses + Diver Stress & Rescue + 50
logged dives.
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I. Leadership Opportunities. Now is the time to plant the thought of dive
leadership in the heads of new divers. Encourage your better students to continue
their education and explore leadership possibilities. Recruit for the future.
1. Dive Guide. SSI Dive Guides can lead and guide certified divers. Additionally,
after passing the Snorkeling Instructor program, a Dive Guide can teach
and issue Snorkeling certifications. This program approaches training using
practical application and background information. The goal is to create wellprepared, versatile and marketable Dive Professionals.
2. Divemaster. Dive Guide plus the Science of Diving equals Divemaster.
Divemasters can perform Try Scuba’s (pool only) and assist SSI Instructors
with pool/confined water and open water training under direct supervision.
3. Dive Control Specialist. Beginning dive leadership. Assist instructors, lead dives
and trips, Update and Snorkeling, teach some specialties.
4. Instructor. Instructor responsibilities. Joys of dive leadership, sharing your love
with others.
5. Career Opportunities. Training, retailing, travel and resorts, other opportunities
within the diving industry.
IV. SUMMARY. Use the summary to clarify key points and concepts discussed in this
section. In this session, students have learned:
A. The basic academic concepts from the Open Water Diver course.
B. How to apply these concepts to real world diving situations.
C. Why the Total DiveLog is a critical planning and diving tool.
V. ASSIGNMENT
A. Pool session — Give date, time and location of next session
if applicable.
B. Open water session — Give date, time and location of next session
if applicable.
VI.OPEN WATER DIVE COMPLETION. Discuss how the students are going to
complete their open water dives. Remind them that until they complete the open water
dives, they are not certified. Encourage the students to schedule their dives as soon as
possible. They have essentially two options: complete the dives through your facility or
by referral. Explain the procedures for each.
A. Through Your Facility. Provide a schedule of dates for completing the dives.
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B. By Referral. Provide schedules for trips you have available, or travel services
offered by the Dealer. Let students know they need referral paperwork from
you prior to their trip. For the procedures to send a referral, see the appendix of
this manual.
VII.RISK AWARENESS, PART 2 (OPTIONAL). For details see: (Record Keeping,
Academic Sessions — Course Summary)
VIII. WRITTEN EXAM. A grade of 80% or higher is required for passing. For details see: (Record Keeping, Academic Sessions — Course Summary)
A. Give Exam
B. Grade Exam
C. Review Exam
D. Sign-Off Exam
Students must complete the exam successfully before
they go to open water. If they do not complete the
exam successfully, have them study and attempt the
exam again at a different time.
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Contents
P1-1
Pool Session 1
I. OBJECTIVES. As
OBJECTIVES
INTRODUCTION
Use & Care of Equipment
Water Familiarization and Skill
Building
Scuba Equipment Skills
POOL EXERCISES
Equipment Adjustment
Mask and Snorkel
Fins and Boots
Buoyancy Compensator
Weight System
Watermanship Evaluation
BC Flotation
Mask Clearing (Surface)
Snorkel Clearing (Surface)
Flutter Kick (Surface)
Inflate BC (Bobbing Method)
Surface Procedures
Proper Weighting
Locating the Weight System (Quick
Draw Method)
Surface Dives
Flutter Kick (Under Water)
Dolphin Kick (Optional)
Surfacing
Entries
Snorkel Breathing (No Mask,
Optional)
Dolphin Exercise (Optional)
Expansion Clearing (Optional)
Exit
Helpful Hint
EQUIPMENT CARE, MAINTENANCE
& REPLACEMENT
the pool work begins,
the student will have selected mask, snorkel,
fins, boots, buoyancy compen-sator and
weight belt, and will now be ready to put
everything on for the first time.
One of the most important parts of the
training begins here. This is equip-ment
adjustment. It is vitally important that each
student learn how to adjust all the equipment
correctly and the reason for correct
adjustment.
Attitude is everything to the new
student. You determine in the beginning
how they will function for the rest of their
diving careers. The difference between good
and poor instruction here can easily mean
the difference between a student who begins
a lifetime of enjoyable diving and one who
fails to go on at all.
Equipment is awkward for many people.
Many students are experiencing mask,
snorkel, fins, BC and weight belt for the first
time. Rather than forcing new people with
cumbersome equipment to perform difficult
tasks, it is better to help them learn to handle
the equipment properly and give them just
enough information and simple exercises so
they enjoy themselves.
Show everyone how to adjust each piece
of equipment properly. Go through each
item step-by-step. Make sure they understand
it well. By addressing mis-understandings
about equipment and familiarizing
students with its use, you eliminate one
more potential problem. When everyone
understands adjustment, you have only to go
through the exercises.
Don’t be pushy. This may be the first
time in the water for a while for some
people, and they need an opportunity to
get comfortable. Remember, at this point
your responsibility is to TEACH, not to TEST.
Be helpful. Make sure everyone enjoys
themselves and feels good about what they
have learned. After all, they paid to learn
how to have fun. Your responsibility is to see
they learn to have fun safely.
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II. INTRODUCTION. Tell everyone to relax and enjoy themselves. Explain that the first pool
class will give them an opportunity to accomplish these objectives:
A. Use and Care of Equipment. To learn how to adjust and care for the equipment as
well as how to use it.
B. Water Familiarization and Skill Building. To refamiliarize themselves with the
water and begin to build the skills and physical capabilities required for them to dive
safely.
C. Snorkel Equipment Skills. To perform basic equipment handling skills needed to
prepare them for the comfortable use of scuba. In the course of the pool class, they will
learn how to:
1.
2.
3.
4.
5.
6.
7.
8.
9.
Breathe through the snorkel and clear it.
Rest on the surface.
Properly weight themselves.
Become comfortable with buoyancy.
Move on the surface of the water.
Move below the surface of the water.
Make proper surface dives.
Make proper and safe entries.
Practice and develop a satisfactory skill level.
III. POOL EXERCISES
A. E quipment Adjustment. Learning how to adjust equipment properly is one of the
two most important general skills the student will learn. It is vital. It must be repeated
and checked by the Instructor until it is satisfactory in every respect.
1. Mask and Snorkel. Adjust the strap so that the mask is snug but not tight. A good
check is to move the head from side-to-side in the water. The mask should stay on,
but not be tight enough to put undue pressure on the face or be uncomfortable. Be
sure the strap fits over the crown of the head.
Commercial solutions are the best defoggers. They chemically cleanse the lens
and clean it much more effectively than saliva. Saliva is a readily available clearing
agent, but it builds a residue on the mask and is unsanitary. Be sure to have a
container at poolside so the students get into the habit of using it right from the
start.
The snorkel always fits on the left side to allow the regulator hose to come
over the right shoulder without interference. When adjusting the snorkel, look
straight down. Place the snorkel in the mouth and point it as nearly straight up as
possible. Note where the snorkel and the mask strap meet. Use the snorkel keeper
and connect them at this point.
2. Fins and Boots. The fins should be large enough to allow comfortable fit with the
boots. If they are too small, they will quickly cramp the feet. If they are too large,
they may cause blisters or fall off.
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Be sure the toes don’t touch the end. Adjust the heel straps so the fins fit
snugly but not too tight. Remember to wear some kind of protective footwear.
3. Buoyancy Compensator. Different styles of BCs require special adjustment
techniques. Demonstrate and explain the proper procedure for donning and
adjusting the buoyancy compensators the students will be using.
4. Weight System. Each student should have a weight belt with a small amount
of weight. Make the belt the correct length for each student if possible. Do not
restrict release of the belt. The buckle can be a right- or left-hand release as long
as it is not covered by the BC or any other belts or buckles. If you use integrated
weight systems, it will be necessary for you to have your students use a standard
weight belt during class, since ditching the weight from the integrated system is
impractical in both pool and open water.
B. Watermanship Evaluation. The overall goal is to evaluate the student’s comfort in
the water, not their personal endurance. The 200-yard swim test is one part of that total
evaluation. The test can be conducted by having students swim in pool lanes, around
the pool perimeter, or whatever best assesses their comfort. Failure of the test does not
mean failure of the class.
The second part of the evaluation is the ten-minute survival float. The float test
can be conducted in many ways. You may incorporate the swim with another exercise,
such as having students remove and replace mask, snorkel and fins in water over their
heads, or you may conduct the test separately. As with the swim test, failure of the test
does not mean failure of the class. It is only one portion of the overall watermanship
evaluation.
The final part of the total watermanship evaluation is how secure and at ease
students appear while under water. They should not seem anxious or afraid of the
water itself. At first, some nervousness is common. However, they should begin to relax
as the course progresses and they gain confidence in the equipment and their abilities.
People uneasy in the later stages of the course are candidates for additional attention
and work.
The Instructor needs to evaluate the overall comfort of the
student in the water. This will include your evaluation of the
student’s fitness, comfort with equipment, and ability in the
water which includes a swim test, which must be conducted
prior to the student doing their open water certification dives.
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C. BC Flotation. Before the students get into the water, have them inflate the BC so they
can feel the flotation it provides. Check to make sure the BC fits snugly.
By using the BC immediately, you show the student the wisdom of flotation and
make it apparent that it is really a tool. During the classes it will become an integral
part of the equipment.
D. M
ask Clearing (Surface). During snorkel dives, water can enter the mask. Teach
students the easiest method of clearing the mask. That is, upon reaching the surface,
have them dump the water out the bottom of the mask. This demonstrates the basic
technique they will use in underwater mask clearing, and will make that skill easier to
teach later on.
E. Snorkel Clearing (Surface). Snorkel clearing is very important. It paves the way
for use of the regulator. Mastery of the snorkel ensures safety under even adverse
conditions. Rapid exhalation on the surface, or popping the snorkel clear as shown in
Figure 1-1, is the best method to teach. It has to become second nature so that water
spilling in is automatically removed.
Difficulty in clearing the snorkel usually stems from either breathing around the
mouthpiece or simply a reluctance to blow hard enough. Start slowly by letting the
student breathe through the snorkel. If they breathe shallow, they won’t exchange
enough air, and carbon dioxide will build up. When breathing is satisfactory, have the
students put their faces in the water. When they are comfortable, have them swim on
the surface. Make sure everyone feels good just breathing before they attempt any
exercises.
When ready, students lower their heads below the surface until water enters their
snorkels. Then they lift their heads and blow hard. Warn them about the possibility of
water left in the snorkel. The first breath should be slow and shallow to avoid inhaling
water.
An alternative, useful only on the surface, is the draining method. You may revise
and increase the difficulty of the exercises. Be sure to give sufficient time for everyone
to become proficient. The dolphin exercise explained at the end of this section is an
excellent skill builder.
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FIGURE 1-1 “POPPING” THE SNORKEL ON THE SURFACE
F. F lutter Kick (Surface). Surface swimming requires buoyancy and the proper kick.
The swimmer does not want the fins to break the surface. This only wastes energy. The
best position is a slight down angle of the fins. The BC should be inflated enough to lift
the lungs. Also, at this angle, the legs are far enough below the surface that they will
not be flopping out of the water. The kick itself is a long, strong, straight kick, as shown
in Figure 1-2.
FIGURE 1-2 FLUTTER KICK
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G. Inflate BC (Bobbing Method). The bobbing method, as shown in Figure 1-3, is the
best for oral inflation on the surface. Caution the students that the procedure is valid if
they are not greatly over-weighted. If they are really struggling to stay up, they should
drop the weight belt. Have them practice this several times to ensure their competence.
The actual procedure is:
1. Kick up and take a big breath of air. (The inflator hose is in the left hand.)
2. Relax and sink, face down, and exhale part of the air into the compensator.
3. Kick up and surface, take another breath and repeat inflation procedure.
FIGURE 1-3 INFLATION OF BC BY “BOBBING” METHOD
H. Surface Procedures. After practicing the Bobbing Method of oral BC inflation, show
the students proper surface procedures. Surface procedures are employed as soon as
divers reach the surface, and are an important safety practice. The procedures involve
three phases:
1. Inflate the BC. Inflate the BC so they are floating.
2. Stabilize. Stabilize so they are stationary on the surface.
3. Rest. Rest so they can relax and regain lost energy. When the students know they
can rest if they are tired, they lose a measure of apprehension and you open them
to learning, as well as make them feel more comfortable.
Using the snorkel, have them swim face down for a distance. The idea is for the BC
to partly lift them out of the water to permit easier breathing. They will find it difficult
to stay upright when fully inflated, so have them deflate a little at a time until they are
able to swim comfortably. Their lungs will be partly under water, but it is better than
being totally submerged.
When the proper buoyancy level has been achieved, have them stop and rest face
down. They need to learn to be comfortable face down because it can be safer and
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less tiring. Swimming on the back can also be comfortable, particularly for long swims.
If there is rough water it is much easier to maintain stability and direction when face
down.
I. P
roper Weighting. Before beginning the surface dive exercise, many students will
need some weight to offset positive buoyancy, especially if they are wearing some
type of wet suit. By making sure each student has the proper weight before attempting
surface dives, you will be emphasizing the importance of proper weighting, and
demonstrating the technique for determining proper weighting.
Have each student get into the water and stay along the poolside. With their masks
on and snorkels in their mouths, have them completely deflate their BCs and exhale
completely. Based on their individual buoyancy characteristics, estimate the amount of
weight you believe they require.
Give them a belt with that amount of weight. (It helps to have an assistant do this.)
Recheck buoyancy and make adjustments if necessary.
When rechecking buoyancy, consider the type and size of tank they will be wearing
during scuba, in preparation for the Proper Weighting exercise in Pool 2. The proper
amount of weight for snorkeling may not be appropriate for scuba.
J. L ocating the Weight System (Quick Draw Method). After students are weighted
properly, show them how to locate the weight system, in preparation for demonstrating
how to ditch the weight system. (Ditching the weight system under water will be shown
in Pool 4.) At this point, it is enough to know how to locate the weight system, and to
make them aware that they should ditch it in an emergency. The procedure is:
1. Bring the hands to the thighs.
2. Move hands upward until the belt is located.
3. Move right hand inward to locate the belt buckle (if right-hand release).
K. Surface Dives. Two dives may be demonstrated and learned: the head-first and the
feet-first dive.
1. Head-First Dive. The head-first is the most efficient for the snorkel diver. If properly
done in open water, the diver should be able to execute the dive and drop about 10
to 15 feet below the surface without kicking. The objective is simply to lift as much
of the lower body out of the water as possible so that weight will push the entire
body down. The exact procedure is shown in Figure 1-4.
a. Keep the legs near the surface to reduce the lifting effort.
b. When ready, the body bends at the waist and the head goes down.
c. At the same time, the legs go up. The desired position is to be suspended
vertically, upside down, with the legs completely out of the water. If the
student achieves this position, the sheer weight of the legs will force the body
down.
d. Keep the body straight to cut resistance and aid the drop.
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FIGURE 1-4 HEAD FIRST DIVE
2. Feet-First Dive. The feet-first dive, as shown in Figure 1-5, is used primarily in kelp.
The objective is to open a hole in the kelp, then drop feet-first below the kelp
mat on the surface, and turn over and swim down head-first. After the opening is
made, kick hard and force the upper body as far out of the water as possible. Lift
the arms straight over the head and then drop as far below the surface as possible.
Once the drop has stopped, tuck into a ball, turn the head down, and swim on
toward the bottom. Since very few people outside of the West Coast will ever dive
in kelp, this exercise may be eliminated if the Instructor wishes.
FIGURE 1-5 FEET-FIRST DIVE
The techniques should be thoroughly explained and demonstrated several
times before the student attempts them. Allow plenty of practice time, making sure
the students use the snorkel at the same time.
Even though the students have not read chapter three yet, tell them that
squeezes will occur on descent because of the effects of increasing ambient
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pressure. Make sure you tell the students how to clear their ears in the event they
feel pressure when they make surface dives. Show them how to seal the mask and
blow through the nose gently. Tell them that they may feel a mask squeeze as well.
Show them how to equalize the mask squeeze by exhaling into the mask through
their nose.
L. F lutter Kick (Under Water). The flutter kick is a long, straight kick. The legs are
kept as straight as possible with the ankles acting as hinges for the fins. Long, deep
kicks that move a lot of water are best. Students should strive for a relaxed, efficient
kick that gives the most power with the least effort. Remind them not to swim fast. TO
DOUBLE THE SPEED IN WATER REQUIRES FOUR TIMES THE EXERTION.
The kick is best demonstrated with the students in a line where you can swim past
them. If students are performing the bicycle kick, show the difference between the
flutter and bicycle kick, and why the flutter kick is correct.
M. Dolphin Kick (Optional). The dolphin kick is an optional kick. It is of little practical
value except when a fin is lost. Swimming with one fin can be difficult, but if you
place your feet together, one on top of the other, then move the body in a dolphin-like
rhythm, as shown in Figure 1-6, you can swim with real efficiency.
FIGURE 1-6 DOLPHIN KICK
N. Surfacing. In this exercise, you will want to show students the safe and proper way
to ascend to the surface. Demonstrate the ascent for your students and have them
practice.
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1. Hold the left hand slightly above the head. The point of using the left hand is that
the oral inflator on the BC is on the left side. In fact, you can have students hold
the oral inflator as practice.
2. Using the right hand, find the weight on the weight belt and slide the hand to the
weight belt buckle. The point of finding the buckle is to ingrain in the students the
importance of locating the buckle prior to each ascent.
3. Look up and gently kick to the surface. Rotating on the way up improves vision.
O. E ntries. You should make one point clear to the students: The best way to enter the
water from a boat is the safest, easiest way. In other words, use no fancy flips or any
entry that might create disorientation. The diver can never be sure about subsurface
objects, currents, possible hang-ups, or other unforeseen problems. Divers should use
good judgment and enter the safest possible way. This exercise should simulate boat
entries, as shown in Figure 1-7. They are:
1. Controlled Seated
2. Step-In
3. Feet-First Jumping
FIGURE 1-7 BOAT ENTRIES
CONTROLLED SEATED
|
STEP-IN |
FEET-FIRST JUMPING
Make the students aware that when entering from a high boat, the feet-first entry
is best. Put some air into their BCs so they can float on entry. They should simply keep
their feet together, hold the mask in place, and step into the water. Should any unseen
obstacles appear, the feet take the shock and the student won’t lose orientation. The
step-in entry is used from low docks or boat platforms. Have students cover the mask
with one hand and the weight belt buckle with the other, making sure the snorkel is in
the mouth, and step into the water.
Another option is the back roll, but it is only used from small boats and should be
avoided if possible.
Whenever possible, just slipping gracefully into the water while maintaining contact
with the boat is preferred. Demonstrate each entry and then have the students do them.
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Entries should be completed in the snorkeling section.
They are easier to teach while students are not wearing
scuba equipment.
P. S
norkel Breathing (No Mask, Optional). After students get comfortable with
surface dives, flutter kick and ascents, have them use the snorkel without the mask.
Swimming without a mask but using the snorkel leads up to mask clearing in the
scuba section. Show the class these techniques: Have them remove the mask and, while
breathing through the snorkel, pinch their nose closed and put their faces down into
the water. Next have them try it without pinching the nose. In this case they need to
exhale first to pressurize the sinuses and to avoid the sensation of water going up the
nose. Tell them to continue breathing and swimming around until it feels comfortable.
Once the students realize it is possible to breathe with the nose exposed to water, they
will relax and will be able to clear the mask with less difficulty.
Q. D
olphin Exercise (Optional). The dolphin exercise involves both diving and snorkel
clearing. Demonstrate and explain in this manner. Take a large breath and drop to the
bottom in shallow water. Push off the bottom quickly, and after breaking the surface,
clear the snorkel and take one breath before repeating. Do this the length of the
shallow end in the pool. Don’t hurry and don’t make anyone feel they have failed if
unable to do this the first time. Make it their goal to complete it.
R. E xpansion Clearing (Optional). Expansion snorkel clearing, as shown in Figure
1-8, is a supplement to the normal popping technique, but is for snorkel dives only. It
is an easier method when returning to the surface, but it can only be used at that time.
It isn’t meant to replace the standard popping method. The technique requires that the
diver look up while ascending. This points the snorkel down. As the students approach
the surface, tell them to exhale slightly. The natural expansion of the air will clear the
snorkel. This method is quieter and requires less energy than popping it clear, but it
only works on ascent.
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FIGURE 1-8 SNORKEL CLEARING BY THE EXPANSION METHOD
S. E xit. Exiting the water can be awkward for students with equipment. There are two
methods you can introduce in the pool which will enable new students to safely and
comfortably exit the water.
Have your students swim to the shallow end of the pool in buddy teams, teach
them how to stand up with fins on, and, one at a time, remove their fins with the
assistance of their buddy for balance. They then can climb out of the pool.
Another method for deep water is to have the students swim to the deep end
ladder. Have them hang onto the ladder, remove their weight belt and hand it up, then
remove their fins one at a time and hand these up also. The student can then climb up
the ladder and out of the water, then assist their buddy with his/her equipment.
T. Helpful Hint. Teach the students to walk backward or sideways with their fins on.
IV. EQUIPMENT CARE, MAINTENANCE AND REPLACEMENT. Learning to care for the
equipment is important. The students are learning new habits. Whatever you teach them to
do, they will continue to do.
Equipment care teaches them how to care for their own equipment and helps maintain
the class equipment. So have them clean, drain, separate, and replace the equipment in a
predesignated spot.
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Contents
OBJECTIVE
INTRODUCTION
Class Overview
Equipment Discussion
POOL EXERCISES (Shallow Water)
Donning Scuba Unit
Regulator Breathing (Surface)
Regulator Breathing (Under
Water)
Regulator Breathing (No Mask)
Regulator Clearing
Blowing
Purging
Regulator Retrieval
Sweeping
Reaching
Mask Clearing
Proper Weighting
Practice Time
Removing Scuba Unit (Surface)
Scuba Unit Disassembly
EQUIPMENT CARE, MAINTENANCE
& REPLACEMENT
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Pool Session 2
I. OBJECTIVE. The objective of the first
scuba instruction is to orient the students
to breathing under water with scuba
equipment.
The students must understand scuba
equipment to avoid buying or using
anything that will later prove inade-quate.
This is an opportunity for you to show
the students how to handle and adjust
equipment, and the correct procedure for
putting it on and taking it off both in and
out of the water. You will show them how
to check the “O” ring on the valve and
how to attach and remove the regulator. It
is important that they understand simple,
on-site regulator care and handling.
Cover the handling and adjustment of the
equipment that will be used in this class.
While you will cover some exercises, your primary goal is to make
everyone happy so they enjoy the sport
and feel comfortable in a new environment. Do not request students to
attempt exercises until you feel they
are comfortable. Make sure everyone
leaves happy, looking forward to the
next session.
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II. INTRODUCTION
A. Class Overview. Gather the students and introduce what they will be doing in the
class session.
B. Equipment Discussion
1. BC, Tank and Regulator Assembly. There are several considerations in BC
adjustment. The BC should be placed high enough on the tank so the valve will
not hit the back of the diver’s head, but low enough so that a regulator can be
placed on the tank valve without interference. Proper procedure for tightening and
adjusting the tank band should be included at this time.
When placing the regulator on the tank, show the students how to establish
the correct position. The tank is in front of the diver with the BC facing away. Hold
the second-stage of the regulator in the right hand and the first-stage in the left
hand. The following procedure should be emphasized:
a. Check “O” ring. The regulator will not seat properly if there is no “O”
ring. Check first to make sure there are no impurities and that the “O”
ring is clean and dry. It is recommended that the tank valve be opened
slightly to ensure no impurities are caught in the orifice of the tank valve.
Also, in some cases the tape placed on the tank at the last fill will need to
be removed.
b. Put on the regulator. Reaffirm the tank placement and the position of the
regulator (second-stage in the right hand and first-stage in the left hand, with
the backpack facing away).
c. Before turning the air on, dry breathe the regulator. If the student can inhale,
there may be a leak in the second-stage.
d. Attach power inflator hose to BC.
e. Turn the tank on. When opening valves, the tendency is to open the valve too
far, thereby destroying or at least damaging the seat. Caution students to open
the valve completely, but slowly and gently. Students should not look at the
SPG while turning the air on.
f. Regulator function. Students, whether they buy or rent, should know how to
check for regulator function: turn on the tank valve; push the purge button
to determine that air is on and flowing properly through the regulator; exhale
through the regulator, making sure that the one-way valve in the exhalation
port is functioning properly. It may be stuck shut. Placing the second-stage
in water for a few moments will loosen it up. If needed, breathe through the
regulator, making sure that it inhales and exhales smoothly, without resistance.
2. How to Put On the Scuba Unit. Because of the tank’s weight, buddies should learn
to help each other put tanks on to minimize the possibility of a tank falling or a
strap slipping.
Do not allow the students to lift the tanks over their heads. Several types of
accidents can happen: (1) the tank can slip out of the BC; (2) the student may slip
on the slick surface surrounding the pool; (3) most people lift incorrectly, and by
lifting the tank over the top of their head they could seriously hurt their back; (4)
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students may not pay attention to what is going on behind them.
A good method for putting on the tank is to fasten the straps, set the tank in
a position where the diver can simply back into it, slip it on and walk off. This
can also be done by having buddies hold tanks for each other. The procedure for
donning the tank in water while floating needs to be explained and demonstrated
in the pool.
III. POOL EXERCISES (SHALLOW WATER)
A. Donning Scuba Unit. Demonstrate how to put the scuba unit on, either in the water
or out of the water. Stress the use of buddies and show the proper way for a buddy to
hold the unit while the diver slips into it.
B. R
egulator Breathing (Surface). For those who have never breathed through a
regulator with a mask on, the process is a little strange at first. Many students are
apprehensive about the ability of the regulator to provide them with enough air when
they are under water. The transition from air to water should be a gentle one. They
should have accustomed themselves to breathing through the mouth in the first class
using the snorkel, but make sure.
Have them put the regulator in their mouths and breathe standing up in the water
for a few minutes until they feel comfortable. Then have them submerge their faces
while still standing so they can lift their faces out if need be.
C. Regulator Breathing (Under Water). Once they feel good about breathing with
their faces in the water, let them kneel on the bottom in the shallow end and breathe
for several minutes. Explain the importance of proper breathing.
The familiarization period should last until the students are comfortable. This gives
them plenty of opportunity to become thoroughly familiar with the breathing process
so that it is second nature—as comfortable as breathing on the surface. Once you feel
they are comfortable and ready, you can go on to the exercises. Please remember that
this is a totally new experience for most of the people. They need time to enjoy their
new found skill.
D. Regulator Breathing (No Mask). After they are comfortable under water, bring the
students back to the surface. On the surface, have them breathe without masks but with
their faces in the water. This builds confidence for the mask clearing exercise.
E. R
egulator Clearing. Two methods of clearing the second-stage of a single-hose
regulator are blowing and purging. Each has a special function and deserves attention.
1. Blowing. The blowing method is the most obvious. It involves exhalation of air
through the mouthpiece. The water just follows the air. Providing there is sufficient
air in the lungs to accomplish this, blowing is the normal method. Have the
students take their regulators out of their mouths under water, replace them, and
clear them. All of these exercises are conducted in shallow water so the students
can stand up should they experience problems. Exhaling before inhaling must
become automatic.
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2. Purging. The purge valve is used to clear the second-stage in case the diver does
not have enough air to blow into the regulator. While the lack of air would be a
rare possibility, it can happen. It is essential to the students’ confidence that they
understand they have this emergency procedure. Purging is simple but must be
done with intelligence.
Have students take regulators out of their mouths, replace them and clear them
by pushing the purge button lightly. In regulators which deliver a large quantity of
air, pushing the purge valve in as far as it will go and then putting it in the mouth
could cause injury. The students should be aware of this. Have them push the
purge valve lightly, so there is a light flow of air. Be sure students have regulators
in their mouths prior to purging.
F. Regulator Retrieval. Two methods of retrieving the regulator second-stage are:
1. Sweeping. Tilt your body to the right, reach to the right side and down with
your right arm, and with an upward sweeping motion catch the hose with the
right arm close to your body. Follow it down to the second-stage mouthpiece.
Replace the regulator and clear.
2. Reaching. Reach back with the right hand, find the second-stage hose at the
first-stage and follow it down to the second-stage mouthpiece. Replace the
regulator and clear.
Your responsibility is to instill proper scuba skills in the
students, and to do so while making it fun. You should
not accept less than their best efforts, but on the other
hand, you are not in a position—nor do you have the
right—to be militant toward the students.
FIGURE 2-1 POSITION FOR MASK CLEARING
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G. M
ask Clearing. In the previous class, the students should have been given time
to swim on the surface without the mask while breathing through the snorkel. They
also repeated this skill while breathing off the regulator. Those exercises are designed
specifically to prepare the students for having water in the mask, and to show them the
clearing procedure.
1. Principle. It will make the Instructor’s task much easier if the principle of mask
clearing is explained thoroughly. The objective is to create more pressure inside
the mask than outside. The water will simply run out of the mask. In this exercise,
you want to show that this is accomplished by exhaling into the mask through the
nose. Seal the mask at its highest point and force the air and water out the lowest
point. As the air goes out, the water will go with it. Be sure the students understand
they must not pull the mask away from their face or the water will run back in as
quickly as it is removed. Demonstrate position and procedure several times before
they try it.
2. Technique. The technique for mask clearing is as follows (see Figure 2-1):
a. S tep 1. Put your hand on the top of the mask and push hard enough to prevent
the exhalation from going out the top of the mask.
b. Step 2. Exhale into the mask.
c. Step 3. Look up toward the surface. If students do not exhale prior to looking
towards the surface, water will run into their nose. If they stop exhaling they
should look down, or water will run into their nose.
3. Exercise. Allow each student to try the skill individually until everyone has
completed it. Next, divide the students into buddy teams, and let them help each
other clear their masks. Encourage them not to surface if the mask does not clear
the first time, but to remain calm, take another breath, and try again. Because some
students buy large-volume, high-vision masks, occasionally they have problems
clearing those masks until they learn the exact procedure. Should this be the case,
be prepared to provide them with a low-volume mask that can be cleared easily
so they can learn the proper technique. The mask clearing exercise progresses as
follows:
a. Step 1. Have the students practice the mask clearing technique of
exhaling through their nose and looking up under water, without water in
their mask.
b. Step 2. Have the students practice the mask clearing technique with a slight
amount of water in their mask. To put water in the mask, pull the top of the
mask away from the forehead. (Do not pull the bottom of the mask away from
under the nose.) When clearing, make sure students begin exhaling prior to
looking up, or water will run into their nose.
c. Step 3. Have the students fill their masks half-full before practicing the clearing
technique. The water level should be below their eyes.
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d. Step 4. Have the students flood their masks, then practice the clearing
technique.
e. Step 5. Have the students remove their masks, replace them, and then clear the
water.
H. P
roper Weighting. From the proper weighting exercise in Pool 1, estimate the
amount of weight you believe each diver needs on scuba, considering the tank size and
type and whether they are wearing an exposure suit. Even though you are in shallow
water, have each student take a full breath and let the air out of the BC. The student
should float approximately at eye level or slightly below. Adjust weight as necessary to
obtain the proper weight.
I. P
ractice Time. Allow the students to practice breathing and neutral buoyancy in the
shallow water.
J. R
emoving Scuba Unit (Surface). At the conclusion of the class instruct the students
on how to remove their scuba unit. The easiest method is to remove it while in the
water. Buddy assistance is recommended.
Inflate the BC about half-way. Unbuckle the waist and chest straps. Reach around
and grab the bottom of the tank with the right hand. Slip the left arm out of the BC.
Finally, slip the right arm out of the BC. Be aware of anything that may become caught
while removing the unit, such as a wrist watch. Students should exit the water and
remove their scuba units from the water.
K. Scuba Unit Disassembly. After exiting the water, show the students how to
disassemble their scuba units. In removing the regulator and BC, explain this procedure:
1. Close the tank valve. When shutting off the tank valve, the tendency is to crank it
down hard. This will damage the valve seat. It needs to be shut tightly, but not too
tightly.
2. Push the purge on either the regulator or the alternate air source to bleed the air
from the hoses.
3. Disconnect the low pressure inflater hose from the power inflator.
4. Loosen the yoke screw and remove the regulator from the valve.
5. Dry and replace the dust cap, then tighten the yoke.
6. Remove the BC and drain it of water by turning it upside down and pushing the
deflator button on the power inflater.
IV. EQUIPMENT CARE, MAINTENANCE AND REPLACEMENT. As previously mentioned,
now is the time to establish good maintenance habits. If they learn to take care of the store’s
equipment, they will learn to take care of their own. The main items for consideration are
the BCs and tank/regulator combinations.
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The students must remove the regulator, replace the dust cap, and put the regulator in
the designated area.
After removing the BC, lay the tank down in the designated spot. Then have the student
inflate the BC completely, turn it upside down, and allow the water to run into the hose and
drain, removing all air and water. When the water has been drained, put a small amount of
air back into the BC, then re-hook all straps and place in a designated spot.
Maintenance and proper handling of the tank, regulator
and BC are very important. Good habits begin here. Be
sure the students learn how to take care of the Dealer’s
equipment. Have them replace it in a designated spot. It is
a wise idea to wash equipment prior to putting it back, so
they get in the habit of taking care of your equipment and
their own.
P2-8
OPEN
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MANUAL • POOL
10TH EDITION • 10/10
OPEN
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INSTRUCTOR
MANUAL • POOL
10TH EDITION • 10/10
Contents
OBJECTIVES
POOL EXERCISES
Equipment Adjustment
Review (Shallow Water)
Regulator Clearing
Regulator Retrieval
Mask Clearing
New Exercises (Shallow Water)
Inflate BC (Power and Oral)
Buoyancy Control (Power and
Oral)
Air Sharing (Alternate Air
Source)
Buddy Breathing (Optional)
New Exercises (Deep Water)
Entries
Surface Procedures
Surface Swim
Controlled Descent
Controlled Ascent
Review (Deep Water)
Regulator Clearing
Regulator Retrieval
Mask Clearing
Air Sharing (Alternate Air
Source)
Buddy Breathing (Optional)
Buoyancy Control (Power and
Oral)
EQUIPMENT CARE, MAINTENANCE
& REPLACEMENT
P3-1
Pool Session 3
I. OBJECTIVES. The
primary
objectives of this class are to continue
working on funda-mental scuba skills, to
introduce students to deeper water, and to
begin working on emergency scuba skills.
The goal is repetition of the skills until
each one becomes a conditioned, automatic
response. This is why skills from previous
classes are reviewed in subsequent classes.
When students are taken to deeper
water for the first time, the primary
intent is for them to get comfortable
in that environment. Therefore, the
only new skills covered are the few
that are necessary to function in that
environment.
The only emergency skill covered is
Air Sharing (Alternate Air Source). This is
a component skill that, in the next pool
session, is combined with ascent training
to create a key emergency skill — the Air
Sharing Ascent (Alternate Air Source).
These exercises should be
completed with confidence.
Each class period should
include plenty of practice
t i m e . D o n ’t m a k e t h e
common mistake of
making the classes more
complicated than they need
to be. All new exercises
should be done first in
s h a l l o w w a t e r, t h e n i n
deeper water.
P3-2
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10TH EDITION • 10/10
II. POOL EXERCISES
A. Equipment Adjustment. Students using store equipment should select their
equipment. Have them adjust (with help from a buddy) each piece of equipment
and prepare for entry into the water. Check to make sure that everything is adjusted
properly, that regulators are put on tanks in the proper position, that valves are opened
correctly, and so forth.
B. Review (Shallow Water)
1. Regulator Clearing. Go through both methods of regulator clearing. Allow plenty of
practice time for this exercise.
2. Regulator Retrieval. Go through both methods of regulator retrieval. Allow plenty of
practice time for this exercise.
3. Mask Clearing. Go through the mask clearing exercise, using the same steps taught
in Pool 2.
C. New Exercises (Shallow Water)
1. Inflate BC (Power). As with other new exercises, BC inflation is started in shallow
water. Use of the power inflator is simple and requires a minimum of instruction.
However, inflating too rapidly or too much can be a problem.
In this exercise, have the student slowly inflate the unit until beginning to
experience buoyancy, then deflate the unit completely. Repeat 2 or 3 times.
2. Inflate BC (Oral). The oral BC inflation exercise accomplishes several objectives. The
primary objective is to develop a technique for oral inflation of the BC under water.
It also prepares the diver for an exercise known as the Air Sharing Ascent.
The procedure for oral BC inflation is very simple. The diver takes a deep
breath. While holding the regulator second-stage in the right hand, the diver
removes it from the mouth. With the BC’s oral inflator in the left hand, the diver
places the inflator mouthpiece in the mouth and exhales half a breath into the
BC. It’s not necessary to do this rapidly. It should be done slowly and deliberately,
putting only a small amount of air into the BC with each exhalation, allowing for
plenty of air to clear the regulator.
Tell the students that plenty of air should be conserved
to clear the regulator. Be sure the student is completely
comfortable with this exercise before proceeding to the
deep end of the pool.
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P3-3
3. Buoyancy Control (Power). The exercise consists of inflating the unit to the point
where buoyancy becomes positive and ascent begins. The moment the students
start up, they should release the air and settle back to the bottom. Repeat as many
times as necessary to make sure the students are completely comfortable.
At the same time they are practicing this procedure, the students can
determine their proper buoyancy. To do this, you may need weight on the student
to establish a slight negative buoyancy.
Have the students in turn inflate their BCs to the point where they achieve
neutral buoyancy so that they can suspend themselves just over the pool bottom.
By exhaling slightly, they will begin to sink; by inhaling slightly, they will begin
to rise. Let each student experience it thoroughly, and make a definite point that
everyone should achieve neutral buoyancy at all depths while diving.
4. Buoyancy Control (Oral). Repeat the buoyancy control exercise, but use oral
inflation to add air to the BC. This is a skill component of the Air Sharing Ascent
(Alternate Air Source) exercise.
5. Air Sharing (Alternate Air Source). When training in cold water (below 10ºC / 50ºF)
adhering to the equipment manufacturer’s guidelines and the use of a
manifold valve with additional first stage and attached alternative air source is
recommended. This exercise is done in a stationary position. Before starting the
exercise, explain the concept of needer and donor. The needer is the diver who is
out of air, and the donor is the diver who is providing air. In addition, establish the
hand signals that will be used. Cover the out-of-air, the need-to-share-air and ok-toascend signals. Also cover the special hand signals you will use to indicate who is
the needer and donor, when to start the exercise, and when to stop it. The steps of
the exercise are:
a. The needer gives the donor the out-of-air signal by slashing the hand, palm
down, back and forth under their chin. He or she also gives the need-to-shareair signal by pointing with all fingers at their mouth.
b. The donor gives the primary air source to the needer. The donor watches to
make sure the needer gets the second-stage in the mouth and is breathing.
While the regulator is out of the donor’s mouth, he or she exhales slightly.
c. The donor retrieves his or her alternate air source. The alternate air source
should be attached within easy reach in the chest region, or it should be an
integral part of the power inflation device on the BC.
d. The donor and needer establish contact by grabbing the other’s BC with their
right hand. The right hand is used so the left hand can operate the exhaust
hose of the BC during ascent.
e. The donor establishes eye contact with the needer. The donor should look for
signs of stress or panic in the needer. The donor should be in control of the
situation.
f.
The donor checks on the needer by making the ok signal with the left hand.
The donor should make the signal in front of the needer’s mask so it can be
seen easily. If he or she is all right, the needer should give the ok signal back.
P3-4
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g. The donor asks the needer to ascend to the surface by making the ok-toascend signal with the left hand. If the needer wants to ascend, he or she gives
the ok signal back.
Allow the students to breathe for a reasonable period of time, then stop
the exercise. Make sure both students retrieve their primary regulators and are
breathing before continuing. As an option, you may have students stand up in the
shallow water to simulate an ascent. This also allows you to critique the students
on the surface.
As with each exercise, you should allow students more than one opportunity
to practice so they can become comfortable. The comfort and capability of students
at each stage is very important before going on to additional exercises. It is not
reasonable to expect the student to progress to more difficult exercises if the
student is not first comfortable with easier ones.
SSI Preference - Donning the Primary Regulator. SSI recommends that the Air Sharing
exercise be done by passing the primary regulator to the needer. This is because
using the primary regulator is conducive to any equipment configuration and will
therefore work in almost any situation. Furthermore, the needer’s attention will
typically be focused on the primary regulator, and the needer may be more willing
to accept that air source from the donor. Offering the primary regulator may also
have a calming effect on a diver who has run out of air.
SSI knows there are different equipment configurations which may require
a different method of sharing air. Although passing the primary is the preferred
method, passing the alternate air source is also acceptable. SSI does not
recommend that you teach both methods of sharing air because doing so may
confuse the student.
6. Buddy Breathing (Optional). Buddy Breathing may be taught as an alternative
method of sharing air. However, it should be employed only if the donor does not
possess an alternate air source. This exercise will demonstrate how much easier it
is to use an alternate air source during an out-of-air situation, and how they should
not dive with a buddy who does not have one.
As with Air Sharing (Alternate Air Source), the diver requiring air is the needer
and the diver providing air is the donor. The exercise should be conducted one
buddy team at a time. The steps of the exercise are:
a. The needer is on the donor’s left side.
b. The needer places the right hand on the donor’s tank valve for a secure grip to
the air source.
c. The donor holds the second-stage of the regulator with the right hand,
allowing the needer access to the purge valve if needed. The needer’s left
hand is on top of the donor’s right hand on the second-stage. In this way,
the mouthpiece can be guided back and forth and contact is constant. This
position is important because the donor’s hose is coming over the donor’s right
shoulder and must be extended to the needer. This also allows the donor to
use the left hand for buoyancy control. Also, by passing the hose in front, the
donor has the opportunity to maintain control of the hose.
d. The donor should at all times maintain complete control.
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10TH EDITION • 10/10
P3-5
If buddy breathing is conducted in the pool or
confined water, it is not required during open
w a t e r t r a i n i n g . B u d d y b r e a t h i n g m a y n o t b e
taught in conjunction with any ascent training.
D. New Exercises (Deep Water). Remind the students of pressure changes so they are
aware of the increased pressure they will experience. Caution them not to take chances
with their ears. If they feel any discomfort, they should return to shallow water for
additional information.
1. Entries. While students practiced entries in Pool 1, they should also practice
entries with the scuba unit. Since they are moving into the deeper water for the
first time, it is appropriate to show them at this point. However, this skill may also
be conducted at a later point in the class, if you are having students swim from
shallow to deeper water.
It is recommended that students practice the Step-In and Controlled Seated
methods. When conducting entries, be aware that the additional weight and bulk
of the scuba unit may be more awkward for students. Take measures to help them
enter the water and avoid potential problems.
2. Surface Procedures. In addition to performing all the motor skills necessary for
scuba diving under water, divers should know what to do while on the surface.
Surface procedures are an important safety practice. The procedures involve three
phases; be sure to point them out to students.
a. Inflate the BC so they are floating.
b. Stabilize so they are stationary on the surface.
c. Rest so they can relax and conserve energy. When the students know they can
rest if they are tired, they lose a measure of apprehension; you not only open
them to learning, but also make them feel more comfortable.
Have students rest for several minutes, experimenting with different positions
and degrees of buoyancy so they can determine the most comfortable way to rest.
3. Surface Swim. The purpose of the surface swim is to learn the least tiring
method of swimming on the surface for a distance. In addition, students will be
adjusting their BCs to the optimum level, full enough to keep them on the surface
comfortably, and low enough so they are not fighting for balance. This is a repeat
of the same exercise done in the snorkeling class, but now they have the tanks to
contend with.
Begin the exercise with scuba unit on, BC full, and snorkel in the mouth. Have
them swim a short distance with the unit fully inflated. As they swim, they should
gradually deflate the BC until they reach the most comfortable swimming position,
P3-6
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MANUAL • POOL
10TH EDITION • 10/10
face down in the water, and still maintain positive buoyancy. While you check their
buoyancy factor in the swimming position, also check their kick and correct any
problems. One of the primary benefits of the buoyancy unit is that it lifts the chest
out of the water and allows for easier breathing with decreased pressure on the
lungs. In addition, it is a much better position, particularly in rough water. It allows
for direction control, and if the water is rough enough to splash over the top of the
snorkel, it allows the diver to clear much easier.
An alternate method of surface swimming is on the back. This method works
well when the surface is calm, or as an alternative to working separate muscles on
long swims. The snorkel need not be in the mouth.
4. Controlled Descent. Take them down, one buddy team at a time. Remind them to
clear their ears and to stop descending if they feel pain. Show them the hand signal
for ear problems.
a. Divers should signal each other prior to the descent, face each other, and
intend on descending as a buddy team.
b. They should locate their power inflator and hold it in their left hand.
c. They should begin equalizing their ears while still on the surface, prior to
starting their direct descent.
d. They should lean forward slightly. This creates drag, which slows the descent
and provides control. Divers should avoid leaning backwards because the
weight of the tank and the design of the BC will tend to pull them backwards
and off-balance.
e. They should also add air to the BC as needed to control buoyancy and rate of
descent. Buddy teams should descend at the same rate in case one buddy has a
problem.
f.
They should equalize their ears every few feet, or as necessary to prevent
squeezes. If one divers needs to stop to work on equalization, both divers
should stop.
g. They should look down occasionally to see what is below them.
5. Controlled Ascent. As soon as they are ready, take the buddy team up. Be prepared
to control their rate of ascent if they begin ascending too quickly.
a. Divers should signal each other prior to the ascent, face each other, and intend
on ascending as a buddy team.
b. They should locate the release mechanism for their weight system.
c. They should locate their instrument console for monitoring ascent rate and
hold this in their right hand.
d. They should locate their BC exhaust hose and hold it in their left hand, above
their head.
e. If they are not already neutrally buoyant, they should add air to their BC to
achieve neutral buoyancy.
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f.
P3-7
Buddy teams should ascend slowly and at the same rate in case one
buddy has a problem. They should monitor their ascent rate with the
depth gauge and release air from the BC as needed to control the rate
of ascent.
g. They should look up occasionally to see what is above them.
E. Review (Deep Water). Students should review only those skills that they have
performed in shallow water. The skills to be reviewed in deep water are:
1. Regulator Clearing
2. Regulator Retrieval
3. Mask Clearing
4. Air Sharing (Alternate Air Source)
5. Buddy Breathing (Optional)
6. Buoyancy Control (Power and Oral)
III. EQUIPMENT CARE, MAINTENANCE AND REPLACEMENT. Placing the gear in
the predesignated location, rinsed with fresh water, is repeated in each class. Again, be
absolutely firm about this procedure. Do not allow any student to do less than what is
expected. If you allow students to become careless at this point, they will be careless with
their own equipment later.
P3-8
OPEN
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MANUAL • POOL
10TH EDITION • 10/10
OPEN
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10TH EDITION • 10/10
Contents
OBJECTIVE
Equipment Adjustment
Review
Controlled Descent
Regulator Clearing
Regulator Retrieval
Mask Clearing
Buoyancy Control (Power and
Oral)
Air sharing (Alternate Air
Source)
Controlled Ascent
Surface Procedures
New Exercises
Removing and Replacing the
Weight System (Under
P4-1
Pool Session 4
I. OBJECTIVE. The objective of this class is
POOL EXERCISES
MANUAL • POOL
Water)
Air Sharing Ascent (Alternate
Air Source)
Removing and Replacing the
Weight System (Surface)
Emergency Swimming Ascent
Emergency Buoyant Ascent
EQUIPMENT CARE, MAINTENANCE
& REPLACEMENT
to reinforce previous exercises and introduce emergency skills.
You should review the previous
exercises and perform them without
difficulty.
Next, train them so that in an
emergency they are able to act without
stopping to think about procedure. This
is accomplished by repetition of the skills
until each reaction becomes a conditioned,
automatic response. Students should not
be confused with any nonviable options.
Whatever they learn should work even
under difficult conditions.
P4-2
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MANUAL • POOL
10TH EDITION • 10/10
II. POOL EXERCISES
A. Equipment Adjustment. By this time students should be familiar enough with
the equipment to adjust it correctly on their own. However, observe the students and
remind those who require it.
B. Review. With each successive class, the review becomes more important. It is more
than review; it is solid reinforcement of skills. The key to developing good diving
skills is to develop the correct, most viable option, and for that option to become an
automatic conditioned response. Those skills that are to be reviewed are:
1. Controlled Descent
2. Regulator Clearing
3. Regulator Retrieval
4. Mask Clearing
5. Buoyancy Control (Power and Oral)
6. Air Sharing (Alternate Air Source)
7. Controlled Ascent
8. Surface Procedures
C. New Exercises
1. Removing and Replacing the Weight System (Under Water). Review the “quick draw”
method taught in Pool 1. The steps are:
a. Diver slaps thighs and draws hands toward center of waist, finds belt buckle.
b. Diver releases buckle, grabs end of belt without the buckle with right hand.
c. Diver extends right arm, holding weight belt in hand. Do not drop the belt.
d. Diver puts belt back on by slipping belt around the waist. Grab the belt buckle
with left hand and fasten buckle.
This exercise is an important weight system handling exercise. It demonstrates
the procedure for ditching the weight belt in an underwater emergency. It is also a
preliminary exercise to the Emergency Buoyant Ascent.
2. Air Sharing Ascent (Alternate Air Source). Before starting the exercise, review the
concept of needer and donor. The needer is the diver who is out of air, and the
donor is the diver who is providing air. In addition, establish the hand signals that
will be used. Cover the out-of-air, the need-to-share-air and ok-to-ascend signals.
Also cover the special hand signals you will use to indicate who is the needer and
donor. The steps of the exercise are:
a. The needer gives the donor the out-of-air signal by slashing the hand, palm
down, back and forth under their chin. He or she also gives the need-to-shareair signal by pointing with all fingers at their mouth.
OPEN
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P4-3
b. The donor gives his or her primary second-stage to the needer. The donor
watches to make sure the needer gets the second-stage in the mouth and is
breathing. While the regulator is out of the donor’s mouth, he or she exhales
slightly.
c. The donor retrieves his or her alternate air source. The alternate air source
should be attached within easy reach in the chest region, or it should be an
integral part of the power inflation device on the BC.
d. The donor and needer establish contact by grabbing the other’s BC with their
right hand. The right hand is used so the left hand can operate the exhaust
hose of the BC during ascent.
e. The donor establishes eye contact with the needer. The donor should look for
signs of stress or panic in the needer. The donor should be in control of the
situation.
f.
The donor checks on the needer by making the ok signal with the left hand.
The donor should make the signal in front of the needer’s mask so it can be
seen easily. If he or she is all right, the needer should give the ok signal back.
g. The donor asks the needer to ascend to the surface by making the ok-toascend signal with the left hand. If the needer wants to ascend, he or she gives
the ok signal back.
h. If the needer is not neutrally buoyant, he or she establishes neutral buoyancy
by orally inflating the BC.
i.
The buddy team ascends together at a normal rate of ascent, maintaining
contact and deflating the BC as necessary to maintain a normal rate of ascent.
j.
Upon reaching the surface, the donor inflates the BC using the power
inflater. The needer inflates the BC using the Bobbing Method. While
the needer is inflating the BC, the donor should maintain contact with
the needer.
Make sure students control buoyancy for a normal, slow ascent. If you need to
make contact with the students to slow them down, do so. On the surface, make
sure both students are stable.
Give buddy teams more than one opportunity to practice the Air Sharing
Ascent with Alternate Air Source. They need to develop satisfactory proficiency.
SSI recommends that the Air Sharing exercise be done by passing the primary
regulator to the needer. This is because using the primary regulator is conducive
to any equipment configuration and will therefore work in almost any situation.
Furthermore, the needer’s attention will typically be focused on the primary
regulator, and the needer may be more willing to accept that air source from the
donor. Offering the primary regulator may also have a calming effect on a diver
who has run out of air.
SSI knows there are different equipment configurations which may require
a different method of sharing air. Although passing the primary is the preferred
method, passing the alternate air source is also acceptable. SSI does not
recommend that you teach both methods of sharing air because doing so may
confuse the student.
P4-4
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INSTRUCTOR
MANUAL • POOL
10TH EDITION • 10/10
3. Removing and Replacing the Weight System (Surface). This is a simple yet important
skill that prepares students for removing the weight system in the Emergency
Swimming Ascent exercise.
Removal is easy, but replacement can be difficult. The best way to replace the
belt is with the aid of the buddy, but as an individual the student should:
a. Grasp the end without the buckle to prevent the weights from slipping off.
b. Lay out in a floating position looking toward the surface.
c. Hold the belt in position near the waist and roll into it.
d. Make sure it is up on the waist and, while in a face-down floating position,
fasten the belt securely.
It is suggested that coated weights be used to avoid pool damage from
dropped weights.
Both the emergency buoyant ascent and the emergency
swimming ascent are required in the pool or confined
water. For the emergency buoyant ascent, the conditions
need to be absolutely perfect so that the ascent
is controllable by the instructor. Only the emergency
swimming ascent is to be done in the open water training.
4. Emergency Swimming Ascent. The Emergency Swimming Ascent is one response to
low-on-air or out-of-air situations, or equipment difficulties. The exercise is not a
replacement for the Emergency Buoyant Ascent, but an exercise in addition to the
Emergency Buoyant Ascent.
If the students are using a weight system other than a weight belt, they should
be given a weight belt with a small amount of weight on it. The procedure for the
emergency swimming ascent is as follows:
a. Establish hand signals you will use during the exercise. Remind the students
that if they feel the urge to breathe while ascending, they can breathe from the
regulator.
b. The student has air on and is neutrally buoyant. You move in front of the
student and watch their breathing. (Do not turn off air.)
c. The student signals to you “out of air” and uses the “quick draw” method of
locating the weight system, moving the right hand to locate the weight belt
buckle. (Do not have the student release the weight belt.) The student’s hand
should remain on the weight belt buckle at all times during the ascent so if the
need to ditch it during the ascent or at the surface arises, it can be done safely
and quickly.
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P4-5
d. With one hand on the weight belt buckle and the power inflator slightly above
the head in the left hand, the student begins an emergency swimming ascent to
the surface.
e. The student retains the second-stage in their mouth, exhaling with the head
looking toward the surface and controlling the rate of ascent by venting air
from the BC.
f.
Upon reaching the surface of the water, students are to be encouraged to
release their weighting system. If conditions are such that the weights may be
lost during training, then the students are encouraged to simulate the release
and verbally announce “eight Ejected.”
g. The student establishes positive buoyancy by using the Bobbing Method to
inflate the BC.
5. Emergency Buoyant Ascent. The Emergency Buoyant Ascent is the prime exercise
for this class. The exercise accomplishes several things, including answering an
important question: What should a student do if out of air? This exercise must
be thoroughly explained to answer all questions about procedure. When properly
conducted there is no more danger than a normal ascent, but you must carefully
observe the students. One student at a time should perform the exercise. If the
students are using a weight system other than a weight belt, they should be given
a weight belt with a small amount of weight on it. You must pay strict attention
to each student’s behavior to eliminate all potential hazards. The procedure for
emergency buoyant ascents is as follows:
a. Establish hand signals you will use during the exercise. Remind the students
that if they feel the urge to breathe while ascending, they can breathe from the
regulator.
b. The student has air on. You move in front of the student and watch their
breathing. When you are sure the student is breathing normally, you inform the
student that you are going to turn the air off, but WAIT FOR THE OK SIGNAL
FROM THE STUDENT BEFORE TURNING OFF THE AIR. The student will
continue to breathe the air from the regulator. On the last breath the student
will only get a partial breath.
c. When the student discovers the air is gone, the correct action is to reach down
with both hands, locate the buckle and unfasten the weight belt with either
hand in a very deliberate motion. The weight belt is placed one full arm length
to the side. By requiring a deliberate act, you reduce the urge to hurry.
d. Turn the air back on before the student leaves the bottom.
e. The student then makes the ascent to the surface, retaining the mouthpiece
in the mouth and exhaling during the ascent. «Maintain contact and go with
the student all the way to the surface. This exercise simulates an open water
emergency. Because it is conducted in a pool and because the student is not
normally wearing a wet suit to create buoyancy before the weight belt is
removed, the student should be neutrally buoyant. The moment the student
removes the belt, buoyancy will then be present. Buoyancy should not be
extreme. It should, however, be sufficient to take the student to the surface.
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The student should control the rate of ascent by holding the inflator above the
head and letting air out of the BC.
f.
If the pool is deep enough, the student should lay out backwards (flare) when
approaching the surface to slow the ascent. The position is similar to that used
by sky divers to slow their fall, but the diver is facing the surface.
g. Once the student reaches the surface, the BC should be inflated using the
Bobbing Method. You and the student should briefly discuss the exercise.
You should maintain contact with the student during the
ascent. It is recommended not to conduct this exercise if
the student appears reluctant or apprehensive.
III. EQUIPMENT CARE, MAINTENANCE AND REPLACEMENT. Equipment care should be
almost automatic by this time. A gentle reminder to those who are lax should be more than
adequate.
OPEN
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Contents
OBJECTIVE
P5-1
Pool Session 5
I. OBJECTIVE. As with the two previous
POOL EXERCISES
Equipment Adjustment
Review
Controlled Descent
Regulator Clearing
Regulator Retrieval
Mask Clearing
Buoyancy Control
Removing and Replacing the
Weight System (Under
MANUAL • POOL
Water)
Controlled Ascent
Surface Procedures
Air Sharing Ascent (Alternate
Air Source)
Emergency Swimming Ascent
Emergency Buoyant Ascent
New Exercises
Removing and Replacing the
Scuba Unit (Under Water)
Removing and Replacing the
Scuba Unit (Surface)
EQUIPMENT CARE, MAINTENANCE
& REPLACEMENT
classes, your objective is to make sure that
all previous skill levels have been met and
to present two new exercises. It may seem
that very few exercises are contained in this
class. You should understand that a review
of all the prior motor skills, with additional
emphasis on self-aid skills and BC ascents,
will require a good deal of time. In Pool 4,
several important skills were intro-duced.
If students have not performed those skills
satisfactorily, give them time to practice in
the Review section of Pool 5. Should time
permit, you can teach other skill builders
following the tank handling portion, but
be sure you meet all class objectives before
introducing any additional exercises.
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MANUAL • POOL
10TH EDITION • 10/10
II. POOL EXERCISES
A. E quipment Adjustment. Check to make sure all equipment adjustments are correct.
Students should accomplish this without direction from the Instructor.
B. R
eview. During the review, allow students to practice any skills they have not yet
mastered satisfactorily. Help the students where needed and conduct a formal review,
with emphasis on emergency ascents.
1. Controlled Descent
2. Regulator Clearing
3. Regulator Retrieval
4. Mask Clearing
5. Buoyancy Control
6. Removing and Replacing the Weight System (Under Water)
7. Controlled Ascent
8. Surface Procedures
9. Air Sharing Ascent (Alternate Air Source)
10. Emergency Swimming Ascent
11. Emergency Buoyant Ascent
C. New Exercises
1. Removing and Replacing the Scuba Unit (Under Water). As important as mastering
various motor skills, scuba students must have a total understanding of and be
completely familiar with their equipment. Nearly any exercise that reinforces the
handling and familiarization of equipment is valid. A useful exercise is removing
the scuba unit under water. It would be used if the diver was so entangled that it
would be difficult to become disentangled otherwise.
The key to the exercise equally involves both procedure and the motor skill
itself. It should have a set pattern, a “one, two, three” procedure. The students
should handle the weight and bulk with little trouble. Good habits will develop
from this. The student can then abide by these habits even in times of intensified
emotional stress. The procedure for Scuba Unit Removal and Replacement is as
follows:
a. Scuba Unit Removal
1)
2)
3)
4)
Unfasten the waist strap.
Unfasten the chest strap (if so equipped).
Slip left arm out of BC.
Reach back with the right hand; take hold of the tank bottom and pull the
unit around the right side in front of the diver.
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MANUAL • POOL
10TH EDITION • 10/10
P5-3
b. Scuba Unit Replacement
1) Slip right arm through BC, take hold of the tank boot, and steady the
scuba unit.
2) Reach back with the left arm and slip it through the BC.
3) Pull on the BC like a life jacket.
4) Refasten the waist strap or cummerbund, and the chest strap.
The procedure for removal and replacement will vary slightly when using a
system with integrated weights. The primary difference will be the buoyancy shift
from the diver to the equipment. To work properly, the bulk of the buoyancy will
have to be removed from the attached BC. Otherwise, the procedure is essentially
the same.
2. Removing and Replacing the Scuba Unit (Surface). Several things are accomplished
with this exercise. The students improve their general equipment handling, they
learn how to take off and replace the scuba unit on the surface for boat diving,
and it makes them aware of the need for correct adjustment and placement of
equipment. The procedures for scuba unit removal and replacement on the surface
are as follows:
a. Scuba Unit Removal on the Surface:
1)
2)
3)
4)
5)
6)
Students should have snorkels in their mouths and masks on.
Partly inflate BC to obtain positive buoyancy.
Unfasten BC waist strap or cummerbund.
Unfasten chest strap.
With right hand, grab tank boot.
Slip left arm out of BC and spin out of scuba unit. (Students using
BCs with adjustable shoulder straps may want to loosen shoulder
straps first.)
b. Replacing the Scuba Unit on the Surface:
1) Spin scuba unit around to right side.
2) Push bottom of tank into water, which buoys up the top of tank. (Don’t
have too much air in BC.)
3) Slip right arm into BC and grab tank boot with right hand.
4) Slip left arm into BC and lean back into scuba unit.
5) Fasten waist strap and chest strap.
c. Alternative Procedure for Replacing the Scuba Unit on the Surface:
1) Allow scuba unit to float.
2) Climb on the unit and sit on it. The tank valve is on the diver’s back side,
while the bottom of the tank is on the diver’s front side.
3) Slip both right and left hands into BC arm holes.
4) Slide off bottom of tank and let BC rise while leaning back into BC, letting
the arms slip into the BC.
5) Fasten waist strap and chest strap.
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MANUAL • POOL
10TH EDITION • 10/10
After removing the scuba unit, the student may lose
buoyancy. It is important that students be neutrally
buoyant on the surface without their BCs.
III. E QUIPMENT CARE, MAINTENANCE AND REPLACEMENT. By now this
should be automatic and nearly perfect, an efficient set of habits. No reminder should
be needed.
In the SSI system, there are not a standard number of
hours or pool sessions for instruction. Depending on the
ability of the student, the number of pool sessions and
the length of each session, it is possible that additional
sessions may be necessary to accomplish the goals. The
important thing is the student’s comfort in the water.
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INSTRUCTOR
MANUAL • POOL
10TH EDITION • 10/10
Contents
Pool Session 6
I. OBJECTIVE
OBJECTIVE
POOL EXERCISES
Pool Skills Review
Open Water Skills Preview
Specialized Equipment
Orientation
EQUIPMENT CARE, MAINTENANCE
& REPLACEMENT
P5-5
The objective for optional Pool 6 will
vary, depending on what you are using the
class for. If you are conducting a pool skills
review for students who need additional
pool work, the objective would be to get
students to a satisfactory level of comfort
and ability.
If you are conducting an open water
skills preview, the objective would be to
prepare students for open water work.
If you are conducting a specialized
equipment orientation, the objective would
be to familiarize students with whatever
equipment is being used.
If you are using the pool session for
other purposes, the objective would be
consistent with that purpose.
Optional Pool 6 is a valuable tool
that can be used in a variety of ways. If
students need additional water time
or you have training needs beyond the
basic course work, it is recommended
that you use the sixth dive to meet
those needs.
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MANUAL • POOL
10TH EDITION • 10/10
II. POOL EXERCISES. The sixth pool session can be used in a variety of ways. A few ideas
are listed below.
A. Pool Skills Review. The skills listed in Pool Sessions 1-5 can be accomplished in
five pool sessions, but they do not have to be. There is no need to rush through skill
exercises, and there are a wide variety of reasons for requiring additional pool time.
The SSI Open Water Diver course is performance based, which means students should
only move on to open water when they can perform the skills to a satisfactory level
of proficiency and comfort. This level is evaluated by the Instructor. Some students
require less time to achieve this level, others require more. If, in your opinion, some
or all students do not meet an appropriate standard of performance, then they should
be allowed further pool practice. The sixth pool session is a valuable time to review,
practice or complete missed skills. See your Instructor Q-Cards for a complete list of
skills to review.
B. Open Water Skills Preview. A very valuable procedure is to go through as
many of the open water skills as possible, in the same order, manner, and with the
same equipment as will be used during the open water dives. Have students review
skills with full wet suit or at least hood and gloves. You may also wish to check their
buoyancy and proper weighting with a full wet suit, which saves time in the open water.
C. Specialized Equipment Orientation. If you are going to use any specialized
equipment, such as a dry suit or computer, the sixth pool session is a good opportunity
to conduct an orientation with that equipment. In conducting the orientation, you
should determine the appropriate level of training for the divers, the type of equipment,
and the conditions under which they will be diving with it.
III. E QUIPMENT CARE, MAINTENANCE AND REPLACEMENT. By now this
should be automatic and nearly perfect, an efficient set of habits. No reminder should
be needed.
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INSTRUCTOR
10TH EDITION • 10/10
Contents
OBJECTIVE
OPEN WATER ORIENTATION
In-Facility Procedure
Receiving a Referral
Risk Awareness
Open Water Procedure
Dressing Procedure
OPEN WATER EXERCISES
Entry
Mask Clearing (Surface)
Surface Dives (Buoyant)
Buddy Aid and Assistance
Conscious Diver
Cramp Removal
Surface Swim
Proper Weighting
Locating the Weight System
Inflate BC (Bobbing Method)
Surface Dives (Weighted)
Surfacing
Surface Procedures
Exit
OPEN WATER EVALUATION
M A N U A L • O P E N WAT E R OW1-1
Open Water
Session 1
I. OBJECTIVE. This is the first class session
in open water. Your main objec-tive is to
make the people comfortable in open water
and to help them properly complete their
exercises. Gear adjust-ment and dressing
are critical. Remember, each exercise is
designed to prepare them for the next step.
This is a teaching function—not a testing
one. Take plenty of time explaining what
will be done and how they are to do it.
This class represents, more than
anything else, a gentle transition from
the clear, warm pool to an open water
environment. The entire thrust of the
class is to let the people “get used” to
the new environment, to experience
wet suits, cold, salt water, current, and
loss of the security of the pool under
completely controlled conditions. Try
and make this experience as enjoyable as
possible.
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II. OPEN WATER ORIENTATION
A. In-Facility Procedure
1. Make arrangements for date, time and location to meet.
2. Equipment check. Make sure the student has all equipment required before leaving
for the dive site. Also make sure that all equipment is the proper size and that it
functions properly.
3. Overview. Provide a detailed overview of how the open water training will be
conducted. Give students a good idea of what each day and each class will be like,
and what will be expected of them.
4. Assign buddy teams.
5. Complete necessary paperwork (see item B, below).
B. Receiving a Referral. Prior to open water training:
1. Determine what type of referral it is:
a. SSI
b. Universal Referral participating agency
c. Other agency
2. Follow the procedures in the appendix of this manual for receiving the appropriate
type of referral.
C. Risk Awareness, Part 2. Prior to open water training, students must sign the
Waiver and Release of Liability, Assumption of Risk and Indemnity Agreement again.
You should inform the students about the potential risks of training in the open water,
as they differ from training in the pool. There is no need to scare the students, but
they should be aware that the new environment they are about to enter has inherent
risks, and that by signing the Waiver and Release of Liability, Assumption of Risk and
Indemnity Agreement, they are assuming responsibility for those inherent risks.
1. Show Risk Awareness video, Part 2.
2. Discuss Waiver and Release of Liability, Assumption of Risk and Indemnity
Agreement. Answer any questions.
3. Have students complete and sign the “Risk Awareness Video , Part 2” portion of the
“Entry Level Training” side of the Waiver and Release of Liability / Assumption of
Risk and Indemnity Agreement.
4. If the student is a minor, it is recommended that both parents watch the video and
sign the Waiver. If the minor has only one parent, have that parent watch and sign.
5. Referral Considerations: If the referral student is from any non-SSI agency, you can
still show the video prior to signing the waiver.
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D. Open Water Procedure
1. Equipment. Lay out equipment in proper order. Before starting the lecture, have
students place equipment at the water’s edge.
2. Open Water Overview. If you are conducting several dives in one day, discuss how
they will be conducted and what is expected of the students.
3. Exercise Overview. Discuss the exercises that will be performed in this class.
Explain the order in which they will be done, how they will be conducted, and
what you expect from the students.
4. Water Conditions. Explain the current water conditions. Highlight any key water
conditions.
E. Dressing Procedure. Dressing is vital. If the student doesn’t know the proper
way to dress, it may cause frustration. Explain the proper order and method of
dressing, including adjustment, placement of buckles, and approximate
time required.
1. Pants. The pants are first. Tell the students to fold the pants over down to the
knees to assure a fit from the ankle to the knee (this is critical). Once the pants are
on to the knees, simply roll them up, making sure that the crotch fits snugly.
2. Boots. Roll the tops of the boots down, then work the foot into the boot as far as
possible before pulling it over the heel and ankle. Roll the pants leg down over the
boot top.
3. Fins. Adjust the fins over the boots in preparation for entering.
4. BC. Put the BC on. Make sure it is adjusted properly.
5. Weight System. Check the position of the weights on the belt and make sure they
are evenly balanced somewhere near the front. The belt shouldn’t have too much
extra strap protruding from the buckle. Make sure the BC buckle or cummerbund
does not restrict your access to the weight belt buckle. Once adjusted, the belt
should be placed next to the entry point to prevent having to leave the water when
returning for the belt.
6. Hood (Optional). The hood must be in place to adjust the mask. This may be the
first experience with the hood. Make sure students know how to seat the mask on
the face under the hood. Tuck the hood collar inside the wet suit.
7. Mask. The mask strap needs to be loosened slightly when used with the hood
(check snorkel position, too). Pay close attention to sealing the mask against the
face and under the hood. Treat it with defogger and place it by the fins near the
water.
8. Snorkel. Attach the snorkel onto the left side of the mask. Adjust the position of
the snorkel for a comfortable fit.
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9. Gloves (Optional). The gloves are put on just before entering the water. They may
go under or over the sleeves, and a buddy can help put them on. A glove half-on
brings all dexterity to a stop.
The dressing should be gauged among students so they
all finish at once. Should anyone finish ahead of time, let
them go into the water to keep cool. Overheating can be
dangerous and tiring.
At this point, the student should have everything on but the mask, snorkel, fins,
and weight belt. At the entry point, have them put on the fins, mask, snorkel and then
enter the water. This lesson and the next will establish the students’ habits from this
point on. Help them learn to get ready properly.
III.OPEN WATER EXERCISES
A. Entry. First, have each buddy team do a gear check and note adjustment and buckle
locations. The weight belt is not used for the first part of this class. Beach entries
through surf require a special technique not used inland. Lakes may involve any of
several problems including rocks, mud, and steep dams or cliffs. Each problem requires
a separate solution. If possible, have students move out to where the water will support
their weight before putting on fins. Then have them move out in a group for the mask
clearing exercise.
B. Mask Clearing (Surface). This exercise serves three main purposes:
1. It gives the students their first sensation of cold water on their faces while on the
surface and completely buoyant.
2. It lets them learn to reseal the mask on the face while wearing hood
and gloves.
3. It shows they can clear their masks in cold water.
It is important that they complete this exercise correctly. If they have problems
here, there is no chance they can do it on the bottom. Have them remove the mask
completely, put it back on, and clear. The secondary benefit is the experience of cold
water on their faces.
C. Surface Dives (Buoyant). This is a simple exercise. The student makes a surface
dive without the weight belt, goes down 8 to 10 feet / 2.5 to 3 metres, and picks up
something off the bottom. Explain that if their kick and dive are good, they can do
it. It will not only give you a chance to see their abilities, but, equally as important, it
will prove to them that to get under water without a weight belt is difficult, and to stay
down is impossible. It drives home the reality that without the belt they are safe on the
surface. It also proves that their fastest and best safety measure is to shed the belt in an
emergency.
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M A N U A L • O P E N WAT E R OW1-5
D. Buddy Aid and Assistance. This is not to be a diver rescue course. It is
merely the procedure for aiding a diver in trouble. Students should understand
the importance of taking the SSI Diver Stress & Rescue course, and first aid and
CPR courses.
When dealing with a person in trouble in the water, one must make several
determinations in a very short period of time. A wrong decision will embarrass at best
and cause damage at worst.
The procedure for approaching and aiding a distressed diver falls into two
categories: (1) a conscious person on the verge of real trouble, and (2) cramp removal.
1. Conscious Diver. This person may respond to the spoken word and may only
need the reassurance of someone nearby. Meet them face-to-face and ask if they
are all right. If they respond, they are usually in control and will do as they are
told. If they do not respond, they are in trouble and need assistance. At that point,
cautiously inflate the BC and, if necessary, remove the weight belt. The fact that
they are buoyant should stop the problem, or at least allow time to help. Then, tow
them in using the safest possible method.
2. Cramp Removal. Cover how to take care of a cramp if it happens to them or their
buddy. Have them grab the fin tip of the leg that is cramping, straighten their leg,
and pull the fin tip back to them. Demonstrate how to help your buddy eliminate a
cramp when they can’t do it themselves.
E. Surface Swim. Have them swim back to their belts and put them on. On the way to
shore and back out, let them know you will be checking their kicks. Also, make sure
their buddies know what kind of buckle they have and where it is located. In addition,
it gives them practice for long surface swims.
FIGURE 7-1 PROPER WEIGHTING
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INSTRUCTOR
M A N U A L • O P E N WAT E R
10TH EDITION • 10/10
F. Proper Weighting. To properly weight yourself you need to be wearing the weight
system and all the other equipment you’ll have on during the snorkel dive. Enter the
water and move to an area where you are suspended upright in water over your head
(see Figure 7-1). Your objective is neither to float nor sink at the surface with the weight
system on and the BC deflated. As you inhale, your eyes should rise slightly above the
surface; as you exhale, you should sink below the surface, just enough to cover the
top of your head. The water level should rise and fall around eye level. Add or remove
weight as needed to achieve this. Later, when weighting for scuba, the scuba unit must
be on.
G. Locating the Weight System (Quick Draw Method). After students are weighted
properly, show them how to locate the weight system, in preparation for demonstrating
how to ditch the weight system. (Ditching the weight system was shown in Pool 3.) At
this point, it is enough to know how to locate the weight system, and to make them
aware that they should ditch it in an emergency. The procedure is:
1. Bring the hands to the thighs.
2. Move hands upward until the belt is located.
3. Move right hand inward to locate the belt buckle.
H. Inflate BC (Bobbing Method). If a diver should ever surface and be too heavy,
the BC must be inflated to add buoyancy. With power inflators this is no problem, but
the diver should learn how to inflate the BC orally in case of an empty tank, or in the
unlikely event of equipment failure. Divers that are too heavy and have to struggle to
stay above the water will tire quickly. To avoid that problem, the bobbing method of
filling the BC is taught.
In the bobbing method, the diver takes a deep breath, leans forward and then
relaxes, sinks slightly while exhaling into the BC, kicks back to the surface, takes a
full breath, and repeats until buoyant. As with all the exercises, you are looking for the
easiest, safest way to perform the skill.
I. Surface Dives (Weighted). This exercise is a repetition of the pool work, but it
brings up several problems and helps overcome them before they cause trouble.
Hood squeeze should be explained so the student is aware of the external pressure
and how to eliminate it. Hood squeeze can be eliminated by simply looking toward the
bottom and exhaling through the nose, allowing the air to enter the hood and equalize
the pressure between the ear and the hood to match the water pressure. Many people
think their ears are not clearing when it is actually hood squeeze.
The surface diving exercise demonstrates how a diver gets heavier upon
descending, reaffirming the need for correct buoyancy and proper weighting. Let the
students make several dives. Encourage them to take two or three deep ventilations
before each dive to increase breath-holding capability. Mask squeeze may also be a
problem here and should be mentioned along with reminders of how to compensate for
it.
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INSTRUCTOR
M A N U A L • O P E N WAT E R OW1-7
J. Surfacing. This is an extension of the Surface Dives exercise. You can reaffirm a
good habit — proper surfacing procedures. Make sure the student has their left hand
extended above their head. Students can also have the oral inflation hose in their left
hand. Additionally, have the student place their right hand on their weight belt buckle
so they feel comfortable at all times with where the buckle is in case they need to
release the belt.
A good way to instill looking up while ascending is by teaching the expansion
method of snorkel clearing. Looking toward the surface while ascending and exhaling
slightly through the snorkel will clear the snorkel. This method also reinforces the
practice of exhaling on ascent. The students should return to a face-down position once
they reach the surface.
K. Surface Procedures. This exercise has one purpose only — to learn to stabilize on
the surface. The first part of proper stabilization involves inflating the BC whenever the
diver is on the surface. This allows the diver to float and rest. In addition, it lifts the
lungs out of the water far enough to allow for easier breathing. Show the students how
to put just enough air in the BC to breathe, relax, and swim comfortably.
There are some advantages to swimming face-down. The snorkel points toward the
water while lying on the back. Stronger kicking is possible on the stomach than on the
back, plus the diver can see the destination.
This exercise can be coupled with a snorkel tour which allows the students an
opportunity to experiment and make needed adjustments. It also adds to the enjoyment
of the experience and enables them to practice the skill.
L. Exit. The procedure for leaving the water is often overlooked and requires different
techniques for each location. Show students the best ways for the site where they will
be making open water training dives. Tell them that they should discuss exit procedures
with experienced divers when diving new locations.
For beach exits with surf, they should swim up to the point where the water no
longer supports the body’s weight and then crawl to where it is safe to remove the
equipment. For boat exits, follow the procedures required by the boat captain.
IV. OPEN WATER EVALUATION. After each open water class, it is an important training
procedure to discuss all aspects of the class with the students. They are anxious to
know how you feel they did and if they passed. This is also the time to complete their
Diver Training Records and sign off their DiveLogs. Do not pass anyone unless you are
comfortable with their ability.
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M A N U A L • O P E N WAT E R
10TH EDITION • 10/10
OPEN
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INSTRUCTOR
10TH EDITION • 10/10
Contents
OBJECTIVES
OPEN WATER ORIENTATION
Equipment Assembly and
Adjustment
Exercise Overview
Buddy Check
OPEN WATER EXERCISES
Entry
Buoyancy Check
Exercises (Shallow Water)
Controlled Descent
Regulator Clearing
Regulator Retrieval
Mask Clearing
Review (Deep Water)
Controlled Descent
Regulator Clearing
Regulator Retrieval
Mask Clearing
Exercises (Deep Water)
Buoyancy Control (Power and
Oral)
Moving on the Bottom
(Optional)
Air Sharing (Alternate Air
Source)
Buddy Breathing (Optional)
Controlled Ascent
Surface Procedures
Buoyancy Check
Surface Swim
Navigation (Optional)
Exit
OPEN WATER EVALUATION
M A N U A L • O P E N WAT E R OW2-1
Open Water
Session 2
I. OBJECTIVES. This class is just as important as the first one. It is the students’ first
time with scuba in open water. If they
enjoyed Session 1, they will look forward to
Session 2. If they did poorly on One, they
may be apprehensive. Pay close attention
to attitude and notice if they are reluctant.
This will help you handle any potential
problems.
Your main objectives are to rein-force
the correct process of getting ready and
into the water, and to have the students
perform the exercises to demonstrate their
confidence and their capability. It also
prepares them in a natural progression for
later classes. Make sure they check their
equipment both at the store and at the dive
site.
Make sure all equipment is at or near
the water’s edge before starting the lecture.
The lecture needs to cover all of the
exercises very thoroughly so the students
have an understanding of what they are to
do. Explain it at least twice, once briefly
and once in detail.
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M A N U A L • O P E N WAT E R
10TH EDITION • 10/10
II. OPEN WATER ORIENTATION
A. Equipment Assembly & Adjustment
1. Assembly. The only difference from the last class is assembling the scuba unit.
Have the students assemble their units in preparation for the scuba dive.
If necessary, go through the dressing procedure again (see Session 1). It may
seem repetitious, but it may eliminate excuses and errors. It will also reinforce the
need for good habits. However, this should be the last time you will tell students
about their equipment. From this class on they will be evaluated, not reminded.
2. Adjustment. If there are any adjustments needed to the snorkeling equipment,
make them prior to the open water dive.
B. Exercise Overview. Discuss the exercises that will be performed in this dive. Explain
the order in which they will be done, how they will be conducted, and what you expect
from the students.
C. Buddy Check. Have buddy teams check each other’s equipment prior to entering the
water. While you should not rely on this as your final safety check, it teaches a good
pre-dive habit to divers.
III. OPEN WATER EXERCISES
A. Entry. Entry procedure is identical to Session 1 if the dive site is the same or similar.
Have them inflate the BC and take the tank into the water to put it on. The option is to
move into waist-deep water and have their buddies help. Where the conditions permit a
walk-in beach entry, buddies should put the scuba units on at the water’s edge and then
turn around, walk into the water together—just over knee-deep or about waist-deep,
support each other and put their fins on, turn, and swim out.
B. Buoyancy Check. After entering the water, but before beginning the exercises, check
the students’ buoyancy. Ideally, they should be weighted properly for skill work. Make
sure no one is positively buoyant or excessively negative.
To conduct the Buoyancy Check, have students deflate their BCs. They should be
weighted properly for scuba. If not, adjust the weight so it is satisfactory.
C. Exercises (Shallow Water)
1. Controlled Descent. A proper, slow descent is important with students on their first
scuba dive. They often have problems equalizing their ears, compensating for hood
and mask squeezes, and compensating for loss of buoyancy.
On normal descents, have buddy teams follow correct descent procedures.
They should face each other and descend at the same pace. If they lean slightly
forward, they will have better control and be able to see where they are going.
Have them compensate frequently for loss of buoyancy to avoid descending too
rapidly and “crash landing.” Also, they will have an easier time with their ears and
OPEN
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INSTRUCTOR
10TH EDITION • 10/10
M A N U A L • O P E N WAT E R OW2-3
squeezes. Use judgement about the conditions when deciding how many buddy
teams should descend at one time.
For areas where the water gets deep rapidly, is dirty, and people are separated
easily, the following are two possible control methods.
First, a line can be run from shore at the point of entry down along the bottom
to the desired depth. Second, a buoy should go to the surface from that point. Have
the people move down the line to the vertical buoy line.
By moving along a descent line, the students are kept together. Moving down
along the bottom aids ear clearing and helps the students maintain orientation. It is
also a good place for the shallow water mask clearing.
2. Regulator Clearing. This exercise prepares the student for air sharing and
BC work. It provides a controlled, gradual increase in skill and confidence
for later and more difficult exercises. Have each student in turn clear
the regulator by exhalation and purging. (20 feet / 6 metres is the suggested
maximum depth.)
3. Regulator Retrieval. Two methods of retrieving the regulator second-stage are:
a. Sweeping. Tilt your body to the right, reach to the right side and down with
your right arm, and with an upward sweeping motion, catch the hose with
the right arm. Follow it down to the second-stage mouthpiece. Replace the
regulator and clear.
b. Reaching. Reach back with the right hand, find the second-stage hose at the
first-stage and follow it down to the second-stage mouthpiece. Replace the
regulator and clear.
4. Mask Clearing. If a student is going to have trouble on this dive, it will probably
be because of mask clearing. Clearing the mask in very cold water can cause an
apparent inability to breathe. The shock of cold water suddenly hitting the face
can be disturbing to the student who has never experienced it—some students may
even head for the surface. If this happens in shallow water, the chance of trouble
is small; if it happens in deeper water, it could be serious. There is a side benefit,
though. By knowing they are safe in shallow water, the students’ urge to go for the
surface is reduced. It actually helps them to overcome their fear.
The mask should be pulled slightly away from the face at the top of the mask
so a small amount of water enters. The student should clear that first—it allows
them to adjust to the cold gradually. Then they pull the mask completely away from
the face and clear. Once the mask clearing exercise is completed, students should
move to deeper water for regulator clearing.
D. Review (Deep Water)
1. Controlled Descent
2. Regulator Clearing
3. Regulator Retrieval
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INSTRUCTOR
M A N U A L • O P E N WAT E R
10TH EDITION • 10/10
9th EDITION • 10/02, 6/08
4. Mask Clearing. This is the same procedure as for shallow water. Have students
perform it one at a time, and carefully observe their reactions. Instruct each
student to let a small amount of water into the mask for the first time they
clear it. For the second clearing, the student should pull the mask away or
remove it completely to allow it to fill with water. (If the water is exceedingly
cold, it may serve no good purpose to remove it entirely; use your
own discretion.)
E. Exercises (Deep Water)
1. Buoyancy Control (Power and Oral). Having used the BC all through the pool
classes, the students should be competent in its use. They haven’t as yet
experienced the effect of cold water on their lips and they may not be aware that
inflation takes several more breaths at depths of more than 8 to 12 feet / 2.5 to 3
metres.
Have them fill the BC until they obtain neutral buoyancy, then deflate the BC
and return to the bottom. Do this several times.
The technique of buoyancy control should be more obvious to the students.
They can see clearly the results of too much or too little buoyancy. Have them
balance themselves so they can hang a few inches off the bottom by controlling the
amount of air in their lungs.
2. Moving on the Bottom (Optional). In most inland waters and some ocean waters the
bottom will be completely stirred by this time, so move into clearer water. At the
same time, demonstrate how to stay just off the bottom and how to move easily so
as not to disturb the sediment any more than necessary.
3. Air Sharing (Alternate Air Source). When training in cold water (below 10ºC / 50ºF)
adhering to the equipment manufacturer’s guidelines and the use of a
manifold valve with additional first stage and attached alternative air source is
recommended. Air sharing with the alternate air source is much simpler than the
buddy breathing procedure. Have the students signal their buddies for air. The
donor then hands the primary second-stage to the needer and begins breathing
from the octopus second-stage. Perform skills on the bottom in a stationary
position. Change positions and repeat.
4. Buddy Breathing (Optional). Buddy breathing is a controlled breathing exercise. A
simple mistake in an emergency, such as improper position, could cause trouble.
See that the exercise is done correctly.
The person needing air is on the donor’s left. The needer’s right hand has a
good hold on the donor’s tank valve. The donor always keeps his hand on the
regulator and the needer simply guides it into his own mouth. In this way, the
donor has complete control and won’t risk losing his own air.
5. Controlled Ascent. Once into clearer water, have a buddy team establish neutral
buoyancy, then ascend to the surface with the Instructor. This serves several good
purposes, and the procedure is vital. It emphasizes proper ascent procedures with a
buddy, such as monitoring ascent rate, and controlling ascent rate.
OPEN
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M A N U A L • O P E N WAT E R 10TH EDITION • 10/10
OW2-5
9th EDITION • 10/02, 6/08
Proper ascent procedures with a buddy are important. The procedure is as
follows:
a. Have the buddy team inflate their BCs to achieve neutral buoyancy, then use a
gentle fin kick to initiate ascent.
b. Have each buddy locate their weight belt buckle with their right hand.
c. After locating the buckle, have the buddy team use their right hands to locate
their depth gauges for monitoring the ascent rate.
d. Make sure they control their ascent rate by bleeding air from the BC when
necessary. Buddy teams should face each other throughout the ascent and stay
together, ascending at the same rate. Have them ascend at 30 feet (9 metres)
per minute.
e. Emphasize to buddy teams to breathe normally all the way to the surface.
6. Surface Procedures. Once on the surface, the buddy teams should establish positive
buoyancy. Have them inflate the BC orally until they can rest comfortably; then
let them rest until everyone is on the surface. They should always be buoyant
when they are on the surface. A diver using proper surface procedures should not
struggle to stay afloat.
7. Buoyancy Check. At the end of the dive, after using some air in their tanks, check
students’ buoyancy again. They should still be weighted properly for scuba, and
able to make a safety stop if they were on a pleasure dive. It also ingrains that they
should be continually checking their buoyancy and weighting.
To conduct the Buoyancy Check, have students deflate their BCs. They should
not be positively buoyant. An alternative is to check under water at 15 feet (5
metres) on the Controlled Ascent.
8. Surface Swim. Students should swim back to shore or the boat on
the surface to practice this skill. They should try swimming on their chests
and on their backs. Remind them to adjust the air in their BCs for easy
surface swimming.
9. Navigation (Optional). The Surface Swim exercise may be combined with the
optional Navigation exercise, which will begin developing their skills with the
compass. Students should take a reading on their exit point on shore. Then have
students make a surface swim to their exit point using the compass. This provides
an introduction to the compass under indirect supervision. If possible, let students
make several short runs on the surface.
F. Exit
IV. OPEN WATER EVALUATION. As with each class, be sure to discuss student progress
right after the class and do required record keeping.
OPEN
WAT E R
INSTRUCTOR
10TH EDITION • 10/10
Contents
OBJECTIVE
OPEN WATER ORIENTATION
Equipment Check
Exercise Overview
Buddy Check
OPEN WATER EXERCISES
Entry
Review
Controlled Descent
Regulator Clearing
Regulator Retrieval
Mask Clearing
Air Sharing (Alternate Air
Source)
Buoyancy Control (Power and
Oral)
Controlled Ascent
Exercises
Air Sharing Ascent
(Alternate Air Source)
Surface Procedures
Removing and Replacing the
Weight System (Surface)
Navigation (Optional)
Exit
Final Equipment Check
OPEN WATER EVALUATION
M A N U A L • O P E N WAT E R OW3-1
Open Water
Session 3
I. OBJECTIVE. Open Water 3 has two
main objectives. The first is a review of
all skills so that the students can become
comfortable and proficient. The second is
performing the air sharing ascent with an
alternate air source and power inflator in
open water.
At greater depths it is virtually
impossible for two divers to share air
and ascend without establishing neutral
buoyancy prior to the ascent. This technique makes safe ascents possible even
under adverse physical and equipment
conditions.
As with all the classes, it is essential
that students dive within their comfort
zones. If skills are not done correctly the
students have not earned their certifi-cation
card. You are not doing anyone a favor
by passing a student who is incapable of
completing the exercises.
The other exercises either continue the
process of building good habits or prepare
for additional exercises in Open Water 4.
Follow the same procedures at the
store and at the dive site as in the previous
classes.
OW3-2
OPEN
WAT E R
INSTRUCTOR
M A N U A L • O P E N WAT E R
10TH EDITION • 10/10
9th EDITION • 10/02, 6/08
II. OPEN WATER ORIENTATION
A. Equipment Check. Have the students switch tanks, if necessary. If there are any
adjustments needed to equipment used during the previous dive, do so prior to
the dive.
B. Exercise Overview. Discuss the exercises that will be performed in this dive. Explain
the order in which they will be done, how they will be conducted, and what you expect
from the students.
C. Buddy Check. Have buddy teams check each other’s equipment prior to entering the
water. While you should not rely on this as your final safety check, it teaches a good
pre-dive habit to divers.
III. OPEN WATER EXERCISES
A. Entry
B. Review. Have students review all scuba skills from Open Water Session 2.
1. Controlled Descent
2. Regulator Clearing
3. Regulator Retrieval
4. Mask Clearing
5. Air Sharing (Alternate Air Source)
6. Buoyancy Control (Power and Oral)
7. Controlled Ascent
C. Exercises
1. Air Sharing Ascent (Alternate Air Source). When training in cold water (below
10ºC / 50ºF) adhering to the equipment manufacturer’s guidelines and the use of
a manifold valve with additional first stage and attached alternative air source
is recommended. The purpose of this skill is to establish neutral buoyancy prior
to ascent. When trouble develops at depth, and a buddy-assisted ascent becomes
necessary, divers will often swim for the surface with no thought about the weight
belt, BC or neutral buoyancy. If they start the ascent at 100 feet (30 metres), by the
time they reach 75 feet (23 metres) they could be exhausted. Chances are one or
both will get excited and one or both could drown. If they had established neutral
buoyancy before the ascent, they would have had far better chances.
The best procedure is to inflate the BC. Many divers are reluctant to do so,
however, because dropping a belt is expensive and they may not feel they are in
any real danger. Inflating the BC requires practice with alternate air sharing and BC
inflation. Position is also important to avoid separation during ascent.
OPEN
WAT E R
INSTRUCTOR
M A N U A L • O P E N WAT E R 10TH EDITION • 10/10
OW3-3
As taught in the pool, the students assume a standard face-to-face position while
using the Alternate Air Source. The only difference is that each will hold on to their
power inflators and, while sharing air with an Alternate Air Source, inflate their BCs.
Once neutral buoyancy is established, inflation should stop and the ascent should
begin. Then the divers share air to the surface, being careful to vent air from the BC
to control the rate of ascent. Upon reaching the surface, the diver who is the needer
should inflate the BC using the Bobbing Method. The donor should inflate the BC
using the power inflator. The exercise should be done at least once with each diver.
2. Surface Procedures. After the Air Sharing Ascent, both students should stabilize on
the surface and, if necessary, rest.
3. Removing and Replacing the Weight System (Surface). This is an excellent exercise to
prepare for boat diving, weight belt ditching, and possible slippage of weight belts
while diving. It should be conducted over a shallow, solid bottom. Buddy teams
may help each other.
4. Navigation (Optional). This exercise prepares the student gradually for Open Water
5. In the ocean, or on a flat-bottom lake, it is difficult to return to a given spot
without a compass.
On the surface, have each member of the buddy team take a fix on their exit
point and then drop to the bottom and make the run in. They should surface within
50 feet (15 metres) of their exit point to successfully complete this exercise.
D. Exit
E. Final Equipment Check. Much equipment has been lost because the diver failed to
look around or simply assumed everything was there.
When putting gear back in the car following a dive, let the students know they
should make a complete check. It is better to discover it at that time than later at home
when it’s too late.
IV. OPEN WATER EVALUATION. Discuss any problems, if need be, and inform the students
as to their progress, then complete all log sign-offs and record cards.
OPEN
WAT E R
INSTRUCTOR
10TH EDITION • 10/10
Contents
OBJECTIVE
OPEN WATER ORIENTATION
Equipment Assembly and
Adjustment
Open Water Overview
Exercise Overview
Water Conditions
Buddy Check
OPEN WATER EXERCISES
Entry
Review
Controlled Descent
Regulator Clearing
Regulator Retrieval
Mask Clearing
Buoyancy Control (Power and
Oral)
Air Sharing Ascent (Alternate
Air Source)
Surface Procedures
Exercises
Emergency Swimming Ascent
Surface Procedures
Removing and Replacing the
Scuba Unit (Surface)
Navigation (Optional)
Exit
OPEN WATER EVALUATION
M A N U A L • O P E N WAT E R OW4-1
Open Water
Session 4
I. OBJECTIVE. Open Water Session 4 is
probably the most interesting in terms
of the exercises and student response.
One exercise creates a greater feeling
of accomplishment within the student
than any other single exercise: the
emergency ascent. After completing this
relatively simple exercise, students gain
confidence.
The Emergency Ascent should be
explained so students understand the
procedure. When properly conducted there
is no more danger than a normal ascent,
but students need to perform the exercise
one at a time. Pay attention to behavior to
minimize potential hazards.
Since you will be making several
ascents and descents during this class, it
is recommended for the Instructor’s safety
that emergency ascents be conducted as the
first skill on the first dive of the day, rather
than at the end of Open Water 4.
OW4-2
OPEN
WAT E R
INSTRUCTOR
M A N U A L • O P E N WAT E R
10TH EDITION • 10/10
II. OPEN WATER ORIENTATION
A. Equipment Assembly and Adjustment. Students should assemble their equipment
for the water work. They should accomplish the task correctly without any assistance
from you. You should watch everyone to make sure they do, and evaluate their
performance of the task. Stow equipment for the pre-dive briefing.
B. Open Water Overview. If you are conducting several open water dives in one day,
discuss how they will be conducted and what is expected of the students.
C. Exercise Overview. Discuss the exercises that will be performed in this dive. Explain
the order in which they will be done, how they will be conducted, and what you expect
from the students.
D. Water Conditions. Explain the current water conditions. Highlight any key water
conditions.
E. Buddy Check. Have buddy teams check each other’s equipment prior to entering the
water. While you should not rely on this as your final safety check, it teaches a good
pre-dive habit to divers.
III. OPEN WATER EXERCISES
A. Entry
B. Review
1. Controlled Descent
2. Regulator Clearing
3. Regulator Retrieval
4. Mask Clearing
5. Buoyancy Control (Power and Oral)
6. Air Sharing Ascent (Alternate Air Source)
7. Surface Procedures
C. Exercises. In Open Water Session 4, the Emergency Swimming Ascent or the
Emergency Buoyant Ascent can be done. Only one is required, and, of the two, the
Emergency Buoyant Ascent is preferred because it allows students to experience
running out of air in the open water under controlled conditions, and it emphasizes
the validity of ditching the weight belt in an emergency situation. If both exercises are
done, use caution and good judgement concerning the number of ascents and descents
you make.
OPEN
WAT E R
INSTRUCTOR
M A N U A L • O P E N WAT E R 10TH EDITION • 10/10
OW4-3
Either the Emergency Swimming Ascent or the Emergency
Buoyant Ascent is required during open water training,
but not both. To standardize this skill with an SSI training
facility, it is recommended that the facility select either the
ESA or the EBA and have its Instructors conduct only that
emergency ascent.
1. Emergency Swimming Ascent. The student has air on and is neutrally buoyant. You
move in front of the student and watch breathing. (Do not turn off air.) The student
signals to you “out of air” and reaches for the weights on the weight belt (or the
rip cord if using a weight integrated system), moving the right hand to locate the
weight belt buckle or rip cord. (Do not have the student release the weights.) With
one hand on the weight belt buckle or rip cord and the power inflator slightly
above the head in the left hand, the student begins an emergency swimming ascent
to the surface. The student’s hand should remain on the weight belt buckle or rip
cord at all times during the ascent, so if the need to ditch it arises during the ascent
or at the surface, it can be done safely and quickly. The student retains the secondstage in the mouth, exhaling with the head back, looking toward the surface, and
controlling the rate of ascent by venting air from the BC. Once on the surface, the
student should establish positive buoyancy by using the Bobbing Method to inflate
the BC.
Emergency ascents should be done in this class or later. It
is not recommended that they be done earlier.
2. Surface Procedures. After the emergency ascent exercise, students should establish
positive buoyancy using the Bobbing Method. Once stable on the surface they
should rest, if necessary.
3. Removing and Replacing the Scuba Unit (Surface). Several things are accomplished
with this exercise. The students improve their general equipment handling, they
learn how to remove and replace the scuba unit on the surface for boat diving,
and it makes them aware of the need for correct adjustment and placement of
equipment. The procedures for Removing and Replacing the Scuba Unit on the
surface are the same as those done in Pool Session 5.
4. Navigation (Optional). See Open Water 3 for procedures.
D. Exit
OW4-4
OPEN
WAT E R
INSTRUCTOR
M A N U A L • O P E N WAT E R
10TH EDITION • 10/10
IV. OPEN WATER ORIENTATION. As with each class, be sure to discuss student progress
right after the class and do required record keeping.
OPEN
WAT E R
INSTRUCTOR
10TH EDITION • 10/10
Contents
OBJECTIVES
OPEN WATER ORIENTATION
Equipment Check
Exercise Overview
Buddy Check
OPEN WATER EXERCISES
Entry
Navigation
(Instrument or Natural)
Air Consumption (Optional)
Air Consumption Check
Calculating Air
Consumption
Exit
OPEN WATER EVALUATION
M A N U A L • O P E N WAT E R OW5-1
Open Water
Session 5
I. OBJECTIVES. Session 5 has two
main exercises. The most important
is navigation—learning to use the compass correctly and efficiently, or to use
u n d e r wa t e r l a n d m a r k s e f fe c t i ve l y.
Air consumption is the optional
second exercise.
The primary emphasis of navigation
is to complete a simple reciprocal course
under water. The secondary emphasis is
to wean the students from dependency on
the Instructor, and to shift responsi-bility
to the students. Remember, after successful
completion of this dive, students will be
certified and diving on their own. This
class represents an opportunity to simulate
diving on their own, under controlled
circumstances. It also offers the opportunity
for you to evaluate how the students will
react to diving on their own, to see if you
feel comfortable with it.
Navigation can be done by introducing students to the basic compo-nents
and use of the compass under water. It
may also be done by showing them how
to use natural navigation. Navigation may
be conducted under direct or indirect
supervision.
The navigation exercise also
promotes the Navigation Specialty
Course. You should tell students that
a more in-depth course in navigation
is offered.
If the class is conducted under indirect
supervision, this must be a navigation class,
either instrument or natural. If navigation
is being done, DiveCons may be used to
supervise the navigation exercise.
OW5-2
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WAT E R
INSTRUCTOR
M A N U A L • O P E N WAT E R
10TH EDITION • 10/10
II. OPEN WATER ORIENTATION
A. Equipment Check. Have the students switch tanks, if necessary. They will also
require compasses if they are being used on this dive.
B. Exercise Overview. Discuss the exercises that will be performed in this dive. Explain
the order in which they will be done, how they will be conducted, and what you expect
from the students.
C. Buddy Check. The Buddy Check should be second nature by now. Make sure
everyone is ready for entering the water.
III. OPEN WATER EXERCISES
A. Entry
B. Navigation. The Navigation exercise can be conducted with either instrument or
natural navigation, depending on the environmental conditions, the dive site, the
student’s abilities and the objectives of the dive store. Instrument navigation is the
recommended method of training. Another option is to teach both methods or to
combine instrument and natural navigation training.
1. Instrument. The use of a compass is important. It saves time and energy because
the diver can avoid the need to return to the surface to check location. It is also a
good safety tool because it can help avoid long surface swims when returning from
a dive. Properly used, it will allow the diver to make a complete dive without the
need to surface.
Explain the use of the compass, and make sure your students understand the
basic use of it. When running the pattern, make it a reciprocal course in which the
students follow a heading out and back. This means they will have to reset their
compasses at the end of the “out” run. Be sure to emphasize that they must follow
the compass, and not move the compass so it appears correct in relation to their
bodies.
Conduct the run for a reasonable length of time, say four to ten minutes,
(half out and half back). For this, they will need the timing device. A
constant depth should be maintained. All this is possible if the gauges are
close together so they can be read. Compass runs must not be conducted in
hazardous water conditions. Do not send students out over deep water. A float
and line will help prevent problems. Try to conduct these runs in less than
40 feet (12 metres) of depth. Each student should have the opportunity to try
two runs.
To maintain control of the group, you have many options. Two examples are
to follow on the surface to keep track of the bubbles or, if there is only one buddy
team, follow along to ensure direction control.
2. Natural. Using bottom contours and other underwater landmarks is an acceptable
method of navigation. It allows divers to complete a dive and return to the exit
point without surfacing by orienting themselves to their natural surroundings.
OPEN
WAT E R
INSTRUCTOR
10TH EDITION • 10/10
M A N U A L • O P E N WAT E R OW5-3
Explain to the students how to orient themselves under water. Show them
how to notice the slope of the beach, which indicates the direction of the shore.
Show them how ripples in the sand run parallel to shore, which indicates the
direction of the shore. Show them how to notice distinctive underwater rock or
coral formations, so they can recognize familiar sites. Show them how to use
shadows and the position of the sun to tell direction. There may be other deliberate
markings, such as a line along the bottom, which indicates direction to a dive site.
Students should run a reciprocal pattern, using natural navigation to get out
and back. This means they will have to know how far to go out and when to come
back. Conduct the run for a reasonable length of time, around four to ten minutes
(half out and half back). For this, they will need the timing device. A constant depth
should be maintained. All this is possible if the gauges are close together so they
can be read. Do not send students out over deep water. Try to conduct these runs
in less than 40 feet (12 metres) of depth. Each student should have the opportunity
to try two runs.
C. Air Consumption (Optional)
1. Air Consumption Check. The consumption check is something divers may try. Too
many people attempt to estimate the cubic feet/metres remaining in the tank, and
this is extremely difficult to calculate mentally because gauges do not register in
cubic feet or metres.
The exercise is simple, requiring only a constant depth for any period of
time. It is best to stay at 10, 15 or 20 feet (3, 4.5, or 6 metres) for two reasons.
The consumption check is more accurate if done below the surface rather than on
the surface, and it is excellent practice to maintain a given depth for a continuing
period of time.
Have the students check psi/bar when arriving at the desired depth (use a float
and line that is the depth you are using), and then make a 10-minute swim (five
minutes out and five back is best). Check the psi/bar at the finish. Mark depth, time
and psi/bar used (the calculations will be done later).
The consumption check exercise can be done simultaneously with the
navigation exercise. (The students need to maintain depth and direction in both
exercises.) It will also be a more accurate consumption check if the students are
concentrating on something besides breathing.
2. Calculating Air Consumption. (See Appendix 2 for metric calculations.) It is important
to remember that this is an entry-level course. The information contained in this
exercise needs to be understandable and simple.
This exercise will have value to a student who may wish to later take an
advanced navigation class. It is also useful in dive planning and measuring one’s
comfort in the water, and helpful in selecting a compatible dive buddy.
By determining the consumption rate at the surface, students can calculate
what it will be at any given depth. Since pressure gauges are calibrated in pounds
per square inch (psi), the consumption rate must be in psi, too. The formula is:
OW5-4
OPEN
[PSI ÷ TIME] (33*)
____________________
WAT E R
INSTRUCTOR
M A N U A L • O P E N WAT E R
10TH EDITION • 10/10
= SURFACE AIR CONSUMPTION RATE
Depth + 33*
*For use in salt water. In fresh water use 34 in place of 33.
PSI = psi consumed in timed swim at constant depth
TIME = duration of timed swim in minutes
DEPTH = depth of timed swim in feet
EXAMPLE: A diver swims at 10 feet for 10 minutes and consumes 300 psi of air.
You want the students to determine the surface consumption expressed in psi.
They compute the following:
[30
(PSI used) ÷ 10 (TIME)] X (33) _________
30 X 33 _____
990
___________________________________
=
=
= 23 PSI
(DEPTH)
43
43
10
+ 33
23 psi = psi consumed per minute at surface
D. Exit
IV. OPEN WATER EVALUATION. Have a brief, individual discussion with each student. Let
them know how they did in the open water and in the course. Be positive but honest in
your assessment. Make them feel good about what they’ve done, and encourage them to
work on any weaknesses. If you genuinely feel that someone should not pass, invite them
back for another session.
OPEN
WAT E R
INSTRUCTOR
10TH EDITION • 10/10
Contents
OBJECTIVE
M A N U A L • O P E N WAT E R OW6-1
Open Water
Session 6:
(Experience Dive)
I. OBJECTIVE. This class has one real
OPEN WATER ORIENTATION
Equipment Check
Dive Briefing
OPEN WATER EXERCISES
Dive Plan
Entry
Dive
Exit
OPEN WATER EVALUATION
purpose: to make the students more
comfortable in the open water.
The experience dive should be
conducted on a separate day from Session
5. This means students would have
completed the requirements for Open
Water Diver, and may possess a Temporary
Certification Card.
Your role in Session 6 is one of
supervisor and observer. The class may
be conducted with indirect or direct
supervision.
OW6-2
OPEN
WAT E R
INSTRUCTOR
M A N U A L • O P E N WAT E R
10TH EDITION • 10/10
II. OPEN WATER ORIENTATION. Each student should have taken care of their own
equipment as much as possible. Try to simulate a real rental situation, or actually have the
students rent the equipment themselves. Oversee the process subtly to make sure no one
forgets anything, but not overtly as you did in previous classes.
A. Equipment Check
B. Dive Briefing
The point is to break the student from depending on the
Instructor.
III. OPEN WATER EXERCISES. The purpose of this dive is to gain experience under
controlled conditions. Conduct a standard pre-dive briefing as any DiveCon or Instructor
would, stating water conditions and dive parameters.
Emphasize key points, such as descent/ascent procedures, entry/exit procedures,
surface procedures, the importance of buddy teams staying together, and staying within the
dive plan. Keep a record of buddy teams as they enter the water. The exercises for this class
are:
A. Dive Plan. Since the class is conducted on a separate day from previous open water
training, there may be more than one dive on this day. If so, divers should plan for
repetitive dives.
B. Entry
C. Dive
D. Exit
IV. OPEN WATER EVALUATION. As buddy teams get back from their dive, check
them in. Ask them about the dive, what they saw, if they had any problems, if the
dive plan worked, and offer constructive advice on improving themselves. Your
approach should be as a friendly, non-judgmental authority, more of a “coach” than
an “Instructor.”
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