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Chapte r 6
X.25
Introduction ................................................................................................... 6-3
LAPB .............................................................................................................. 6-4
DCE Mode ..................................................................................................... 6-4
DTE Mode ..................................................................................................... 6-5
DTE Addresses ............................................................................................... 6-6
X.25 DCE Route Mapping .............................................................................. 6-7
Encapsulations ............................................................................................... 6-7
Configuring LAPB .......................................................................................... 6-9
Configuring an Interface for LAPB ........................................................... 6-9
Configuring LAPB Interface Parameters ................................................... 6-9
Configuring X.25 DCE ................................................................................. 6-10
Configure the LAPB Interface ................................................................ 6-10
Configure the X.25 DCE Interface ......................................................... 6-10
Configuring DTE Addresses ................................................................... 6-11
Configuring X.25 Route Mapping .......................................................... 6-11
Configuring X.25 DTE .................................................................................. 6-12
Configure the LAPB Interface ................................................................ 6-12
Configure the X.25 DTE Interface .......................................................... 6-12
Configuring Call Parameter Entries ........................................................ 6-13
Configuring Permanent Virtual Circuits .................................................. 6-13
Configuration Examples ............................................................................... 6-14
A Basic X.25 Setup ................................................................................ 6-14
An Extended X.25 Setup ....................................................................... 6-19
X.25 over ISDN D Channel ..................................................................... 6-25
Command Reference ................................................................................... 6-26
ACTIVATE MIOX CIRCUIT ...................................................................... 6-26
ADD MIOX CIRCUIT .............................................................................. 6-27
ADD X25C DTEADDRESS ....................................................................... 6-29
ADD X25C ROUTE ................................................................................. 6-29
ADD X25T CPAR ................................................................................... 6-30
CREATE LAPB ........................................................................................ 6-31
CREATE X25C ....................................................................................... 6-32
CREATE X25T ........................................................................................ 6-33
DEACTIVATE MIOX CIRCUIT .................................................................. 6-35
DELETE MIOX CIRCUIT .......................................................................... 6-35
DELETE X25C DTEADDRESS ................................................................... 6-36
DELETE X25C ROUTE ............................................................................. 6-37
DELETE X25T CPAR ............................................................................... 6-37
DESTROY LAPB ...................................................................................... 6-38
DESTROY X25C ..................................................................................... 6-38
DESTROY X25T ..................................................................................... 6-39
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DISABLE MIOX CIRCUIT ......................................................................... 6-39
ENABLE MIOX CIRCUIT .......................................................................... 6-40
RESET LAPB ........................................................................................... 6-40
RESET X25T ........................................................................................... 6-41
SET LAPB ............................................................................................... 6-41
SET MIOX .............................................................................................. 6-42
SET MIOX CIRCUIT ................................................................................ 6-43
SET X25C .............................................................................................. 6-45
SET X25T ............................................................................................... 6-46
SET X25T CPAR ..................................................................................... 6-47
SHOW LAPB .......................................................................................... 6-48
SHOW MIOX ......................................................................................... 6-52
SHOW MIOX COUNT ............................................................................ 6-53
SHOW MIOX CIRCUIT ........................................................................... 6-55
SHOW X25C ......................................................................................... 6-59
SHOW X25C DTEADDRESS .................................................................... 6-60
SHOW X25C ROUTE .............................................................................. 6-61
SHOW X25T .......................................................................................... 6-62
SHOW X25T CPAR ................................................................................ 6-66
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Intr oduction
This chapter describes the main features of X.25 Packet Switched Networks,
support for X.25 on the router, and how to configure and operate the router to
provide, or connect to, an X.25 Packet Switched Network.
CCITT Recommendation X.25 specifies the connection between data terminal
equipment (DTE) and data circuit-terminating equipment (DCE) for terminals
attached to a public data network. The term X.25 usually refers to Recommendation X.25 plus a number of related CCITT recommendations and other
standards produced by organisations such as the Defence Data Network
(DDN) and International Standards Organisation (ISO). Since Recommendation X.25 was first produced in 1976, the standard has been adapted for more
uses than its original purpose, which was connecting to a public packet
switched network.
The general principle of X.25 is that many connections are made over a single
physical link. The single link into the data network is maintained at the data
link layer, while the separate packet layer maintains the connections or circuits
from one DTE to other DTEs attached to the network. The data link layer is
maintained between a DTE and its connected DCE, while packet layer circuits
are maintained between pairs of DTEs.
Two main types of circuits exist, permanent virtual circuits and switched virtual circuits. The permanent circuits are set up by configuration in the DTEs at
either end of the circuit and in the X.25 network. When a DTE starts running, it
can send data on a permanent circuit straight away. In contrast, switched circuits are not set up when the DTE starts running. Instead a DTE must make a
call through the X.25 network to set up the call. A special call request packet is
sent to the network, containing the DTE address of the DTE being called. DTE
addresses are set up by the network administration and uniquely identify
DTEs. The DTE being called must accept the call before data transmission can
begin. The call may be refused for a number of reasons. Once the call is in
progress, data can be exchanged on the switched circuit. Either end of the circuit may terminate the call.
The DTE is the end user equipment that uses the X.25 network. Two common
types of DTE are computers and PADs. The term PAD means literally packet
assembly/disassembly but in this context means a terminal server that runs
over X.25. A typical PAD has a number of asynchronous ports for supporting
terminals and a synchronous port for connecting to the X.25 network. Users of
terminals connected to the PAD can call up a remote DTE through the X.25 network.
Computers use X.25 in a number of different ways. Software on the computer
can act as a virtual PAD, allowing users logging in to the computer to call a
remote DTE through the X.25 network. Different software on the computer can
use X.25 circuits to set up network connections to other computers for mail and
general transfer of data. In all cases the general principle is the same, that of
two DTEs making a packet layer connection via the X.25 network.
For more information about the X.25 recommendation and how computers and
PADs use X.25, see CCITT recommendations X.25, X.21 and X.121, and ISO 8208.
The router supports X.25 as both a DCE and a DTE. An interface on the router
can be configured as either a DCE or a DTE. Commands relating to DCE mode
operations have the form:
verb X25C parameter...
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whereas commands relating to DTE mode operations have the forms:
verb X25T parameter...
LAPB
Before either a DCE or DTE interface can be configured to run over a synchronous port a LAPB interface must be configured to provide the data link layer
protocol.
The link layer defines the logical interface between an X.25 DTE and an X.25
DCE. It consists of procedures for controlling the flow of information over the
access link. The link level provides a robust error-free connection for transmitting packets between two interconnected packet-mode DTEs.
LAPB (Link Access Procedure Balanced) was incorporated into the X.25 recommendation in 1977. It uses the balanced mode of HDLC, and therefore more
effectively handles link reset conditions than the previously used link access
procedure (LAP). LAPB is the link level protocol supported by the router. It is a
bit-oriented protocol that uses information, supervisory and unnumbered
frames.
Features of the router’s implementation of the LAPB protocol include:
■
Link layer modulus of 8 or 128.
■
Link Layer window size of 1 to 7 for modulo 8 and 1 to 127 for modulo 128.
■
Support of acknowledge timer T1 and idle timer T3.
■
Packet size of 128 to 1024 bytes.
■
Adjustable retransmission counter.
DCE
DCE Mod e
A network of routers can be configured as DCEs to act as an X.25 network, providing a packet switched X.25-based network for DTEs. This network runs
over the same wide area links as other protocols carried by the router.
The router supports switched virtual circuits over the network. Permanent virtual circuits are not supported. Any synchronous interface on a router can be
set up to carry X.25 traffic. Having set up an X.25 DCE interface, an X.25 DTE
can be linked to the router, and it may then make X.25 calls via the router.
Each X.25 switched virtual circuit is carried over a TCP connection within the
network (see Chapter 8, Internet Protocol (IP) for more information about TCP
connections). When a call is made, the DTE address being called is examined
by the router and a TCP connection is made to the remote router that is the
DCE for the given address. Once this connection has been made, the X.25 packets from either end of the connection are carried over the TCP link.
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Features of the router’s implementation of an X.25 DCE include:
■
A packet layer modulus of 8 is the only modulus supported.
■
The D bit is ignored but carried through. However, data packets are
acknowledged on an end-to-end basis, that is, as if the D bit was always set.
■
A packet size of 128 is the only size supported.
■
There is no support for call facilities.
■
A packet layer window of 4 is the only packet layer window size supported.
DTE Mod e
The router can be configured to act as a DTE and be attached to an X.25 Packet
Switched Network. This allows the routing of information and other protocols
through the X.25 network to other routers or DTEs.
The DTE packet layer defines procedures for handling virtual calls over an X.25
network. It provides services to attached modules and specifies the manner in
which calls are established, maintained and cleared. When a virtual call is
established, a virtual circuit (or call) is set up between the calling and called
DTEs. By using a packet-interleaved multiplexing scheme, a single physical circuit can support communications to numerous X.25 DTEs simultaneously. The
virtual call is identified at the local DTE–DCE interface by a logical channel
number. Each X.25 interface can theoretically support up to 4095 virtual calls.
In order to support multiple virtual circuits over a single data link a unique
logical channel number (LCN) is assigned to each virtual call. The significance
of LCNs is local between the network components at both ends of the logical
data link.
The maximum number of virtual circuits dictates the number of simultaneous
sessions that can be supported over a single X.25 data link. Logical channels
ranges can be allocated in four categories:
■
Permanent virtual circuits.
■
Switched virtual circuits for incoming calls only.
■
Switched virtual circuits for outgoing calls only.
■
Switched virtual circuits for two-way calls only.
A switched virtual circuit (SVC) is required for each virtual call. A virtual call is
set up dynamically when one DTE attached to the X.25 network needs to communicate with another DTE. Networks can differentiate between the various
types of circuits by the appropriate allocation of logical channel number
sequences. When a user places a call either the highest or lowest numbered free
channel in the appropriate channel range is selected for the call. If the DTE is
connected to a DCE then the highest channel in the particular SVC range is
selected. If the interface is in a DTE-to-DTE situation, role negotiation during
the restart procedure will determine which DTE will emulate a DCE and it will
select channels from the lowest free channel in the particular SVC range.
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A permanent virtual circuit (PVC) is essentially a pre-configured permanent
logical connection between two end points of a network. It can be likened to a
point-to-point leased line. PVCs do not require any connection or disconnection procedures and data can be sent on PVCs as soon as the X.25 link is active.
The router supports both permanent and switched virtual circuits. Any synchronous interface on a router can be set up to carry X.25 traffic. Having set up
an X.25 DTE interface, the router can be linked to the X.25 network, and it may
then make X.25 calls to other routers or DTE equipment.
When the X.25 DTE interface is operational, IP can be initialised to run over the
X.25 network (see Chapter 8, Internet Protocol (IP) for further information about
configuring IP to run over X.25).
Features of the router’s implementation of an X.25 DTE include:
■
Packet layer modulus of 8 or 128.
■
Packet layer window size of 1 to 7 for modulo 8 and 1 to 127 for modulo
128.
■
Variable packet size supporting data packets from 128 to 1024 bytes.
■
Role determination for DTE-to-DTE connections.
■
There is currently no support for call facilities.
■
Ability to transport IP over X.25.
DTE Addr
ddr ess es
The syntax of DTE addresses is covered in Recommendation X.25. A related
standard, Recommendation X.121, specifies a numbering plan for public data
networks that follows the format outlined in X.25. To access a DTE on a public
data network, an address conforming to X.121 must be used. However, if a private X.25 network is being run over a network of routers, any DTE addresses
may be used.
A DTE address consists of 1 to 15 decimal digits. On the router any X.25 interface can be set up to respond to any DTE address. A single interface can be set
up to respond to a number of different DTE addresses. Wildcards may also be
used in the DTE address to further expand the addresses to which an interface
will respond. This facility has been provided for two reasons:
■
Some PADs respond to a range of DTE addresses, for example in accessing
particular ports on the PAD.
■
The router may be attached to an X.25 gateway, which may, for example, be
providing access to a public X.25 network.
An example of DTE wildcard addressing is an interface set up to respond to
DTE addresses 12345, 12346 and 2345X. The last address contains the wildcard
character ‘X’. The interface with these addresses will respond to any calls to
any of these addresses, with the wildcard address mapping all addresses from
23450 to 23459.
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X.2 5 DCE
DCE Rou
Rou te M app ing
To enable X.25 DCE calls to be made via TCP a routing table must be set up.
This table provides mappings from X.25 DTE addresses to IP addresses. The IP
address for a given X.25 DTE address is the address of the router that is
attached to the DTE being called. The table is set up with the command:
SET X25C ROUTE
and can be inspected with the command:
SHOW X25C ROUTE
Only one X.25 route mapping table exists for each router, and applies to all X.25
DCE interfaces receiving call requests on that router.
When an X.25 DCE interface receives a call request from the attached DTE, the
router first searches through its own DTE address table. This table contains the
DTE addresses for all X.25 interfaces on the local router. If a match is found in
the local DTE address table, the call is routed to the relevant interface on the
local router. If the called address does not match any of the local router’s DTE
addresses, the X.25 route table is searched sequentially. If a match is found the
call is routed to the remote router via TCP and the IP address found in the
route mapping table. If a match is not found an error indication is returned to
the calling DTE.
Each entry in the X.25 route mapping table consists of an X.25 DTE address and
an IP address. The DTE address may have wildcard digits, to allow a range of
DTE addresses to be mapped to the same IP address. The IP address in the
table is the address of the router that will take the X.25 call. The DTE addresses
in the table do not have to be unique. Wildcard patterns may be present in the
table that would match other explicit DTE addresses in the table. However,
since the table is searched sequentially and the first match is taken as fulfilling
the search, more general patterns for DTE addresses should appear later in the
table for the route mapping to work. See the description of the SHOW X25C
ROUTE command in “Command Reference” on page 6-26 for an example.
Encaps ulati ons
ons
The MIOX (Multiprotocol Interconnect on X.25) encapsulation scheme defined
in RFC 1356, “Multiprotocol Interconnect on X.25 and ISDN in the Packet
Mode”, specifies the encapsulation of IP and other network layer protocols
over X.25 networks in accordance with ISO/IEC and CCITT standards.
Virtual circuits are opened on demand when datagrams arrive at the network
interface for transmission, and are closed after a specified period of activity or
when the interface runs out of virtual circuits. When an attempt is made to
open a virtual circuit, the first octet of the Call User Data field of the Call
Request packet is a Network Layer Protocol Identifier (NLPID) used to specify
the protocol encapsulation to be used on the virtual circuit (Table 6-1 on
page 6-8).
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Tab l e 6 -1: NLP ID v al ue s for p r oto co l e nc ap su la tion ov er X.25 ci rcu i ts.
N L P ID ( h ex a de c i ma l)
Pr o t oc ol En c a ps u l at i on
CC
Internet Protocol (IP)
81
CLNP
82
ES-IS
80
SNAP (Subnetwork Address Protocol)
EE
IPX (proprietary)
00
Null encapsulation
If the SNAP encapsulation is used, the five octets following the NLPID in the
Call User Data field contain the SNAP header for the network layer protocol.
Only a single protocol may be carried over a virtual circuit using the IP, CLNP,
ES-IS or SNAP encodings. Multiple virtual circuits must be established to
transport multiple protocols over the same X.25 connection. Once the circuit
has been established, the data field of X.25 data packets contains only Protocol
Data Units (PDUs) for the specified network layer protocol.
The Null encapsulation may be used to multiplex multiple network layer protocols over a single virtual circuit. The NLPID in the Call User Data field contains
the null value, and the first octet of the data field of each X.25 data packet contains the NLPID followed by the PDU for the specified network layer protocol.
Only the IP, IPX and NULL encapsulations are supported.
The same encapsulation must be specified on the routers at each end of the circuit. If different encapsulations are used the routers will not be able to communicate with one another over the MIOX circuit.
A MIOX circuit is created with the command:
ADD MIOX=x25t-interface CIRCUIT=circuit-name
ENCAP=encapsulation
and deleted with the command:
DELETE MIOX=x25t-interface CIRCUIT=circuit-name
A MIOX circuit can be explicitly activated and deactivated to test the configuration of the circuit without generating protocol traffic, using the commands:
ACTIVATE MIOX=x25t-interface CIRCUIT=circuit-name
DEACTIVATE MIOX=x25t-interface CIRCUIT=circuit-name
A MIOX circuit may be temporarily disabled or enabled, without losing the
configuration, using the commands:
DISABLE MIOX=x25t-interface CIRCUIT=circuit-name
ENABLE MIOX=x25t-interface CIRCUIT=circuit-name
Parameters that affect the operation of the MIOX module and individual MIOX
circuits may be changed after the MIOX circuits have been created, using the
commands:
SET MIOX=x25t-interface
SET MIOX=x25t-interface CIRCUIT=circuit-name
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The status of the MIOX module and individual MIOX circuits can be displayed
with the commands:
SHOW MIOX=[x25t-interface]
SHOW MIOX=[x25t-interface] COUNT
SHOW MIOX=[x25t-interface] CIRCUIT=[circuit-name]
The IP module can be configured to use a MIOX circuit with the command:
ADD IP ARP=ipadd INTERFACE=interface CIRCUIT=circuit-name
Con figu ring LAPB
The following steps are required to set up LAPB on the router.
■
Configure a LAPB interface to run over a synchronous port.
■
Configure the parameters for the LAPB interface.
Note that if the default parameters are satisfactory then it may not be necessary
to configure the parameters for a LAPB interface.
C onf
on figur
gu ring a n In te rfa
rfac e fo r LA P B
Before an X.25 DTE or DCE interface can be configured a LAPB interface must
be created for the X.25 interface to run over. To configure a LAPB interface, use
the command:
CREATE LAPB=interface OVER=SYNn
This command creates a LAPB interface that will run over the specified synchronous port. No other modules may already be configured to the synchronous port.
The following commands set up LAPB interfaces 1 and 3 to run over synchronous ports 0 and 1 respectively:
CREATE LAPB=1 OVER=SYN0
CREATE LAPB=3 OVER=SYN1
Note that there is no direct relationship required between LAPB instance and
synchronous port number. However it may be beneficial to keep a direct 1 to 1
mapping between LAPB interface number and synchronous port number for
ease of management.
The LAPB interface is initialised on successful execution of the CREATE command. However, the interface will only become active (attempt to setup the
link) when a module (X.25 DTE or DCE) configures to the interface.
C onf
on figur
gu ring L A P B In te rfa c e Pa
Pa rame ters
The parameters that define the operation of a LAPB interface can either be set
on creation of the LAPB interface or by using the command:
SET LAPB
A LAPB interface, when first created, has operational parameters set to default
values that may need to be altered for communication over the interface to begin.
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It is essential that the packet modulus be identical at both ends of the link and
that the role of the LAPB interface is set up correctly. If an X.25 DCE interface is
to be configured to the LAPB interface then the LAPB role parameter should be
set to DCE. If an X.25 DTE interface is to be configured to the LAPB interface
then the LAPB role should be DTE, unless the connection will operate in a
direct DTE-to-DTE connection where the role for one LAPB interface must be
configured as DCE and the peer LAPB interface as DTE.
The LAPB interface timers must be set up correctly so the T1 parameter is
greater than the maximum time it takes for the transmission of a packet and the
reception of that packet’s acknowledgement.
When the operational parameters are altered for a LAPB interface the changes
do not take place immediately, and are not reflected in the SHOW LAPB command until the LAPB interface is reset by using the command:
RESET LAPB
The RESET command updates all changes to operational parameters and initiates the LAPB link reset procedure.
Con figu ring X.25 DCE
DCE
The following steps are required to set up X.25 DCE on the router:
■
Configure a LAPB interface to run over a synchronous port.
■
Configure an X.25 DCE interface to run over the LAPB interface.
■
Set up the DTE address(es) for the X.25 interface.
■
Set up the X.25 route mapping table.
Note that some of these steps may not be necessary, if the default parameter
settings are satisfactory and do not need to be changed or if an X.25 DCE interface has previously been set up on the router and the route mapping table
already exists. The order in which these steps are carried out is not fixed, however the LAPB interface must be created before the X.25 DCE interface, and the
DCE interface must exist before DTE addresses can be set up for it.
C onf
on figur
gu r e th e L A PB In terfa
rfac e
An example of configuring a LAPB interface was presented in the section Configuring LAPB. The rest of this example assumes the same setup exists, that is,
LAPB interfaces 1 and 3 created to use synchronous ports 0 and 1 respectively.
C onf
on figur
gu r e th e X. 25 DCE
DC E In te rfa c e
To configure an interface to run X.25 DCE, use the command:
CREATE X25C=interface OVER=LAPBn
The following commands set up two X.25 DCE interfaces to use the LAPB
interfaces created previously:
CREATE X25C=2 OVER=LAPB1
CREATE X25C=4 OVER=LAPB0
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Note that the X.25 DCE interface number is not directly related to the LAPB
interface number, and that the two DCE interfaces set up do not have consecutive numbers. Although not necessary, use of consecutive numbers is recommended for ease of management. Each interface number must be in the range 0
to 7, since no more than 8 X.25 DCE interfaces may be set up on any one router.
A DCE interface, when first created, has 24 channels defined by default, all of
which are two-way channels. The numbers of each type of channel allowed on
the X.25 DCE interface and the total number of available channels can be set
with the command:
SET X25C=n INCOMING=n OUTGOING=n TWOWAY=n MAXACTIVE=n
To add additional incoming and outgoing channels to the X.25 DCE interfaces
set up in the previous step, use the command:
SET X25C=2 INC=12 OUT=12 MAX=48
SET X25C=4 INC=12 OUT=12 MAX=48
C onf
on figur
gu ring D T E A ddr
dd r ess es
The DTE addresses for an X.25 DCE interface are set with the command:
ADD X25C=n DTEADDRESS=dteaddress
At least one DTE address must be set up for an X.25 DCE interface if incoming
calls are to be processed correctly. The DTE address is not required if only outgoing calls are to be made. More than one DTE address can be set up for a DCE
interface and each address may have wildcard digits in it, so that a range of
addresses will be responded to.
The following commands set up DTE addresses for the DCE interfaces configured in the previous step:
ADD X25C=2 DTEADDRESS=00002300
ADD X25C=2 DTEADDRESS=4600000085
ADD X25C=4 DTEADDRESS=001xxx00
Note that DCE interface 2 has 2 DTE addresses defined. Incoming calls with
either of these addresses will be answered. DCE interface 4 has a wildcard DTE
address. Any incoming call with a DTE address that matches the wildcard
specification will be answered.
C onf
on figur
gu ring X .25 Rout
Rou te Ma ppi
pp ing
Setting up the X.25 route mapping table will not necessarily be required every
time an X.25 DCE interface is added to the router, however, if other routers are
going to be calling the new interface, the route mapping tables on those other
routers will have to be altered. Only one route mapping table exists for each
router.
The route mapping table can be altered with the commands:
ADD X25C ROUTE
DELETE X25C ROUTE
For example, the command:
ADD X25C ROUTE=00002300 IP=172.16.8.32
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adds an entry to the end of the table which maps DTE address 00002300 to a
router with the IP address 172.16.8.32.
Con figu ring X.25 DTE
The following steps are required to set up X.25 DTE on the router.
■
Configure a LAPB interface to run over a synchronous port.
■
Configure an X.25 DTE interface to run over the LAPB interface.
■
Configure Call Parameter entries.
■
Configure Permanent Virtual Circuits.
Note that if the default parameters are satisfactory then it may not be necessary
to configure the parameters for an X.25 DTE interface. The LAPB interface
must be created before the X.25 DTE interface.
C onf
on figur
gu r e th e L A PB In terfa
rfac e
An example of configuring a LAPB interface was presented in the section Configuring LAPB. The rest of this example assumes the same setup exists, that is,
LAPB interfaces 1 and 3 created to use synchronous ports 0 and 1 respectively.
C onf
on figur
gu r e th e X. 25 D T E In terfa
rfac e
To configure an interface to run X.25 DTE, use the command:
CREATE X25T=interface OVER=LAPBn
The following commands set up two X.25 DTE interfaces to use the LAPB interfaces created previously:
CREATE X25T=2 OVER=LAPB1
CREATE X25T=4 OVER=LAPB0
Note that the X.25 DTE interface number is not directly related to the LAPB
interface number, and that the two DTE interfaces do not have consecutive
numbers. Although not necessary, use of consecutive numbers is recommended for ease of management. Each interface number must be in the range 0
to 7, since no more than 8 X.25 DTE interfaces may be set up on any one router.
The LAPB interface must be created before the X.25 DTE interface.
The parameters that define the operation of an X.25 DTE interface can either be
set when the X.25 DTE interface is created, or by using the command:
SET X25T
An X.25 DTE interface, when first created has operational parameters set to
default values that may need to be altered for communication over the interface to begin.
It is essential that certain operational parameters are identical between the DTE
interface and the X.25 DCE network or peer DTE to which it is connected.
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The packet modulus must be identical at both ends of the link and the logical
channel number ranges must be consistent to provide correct identification of
incoming calls.
The X.25 DTE interface must be configured with a DTE address before any data
traffic can be transmitted over the X.25 DTE interface. This address is placed in
the calling field of outgoing call request packets and provides peer DTEs with
an indication of where the call originated.
The X.25 DTE interface timers must be set up correctly so that the various timers allow enough time to correctly deal with packet retransmissions and other
timing constraints.
When the operational parameters are altered for a X.25 DTE interface the
changes do not take place immediately, and are not reflected in the SHOW
X25T command until the X.25 DTE interface is reset, using the command:
RESET X25T
The RESET command updates all changes to operational parameters and initiates the X.25 DTE link restart procedure.
C onf
on figur
gu ring C a ll P ara mete r E n tri
tries
Call parameter entries are used to specify parameters to use for individual
calls. Call parameter entries contain information about the data and window
sizes to be used by a X.25 call. To create a call parameter entry use the following
command:
ADD X25T CPAR
The following command creates a call parameter entry and any calls that reference this entry will use the specified operational parameters for that call:
ADD X25T CPAR=1 MAXDATA=128 WINDOW=4
A maximum of 8 call parameter entries can be configured.
C onf
on figur
gu ring P erma
rma n en t V irtu
rtu al C ir c u its
When PVCs (Permanent Virtual Circuits) are used these must be configured as
a MIOX circuit, using the command:
ADD MIOX=x25t-interface CIRCUIT=circuit-name PVC=0..4095
PVC channels are supplied by the X.25 network and are configured to provide
a direct line to a peer DTE. To configure PVCs the DTE interface logical channel
range parameters must be set up correctly, using the command:
CREATE X25T=x25-interface OVER={LABPBn|LAPDn} NPVC=0..4095
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R e fer en ce M anua
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Con figu ration Examp les
The following examples illustrate the steps required to configure an X.25 network, from a basic X.25 configuration through to an extended configuration
and the use of X.25 over the ISDN D channel.
A B a sic X. 25 S etup
This example shows how to set up the router to provide a wide area network
based on access to an X.25 packet switched network, and how to route IP traffic
over the X.25 network. The router supports both IP and IPX protocols over
X.25.
Two routers are to be connected via an X.25 network, and will route TCP/IP
over the X.25 network (Figure 6-1 on page 6-14, Table 6-2 on page 6-14). Each
router has a single Ethernet LAN segment, to which local hosts and PCs are
attached. The router supports both Switched Virtual Circuits (SVCs) and Permanent Virtual Circuits (PVCs). For this example a PVC has been used to connect the two routers.
Fi gu r e 6 -1: Ex am pl e c on figur
gurati o n fo r a ba si c X.25 ne two rk.
X.25 Packet
Switch Network
PVC
Remote Office
Router
Head Office
Router
Head Office LAN
Remote Office LAN
EX17-FG1
Tab l e 6 -2: E xam pl e c on fi gu rati o n p ara me ters fo r a ba si c X.25 ne two rk.
Pa r am et e r
H ea d Of f i ce
Re mo t e O f f i c e
Router name
HO
RO
Router Ethernet interface
eth0
eth0
Router Ethernet IP address
172.16.8.33
192.168.31.30
Ethernet network mask
255.255.255.0
255.255.255.240
Router SYN interface
syn0
syn0
Router LAPB interface
lapb0
lapb0
Router X.25 DTE interface
x25t0
x25t0
X.25 DTE IP address
172.16.254.1
172.16.254.2
X.25 network mask
255.255.255.0
255.255.255.0
X.25 network packet size
128
128
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Tab l e 6 -2: E xam pl e c on fi gu rati o n p ara me ters fo r a ba si c X.25 ne two rk. (C
( C on t i nu ed )
Pa r am et e r
H ea d Of f i ce
Re mo t e O f f i c e
X.25 network window size
2
2
X.25 network supplied PVCs
5
5
X.25 network supplied SVCs
10
10
MIOX call name for HO to
-
RemoteOffice
MIOX call name for RO to
HeadOffice
-
To con fi gu r e a b a si c X.2 5 ne
ne two rk fo r I P an
a nd I P X tra
traf fi c:
1.
Con fi gu r e th e X.25 DTE in terfa
rfa ce.
An X.25 DTE interface requires a data link layer to provide communication
between the X.25 DTE and the DCE (network). The router supports both
LAPB over synchronous interfaces and LAPD over the ISDN D channel.
For this example LAPB over a synchronous interface will be used. The synchronous interface must not be in use by another data link layer protocol.
To create a LAPB interface over synchronous port 0 use the following command on both routers:
CREATE LAPB=0 OVER=SYN0
By default, a LAPB interface on the router operates as a DTE, which is
appropriate for connecting to an X.25 switch or network service.
Once the LAPB interface has been initialised the X.25 DTE interface must
be created. For this example it is assumed that the network subscription
supplies default values with a packet size of 128 bytes and a window size
of 2. It is essential that the X.25 DTE interface parameters reflect the service
provided by the X.25 network. This involves matching the channel numbers of the interface to the channel numbers provided by the network. In
this example the network supplies five PVCs and ten two-way SVCs. The
X.25 DTE parameter NPVC is set to 5 to provide PVC support on channels
1 to 5. The parameters LTC and HTC are set to 6 and 15 respectively to provide two-way SVCs on channel numbers 6 through 15.
To create X.25 DTE interface 0 over LAPB interface 0 use the following
command on both routers:
CREATE X25T=0 OVER=LAPB0 NPVC=5 LTC=6 HTC=15
The X.25 DTE interface is now configured. To use the IP protocol over the
interface it is necessary to configure the MIOX control layer to provide support for the IP routing module.
2.
Con fi gu r e th e M IOX contr
on tro
tro l l ay er.
MIOX (Multiprotocol Interconnect Over X.25) provides support for routing
modules to use an X.25 DTE interface. For each X.25 DTE interface a MIOX
circuit must be created for each remote router that is accessed over the DTE
interface. MIOX circuits are responsible for managing X.25 calls to remote
routers, opening calls on demand and closing calls when the call is idle for
a period of time. MIOX circuits carry routing protocols such as IP and IPX,
as well as providing support for TCP header compression and payload
compression.
A MIOX circuit must be created on each router to represent the remote
router. To add the appropriate circuit to router HO representing a connection to router RO the command:
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R e fer en ce M anua
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ADD MIOX=0 CIRCUIT=RemoteOffice PVC=1 ENCAP=NULL
To add a MIOX circuit to router RO representing router HO use the command:
ADD MIOX=0 CIRCUIT=HeadOffice PVC=1 ENCAP=NULL
Adding the MIOX circuits will allow routing modules to attach to these circuits and permit then to access the remote router.
3.
C on f i gu r e t h e I P r ou t i ng mo du l e.
Use the following commands on all routers to enable the IP module and
purge the old configuration.
PURGE IP
ENABLE IP
The IP module must now be configured and linked to the interfaces. Both
the X.25 and the Ethernet interfaces must be linked. To configure the IP
module interfaces for router HO use the commands:
ADD IP INT=ETH0 IP=172.16.8.33 MASK=255.255.255.0
ADD IP INT=X25T0 IP=172.16.254.1 MASK=255.255.255.0
To configure the IP module interfaces for router RO use the commands:
ADD IP INT=ETH0 IP=192.168.31.30 MASK=255.255.255.240
ADD IP INT=X25T0 IP=172.16.254.2 MASK=255.255.255.0
To allow communication over the X.25 interface, static ARP entries must be
added to specify a route to the remote router. ARP entries are associated
with MIOX circuits for X.25 DTE Interfaces. To configure the ARP entries
for router HO use the commands:
ADD IP ARP=172.16.254.2 INT=X25T0 CIRC=RemoteOffice
To configure the ARP entries for router RO use the commands:
ADD IP ARP=172.16.254.1 INT=X25T0 CIRC=HeadOffice
A routing protocol must now be enabled to allow the routers to communicate and to update the internal routing tables. For this example RIP is used.
This is to be broadcast on to the Ethernet LAN for each router, and across
the X.25 connection. To enable RIP broadcast over an X.25 link the remote
routers X.25 DTE Interface’s IP address is specified. To configure the RIP
routing protocol for router HO use the command:
ADD IP RIP INT=ETH0
ADD IP RIP INT=X25T0 IP=172.16.254.2 CIRC=RemoteOffice
To configure the RIP routing protocol for router RO use the command:
ADD IP RIP INT=ETH0
ADD IP RIP INT=X25T0 IP=172.16.254.1 CIRC=RemoteOffice
It is important to note that if RIP is not enabled across an X.25 connection it
is necessary to add static routes to allow access to any IP subnets which
reside at the remote end of the link.
4.
Tes t th
t h e c on f i gu r at i o n.
The router configuration is now complete. The configuration can now be
checked using the following commands and tested by use of the Ping command and Telneting between the routers, or into some remote host across
the link. To check that the MIOX circuits are active type:
SHOW MIOX CIRC ENCAP
This command should produce a display (on router HO) like that shown in
Figure 6-2 on page 6-17. If the MIOX circuit RemoteOffice indicates a chan-
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nel state of INACTIVE then the X.25 interface is not active. See “Troubleshooting” on page 6-17.
Fi gu r e 6 -2: Ex am pl e out
ou tpu t fro
fro m th e S HOW M I OX CI R CUI T ENCA
E NCAP
NCAPS ULATI ON co mm and fo r a b asi c X.2 5 n etwo rk .
miox interface 0
----------------------------------------------------------------------------RemoteOffice
module IP
packets sent
0
packets rcvd
0
channel
1
state ACTIVE
If the MIOX circuit to the remote router is active then test the connection by
using the PING command from router HO:
PING 172.16.254.2
If the PING command fails then there is a configuration problem. See
“Troubleshooting” on page 6-17.
Check that RIP is transmitting IP routes over the PVC connection between
HO and RO. This is done using the following command:
SHOW IP ROUTE
This command should produce a display (on router HO) like that shown in
Figure 6-3 on page 6-17.
Fi gu r e 6 -3: Ex am pl e out
ou tpu t fro
fro m th e S HOW I P R OUTE co mm an d fo r a b asi c X.25 ne two rk.
Destination
Mask
NextHop
Interface
Age
DLCI/Circ.
Type
Policy
Protocol
Metrics
Preference
------------------------------------------------------------------------------172.16.254.0
255.255.255.240
0.0.0.0
x25t0
7
direct
0
interface
1
0
172.16.8.0
255.255.255.0
0.0.0.0
eth0
7
direct
0
interface
1
0
-------------------------------------------------------------------------------
Try using Telnet to access the remote router. To Telnet from router HO to
router RO use the following command:
TELNET 172.16.254.2
Tr oub
oub les hoo
hoo ting
X.2 5 D T E i nte rfa
rfa ce i s i n ac tiv e
1.
If the PVC circuits are INACTIVE then there is a problem with the X.25 DTE
interface configuration or the network service. Check that the X.25 DTE parameters that have been specified correspond to the service provided by the
network supplier.
2.
If the parameters are correct then check the LAPB interface status using the
command:
SHOW LAPB COUNT
This command should produce a display (on router HO) like that shown in
Figure 6-4 on page 6-18.
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Fi gu r e 6 -4: Ex am pl e out
ou tpu t fro
fro m th e S HOW L APB CO UNT
UNT co mm an d fo r a b asi c X.25 ne
n et wo r k.
lapb0
Interface Counters
inDataOctets
inDataPkts
inDiscards
3198
123
0
outDataOctets
outDataPkts
outDiscards
2172
89
0
Control Packet Counters
Received
1
0
0
0
1
0
0
sabmPkts
unnumAckPkts
disconnectModePkts
frameRejectPkts
rxReadyPkts
rxNotReadyPkts
rejectPkts
Processed
1
0
0
0
0
0
0
ModeChanges
1
0
0
0
0
0
0
Transmitted
1
0
0
0
0
0
0
Packet Error Counters
badFormat
badAddresses
0
0
shortPackets
longPackets
0
0
Timeout Counters
responseTimeouts
idleTimeouts
0
0
ackTimeouts
rejectTimeouts
0
0
State Information
state
stateChanges
reasonForLastChange
DATA_TRANSFER
1
n2Timeout
If the Current mode is not DataTransfer then either a problem exists with the
LAPB configuration or the network service. Check that the LAPB configuration corresponds to the data link layer parameters supplied by the service
provider. If packets are being received but timeouts are occurring, then it
may be necessary to update the timer values. If long packets are received
then the parameter N1 may need to be increased. If the parameters are correct and the LAPB counters indicate that no packets have been received then
check the cabling installation, and failing that contact the network service
supplier.
N o ro ute s e xi s t to
t o th e r e mo te r ou te r
1.
Make sure that the X.25 DTE interface is active. Wait at least one minute to
ensure that a RIP update has been received. If no RIP routes have been received check the configuration making sure the RIP entry and IP addresses
are correct and that the MIOX circuits carrying RIP do not have TCP header
compression enabled.
2.
Try restarting the IP module (a warm restart), using:
RESET IP
If the routes are still not appearing, check with the network equipment supplier.
Te ln e t fa
fa ils
il s
1.
If a Telnet into a remote router fails, check that the IP address being used
matches the one assigned to this router. If RIP is being used check that it is
configured correctly, otherwise check that the static route to the remote
router has been added correctly.
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6 - 19
If a Telnet into a host remote LAN fails, but works into the remote router,
Check that either RIP is enabled or a static route has been added to the remote LAN.
Ba ck -to
-to -ba c k te sti n g
If the routers are being configured back-to-back for test purposes then the
LAPB interface on one router must be configured to operate as a DTE and the
LAPB interface on the other router must be configured to act as a DCE. To
change the operational mode of the LAPB interface on one of the routers, use
the following commands after the LAPB interface has been created:
SET LAPB=0 ROLE=DCE
RESET LAPB=0
Changes to the configuration of LAPB and X.25 DTE interfaces using the SET
LAPB and SET X25T commands will not take effect until the interface is reset
with the RESET LAPB or RESET X25T command (respectively), or the router is
restarted.
A n E x tende
nd e d X. 25 Set
Setup
This example shows how to set up the router to provide a wide area network
based on access to an X.25 packet switched network, and how to route IP over
the X.25 network. In this example, three routers are to be connected to the X.25
network, and will route TCP/IP over the X.25 network (Figure 6-5 on
page 6-19, Table 6-3 on page 6-20). Each router has a single Ethernet LAN segment, to which local hosts and PCs are attached.
Fi gu r e 6 -5: Ex am pl e c on figur
gu rati o n fo r a n e xte nd ed X.25 ne two rk.
Head Office LAN
Head Office
Router
SVC
Remote Office 1
Router
Remote Office 1 LAN
SV
PV
C
X.25 Packet
Switch Network
C
Remote Office 2
Router
Remote Office 2 LAN
EX18-FG1
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Tab l e 6 -3: E xam pl e c on fi gu rati o n p ara me ters fo r a n e xte nd ed X.25 ne two rk.
Pa r am et e r
H ea d Of f i ce
R em ote Offi
ffi ce 1
R e mo t e O f f ic e 2
Router name
HO
RO1
RO2
Router Ethernet interface
eth0
eth0
eth0
Router Ethernet IP address
172.16.8.33
192.168.31.30
192.168.30.5
Ethernet IP subnet address
172.16.8.0
192.168.31.16
192.168.30.0
Ethernet network mask
255.255.255.0
255.255.255.240 255.255.255.240
Router SYN interface
syn1
syn0
syn0
Router LAPB interface
lapb0
lapb0
lapb0
Router X.25 DTE interface
x25t0
x25t0
x25t0
X.25 DTE (X.121) address
3302013
3302794
3320721
X.25 DTE IP address
172.16.254.1
172.16.254.2
172.16.254.3
X.25 network subnet address 172.16.254.0
172.16.254.0
172.16.254.0
X.25 network mask
255.255.255.0
255.255.255.0
255.255.255.0
X.25 network packet size
256
256
256
X.25 network window size
4
4
4
X.25 network supplied PVCs
5
5
0
X.25 network supplied SVCs
10
10
10
MIOX call name for HO to
-
Remote1C
Remote2C
MIOX call name for RO1 to
HeadC
-
Remote2C
MIOX call name for RO2 to
HeadC
Remote1C
-
Conne
nn ec tio n
HO to RO1
H O t o RO 2
RO1 to RO2
Circuit type
PVC
SVC
SVC
RIP required
Yes
No
No
TCP compression
No
Yes
Yes
MIOX Encapsulation
IP
IP
IP
There is a constant, heavy traffic between Head Office and Remote Office 1, as
staff at Remote Office 1 use Telnet to access accounting, purchasing and inventory applications running on a host attached to the Head Office LAN. Traffic
between Head Office and Remote Office 2 is more sporadic, comprising electronic mail, occasional large file transfers and infrequent terminal traffic. Traffic
between RO1 and RO2 is primary electronic mail, with occasional file transfers.
As there is heavy traffic between HO and RO1 a PVC has been chosen to connect these two sites. SVCs will be used to connect HO and RO2, and also RO1
and RO2. RIP needs to be broadcast between HO and RO1, but is not required
between HO and RO2. As RIP is required between HO and RO1 TCP header
compression may not be used as these two options are mutually exclusive.
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To con fi gu r e a n X.2 5 ne
ne two rk wi th bo
bo th P VC s a nd S VC s to ca rry
rry I P a nd I P X
tra
tra ffi
ffi c:
1.
Con fi gu r e th e LAP B i n te rfa
rfac e.
An X.25 DTE interface requires a data link layer. For this example, LAPB
over a synchronous port will be used. The synchronous port must not have
any other module currently attached to it.
To create a LAPB interface for router HO over synchronous port 1 use the
command:
CREATE LAPB=0 OVER=SYN1
To create LAPB interfaces for routers RO1 and RO2 over synchronous ports
0 use the following command on router RO1 and RO2:
CREATE LAPB=0 OVER=SYN0
2.
Con fi gu r e th e X.25 DTE in terfa
rfa ce.
Once the LAPB interface has been created the X.25 DTE interface can be
initialised. As the network subscription supplies non default values for
packet size and window size a call parameter structure must be created to
reflect the network values. This is created using the following command
for each router:
ADD X25T CPAR=1 MAXDATA=256 WINDOW=4
Now the X.25 DTE interfaces can be created. It is vital that the X.25 DTE
interface parameters reflect the service provided by the network. This
involves matching the channel numbers of the interface to the network. For
router HO the network service provides 5 PVCs and 10 two-way SVCs. The
X.25 DTE parameter NPVC is set to 5 to provide PVC support on channels
1 to 5. The X.25 DTE parameters LTC and HTC are set to 6 and 15 respectively to provide two-way SVCs on channel numbers 6 through 15. As
router RO2 has no PVCs supplied two-way channels are set in the range 1
to 11. The DEFCPAR parameter is used to specify the previously created
call parameter structure so that the X.25 DTE packet and window sizes are
correct for the network.
To create an X.25 DTE interface for router HO over LAPB interface 0 use
the command:
CREATE X25T=0 OVER=LAPB0 NPVC=5 LTC=6 HTC=15 DEFCPAR=1
To create an X.25 DTE interface for router RO1 over LAPB interface 0 use
the command:
CREATE X25T=0 OVER=LAPB0 NPVC=5 LTC=6 HTC=15 DEFCPAR=1
To create an X.25 DTE interface for router RO2 over LAPB interface 0 use
the command:
CREATE X25T=0 OVER=LAPB0 LTC=1 HTC=10 DEFCPAR=1
Once the X.25 DTE interfaces are created it is necessary to create a PVC circuit for routers HO and RO1. This is done using the following command
on both routers:
ADD X25T=0 PVC=1 CPAR=1
3.
Con fi gu r e th e M IOX contr
on tro
tro l l ay er.
Creating the X.25 DTE interfaces will also initialise the corresponding
MIOX interfaces. MIOX circuits are added to provide a communication
path to a remote router. MIOX circuits specify whether the connection is
made via a PVC or SVC and if TCP header compression is used for TCP/IP
Software Release 1.7.2
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R e fer en ce M anua
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traffic. Note that TCP compression is not enabled for the PVC circuit. This
is because RIP information will be directed over the circuit, and these two
functions are mutually exclusive.
To add the appropriate circuits to remote routers RO1 and RO2 on router
HO1 use the commands:
ADD MIOX=0 CIRCUIT=Remote1C PVC=1 ENCAP=IP
ADD MIOX=0 CIRCUIT=Remote2C DTEADDRESS=3320721 ENCAP=IP
TCPCOMP=ON
To add the appropriate circuits to routers HO and RO2 for router RO1 use
the commands:
ADD MIOX=0 CIRCUIT=HeadC PVC=1 ENCAP=IP
ADD MIOX=0 CIRCUIT=Remote2C DTEADDRESS=3320721 ENCAP=IP
TCPCOMP=ON
To add the appropriate circuits to routers HO and RO1 for router RO2 use
the commands:
ADD MIOX=0 CIRCUIT=HeadC DTEADDRESS=3302013 ENCAP=IP
TCPCOMP=ON
ADD MIOX=0 CIRCUIT=Remote1C DTEADDRESS=3302794 ENCAP=IP
TCPCOMP=ON
4.
C on f i gu r e t h e I P r ou t i ng mo du l e.
Use the following commands on all routers to enable the IP module and
purge the old configuration.
PURGE IP
ENABLE IP
The IP module must now be configured and linked to the interfaces. Both
the X.25 and the Ethernet interface must be linked. To configure the IP
module interfaces for router HO use the commands:
ADD IP INT=ETH0 IP=172.16.8.33 MASK=255.255.255.0
ADD IP INT=X25T0 IP=172.16.254.1 MASK=255.255.255.0
To configure the IP module interfaces for router RO1 use the commands:
ADD IP INT=ETH0 IP=192.168.31.30 MASK=255.255.255.240
ADD IP INT=X25T0 IP=172.16.254.2 MASK=255.255.255.0
To configure the IP module interfaces for router RO2 use the commands:
ADD IP INT=ETH0 IP=192.168.30.5 MASK=255.255.255.240
ADD IP INT=X25T0 IP=172.16.254.3 MASK=255.255.255.0
The IP modules are now enabled and linked to the physical interfaces. To
allow communication over the X.25 interface, static ARP entries must be
added to specify routes to the remote routers. ARP entries are associated
with MIOX circuits for X.25 DTE Interfaces. To configure the ARP entries
for router HO use the commands:
ADD IP ARP=172.16.254.2 INT=X25T0 CIRC=Remote1C
ADD IP ARP=172.16.254.3 INT=X25T0 CIRC=Remote2C
To configure the ARP entries for router RO1 use the commands:
ADD IP ARP=172.16.254.1 INT=X25T0 CIRC=HeadC
ADD IP ARP=172.16.254.3 INT=X25T0 CIRC=Remote2C
To configure the ARP entries for router RO2 use the commands:
ADD IP ARP=172.16.254.1 INT=X25T0 CIRC=HeadC
ADD IP ARP=172.16.254.2 INT=X25T0 CIRC=Remote1C
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6 - 23
A routing protocol must now be enabled to allow the routers to communicate and to update the internal routing tables. For this example RIP is used.
This is to be broadcast on to the Ethernet LAN for each router. For the X.25
connections RIP will be directed explicitly to each end of the PVC connection between router HO and router RO1. RIP will not be enabled over
either of the SVC connections as doing so would keep the SVCs constantly
open, transmitting new RIP information every 30 seconds. To configure the
RIP routing protocol for router HO use the commands:
ADD IP RIP INT=X25T0 IP=172.16.254.2
ADD IP RIP INT=ETH0
To configure the RIP routing protocol for router RO1 use the commands:
ADD IP RIP INT=X25T0 IP=172.16.254.1
ADD IP RIP INT=ETH0
To configure the RIP routing protocol for router RO2 use the command:
ADD IP RIP INT=ETH0
Now that RIP has been configured for the routers it is necessary to add
static routes so that it is possible to access remote subnets over the SVC
connections. A static route must be added for each remote subnet that will
be accessed over an X.25 SVC connection from that router. The next hop is
the remote router’s X.25 IP address. To configure the static routes for router
HO to access LAN RO2 use the command:
ADD IP ROUTE=192.168.30.0 INT=X25T0 NEXT=172.16.254.3
MET=2
To configure the static routes for router RO1 to access LAN RO2 use the
command:
ADD IP ROUTE=192.168.30.0 INT=X25T0 NEXT=172.16.254.3
MET=2
To configure the static routes for router RO2 to access LAN RO1 and LAN
HO use the commands:
ADD IP ROUTE=172.16.8.0 INT=X25T0 NEXT=172.16.254.1 MET=2
ADD IP ROUTE=192.168.31.16 INT=X25T0 NEXT=172.16.254.2
MET=2
5.
Tes t th
t h e c on f i gu r at i o n.
The router configuration is now complete. The configuration can now be
checked using the following commands and tested by Telneting into a
remote router, or into some remote host across the link.
Note that the IP ping command will not function over the links with TCP
header compression enabled. Only TCP/IP traffic will be processed successfully. To check that the MIOX circuits are active type:
SHOW MIOX CIRC ENCAP
This command should produce a display (on Router HO) like that shown
in Figure 6-6 on page 6-24.
Software Release 1.7.2
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R e fer en ce M anua
nu al
Fi gu r e 6 -6: Ex am pl e out
ou tpu t fro
fro m th e S HOW M I OX CI R CUI T ENCA
E NCAP
NCAPS ULATI ON co mm and fo r an ex ten de d X.2 5
ne t wo r k.
miox interface 0
----------------------------------------------------------------------------Remote1C
module IP
packets sent
0
packets rcvd
0
channel
1
state ACTIVE
Remote2C
module IP
channel
state
CLOSED
0
packets sent
calls
successful
0
0
failed
0
packets rcvd
0
accepted
0
If the PVC circuit Remote1C for router HO indicates a channel state of
INACTIVE then the X.25 interface is not active. See “Troubleshooting” on
page 6-17 in A Basic X.25 Setup.
Check that RIP is transmitting IP routes over the PVC connection between
HO and RO1. This is done using the following command on either router:
SHOW IP ROUTE
This command should produce a display (on router HO) like that shown in
Figure 6-7 on page 6-24.
Fi gu r e 6 -7: Ex am pl e out
ou tpu t fro
fro m th e S HOW I P R OUTE co mm an d fo r an exte nd e d X.25 ne
n et wo r k.
Destination
Mask
NextHop
Interface
Age
DLCI/Circ.
Type
Policy
Protocol
Metrics
Preference
------------------------------------------------------------------------------192.168.31.16
255.255.255.240
172.16.254.1
x25t0
2
remote
0
static
2
60
172.16.254.0
255.255.255.240
0.0.0.0
x25t0
7
direct
0
interface
1
0
172.16.8.0
255.255.255.0
0.0.0.0
eth0
7
direct
0
interface
1
0
-------------------------------------------------------------------------------
Try using Telnet to access the remote routers. To Telnet from router HO to
router RO1 and RO2 use the following commands respectively:
TELNET 192.168.31.30
TELNET 192.168.30.5
To Telnet from router RO1 to router HO and RO2 use the following commands respectively:
TELNET 172.16.8.33
TELNET 192.168.30.5
To Telnet from router RO2 to router HO and RO1 use the following commands respectively:
TELNET 172.16.8.33
TELNET 192.168.31.30
For a troubleshooting guide, see “Troubleshooting” on page 6-17 in A Basic X.25
Setup.
Software Release 1.7.2
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X.25
6 - 25
X. 25 ov
o v e r IS DN D C h anne
nn el
X.25 over the D Channel allows ISDN customers to make and receive packet
switched calls using the ISDN D Channel as an access point. This provides
approximately a 4800 bps switched connection that the router can use to transport IP traffic over X.25.
This example illustrates how to configure an X.25 DTE interface over the ISDN
D channel, and then configure IP to use the X.25 interface.
To con fi gu r e X.25 ov
o ve r th
th e I S DN D ch anne
nn el :
1.
Cre ate an X.25 DT E i n te rfa
rfac e o ver th
th e I SDN D ch anne
nn el .
Create X.25 DTE interface 0 over the D channel of ISDN interface 0, which
supports X.25 packet network access:
CREATE X25T=0 OVER=LAPD0
2.
Con fi gu r e th e X.25 DTE in terfa
rfa ce.
Assign logical channel numbers 1 and 2 to two-way channels to correspond with the channel ranges supplied by the network:
SET X25T=0 LTC=1 HTC=2 DTE=123456
Set the packet window and packet length parameters if the network values
for these parameters are different from the default router configuration.
Default values for the router are a window size of 2 and a packet length of
128 octets. If the network supplied values are different a call parameter
must be created to specify the required values. For example, to create a call
parameter with an index number of 1, a packet length of 256 octets and a
window size of 4, use the command:
ADD X25T CPAR=1 MAXDATA=256 WINDOW=4
Once the call parameter is created the interface must be configured to use
the call parameters for the default values and reset for the changes to take
effect. To configure DTE interface 0 to use call parameter set 1, use the command:
SET X25T=0 DEFCPAR=1
RESET X25T=0
3.
C on f i gu r e t h e I P r ou t i ng mo du l e.
Create an IP interface for X.25 DTE interface 0, with an IP address of
192.168.35.101:
ADD IP INT=X25T0 IP=192.168.35.101 MASK=255.255.255.240
To enable IP traffic to be transmitted over the X.25 DTE interface, ARP
entries must be created for other routers that are accessible via the X.25
DTE interface, using the command:
ADD MIOX=0 CIRC=TEST DTE=54321
ADD IP ARP=192.168.35.102 INT=X25T0 CIRC=TEST
The IP parameter specifies the IP address of the remote router’s X.25 DTE
interface and the DTE parameter specifies the ISDN DTE address of the
router’s ISDN connection. ARP entries must be created for every remote
router that the router will make switched calls to via X.25 over the D Channel. The remote routers must also have ARP entries specifying this router’s
X.25 DTE IP address and DTE number.
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ACT
ACTI VAT E M I OX CI R CUI T
R e fer en ce M anua
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Comma
mman d Re
Refer en ce
This section describes the commands available on the router to set up and configure the router as an X.25 DCE or DTE.
The router supports X.25 as both a DCE and a DTE. An interface on the router
can be configured as either a DCE or a DTE. Commands relating to DCE mode
operations have the form:
verb X25C parameter...
whereas commands relating to DTE mode operations have the forms:
verb X25T parameter...
See “Conventions” on page lxvii of Preface in the front of this manual for details
of the conventions used to describe command syntax. See Appendix A, Messages
for a complete list of messages and their meanings.
ACT
ACTIVATE M IOX
IOX CIRC UIT
Syn tax
ACTIVATE MIOX=x25t-interface CIRCUIT=circuit-name
[USER={APPLE|IP|IPX}]
where:
D e sc r ip t i on
■
x25t-interface is the index number of the X.25 DTE logical interface, in the
range 0 to 7.
■
circuit-name is an alphanumeric string, 1 to 15 characters in length.
This command activates a MIOX circuit, forcing an X.25 call to be set up to the
remote router without the need to generate protocol traffic. This command can
be used to test that the MIOX circuit has been correctly configured at both ends
of the X.25 DTE link. If the circuit is already open or is attempting to open the
command is ignored.
This command is only relevant for circuits configured over SVCs.
The MIOX parameter specifies the X.25 DTE interface over which the MIOX
circuit has been defined. The X.25 DTE interface must already exist.
The CIRCUIT parameter specifies the name of the MIOX circuit to activate. The
circuit name must already exist for the interface and must specify an SVC circuit. The circuit must be enabled and have a user module attached to it.
The USER parameter specifies the user module and must be used if the circuit
encapsulation supports multiple circuits. MIOX will activate an X.25 call for
the specified user module. The user module must be attached to the circuit. The
USER parameter is only required for circuits with multiple encapsulations.
E x a m p le s
To activate the MIOX circuit “HeadOffice” on X.25 DTE interface 1, use the
command:
ACTIVATE MIOX=1 CIRCUIT=HeadOffice
Software Release 1.7.2
J613-M0274-00 Rev.B
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X.25
See A l so
ADD MI OX CIR CUI
CUIT
6 - 27
ADD MIOX CIRCUIT
DEACTIVATE MIOX CIRCUIT
DELETE MIOX CIRCUIT
DISABLE MIOX CIRCUIT
ENABLE MIOX CIRCUIT
SET MIOX CIRCUIT
SHOW MIOX CIRCUIT
ADD MIO X CIR CUI
CUIT
Syn tax
ADD MIOX=x25t-interface CIRCUIT=circuit-name
{DTEADDRESS=dteaddress|PVC=1..4095} [CPAR=0..8]
[ENCAP={IP|IPX|NULL|MULTIPLE}] [COMMENT=comment]
[COMP={ON|OFF}] [TCPCOMP={ON|OFF}]
where:
D e sc r ip t i on
■
x25t-interface is the index number of the X.25 DTE logical interface, in the
range 0 to 7.
■
circuit-name is an alphanumeric string, 1 to 15 characters in length.
■
dteaddress is a valid DTE address, 1 to 15 characters in length.
■
comment is an alphanumeric string, 1 to 40 characters in length.
This command adds a MIOX circuit over the X.25 DTE interface. Adding a
MIOX circuit to an interface allows the router to transport protocols over the
X.25 packet network to a remote router. A MIOX circuit, with appropriate local
configuration settings, must be added to the routers at both ends of the X.25
DTE link for communication to take place.
The MIOX parameter specifies the X.25 DTE interface over which the MIOX
circuit has been defined. The X.25 DTE interface must already exist.
The CIRCUIT parameter specifies the circuit name of the MIOX circuit to add,
and must identify a unique circuit. The MIOX circuit name must not exist for
the interface.
The DTEADDRESS parameter specifies the DTE address of the remote router, if
it is to be accessed via an SVC (switched virtual circuit). The DTE address must
not be in use by any other MIOX circuits. Any calls made to the remote router
will use the specified DTE address to make the call.
The PVC parameter creates a PVC channel to the remote router to be used by
this MIOX circuit. The PVC channel must be valid for the X.25 DTE interface
and must not be in use by another circuit or module.
Either DTEADDRESS or PVC must be specified, but not both. A circuit can be
supported over a PVC or an SVC, but not both simultaneously.
The CPAR parameter specifies the index for the call parameters to use for the
MIOX circuit. If a value is not specified, the default is the default call parameters assigned for the X.25 DTE interface in the last CREATE X25T or SET X25T
command executed. If a call parameter index is specified and is not 0, the call
parameter index must exist. The default is 0.
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ADD MI OX CIR CUI
CUIT
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The ENCAP parameter specifies the encapsulation to use. If MULTIPLE is
specified, one X.25 channel is used for each higher layer protocol (i.e. IP, IPX,
Frame Relay). This may result in several circuits being opened to a remote
router, each carrying a different protocol. If NULL is specified, the Null encapsulation is used to multiplex more than one higher layer protocol over a single
X.25 circuit to the remote router associated with the circuit. If IP is specified, the
circuit will support only the IP encapsulation. Calls received for other protocols
will be rejected. If IPX is specified, the circuit will support only the IPX encapsulation. Calls received for other protocols will be rejected. If the MIOX circuit
is connected over a PVC then only IP, IPX or NULL may be specified, since the
MULTIPLE option requires several X.25 channels and cannot therefore run
over a PVC. The default is MULTIPLE for SVCs and NULL for PVCs.
The same encapsulation must be specified on the routers at each end of the circuit. If different encapsulations are used the routers will not be able to communicate with one another over the MIOX circuit.
The COMMENT parameter specifies a string that provides a textual description of the MIOX circuit and is displayed in the output of the SHOW MIOX
CIRCUIT command.
The COMP parameter enables or disables the use of packet compression for the
MIOX circuit. When packet compression is used the remote router must be a
compatible router that also supports the use of compression. The default is OFF.
The TCPCOMP parameter enables or disables the use of TCP header compression. This is only relevant if the circuit encapsulation supports IP. Van Jacobson’s compression is used. Compression provides the most advantage on
slower link speeds (up to 48 kbps). At speeds of 64 kbps and higher, compression will actually reduce efficiency and so should be disabled. For successful
TCP header compression the remote router must also have TCP compression
enabled for its corresponding circuit. The default is OFF.
E x a m p le s
To create a MIOX circuit called “RemoteOffice” on X.25 DTE interface 0 using
PVC 1 and the NULL encapsulation, use the command:
ADD MIOX=1 CIRCUIT=RemoteOffice PVC=1 ENCAP=NULL
See A l so
ACTIVATE MIOX CIRCUIT
DEACTIVATE MIOX CIRCUIT
DELETE MIOX CIRCUIT
DISABLE MIOX CIRCUIT
ENABLE MIOX CIRCUIT
SET MIOX CIRCUIT
SHOW MIOX CIRCUIT
Software Release 1.7.2
J613-M0274-00 Rev.B
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X.25
ADD X2 5C R OUTE
6 - 29
ADD X2 5C DTE
DTEADD
TEADDR
ADDR ESS
Syn tax
ADD X25C=x25-interface DTEADDRESS=dteaddress
where:
■
x25-interface is the number of the X.25 DCE logical interface, in the range 0
to 7.
■
dteaddress is a valid DTE address, 1 to 15 characters in length.
D e sc r ip t i on
This command adds a DTE address for a given X.25 DCE interface. The X.25
DCE interface must be specified and must already exist. A DTE address is any
combination of decimal digits and the wildcard character ‘x’. There is currently
a limit of 20 DTE addresses that can be configured for any one X.25 DCE interface. The X.25 interface will respond to calls received through the network for
any DTE addresses configured for that interface. The addition of a DTE address
takes effect immediately.
E x a m p le s
To configure X.25 DCE interface 2 to respond to calls from the network to DTE
address 3302013, use the command:
ADD X25C=2 DTEADDRESS=3302013
See A l so
DELETE X25C DTEADDRESS
SHOW X25C DTEADDRESS
ADD X2 5C RO UTE
Syn tax
ADD X25C ROUTE=dteaddress IPADDRESS=ipadd
[INDEX=route-index]
where:
D e sc r ip t i on
■
dteaddress is a valid DTE address, 1 to 15 characters in length.
■
ipadd is an IP address in dotted decimal notation.
■
route-index is the position in the route table where the new route is to be
inserted.
This command adds a DTE route entry to the X.25 DCE route table. This table
provides mappings between X.25 DTE addresses and the IP address of the
router in the network that provides a connection to that address.
The DTE address and IP address must be specified. DTE address syntax is
described in the section DTE addresses. The IP address must be specified in
dotted decimal form.
If the index number is not specified, the new entry is added to the end of the
X.25 route mapping table. If the index number is specified, the new entry is
inserted into the table at that position and entries that had that number or
higher are pushed down in the table. The index number is significant because
the X.25 route table is searched sequentially in order of index number and the
first match is taken as the mapping used. If the index number is higher that the
number of entries in the table, the new entry is added to the end of the table, as
Software Release 1.7.2
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ADD X25T
25 T CPAR
R e fer en ce M anua
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if the index number was not specified at all. The index numbers for X.25
address mapping can be displayed with the SHOW X25C ROUTE command.
The X.25 interface will respond to incoming calls received from the DTE for the
DTE addresses in the route table by routing them to their corresponding IP
address. The addition of a route mapping takes effect immediately.
E x a m p le s
To configure the router to route calls received for DTE address 3302013 to the
DTE with IP address 172.16.8.1, use the command:
ADD X25C ROUTE=3302013 IPADDRESS=172.16.8.1
See A l so
DELETE X25C ROUTE
SHOW X25C ROUTE
ADD X2 5T CPAR
Syn tax
ADD X25T CPAR=call-index [COPY=call-index] [MAXDATA={128|
256|512|1024}] [NUI=nui] [RMAXDATA={128|256|512|1024}]
[RWINDOW=1..127] [TMAXDATA={128|256|512|1024}]
[TWINDOW=1..127] [USERDATA=hex-string] [WINDOW=1..127]
where:
D e sc r ip t i on
■
call-index is the index of the new call parameters or the call parameters to
copy.
■
nui is a character string, 1 to 16 characters in length.
■
hex-string is a string of 2 to 20 hexadecimal digits.
This command creates a set of call parameters for X.25. The call parameter
must not already exist. The COPY parameter specifies a set of existing call
parameters to copy as the default values for this call parameter set. The COPY
parameter, if present, must immediately follow the CPAR parameter. Any
parameters after COPY modify the copy of the call parameter set.
The NUI parameter specifies the Network User Identification (NUI) to be used
by this call.
The TMAXDATA and RMAXDATA parameters specify the maximum packet
sizes for transmission and reception, respectively. The MAXDATA parameter is
a shorthand form to specify the same maximum packet size for both transmission and reception. In all cases, the default is 0, which means use the interface
default for a call (128).
The TWINDOW and RWINDOW parameters specify the window for transmission and reception, respectively. The WINDOW parameter is a shorthand form
to specify the same window for both transmission and reception. In all cases,
the default is 0, which means use the interface default for a call (2).
The USERDATA parameter specifies the contents of the user data field for the
call request for this call. This is used to specify the protocol that this circuit will
carry.
Software Release 1.7.2
J613-M0274-00 Rev.B
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X.25
E x a m p le s
CRE ATE LAPB
6 - 31
To create call parameter set 1 for X.25 DTE interfaces that uses a maximum
packet size of 256 bytes and a window size of 4 for both transmission and
reception, use the command:
ADD X25T CPAR=1 MAXDATA=256 WINDOW=4
See A l so
CREATE X25T
DELETE X25T CPAR
SET X25T CPAR
SHOW X25T CPAR
CREATE LAPB
Syn tax
CREATE LAPB=lapb-interface OVER={SYNn|ISDN-callname}
[DOD={ON|OFF|YES|NO}] [MODULUS={8|128}] [ROLE={DCE|
DTE}] [MAXDATA=1080..8232] [WINDOW=1..127] [T1=1..120]
[T3=3..120] [N2=1..40]
where:
D e sc r ip t i on
■
lapb-interface is the number of the LAPB logical interface, in the range 0 to
7.
■
n is the number of the synchronous port over which the LAPB interface
will operate.
This command creates a LAPB interface. The LAPB interface must not already
exist.
The OVER parameter specifies the physical (synchronous port or ISDN call) to
be used by the LAPB interface. The synchronous port must not have any other
routing module configured to it.
The DOD parameter specifies whether or not the LAPB interface is a dial-ondemand interface. The default is OFF.
The MODULUS parameter specifies the flow control modulus number. This is
modulo 8 for operation in Basic mode, and modulo 128 for operation in
Extended mode. When a LAPB interface is created the default modulus setting
is modulo 8.
The ROLE parameter is used to determine the role of the LAPB interface. This
parameter affects frame addressing and should be set according to the purpose
of the interface. If the interface is connecting to a DCE network then the role
should be set to DTE. If the interface is connecting to a DTE device then the role
should be set to DCE. There is an exception to this when directly connecting
two routers as DTE devices. In this situation one router will be set to DCE
while the other will be set to DTE. When a LAPB interface is created the default
role setting is DTE.
The parameter MAXDATA is used to set the maximum number of bits the
router will use or expect in a LAPB frame. The default value is 8232, to support
1024-byte packets.
The WINDOW parameter is used to specify the maximum number of information frames that the LAPB interface may send before requiring an acknowl-
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edgement for the outstanding frames. The maximum ranges for this value are
dependant on the modulus of the interface. When operating in modulo 8 the
window size may be set from 1 to 7, when operating in modulo 128 the window size may be set from 1 to 127. The default window size is 7.
The parameters T1 and T3 specify the time in seconds for the two timers associated with the LAPB interface. Timer T1 is used to prevent frames from being
lost by the LAPB interface. The timer period should be longer than the maximum time delay between transmission of a frame and reception of its acknowledgement. When this timer expires retransmission of the unacknowledged
frame will occur. The default value for T1 is set to 3 seconds. Timer T3 is used
as a watchdog to check that the line is still active after a period of T3 seconds
with no frames being exchanged. The default value for T3 is set to 40 seconds.
The N2 parameter specifies the number of times a frame is to be retransmitted
at the expiration of the T1 timer. When the retransmission counter is exhausted
the link is reset. The default value for N2 is 10.
E x a m p le s
To create LAPB interface 0 over synchronous interface 0 with default settings
for all parameters, use the command:
CREATE LAPB=0 OVER=SYN0
See A l so
DESTROY LAPB
RESET LAPB
SET LAPB
SHOW LAPB
CREATE X25C
25C
Syn tax
CREATE X25C=x25-interface OVER=LAPBn [INCOMING=0..128]
[OUTGOING=0..128] [TWOWAY=0..128] [MAXACTIVE=0..128]
where:
D e sc r ip t i on
■
x25-interface is the number of the X.25 DCE logical interface, in the range 0
to 7.
■
n is the number of the LAPB interface over which the X.25 DCE interface
will run.
This command creates an X.25 DCE interface. The X.25 DCE interface must not
already exist.
The OVER parameter specifies the layer 2 entity (LAPB) to be used by the X.25
DCE interface. The layer 2 entity must already exist and must not be in use by
any other routing module.
The INCOMING parameter specifies the maximum number of active channels
permitted for incoming calls on the X.25 DCE interface. The OUTGOING
parameter specifies the maximum number of active channels permitted for
outgoing calls on the X.25 DCE interface. The TWOWAY parameter specifies
the maximum number of active channels permitted for two-way calls on the
X.25 DCE interface. The MAXACTIVE parameter specifies the total maximum
number of active channels permitted on the X.25 DCE interface.
Software Release 1.7.2
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CR E ATE X2 5T
6 - 33
Besides the constraints on each of the parameters, there is an overall constraint
that the total of all the types of channels must not exceed the total number of
channels specified. This constraint is checked after all the individual parameters have been checked.
E x a m p le s
To create X.25 DCE interface 0 over LAPB interface 0 with a maximum of 64
incoming calls, 64 outgoing calls, 32 two-way calls and 48 active channels, use
the command:
CREATE X25C=0 OVER=LAPB0 INCOMING=64 OUTGOING=64 TWOWAY=32
MAXACTIVE=48
See A l so
SET X25C
DESTROY X25C
SHOW X25C
CREATE X25T
25T
Syn tax
CREATE X25T=x25-interface OVER={LAPBn|LAPDn}
[MAXACTIVE=0..4095] [MODULUS={8|128}]
[T20=1..360][T21=1..360] [T22=1..360] [T23=1..360]
[T24={1..360|OFF}] [T27={1..360|OFF}]
[MINRECALL=1..360] [R20=0..65535] [R22=0..65535]
[R23=0..65535] [R27=0..65535] [NPVC=0..4095]
[DEFCPAR=0..8] [DTEADDRESS=dteaddress] [LIC=0..4095]
[HIC=0..4095] [LTC=0..4095] [HTC=0..4095] [LOC=0..4095]
[HOC=0..4095] [ROLE={DYNAMIC|DCE|DTE}]
where:
D e sc r ip t i on
■
x25-interface is the number of the X.25 DTE logical interface, in the range 0
to 7.
■
n is the number of the LAPB or LAPD interface over which the X.25 interface will run.
■
dteaddress is a valid DTE address, 1 to 15 characters in length.
This command creates an instance of the X.25 DTE module, that is, an X.25
interface. The X.25 interface must not already exist.
The OVER parameter specifies the layer 2 entity (LAPB or LAPD) to be used by
the X.25 interface. The layer 2 entity must already exist and must not be in use
by another X.25 DTE interface. If a LAPB interface is used, it must not be in use
by any other routing module.
The MAXACTIVE parameter sets the maximum number of circuits this X.25
DTE can support, including PVCs. It must not be less than the actual number of
PVCs. The default value is 4095. The X.25 DTE interface must be reset with the
RESET X25T command before this command takes effect, since there may be
more than the maximum number of circuits active already.
The MODULUS parameter sets the modulus of packet sequence numbers for
this interface. The default value is 8. The X.25 DTE interface must be reset with
the RESET X25T command before this command takes effect, since this command affects all circuits on the interface.
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The T20 parameter sets the value in seconds of the restart timer. The default
value is 180. The T21 parameter sets the value in seconds of the call timer. The
default value is 200. The T22 parameter sets the value in seconds of the reset
timer. The default value is 180. The T23 parameter sets the value in seconds of
the clear timer. The default value is 180. The T24 parameter sets the value in
seconds of the optional window timer. The default value is 60. The timer can be
turned off by specifying the value OFF. The T27 parameter sets the value in seconds of the reject response timer. The default value is 60. The timer can be
turned off by specifying the value OFF. The MINRECALL parameter sets the
value in seconds of the time to wait before retrying a particular call. The default
value is 60.
The R20 parameter sets the value of the restart retransmission counter. The
default value is 1. The R22 parameter sets the value of the reset request retransmission counter. The default value is 1. The R23 parameter sets the value of the
clear request retransmission counter. The default value is 1. The R27 parameter
sets the value of the reject retransmission counter. The default value is 0.
The NPVC parameter sets the number of channels reserved as PVCs. The
default is 0.
The DEFCPAR parameter specifies the index of the default call definition to use
for this interface. The default value is 0, which means no default call. The call
definition (if not 0) must already exist.
The DTEADDRESS parameter specifies the DTE address for the interface.
The LIC parameter specifies the lowest incoming channel number. The default
is 0. The HIC parameter specifies the highest incoming channel number. A
value of 0 means no incoming channels. The default is 0. The LTC parameter
specifies the lowest two-way channel number. The default is 1. The HTC
parameter specifies the highest two-way channel number. A value of 0 means
no two-way channels. The default is 4095. The LOC parameter specifies the
lowest outgoing channel number. The default is 0. The HOC parameter specifies the highest outgoing channel number. A value of 0 means no outgoing
channels. The default is 0. The values of LIC, HIC, LTC, HTC, LOC, LTC,
NPVC and MAXACTIVE must be consistent with one another.
The ROLE parameter specifies the role this DTE plays in a DTE-DTE environment. The default is DYNAMIC, which means during the restart procedure the
two DTEs will negotiate which DTE will acts as DCE.
E x a m p le s
To create X.25 DTE interface 0 over LAPB interface 0 with PVCs on channels 1
to 5, two-way SVCs on channels 6 to 15 and default call parameter set 1, use the
command:
CREATE X25T=0 OVER=LAPB0 NPVC=5 LTC=6 HTC=15 DEFCPAR=1
See A l so
ADD X25T CPAR
DESTROY X25T
SET X25T
SET X25T CPAR
RESET X25T
SHOW X25T
SHOW X25T CPAR
Software Release 1.7.2
J613-M0274-00 Rev.B
UNS
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X.25
DELE TE MI OX CIR CUI
CUIT
6 - 35
DEACT
ACTIVATE M IOX
IOX CIR CUI
CUIT
Syn tax
DEACTIVATE MIOX=x25t-interface CIRCUIT=circuit-name
[USER={APPLE|IP|IPX}]
where:
D e sc r ip t i on
■
x25t-interface is the index number of the X.25 DTE logical interface, in the
range 0 to 7.
■
circuit-name is an alphanumeric string, 1 to 15 characters in length.
This command deactivates a MIOX circuit. When a circuit has an active X.25
call this command can be used to closed the call to the remote router. If the circuit is already closed the command is ignored.
The MIOX parameter specifies the X.25 DTE interface over which the MIOX
circuit has been defined. The X.25 DTE interface must already exist.
The CIRCUIT parameter specifies the name of the MIOX circuit to deactivate.
The circuit name must already exist for the interface and must specify an SVC
circuit. The circuit must be enabled and have a user module attached to it.
The USER parameter specifies the user module and must be used if the circuit
encapsulation supports multiple circuits. MIOX will deactivate the X.25 call for
the specified user module. The user module must be attached to the circuit. The
USER parameter is only required for circuits with multiple encapsulations.
E x a m p le s
To deactivate the MIOX circuit “HeadOffice” on X.25 DTE interface 1, use the
command:
DEACTIVATE MIOX=1 CIRCUIT=HeadOffice
See A l so
ACTIVATE MIOX CIRCUIT
ADD MIOX CIRCUIT
DELETE MIOX CIRCUIT
DISABLE MIOX CIRCUIT
ENABLE MIOX CIRCUIT
SET MIOX CIRCUIT
SHOW MIOX CIRCUIT
DELET E M IOX
IOX CIRCUI
CUI T
Syn tax
DELETE MIOX=x25t-interface CIRCUIT=circuit-name
where:
D e sc r ip t i on
Software Release 1.7.2
J613-M0274-00 Rev.B
■
x25t-interface is the index number of the X.25 DTE logical interface, in the
range 0 to 7.
■
circuit-name is an alphanumeric string, 1 to 15 characters in length.
This command deletes a MIOX circuit. Deleting a MIOX circuit from an interface will destroy the connection to the remote router. When a MIOX circuit is
deleted the remote router’s corresponding MIOX circuit should also be
deleted. A MIOX circuit can not be deleted if there are any protocols currently
6-36
DEL ETE
ETE X25 C DT
DTE ADDR
ADDRE SS
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using the circuit. Any configured protocols must be detached before deleting
the circuit.
The MIOX parameter specifies the X.25 DTE interface over which the MIOX
circuit has been defined. The X.25 DTE interface must already exist.
The CIRCUIT parameter specifies the name of the MIOX circuit to delete. The
circuit name must already exist for the interface. The circuit must not have any
user modules attached to it.
E x a m p le s
To delete the MIOX circuit “HeadOffice” on X.25 DTE interface 1, use the command:
DELETE MIOX=1 CIRCUIT=HeadOffice
See A l so
ACTIVATE MIOX CIRCUIT
ADD MIOX CIRCUIT
DEACTIVATE MIOX CIRCUIT
DISABLE MIOX CIRCUIT
ENABLE MIOX CIRCUIT
SET MIOX CIRCUIT
SHOW MIOX CIRCUIT
DELET E X25 C D TEADD
TEADDR
ADDRESS
Syn tax
DELETE X25C=x25-interface DTEADDRESS=dteaddress
where:
D e sc r ip t i on
■
x25-interface is the number of the X.25 DCE logical interface, in the range 0
to 7.
■
dteaddress is a valid DTE address, 1 to 15 characters in length, or the index
into the DTE address table for the specified X.25 DCE Interface.
This command removes a DTE address from a given X.25 DCE interface. The
X.25 DCE interface must be specified and must already exist.
The parameter DTEADDRESS is used to search the configured DTE addresses
for the specified interface. If a matching DTE address is found then that DTE
address is removed from the table. If no matching DTE address is found and
DTEADDRESS is a valid index number then the DTE address with the corresponding index number is removed from the table. Index numbers can be
obtained by looking at the display of the SHOW X25C DTEADDRESS command.
This command takes effect immediately. The given X.25 DCE interface will no
longer respond to calls to the DTE address.
E x a m p le s
To delete DTE address 3302013 from X.25 DCE interface 0 so that the interface
no longer responds to calls to that DTE address, use the command:
DELETE X25C=0 DTEADDRESS=3302013
See A l so
ADD X25C DTEADDRESS
SHOW X25C DTEADDRESS
Software Release 1.7.2
J613-M0274-00 Rev.B
UNS
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DEL ET E X25 T CPAR
6 - 37
DELET E X25 C R OUTE
Syn tax
DELETE X25C ROUTE=dteaddress
where:
■
D e sc r ip t i on
dteaddress is a valid DTE address, 1 to 15 characters in length, or the index
into the DTE address table for the specified X.25 DCE Interface.
This command removes a DTE route entry from the X.25 DCE route table. This
table provides mappings between X.25 DTE addresses and the IP address of
the router in the network that provides a connection to that address.
The DTEADDRESS parameter must be specified and may be either a DTE
address or the index into the route table of a DTE address. The table is first
checked for a matching DTE address, and if found that DTE address and its
route mapping are deleted. If no matching DTE address was found and the
DTEADDRESS parameter is a valid index into the table then the DTE address
corresponding to the index number is removed. The index number for a particular X.25 address mapping can be obtained from the output of the SHOW
X25C ROUTE command. Once a route entry is deleted, all entries with a higher
number than the one deleted are renumbered, so that the table has consecutively numbered entries.
E x a m p le s
To delete the route to DTE address 3302013, use the command:
DELETE X25C ROUTE=3302013
See A l so
ADD X25C ROUTE
SHOW X25C ROUTE
DELET E X25 T CPAR
Syn tax
DELETE X25T CPAR=call-index
where:
■
D e sc r ip t i on
E x a m p le s
call-index is the index of the call parameters to delete.
This command deletes a set of call parameters for X.25. The call parameters
must already exist, and must not be the default for an X.25 DTE interface or
PVC, or be in use by an active call.
To delete X.25 DTE call parameter set 1, use the command:
DELETE X25T CPAR=1
See A l so
Software Release 1.7.2
J613-M0274-00 Rev.B
ADD X25T CPAR
SET X25T CPAR
SHOW X25T CPAR
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D ES TR OY LA PB
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DESTR
ESTRO Y LAPB
Syn tax
DESTROY LAPB=lapb-interface
where:
■
D e sc r ip t i on
E x a m p le s
lapb-interface is the number of the LAPB logical interface, in the range 0 to
7.
This command destroys a LAPB interface. The LAPB interface must already
exist. No routing module may be configured to LAPB for the command to be
successful. If a module is configured to LAPB then that module must be
destroyed or deconfigured before the LAPB interface may be destroyed.
To destroy LAPB interface 2, use the command:
DESTROY LAPB=2
See A l so
CREATE LAPB
RESET LAPB
SET LAPB
SHOW LAPB
DESTR
ESTRO Y X25C
25C
Syn tax
DESTROY X25C=x25-interface
where:
■
D e sc r ip t i on
E x a m p le s
x25-interface is the number of the X.25 DCE logical interface, in the range 0
to 7.
This command destroys an X.25 DCE interface. The X.25 DCE interface must
already exist.
To destroy X.25 DCE interface 1, use the command:
DESTROY X25C=1
See A l so
CREATE X25C
SET X25C
SHOW X25C
Software Release 1.7.2
J613-M0274-00 Rev.B
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DI SAB LE MI OX CIR CUI
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6 - 39
DESTR
ESTRO Y X25T
25T
Syn tax
DESTROY X25T=x25-interface
where:
■
D e sc r ip t i on
E x a m p le s
x25-interface is the number of the X.25 DTE logical interface, in the range 0
to 7.
This command destroys an X.25 DTE interface. The X.25 DTE interface must
already exist. The interface will not be destroyed if higher layer entities are
attached to the X.25 DTE interface.
To destroy X.25 DTE interface 1, use the command:
DESTROY X25T=1
See A l so
CREATE X25T
SET X25T
RESET X25T
SHOW X25T
DISAB LE MI OX CI RCUI
CUI T
Syn tax
DISABLE MIOX=x25t-interface CIRCUIT=circuit-name
where:
D e sc r ip t i on
■
x25t-interface is the index number of the X.25 DTE logical interface, in the
range 0 to 7.
■
circuit-name is an alphanumeric string, 1 to 15 characters in length.
This command disables a previously enabled MIOX circuit. Once a circuit is
disabled X.25 calls will not be attempted or accepted and data with be not
exchanged with the remote router. If the call is active and is an SVC the call will
be closed.
The MIOX parameter specifies the X.25 DTE interface over which the MIOX
circuit has been defined. The X.25 DTE interface must already exist.
The CIRCUIT parameter specifies the name of the MIOX circuit to disable. The
circuit name must already exist for the interface.
E x a m p le s
To temporarily disable MIOX circuit “HeadOffice” on X.25 DTE interface 1, use
the command:
DISABLE MIOX=1 CIRCUIT=HeadOffice
See A l so
Software Release 1.7.2
J613-M0274-00 Rev.B
ACTIVATE MIOX CIRCUIT
ADD MIOX CIRCUIT
DEACTIVATE MIOX CIRCUIT
DELETE MIOX CIRCUIT
ENABLE MIOX CIRCUIT
SET MIOX CIRCUIT
SHOW MIOX CIRCUIT
6-40
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ENAB
NAB LE M I OX CI R CUI
CUIT
R e fer en ce M anua
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ENAB
NABLE MIO X CIR CUI
CUIT
Syn tax
ENABLE MIOX=x25t-interface CIRCUIT=circuit-name
where:
D e sc r ip t i on
■
x25t-interface is the index number of the X.25 DTE logical interface, in the
range 0 to 7.
■
circuit-name is an alphanumeric string, 1 to 15 characters in length.
This command enables a previously disabled MIOX circuit. When MIOX circuits are added to the X.25 DTE interface they are by default enabled. Once a
circuit is enabled X.25 calls will be attempted or accepted and data with be
exchanged with the remote router.
The MIOX parameter specifies the X.25 DTE interface over which the MIOX
circuit has been defined. The X.25 DTE interface must already exist.
The CIRCUIT parameter specifies the name of the MIOX circuit to enable. The
circuit name must already exist for the interface.
E x a m p le s
To enable MIOX circuit “HeadOffice” on X.25 DTE interface 1, use the command:
ENABLE MIOX=1 CIRCUIT=HeadOffice
See A l so
ACTIVATE MIOX CIRCUIT
ADD MIOX CIRCUIT
DEACTIVATE MIOX CIRCUIT
DELETE MIOX CIRCUIT
DISABLE MIOX CIRCUIT
SET MIOX CIRCUIT
SHOW MIOX CIRCUIT
RESET LAPB
Syn tax
RESET LAPB=lapb-interface
where:
■
D e sc r ip t i on
E x a m p le s
lapb-interface is the number of the LAPB logical interface, in the range 0 to
7.
This command resets a LAPB interface. The LAPB interface must already exist.
This is used to update the operational parameters for a LAPB interface and initiates the LAPB restart procedure.
To reinitialise LAPB interface 0, use the command:
RESET LAPB=0
See A l so
CREATE LAPB
DESTROY LAPB
SET LAPB
SHOW LAPB
Software Release 1.7.2
J613-M0274-00 Rev.B
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S ET LA PB
6 - 41
RESET X25T
25T
Syn tax
RESET X25T=x25-interface
where:
■
D e sc r ip t i on
E x a m p le s
x25-interface is the number of the X.25 DTE logical interface, in the range 0
to 7.
This command resets an X.25 DTE instance. The X.25 DTE interface must
already exist. Two copies of an X.25 interface’s parameters exist, the administrative copy and the operational copy. The administrative copy is altered by the
ADD, CREATE, DELETE and SET commands. The operational copy is the copy
used for the actual operation of the interface. The RESET command copies the
administrative parameters to the operational parameters, clears all switched
circuits, resets all PVCs, and restarts the interface. The RESET command must
be used after changes have been made to X.25 parameters for those changes to
take effect.
To reset X.25 DTE interface 1 to its configured settings, use the command:
RESET X25T=1
See A l so
CREATE X25T
DESTROY X25T
SET X25T
SHOW X25T
SET LAPB
Syn tax
SET LAPB=lapb-interface [MODULUS={8|128}] [ROLE={DCE|DTE}]
[MAXDATA=1080..8232] [WINDOW=1..127] [T1=1..120]
[T3=3..120] [N2=1..40]
where:
■
D e sc r ip t i on
lapb-interface is the number of the LAPB logical interface, in the range 0 to
7.
This command sets the operational parameters for a LAPB interface. The LAPB
interface must already exist. The LAPB interface must be reset with the RESET
LAPB command for the changes to take effect.
The MODULUS parameter specifies the flow control modulus number. This is
modulo 8 for operation in Basic mode, and modulo 128 for operation in
Extended mode. When a LAPB interface is created the default modulus setting
is modulo 8.
The ROLE parameter is used to determine the role of the LAPB interface. This
parameter affects frame addressing and should be set to according to the purpose of the interface. If the interface is connecting to a DCE network then the
role should be set to DTE. If the interface is connecting to a DTE device then the
role should be set to DCE. There is an exception to this when directly connecting two routers as DTE devices. In this situation one router will be set to DCE
Software Release 1.7.2
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while the other will be set to DTE. When a LAPB interface is created the default
role setting is DTE.
The parameter TMAXDATA is used to set the maximum number of bits the
router will use or expect in a LAPB frame. The default value is set to 8232 to
support 1024-byte packets.
The WINDOW parameter is used to specify the maximum number of information frames that the LAPB interface may send before requiring an acknowledgement for the outstanding frames. The maximum ranges for this value are
dependant on the modulus of the interface. When operating in modulo 8 the
window size may be set from 1 to 7, when operating in modulo 128 the window size may be set from 1 to 127. The default window size is 7.
The parameters T1 and T3 specify the time in seconds for the two timers associated with the LAPB interface. Timer T1 is used to prevent frames from being
lost by the LAPB interface. The timer period should be longer than the maximum time delay between transmission of a frame and reception of its acknowledgement. When this timer expires retransmission of the unacknowledged
frame will occur. The default value for T1 is set to 3 seconds. Timer T3 is used
as a watchdog to check that the line is still active after a period of T3 seconds
with no frames being exchanged. The default value for T3 is set to 40 seconds.
The N2 parameter specifies the number of times a frame is to be retransmitted
at the expiration of the T1 timer. When the retransmission counter is exhausted
the link is reset. The default value for N2 is 10.
E x a m p le s
To set the modulus for LAPB interface 3 to 128, use the command:
SET LAPB=0 MODULUS=128
See A l so
CREATE LAPB
DESTROY LAPB
RESET LAPB
SHOW LAPB
SET MIO X
Syn tax
SET MIOX=x25t-interface [MINOPEN=10..360]
[INACTIVE=10..360] [HOLDDOWN=10..360]
[COLLISION=10..360] [FAILURE=10..360]
where:
■
D e sc r ip t i on
x25t-interface is the index number of the X.25 DTE logical interface, in the
range 0 to 7.
This command sets the operational parameters for the MIOX entity associated
with an X.25 DTE interface. The X.25 DTE interface must already exist. All
parameters are timer values that are used to determine the operation of
switched virtual calls over the X.25 DTE interface. Alterations to the MIOX
parameters take effect immediately. All MIOX timer parameters are specified
in seconds.
The MINOPEN parameter sets the minimum time, in seconds, to keep a call
open, once the call has been successfully established. After the specified period
Software Release 1.7.2
J613-M0274-00 Rev.B
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6 - 43
of time the MIOX layer will close the call provided the link has been idle for a
period of time specified by the INACTIVE parameter. The default value is 60
seconds.
The INACTIVE parameter specifies the length of time, in seconds, a call must
remain inactive before it is closed. An call is considered inactive when there has
been no data transmitted or received over that call. The call will not be closed if
the MINOPEN parameter would be compromised by doing so. The default
value is 60 seconds.
The HOLDDOWN parameter sets the minimum length of time, in seconds, to
wait after a call has failed before retrying the call. The default value is 60 seconds.
The COLLISION parameter specifies the length of time, in seconds, to wait
before retrying a call after a call failed due to a lack of available X.25 channels.
The default value is 60 seconds.
The FAILURE parameter sets the length of time, in seconds, to wait before considering an attempted outgoing call to have failed. The call will be retried after
a period of time specified by the HOLDDOWN parameter. The default value is
60 seconds.
E x a m p le s
To configure the MIOX circuits on X.25 DTE interface 1 to disconnect after only
30 seconds of inactivity, use the command:
SET MIOX=1 INACTIVE=30
See A l so
SHOW MIOX
SET MIO X CIR CUI
CUIT
Syn tax
SET MIOX=x25t-interface CIRCUIT=circuit-name
[{DTEADDRESS=dteaddress|PVC=1..4095}] [CPAR=0..8]
[ENCAP={IP|IPX|NULL|MULTIPLE}] [COMMENT=comment]
[COMP={ON|OFF}] [TCPCOMP={ON|OFF}]
where:
D e sc r ip t i on
■
x25t-interface is the index number of the X.25 DTE logical interface, in the
range 0 to 7.
■
circuit-name is an alphanumeric string, 1 to 15 characters in length.
■
dteaddress is a valid DTE address, 1 to 15 characters in length.
■
comment is an alphanumeric string, 1 to 40 characters in length.
This command sets the operational parameters of a MIOX circuit. The circuit
must already exist. Changes to MIOX circuit parameters take effect immediately. Equivalent changes must be made to the MIOX circuits on the routers at
both ends of the X.25 DTE link for communication to take place.
The MIOX parameter specifies the X.25 DTE interface over which the MIOX
circuit has been defined. The X.25 DTE interface must already exist.
Software Release 1.7.2
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The CIRCUIT parameter specifies the circuit name of the MIOX circuit, and
must identify a unique circuit. The MIOX circuit name must already exist for
the interface.
The DTEADDRESS parameter specifies a DTE address for the remote router, if
it is to be accessed via an SVC (switched virtual circuit). The DTE address must
not be in use by any other MIOX circuits. Changing the DTE address will cause
any currently active calls to the old DTE address to be closed. Any calls made
to the remote router after the successful execution of this command will use the
DTE address to make the call. If the circuit was previously active over an X.25
PVC then the circuit will detach from the PVC.
The PVC parameter creates a PVC channel to the remote router to be used by
this MIOX circuit. The PVC channel number must be valid for the X.25 DTE
interface and must not be in use by another circuit or module. Changing the
PVC channel will close any current calls to the remote router and detach the
circuit from the old PVC.
Either DTEADDRESS or PVC must be specified, but not both. A circuit can be
supported over a PVC or an SVC, but not both simultaneously.
The CPAR parameter specifies the index for the call parameters to use for the
MIOX circuit. If a value is not specified, the default is the default call parameters assigned for the X.25 DTE interface in the last CREATE X25T or SET X25T
command executed. If a call parameter index is specified and is not 0, the call
parameter index must exist.
The ENCAP parameter specifies the encapsulation to use. If MULTIPLE is
specified, one X.25 channel is used for each higher layer protocol (i.e. IP, IPX,
Frame Relay). This may result in several circuits being opened to a remote
router, each carrying a different protocol. If NULL is specified, the Null encapsulation is used to multiplex more than one higher layer protocol over a single
X.25 circuit to the remote router associated with the circuit. If IP is specified, the
circuit will support only the IP encapsulation. Calls received for other protocols
will be rejected. If IPX is specified, the circuit will support only the IPX encapsulation. Calls received for other protocols will be rejected. If the MIOX circuit
is connected over a PVC then only IP, IPX or NULL may be specified, since the
MULTIPLE option requires several X.25 channels and cannot therefore run
over a PVC.
The same encapsulation must be specified on the routers at each end of the circuit. If different encapsulations are used the routers will not be able to communicate with one another over the MIOX circuit.
The COMMENT parameter specifies a string that provides a textual description of the MIOX circuit and is displayed in the output of the SHOW MIOX
CIRCUIT command.
The COMP parameter enables or disables the use of packet compression for the
MIOX circuit. When packet compression is used the remote router must be a
compatible router that also supports the use of compression.
The TCPCOMP parameter enables or disables the use of TCP header compression. This is only relevant if the circuit encapsulation supports IP. Van Jacobson’s compression is used. Compression provides the most advantage on
slower link speeds (up to 48 kbps). At speeds of 64 kbps and higher, compression will actually reduce efficiency and so should be disabled. For successful
Software Release 1.7.2
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6 - 45
TCP header compression the remote router must also have TCP compression
enabled for its corresponding circuit.
E x a m p le s
To set the encapsulation to IP and enable TCP header compression for MIOX
circuit “HeadOffice” on X.25 DTE interface 1, use the command:
SET MIOX=1 CIRCUIT=HeadOffice ENCAP=IP TCPCOMP=ON
See A l so
ACTIVATE MIOX CIRCUIT
ADD MIOX CIRCUIT
DEACTIVATE MIOX CIRCUIT
DELETE MIOX CIRCUIT
DISABLE MIOX CIRCUIT
ENABLE MIOX CIRCUIT
SHOW MIOX CIRCUIT
SET X2 5C
Syn tax
SET X25C=x25-interface [INCOMING=0..128] [OUTGOING=0..128]
[TWOWAY=0..128] [MAXACTIVE=0..128]
where:
■
D e sc r ip t i on
x25-interface is the number of the X.25 DCE logical interface, in the range 0
to 7.
This command changes the operational parameters of an X.25 DCE interface.
The X.25 DCE interface number must be specified and must already exist. The
X.25 DCE interface must be reset with the RESET X25C command for the
changes to take effect.
The INCOMING parameter specifies the maximum number of active channels
permitted for incoming calls on the X.25 DCE interface. The OUTGOING
parameter specifies the maximum number of active channels permitted for
outgoing calls on the X.25 DCE interface. The TWOWAY parameter specifies
the maximum number of active channels permitted for two-way calls on the
X.25 DCE interface. The MAXACTIVE parameter specifies the total maximum
number of active channels permitted on the X.25 DCE interface.
Besides the constraints on each of the parameters, there is an overall constraint
that the total of all the types of channels must not exceed the total number of
channels specified. This constraint is checked after all the individual parameters have been checked.
E x a m p le s
To set the maximum number of incoming, outgoing and two-way calls on X.25
DCE interface 0 to 8, use the command:
SET X25C=0 INCOMING=8 OUTGOING=8 TWOWAY=8
See A l so
Software Release 1.7.2
J613-M0274-00 Rev.B
CREATE X25C
DESTROY X25C
SHOW X25C
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SET X2 5T
Syn tax
SET X25T=x25-interface [MAXACTIVE=0..4095] [MODULUS={8|
128}] [T20=1..360] [T21=1..360] [T22=1..360]
[T23=1..360] [T24={1..360|OFF}] [T27={1..360|OFF}]
[MINRECALL=1..360] [R20=0..65535] [R22=0..65535]
[R23=0..65535] [R27=0..65535] [NPVC=0..4095]
[DEFCPAR=0..8] [DTEADDRESS=dteaddress] [LIC=0..4095]
[HIC=0..4095] [LTC=0..4095] [HTC=0..4095] [LOC=0..4095]
[HOC=0..4095] [ROLE={DYNAMIC|DCE|DTE}]
where:
D e sc r ip t i on
■
x25-interface is the number of the X.25 DTE logical interface, in the range 0
to 7.
■
dteaddress is a valid DTE address, 1 to 15 characters in length.
This command is used to change the operational parameters of an X.25 DTE
interface. The X.25 interface must already exist.
The MAXACTIVE parameter sets the maximum number of circuits this X.25
DTE can support, including PVCs. It must not be less than the actual number of
PVCs. The default value is 4095. The X.25 DTE interface must be reset with the
RESET X25T command before this command takes effect, since there may be
more than the maximum number of circuits active already.
The MODULUS parameter sets the modulus of packet sequence numbers for
this interface. The default value is 8. The X.25 DTE interface must be reset with
the RESET X25T command before this command takes effect, since this command affects all circuits on the interface.
The T20 parameter sets the value in seconds of the restart timer. The default
value is 180. The T21 parameter sets the value in seconds of the call timer. The
default value is 200. The T22 parameter sets the value in seconds of the reset
timer. The default value is 180. The T23 parameter sets the value in seconds of
the clear timer. The default value is 180. The T24 parameter sets the value in
seconds of the optional window timer. The default value is 60. The timer can be
turned off by specifying the value OFF. The T27 parameter sets the value in seconds of the reject response timer. The default value is 60. The timer can be
turned off by specifying the value OFF. The MINRECALL parameter sets the
value in seconds of the time to wait before retrying a particular call. The default
value is 60.
The R20 parameter sets the value of the restart retransmission counter. The
default value is 1. The R22 parameter sets the value of the reset request retransmission counter. The default value is 1. The R23 parameter sets the value of the
clear request retransmission counter. The default value is 1. The R27 parameter
sets the value of the reject retransmission counter. The default value is 0.
The NPVC parameter sets the number of channels reserved as PVCs. The
default is 0.
The DEFCPAR parameter specifies the index of the default call definition to use
for this interface. The default value is 0, which means no default call. The call
definition (if not 0) must already exist.
The DTEADDRESS parameter specifies the DTE address for the interface.
Software Release 1.7.2
J613-M0274-00 Rev.B
UNS
UN SU P PO R T ED
X.25
SE T X25 T CPAR
6 - 47
The LIC parameter specifies the lowest incoming channel number. The default
is 0. The HIC parameter specifies the highest incoming channel number. A
value of 0 means no incoming channels. The default is 0. The LTC parameter
specifies the lowest two-way channel number. The default is 1. The HTC
parameter specifies the highest two-way channel number. A value of 0 means
no two-way channels. The default is 4095. The LOC parameter specifies the
lowest outgoing channel number. The default is 0. The HOC parameter specifies the highest outgoing channel number. A value of 0 means no outgoing
channels. The default is 0. The values of LIC, HIC, LTC, HTC, LOC, LTC,
NPVC and MAXACTIVE must be consistent with one another.
The ROLE parameter specifies the role this DTE plays in a DTE-DTE environment. The default is DYNAMIC, which means during the restart procedure the
two DTEs will negotiate which DTE will acts as DCE.
E x a m p le s
To configure X.25 DTE interface 1 to negotiate its role in a DTE-to-DTE link, use
the command:
SET X25T=1 ROLE=DYNAMIC
See A l so
ADD X25T CPAR
CREATE X25T
DESTROY X25T
SET X25T CPAR
RESET X25T
SHOW X25T
SHOW X25T CPAR
SET X2 5T CPAR
Syn tax
SET X25T CPAR=call-index [MAXDATA={128|256|512|1024}]
[RMAXDATA={128|256|512|1024}] [RWINDOW=1..127]
[TMAXDATA={128|256|512|1024}] [TWINDOW=1..127]
[USERDATA=hex-string] [WINDOW=1..127]
where:
D e sc r ip t i on
■
call-index is the index of the call parameters to modify.
■
hex-string is a string of 2 to 20 hexadecimal digits.
This command is used to change the attributes of a set of call parameters. The
call parameters must already exist, and must not be the default for an X.25 DTE
interface or PVC, or be in use by an active call.
The TMAXDATA and RMAXDATA parameters specify the maximum packet
sizes for transmission and reception, respectively. The MAXDATA parameter is
a shorthand form to specify the same maximum packet size for both transmission and reception. In all cases, the default is 0, which means use the interface
default for a call (128).
The TWINDOW and RWINDOW parameters specify the window for transmission and reception, respectively. The WINDOW parameter is a shorthand form
to specify the same window for both transmission and reception. In all cases,
the default is 0, which means use the interface default for a call (2).
Software Release 1.7.2
J613-M0274-00 Rev.B
6-48
UNS
UN SU P PO R T ED
SH OW LA P B
R e fer en ce M anua
nu al
The USERDATA parameter specifies the contents of the user data field for the
call request for this call. This is used to specify the protocol that this circuit will
carry.
E x a m p le s
To set the contents of the user data field in all call requests using call parameter
set 7 to “ff0d5B3c”, use the command:
SET X25T CPAR=7 USERDATA=ff0d5b3c
See A l so
ADD X25T CPAR
DELETE X25T CPAR
SHOW X25T CPAR
SHOW LA
LAPB
Syn tax
SHOW LAPB[=lapb-interface] [{CONFIG|COUNT|IDLETIMER}]
where:
■
D e sc r ip t i on
lapb-interface is the number of the LAPB logical interface, in the range 0 to
7.
This command displays information about LAPB interfaces. If no optional
parameters are specified, summary information about the specified LAPB
interface or all LAPB interfaces is displayed (Figure 6-8 on page 6-48, Table 6-4
on page 6-48).
The CONFIG parameter displays the configuration of the specified or all LAPB
interfaces (Figure 6-9 on page 6-49, Table 6-5 on page 6-49).
The COUNT parameter displays LAPB counters (Figure 6-10 on page 6-50,
Table 6-6 on page 6-50).
The IDLETIMER parameter displays information about the idle timers on
LAPB interfaces (Figure 6-11 on page 6-51Table 6-7 on page 6-52).
Fi gu r e 6 -8: Ex am pl e out
outpu t fro
fro m th e S HOW L APB c om ma nd .
Name
Over
Link Status
State
---------------------------------------------------------------------lapb0
isdn-btb
ACTIVATED
AWAITACK
lapb1
syn0
DOWN
DISCONNECTED
----------------------------------------------------------------------
Tab l e 6 -4: P aram ete rs di sp l aye d i n th e out
ou tpu t of th
t h e S H OW L A PB
c o mm an d.
Pa r am et e r
Me an i ng
Name
The name of the LAPB logical interface.
Over
The physical interface used by the LAPB interface; one of
“synN” or “isdn-callname”.
Link Status
The status of the physical link. For synchronous interface,
one of “UP” or “DOWN”. For ISDN calls, one of “UP”,
“DOWN”, “ACTIVATED” or “IDLE”.
Software Release 1.7.2
J613-M0274-00 Rev.B
UNS
UN SU P PO R T ED
X.25
S H OW LA PB
6 - 49
Tab l e 6 -4: P aram ete rs di sp l aye d i n th e out
ou tpu t of th
t h e S H OW L A PB
co mm an d. (C
( C o nt i n ue d)
Pa r am et e r
Me an i ng
State
The current state of the interface; one of
“DSICONNECTED”, “LINK_SETUP”, “FRAME_REJECT”,
“DISCONNECT_REQUEST”, “DATA_TRANSFER”,
“REJSENT”, “AWAITACK”, “BUSY”, “REMOTEBUSY”,
“BOTHBUSY”, “AWAITACK_BUSY”,
“AWAITACK_REMOTEBUSY”, “AWAITACK_BOTHBUSY”
or “REJSENT_REMOTEBUSY”.
Fi gu r e 6 -9: Ex am pl e out
ou tpu t fro
fro m th e S HOW L APB CONFI G c om ma nd .
Interface
Parameter
Value
--------------------------------------------lapb0
Over ............................ isdn-btb
Dial-on-demand .................. ON
Role ............................ DTE
Modulus ......................... 8
Maximum Frame Bits .............. 8232
Window .......................... 7
Ack Timer (T1) (secs) ........... 10
Idle Timer (T3) (secs) .......... 40
Receive Count (N2) .............. 10
---------------------------------------------
Tab l e 6 -5: P aram ete rs di sp l aye d i n th e out
ou tpu t of th
t h e S H O W L A PB C O N F IG
c o mm an d.
Software Release 1.7.2
J613-M0274-00 Rev.B
Pa r am et e r
Me an i ng
Interface
The name of the LAPB logical interface.
Over
The physical interface used by the LAPB interface; one of
“synN” or “isdn-callname”.
Dial-on-demand
Whether or not the LAPB interface is a dial-on-demand
interface; one of “ON” or “OFF”.
Role
The role of the LAPB interface; one of “DCE”, “DTE” or
“DYNAMIC”.
Modulus
The modulus for sequence numbers.
Maximum Frame Bits
The maximum frame size expected in bits.
Window
The window size.
Ack Timer (T1) (secs)
The timeout period for acknowledgement timer T1, in
seconds.
Idle Timer (T3) (secs)
The timeout period for idle timer T3, in seconds.
Receive Count (N2)
The maximum number of retransmissions permitted.
6-50
UNS
UN SU P PO R T ED
SH OW LA P B
R e fer en ce M anua
nu al
Fi gu r e 6 -10 : Exa mp l e o utput
pu t fr o m the SHOW LAP B COUNT
UNT com ma nd .
lapb0
Interface Counters
inDataOctets
inDataPkts
inDiscards
3198
123
0
outDataOctets
outDataPkts
outDiscards
2172
89
0
Control Packet Counters
Received
1
0
0
0
1
0
0
sabmPkts
unnumAckPkts
disconnectModePkts
frameRejectPkts
rxReadyPkts
rxNotReadyPkts
rejectPkts
Processed
1
0
0
0
0
0
0
ModeChanges
1
0
0
0
0
0
0
Transmitted
1
0
0
0
0
0
0
Packet Error Counters
badFormat
badAddresses
0
0
shortPackets
longPackets
0
0
Timeout Counters
responseTimeouts
idleTimeouts
0
0
ackTimeouts
rejectTimeouts
0
0
State Information
state
stateChanges
reasonForLastChange
DISCONNECTED
0
notStarted
Tab l e 6 -6: P aram ete rs di sp l aye d i n th e out
ou tpu t of th
th e S HOW L APB COUNT
UNT co mm an d.
Pa r am et e r
Me an i ng
lapbn
The LAPB logical interface.
Interface Counters
Counters for the LPAB interface
inDataOctets
The number of octets of data received over the
interface.
inDataPkts
The number of data packets received over the
interface.
inDiscards
The number of packets received by the interface that
were discarded.
outDataOctets
The number of octets of data transmitted by the
interface.
outDataPkts
The number of data packets transmitted by the
interface.
outDiscards
The number of packets discarded before they could
be transmitted by the interface.
Control Packet Counters
Counters for LAPB control packets
Received
The number of frames received by the interface.
Processed
The number of frames processed by state machine.
ModeChanges
The number of frames that caused a state change.
Transmitted
The number of frames transmitted by the interface.
sabmPkts
Set asynchronous balanced mode frames.
Software Release 1.7.2
J613-M0274-00 Rev.B
UNS
UN SU P PO R T ED
X.25
S H OW LA PB
6 - 51
Tab l e 6 -6: P aram ete rs di sp l aye d i n th e out
ou tpu t of th
th e S HOW L APB COUNT
UNT co mm an d.
Pa r am et e r
Me an i ng
unnumAckPkts
Unnumbered acknowledgement frames.
disconnectModePkts
Disconnect mode frames.
frameRejectPkts
Frame Rejection frames.
rxReadyPkts
Receiver ready frames.
rxNotReadyPkts
Receiver not ready frames.
rejectPkts
Reject frames.
Packet Error Counters
Counters for packet errors
badFormat
The number of frames received that contained errors.
badAddresses
The number of frames received that contained an
invalid address.
shortPackets
The number of underlength frames received.
longPackets
The number of overlength frames received.
Timeout Counters
Counters for LAPB timer expiries
responseTimeouts
The number of times the T1 timer expired waiting for
a response to a Supervisory frame.
idleTimeouts
The number of times the T3 timer expired for line idle.
ackTimeouts
The number of times the T1 timer expired waiting for
an acknowledgement for an Info frame.
rejectTimeouts
The number of times the T1 timer expired waiting for
a reject clearance.
State Information
Information about the state of the LAPB interface.
state
The current state of the interface; one of
“DISCONNECTED”, “LINK_SETUP”,
“FRAME_REJECT”, “DISCONNECT_REQUEST”,
“DATA_TRANSFER”, “REJSENT”, “AWAITACK”,
“BUSY”, “REMOTEBUSY”, “BOTHBUSY”,
“AWAITACK_BUSY”, “AWAITACK_REMOTEBUSY”,
“AWAITACK_BOTHBUSY” or
“REJSENT_REMOTEBUSY”.
stateChanges
The number of state machine state changes.
reasonForLastChange
The reason for the last state change; one of
“notStarted”, “abmEntered”, “abmeEntered”,
“abmReset”, “abmeReset”, “dmReceived”,
“dmSent”, “discReceived”, “discSent”,
“frmrReceived”, “frmrSent”, “n2Timeout” or
“other“.
Fi gu r e 6 -11 : Exa mp l e o utput
pu t fr
fr o m th e SH
SH O W L A P B I D L E TI ME R c om ma nd .
Interface
Configured Idle Time
Idle Timer Value
--------------------------------------------lapb0
40
EXPIRED
lapb1
40
23
---------------------------------------------
Software Release 1.7.2
J613-M0274-00 Rev.B
6-52
UNS
UN SU P PO R T ED
SH O W M IO X
R e fer en ce M anua
nu al
Tab l e 6 -7: P aram ete rs di sp l aye d i n th e out
ou tpu t of th
t h e S H O W L A PB ID LE TI M ER
c o mm an d.
E x a m p le s
Pa r am et e r
Me an i ng
Interface
The name of the LAPB logical interface.
Configured Idle Time
The configured idle timeout period, in seconds.
Idle Timer Value
The current value of the idle timer, or “EXPIRED”
To display the counters for LAPB interface 0, use the command:
SHOW LAPB=0 COUNT
See A l so
CREATE LAPB
DESTROY LAPB
RESET LAPB
SET LAPB
SHOW M IOX
IOX
Syn tax
SHOW MIOX[=x25t-interface]
where:
■
D e sc r ip t i on
x25t-interface is the index number of the X.25 DTE logical interface, in the
range 0 to 7.
This command displays the operational parameters for the MIOX entity related
to the X.25 DTE interface (Figure 6-12 on page 6-52, Table 6-8 on page 6-53). If
the X.25 DTE interface is not specified, information for all MIOX entities is displayed.
Fi gu r e 6 -12 : Exa mp l e o utput
pu t fr o m the SHOW M IOX co mm an d.
miox interface 0
----------------------------------------------------------------------------timer values
minopen 25
inactive 25
holddown 240
collision 60
failure 60
miox interface 1
----------------------------------------------------------------------------timer values
minopen 60
inactive 60
holddown 60
collision 35
failure 15
Software Release 1.7.2
J613-M0274-00 Rev.B
UNS
UN SU P PO R T ED
X.25
S HOW M I OX COUNT
UNT
6 - 53
Tab l e 6 -8: P aram ete rs di sp l aye d i n th e out
ou tpu t of th
t h e S H O W M I O X c om ma nd .
E x a m p le s
Pa r am et e r
Me an i ng
minopen
The value (in seconds) of the minimum open timer.
inactive
The value (in seconds) of the inactivity timer.
holddown
The value (in seconds) of the hold down timer.
collision
The value (in seconds) of the collision retry timer.
failure
The value (in seconds) of the link failure timer.
To display the MIOX configuration for all X.25 DTE interfaces, use the command:
SHOW MIOX
See A l so
SET MIOX
SHOW M IOX
IOX COUNT
UNT
Syn tax
SHOW MIOX[=x25t-interface] COUNT
where:
■
D e sc r ip t i on
x25t-interface is the index number of the X.25 DTE logical interface, in the
range 0 to 7.
This command displays the counters for the MIOX entity related to the X.25
DTE interface (Figure 6-13 on page 6-53, Table 6-9 on page 6-54). If the X.25
DTE interface is not specified, counters for all MIOX entities are displayed.
Fi gu r e 6 -13 : Exa mp l e o utput
pu t fr o m the SHOW M IOX COUNT
UNT c om mand.
nd .
miox interface 0
------------------------------------------------------------------------------statistics
circuits
1
link state
ALIVE
incoming calls
failure reason
accepted
4 bad encap
0
failed
1 bad protocol
0
total calls
4 call exists
1
outgoing calls
initiation cause
closure cause
failure cause
closed
8 minopen
0 failure
0
holddown
0 inactive
3 collision
0
collision
1 network
2 network
1
total calls
9 successful
5 unsuccessful
1
packets
total sent
38 total recvd
42 discarded
0
timeouts
minopen
9 inactive
3 holddown
1
collision
0 failure
0
Software Release 1.7.2
J613-M0274-00 Rev.B
6-54
SHOW M IOX COUNT
UNT
UNS
UN SU P PO R T ED
R e fer en ce M anua
nu al
Tab l e 6 -9: P aram ete rs di sp l aye d i n th e out
ou tpu t of th
th e S HOW M I OX COUNT
UNT co mma
mma n d.
Pa r am et e r
Me an i ng
miox interface
The number of the X.25 DTE logical interface.
statistics
General MIOX statistics for the DTE interface.
circuits
The total number of MIOX circuits configured for the MIOX
entity.
link state
The status of the X.25 link; one of “ALIVE” or “DEAD”.
incoming calls
Information about incoming calls on this DTE interface.
accepted
The number of incoming calls that were accepted.
failed
The number of incoming calls that were rejected.
total calls
The total number of incoming calls.
failure reason
Information about the causes of failed incoming calls.
bad encap
The number of incoming calls that were rejected due to an
unsupported encapsulation.
bad protocol
The number of incoming calls that were rejected due to a
supported encapsulation with an unattached protocol.
call exists
The number of incoming calls that were rejected due to the
circuit already having an active connection.
outgoing calls
Information about outgoing calls.
initiation cause
Information about the initiation of outgoing calls.
closed
The number of outgoing calls that were initiated when the
circuit was in the closed state.
holddown
The number of calls that were initiated after a previously
failed call on a circuit.
collision
The number of calls that were initiated after the previous
call failed due to insufficient free X.25 channels to make the
call on.
total calls
The total number of outgoing calls initiated.
closure cause
Information about the reasons for closing outgoing calls.
minopen
The number of calls that were closed due to the expiry of
the minimum open timer.
inactive
The number of calls that were closed due to the expiry of
the call inactivity timer.
network
The number of calls that were closed by the network. This
includes calls that were closed by the remote router.
successful
The number of calls that were closed because they were
completed successfully.
failure cause
Information about the causes of failed outgoing calls.
failure
The number of calls that failed due to the call not being
confirmed within the call failure timer period.
collision
The number of calls that failed due to insufficient free X.25
channels to make the call.
network
The number of calls that failed due to the network or the
remote router refusing the call.
unsuccessful
The number of calls that were closed because they were not
completed successfully.
packets
Packet statistics.
Software Release 1.7.2
J613-M0274-00 Rev.B
UNS
UN SU P PO R T ED
X.25
S HOW MI OX CIR CUI
CUIT
6 - 55
Tab l e 6 -9: P aram ete rs di sp l aye d i n th e out
ou tpu t of th
th e S HOW M I OX COUNT
UNT co mma
mma n d.
E x a m p le s
Pa r am et e r
Me an i ng
total sent
The number of packets sent on the X.25 DTE interface by
the MIOX entity.
total recvd
The number of packets received on the X.25 DTE interface
by the MIOX entity.
discarded
The number of packets that were received and discarded
due to an unsupported protocol.
timeouts
Information about timeouts.
minopen
The number of times the minimum open timer has expired.
inactive
The number of times the inactivity timer has expired.
holddown
The number of times the hold down timer has expired.
collision
The number of times the collision retry timer has expired.
failure
The number of times the link failure timer has expired.
To display the MIOX counters for X.25 DTE interface 1, use the command:
SHOW MIOX=1 COUNT
See A l so
SET MIOX
SHOW M IOX
IOX CIR CUI
CUIT
Syn tax
SHOW MIOX[=x25t-interface] CIRCUIT[=circuit-name]
[COUNTER|ENCAP]
where:
D e sc r ip t i on
Software Release 1.7.2
J613-M0274-00 Rev.B
■
x25t-interface is the index number of the X.25 DTE logical interface, in the
range 0 to 7.
■
circuit-name is an alphanumeric string, 1 to 15 characters in length.
This command displays information about MIOX circuits for the MIOX entity
related to the specified X.25 DTE interface. If the X.25 DTE interface is not specified, circuits for all MIOX entities are displayed. If a circuit name is specified
then only circuits matching the circuit name will be displayed. If neither
COUNTER or ENCAP is specified, the operational parameters for the MIOX
circuit are displayed (Figure 6-14 on page 6-56, Table 6-10 on page 6-56). If
COUNTER is specified counters for the MIOX circuit are displayed
(Figure 6-15 on page 6-56, Table 6-11 on page 6-57). If ENCAP is specified
encapsulation information and specific counters for higher layer protocols
using the circuit are displayed (Figure 6-16 on page 6-58, Table 6-12 on
page 6-58).
6-56
SHOW M IOX CI RCUI
CUI T
UNS
UN SU P PO R T ED
R e fer en ce M anua
nu al
Fi gu r e 6 -14 : Exa mp l e o utput
pu t fr o m the SHOW M IOX CI RCUI
CUI T co mm and.
nd .
miox interface 0
------------------------------------------------------------------------------headoffice
comment
ENABLED
pvc
1
Permanent Circuit to Head Office.
encap
NULL
cpar
0
comp
OFF
tcpcomp OFF
regionaloffice
dteaddress 300043275
encap
IP
comment
cpar
ENABLED
0
comp
OFF
tcpcomp
ON
Tab l e 6 -10 : Pa ram eters d i sp la yed i n th e o utput
pu t o f th
th e SH
SHOW M IOX CI RCUI
CUI T
c o mm an d.
Pa r am et e r
Me an i ng
miox interface
The number of the X.25 DTE logical interface.
<circuit-name>
The name of the MIOX circuit.
comment
A string that describes the circuit.
ENABLED
The status of the circuit; one of “ENABLED” or “DISABLED”.
pvc
The PVC for this MIOX circuit (displayed when the circuit is
configured to operate over a PVC).
dteaddress
The DTE address for this MIOX circuit (displayed when the circuit
is configured to operate over an SVC).
encap
The type of encapsulation for the circuit.
cpar
The call parameter entry to use for the circuit.
comp
Whether or not payload compression is enabled for the circuit.
tcpcomp
Whether or not TCP header compression is enabled for the circuit.
Fi gu r e 6 -15 : Exa mp l e o utput
pu t fr o m the SHOW M IOX CI RCUI
CUI T COUNT
UNT ER co mma
mma n d.
miox interface 0
------------------------------------------------------------------------------regionaloffice
incoming calls
failure reason
accepted
10 bad encap
0
failed
2 bad protocol
2
total calls
12 call exists
0
outgoing calls
initiation cause
closure cause
failure cause
closed
5 minopen
0 failure
0
holddown
2 inactive
3 collision
0
collision
0 network
1 network
1
total calls
7 successful
4 unsuccessful
1
packets
total sent
355 total recvd
432 discarded
0
timeouts
minopen
9 inactive
3 holddown
2
collision
0 failure
0
Software Release 1.7.2
J613-M0274-00 Rev.B
UNS
UN SU P PO R T ED
X.25
S HOW MI OX CIR CUI
CUIT
6 - 57
Tab l e 6-11:
11 : P aram ete rs d i sp la yed in th e o utput
pu t o f th
th e SH
SHO W MI OX CI R CUI
CUIT COUNT
UNT ER
c o mm an d.
Software Release 1.7.2
J613-M0274-00 Rev.B
Pa r am et e r
Me an i ng
miox interface
The number of the X.25 DTE logical interface.
<circuit-name>
The name of the MIOX circuit.
incoming calls
Information about incoming calls on this DTE interface.
accepted
The number of incoming calls that were accepted for the circuit.
failed
The number of incoming calls that were rejected for the circuit.
total calls
The total number of incoming calls for the circuit.
failure reason
Information about the causes of failed incoming calls.
bad encap
The number of incoming calls that were rejected due the circuit not
supporting encapsulation.
bad protocol
The number of incoming calls that were rejected due to a
supported encapsulation with an unattached protocol.
call exists
The number of incoming calls that were rejected due to the circuit
already having an active connection.
outgoing calls
Information about outgoing calls.
initiation cause
Information about the initiation of outgoing calls.
closed
The number of outgoing calls that were initiated when the circuit
was in the closed state.
holddown
The number of calls that were initiated after a previously failed call
on a circuit.
collision
The number of calls that were initiated after the previous call failed
due to insufficient free X.25 channels to make the call on.
total calls
The total number of outgoing calls for the circuit.
closure cause
Information about the reasons for closing outgoing calls.
minopen
The number of calls that were closed due to the expiry of the
minimum open timer.
inactive
The number of calls that were closed due to the expiry of the call
inactivity timer.
network
The number of calls that were closed by the network. This includes
calls that were closed by the remote router.
successful
The total number of successful outgoing calls for the circuit.
failure cause
Information about the causes of failed outgoing calls.
failure
The number of calls that failed due to the call not being confirmed
within the call failure timer period.
collision
The number of calls that failed due to insufficient free X.25
channels to make the call on.
network
The number of calls that failed due to the network or the remote
router refusing the call.
unsuccessful
The total number of outgoing calls for the circuit that failed.
packets
Packet statistics.
total sent
The number of packets sent on the MIOX circuit.
total recvd
The number of packets received on the MIOX circuit.
discarded
The number of packets that were received and discarded due to an
unsupported protocol.
6-58
SHOW M IOX CI RCUI
CUI T
UNS
UN SU P PO R T ED
R e fer en ce M anua
nu al
Tab l e 6-11:
11 : P aram ete rs d i sp la yed in th e o utput
pu t o f th
th e SH
SHO W MI OX CI R CUI
CUIT COUNT
UNT ER
co mm an d. (C
( C o nt i n ue d)
Pa r am et e r
Me an i ng
timeouts
Information about timeouts.
minopen
The number of times the minimum open timer has expired for the
circuit.
inactive
The number of times the inactivity timer has expired for the circuit.
holddown
The number of times the hold down timer has expired for the
circuit.
collision
The number of times the collision retry timer has expired for the
circuit.
failure
The number of times the link failure timer has expired for the
circuit.
Fi gu r e 6 -16 : Exa mp l e o utput
pu t fr o m the SHOW M IOX CI RCUI
CUI T E NCAP
NCAP co mm an d.
miox interface 0
------------------------------------------------------------------------------headoffice
module IP
packets sent
45
packets rcvd
32
channel
1
state ACTIVE
regionaloffice
module IP
channel 245
state
OPEN
packets sent
calls
successful
12
420
packets rcvd
failed
0
598
accepted
4
Tab l e 6 -12 : Pa ram eters d i sp la yed i n th e o utput
pu t o f th
th e SH
SHOW M IOX CI RCUI
CUI T E NCAP
NCAP
c o mm an d.
Pa r am et e r
Me an i ng
miox interface
The number of the X.25 DTE logical interface.
<circuit-name>
The name of the MIOX circuit.
module
Attached higher layer protocol.
packets sent
Number of packets sent by the specified protocol.
packets rcvd
Number of packets received for the specified protocol.
channel
Displays the X.25 channel number that the call is currently
using.
state
Displays the link state for PVCs and the call state for circuits
operating over SVCs.
successful
Displayed for SVCs, shows the number of successful
outgoing calls.
failed
Displayed for SVCs, shows the number of failed outgoing
calls.
accepted
Displayed for SVCs, shows the number of incoming calls
accepted.
Software Release 1.7.2
J613-M0274-00 Rev.B
UNS
UN SU P PO R T ED
X.25
E x a m p le s
SH O W X 25 C
6 - 59
To display the operational parameters for MIOX circuit “HeadOffice” on X.25
DTE interface 1, use the command:
SHOW MIOX=1 CIRCUIT=HeadOffice
To display the counters for MIOX circuit “HeadOffice” on X.25 DTE interface 1,
use the command:
ACTIVATE MIOX=1 CIRCUIT=HeadOffice COUNTER
See A l so
SET MIOX
SHOW X25C
Syn tax
SHOW X25C[=x25-interface]
where:
■
D e sc r ip t i on
x25-interface is the number of the X.25 DCE logical interface, in the range 0
to 7.
This command displays information about the specified X.25 DCE interface. If
the interface is not specified, information about all X.25 DCE interfaces is displayed (Figure 6-17 on page 6-59, Table 6-13 on page 6-59).
Fi gu r e 6 -17 : Exa mp l e o utput
pu t fr
fr o m th e SH
SH O W X 25 C c o mm an d.
X.25 DCE Interfaces
---------------------------------------------------Interface 0
Over:
LAPB0
Maxactive: 24
PVC:
0
Incoming:
0
Twoway:
24
Outgoing:
0
Interface 1
Over:
LAPB1
Maxactive: 24
PVC:
0
Incoming:
0
Twoway:
24
Outgoing:
0
-----------------------------------------------------
Tab l e 6 -13 : Pa ram eters d i sp la yed i n th e o utput
pu t o f th
th e SH
SHOW X25 C co mm and.
nd .
E x a m p le s
Pa r am et e r
Me an i ng
Interface
The number of the X.25 DCE logical interface.
Over
The layer 2 entity used by this X.25 DCE interface.
Maxactive
The maximum allowed active channels for the interface.
PVC
The number of PVCs configured for the interface.
Incoming
The number of incoming call channels for the interface.
Twoway
The number of two-way call channels for the interface.
Outgoing
The number of outgoing call channels for the interface.
To display the configuration of X.25 DCE interface 0, use the command:
SHOW X25C=0
Software Release 1.7.2
J613-M0274-00 Rev.B
6-60
SHOW X25 C DT
DTE ADDR
ADDRE SS
See A l so
UNS
UN SU P PO R T ED
R e fer en ce M anua
nu al
CREATE X25C
SET X25C
DESTROY X25C
SHOW X2 5C DTE
DTEADD
TEADDR
ADDRESS
Syn tax
SHOW X25C[=x25-interface] DTEADDRESS
where:
■
D e sc r ip t i on
x25-interface is the number of the X.25 DCE logical interface, in the range 0
to 7.
This command displays the DTE addresses that have been configured for the
specified X.25 DCE interface. If the interface is not specified, the DTE addresses
for all X.25 DCE interfaces are displayed (Figure 6-18 on page 6-60, Table 6-14
on page 6-60).
Fi gu r e 6 -18 : Exa mp l e o utput
pu t fr
fr o m th e SH
SHOW X25 C DT
DTE ADDR
ADDRE SS co mma
mma n d.
X.25 DCE address table
Int
Ind
DTE Address
----------------------------------------------0
No DTE addresses for this interface
1
1
000016XX
2
1XXXX
3
90XXX03
4
4600000016
-----------------------------------------------
Tab l e 6 -14 : Pa ram eters d i sp la yed i n th e o utput
put o f th
th e SH
SHOW X25 C DT
DTE ADDR
ADDRE SS
c o mm an d.
E x a m p le s
Pa r am et e r
Me an i ng
Int
The X.25 DCE logical interface number.
Ind
The index of the DTE address.
DTE Address
The DTE addresses configured for the specified interface.
To display the list of DTE addresses to which X.25 DCE interface 0 will
respond, use the command:
SHOW X25C=0 DTEADDRESS
See A l so
ADD X25C DTEADDRESS
DELETE X25C DTEADDRESS
Software Release 1.7.2
J613-M0274-00 Rev.B
UNS
UN SU P PO R T ED
X.25
S H O W X 2 5C R O U TE
6 - 61
SHOW X2 5C ROUTE
Syn tax
D e sc r ip t i on
SHOW X25C ROUTE
This command displays the X.25 DCE route mapping table. All entries are displayed, one per line, in the order of the entry number in the table (Figure 6-19
on page 6-61, Table 6-15 on page 6-61).
Note that the more specific DTE entries appear first in the table. This example
might represent a situation where a private X.25 network of routers is set up,
with one of the routers connecting to a gateway to a public network. The private addresses appear first in the table. If none of the entries match and the
called address has the right number of digits to be a valid public network
address, the call is routed to the gateway, in this case with IP address
172.16.8.253.
Fi gu r e 6 -19 : Exa mp l e o utput
pu t fr
fr o m th e SH
SH O W X 25 C R O U TE c om ma nd .
X.25 DCE route table
Ind
DTE address
IP address
--------------------------------------1
00002300
172.16.16.254
2
00003400
172.16.32.99
3
XXXXXXXX
172.16.8.253
4
XXXXXXXXXX
172.16.8.253
5
XXXXXXXXXXXXXXX
172.16.8.253
---------------------------------------
Tab l e 6-15:
15 : P aram ete rs d i sp la yed in th e o utput
pu t o f th
th e SH
SHOW X25C
25 C R OUTE c om ma nd .
E x a m p le s
Pa r am et e r
Me an i ng
Ind
The index of the route entry in the route table.
DTE Address
The DTE address for the X.25 call.
IP address
The IP address of the router that will accept the call.
To display the X.25 DCE route mapping table, use the command:
SHOW X25C ROUTE
See A l so
Software Release 1.7.2
J613-M0274-00 Rev.B
ADD X25C ROUTE
DELETE X25C ROUTE
6-62
UNS
UN SU P PO R T ED
SH O W X 25 T
R e fer en ce M anua
nu al
SHOW X25T
Syn tax
SHOW X25T[=x25-interface] [{CIRCUIT|COUNT}]
where:
■
D e sc r ip t i on
x25-interface is the number of the X.25 DTE logical interface, in the range 0
to 7.
This command displays information about the specified X.25 DTE interface. If
the interface is not specified, information about all X.25 DTE interfaces is displayed (Figure 6-20 on page 6-62, Table 6-16 on page 6-62). The CIRCUIT
parameter displays details of X.25 circuits (Figure 6-21 on page 6-64, Table 6-17
on page 6-64). The COUNT parameter displays X.25 DTE counters (Figure 6-22
on page 6-65, Table 6-18 on page 6-65).
Fi gu r e 6 -20 : Exa mp l e o utput
pu t fr o m the SHOW X25 T c om ma nd .
------------------------------------------------------------------------------X.25 DTE Interface: 0
Over:
LAPB4
Packet modulus:
8
DTE role:
DYNAMIC
DTE address:
Max channels:
Number PVCs:
LIC:
500
HIC:
1000
Incoming: 500
LOC:
2500
HOC:
3000
Outgoing: 500
Timers
Restart
Call Req
Reset Req
Clear Req
Win Status
T20:
T21:
T22:
T23:
T24:
LTC:
1500
HTC:
2000
Twoway: 500
180
200
180
180
60
R20:
1
R22:
R23:
1
1
Win Rotate
Interrupt
Reject
Registration
128
499
T25:
T26:
T27:
T28:
60
180
60
300
R25:
0
R27:
R28:
0
0
Default call parameters: 0
Receive window:
2
Transmit window:
2
Receive data:
128
Transmit data:
128
-------------------------------------------------------------------------------
Tab l e 6 -16 : Pa ram eters d i sp la yed i n th e o utput
pu t o f th
th e SH
SH O W X 25 T
c o mm an d.
Pa r am et e r
Me an i ng
X.25 DTE instance
The number of the X.25 logical interface.
Over
The Layer 2 entity used by this X.25 interface.
DTE address
The DTE address for this X.25 interface.
Packet modulus
The modulus of packet sequence numbers.
Max channels
The maximum number of channels supported.
DTE role
The operational mode of the X.25 interface; one of “DCE”,
“DTE” or “DYNAMIC”.
Number PVCs
The number of channels reserved for PVCs.
LIC
The lowest incoming channel number.
Software Release 1.7.2
J613-M0274-00 Rev.B
UNS
UN SU P PO R T ED
X.25
S H O W X 2 5T
6 - 63
Tab l e 6 -16 : Pa ram eters d i sp la yed i n th e o utput
pu t o f th
th e SH
SH O W X 25 T
co mm an d. (C
( C o nt i n ue d)
Software Release 1.7.2
J613-M0274-00 Rev.B
Pa r am et e r
Me an i ng
LTC
The lowest two-way channel number.
LOC
The lowest outgoing channel number.
HIC
The highest incoming channel number.
HTC
The highest two-way channel number.
HOC
The highest outgoing channel number.
Incoming
The number of incoming call channels available.
Twoway
The number of twoway call channels available.
Outgoing
The number of outgoing call channels available.
T20
The value (in seconds) of the restart timer.
R20
The value of the restart retransmission counter.
T21
The value (in seconds) of the call timer.
T22
The value (in seconds) of the reset timer.
R22
The value of the restart request retransmission counter.
T23
The value (in seconds) of the clear timer.
R23
The value of the clear request retransmission counter.
T24
The value (in seconds) of the optional window timer.
T25
The value (in seconds) of the window rotation timer.
R25
The value of the window rotation counter.
T26
The value (in seconds) of the interrupt timer.
T27
The value (in seconds) of the reject response timer.
R27
The value of the reject retransmission counter.
T28
The value (in seconds) of the registration timer.
R28
The value of the registration counter.
Default call parameter
The index of the default call parameter set for this interface.
Receive window
The reception window size for the default call
parameter set.
Transmit window
The transmission window size for the default call
parameter set.
Receive data
The maximum packet size for reception for the default call
parameter set.
Transmit data
The maximum packet size for transmission for the default
call parameter set.
6-64
UNS
UN SU P PO R T ED
SH O W X 25 T
R e fer en ce M anua
nu al
Fi gu r e 6 -21 : Exa mp l e o utput
pu t fr o m the SHOW X25 T CI R CUI
CUIT co mma
mma nd .
X.25 DTE Instance: 0
Circuits
------------------------------------------------------------------------------Channel: 1
Comment: Call to head office
Type:
Status:
Call Parameters:
Established Time:
Octets Received:
Data Packets Received:
Interrupts Received:
Remote Resets:
PVC
pvc
0
0
0
0
0
0
Octets Sent:
Data Packets Sent:
Interrupts Sent:
Provider Resets:
0
0
0
0
Timer
T22
T25
T26
Timeouts:
0
0
0
--------------------------------------------------------------------------------
Tab l e 6 -17 : Pa ram eters d i sp la yed i n th e o utput
pu t o f th
th e SH
SHOW X25 T CI R CUI
CUIT
c o mm an d.
Pa r am et e r
Me an i ng
X.25 DTE instance
The number of the X.25 DTE logical interface.
Channel
The channel number.
Comment
A description of the call.
Type
The channel type: one of “PVC” or “SVC”.
Status
The status of the call.
CPar
The index of the call parameter set for this channel.
Estab Time
The time that the call was established.
Octets Received
The number of octets received on this channel.
Octets Sent
The number of octets transmitted on this channel.
Data Packets Received
The number of PDUs received on this channel.
Data Packets Sent
The number of PDUs transmitted on this channel.
Interrupts Received
The number of interrupt requests received.
Interrupts Sent
The number of interrupt requests sent.
Remote Resets
The number of calls on this channel reset by this DTE.
Provider Resets
The number of calls on this channel reset by the provider.
T22 timeouts
The number of times a timeout occurred for the reset timer
on this channel.
T25 timeouts
The number of times a timeout occurred for the window
rotation timer on this channel.
T26 timeouts
The number of times a timeout occurred for the Interrupt
timer on this channel.
Software Release 1.7.2
J613-M0274-00 Rev.B
UNS
UN SU P PO R T ED
X.25
S H O W X 2 5T
6 - 65
Fi gu r e 6 -22 : Exa mp l e o utput
pu t fr o m the SHOW X25 T COUNT
UNT co mma
mma n d.
X.25 DTE instance: 0
Counters
Data Packets Received:
Interrupts Received:
Calls Received:
Calls Refused:
Remote Resets:
Clear Call Received:
Restarts Received:
Protocol Errors:
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
Incoming Circuits:
Outgoing Circuits:
Twoway Circuits:
0
0
0
Timer Timeouts
Restart Request T20:
Call Request
T21:
Reset Request
T22:
0
0
0
Retrys Exceeded:
0
Data Packets Sent:
Interrupts Sent:
Calls Attempted:
Calls Failed:
Provider Resets:
0
0
0
0
0
Clear Request T23:
Win Rotation T25:
Interrupt T26:
0
0
0
Tab l e 6 -18 : Pa rame ters d i spl a yed in th e ou tp ut o f th
the SHOW X25T
25 T COUNT
UNT c om ma nd .
Software Release 1.7.2
J613-M0274-00 Rev.B
Pa r am et e r
Me an i ng
X.25 DTE instance
The number of the X.25 logical interface.
Data Packets Received
The number of data packets received.
Data Packets Sent
The number of data packets transmitted.
Interrupts Received
The number of interrupt requests received.
Interrupts Sent
The number of interrupt requests sent.
Calls Received
The number of incoming calls received.
Calls Attempted
The number of outgoing calls made.
Calls Refused
The number of incoming calls refused.
Calls Failed
The number of outgoing calls the failed.
Remote Resets
The number of times an incoming call was reset by this DTE.
Provider Resets
The number of times an incoming call was reset by the
network provider.
Clear Call Received
The number of clear call requests received.
Restarts Received
The number of restart requests received.
Protocol Errors
The number of data packets received which contained
protocol errors.
Incoming
The number of incoming call channels available.
Twoway
The number of twoway call channels available.
Outgoing
The number of outgoing call channels available.
T20 timeouts
The number of times a timeout occurred for the restart
timer.
T21 timeouts
The number of times a timeout occurred for the call timer.
T22 timeouts
The number of times a timeout occurred for the reset timer.
T23 timeouts
The number of times a timeout occurred for the clear timer.
6-66
UNS
UN SU P PO R T ED
SHOW X25 T CPAR
R e fer en ce M anua
nu al
Tab l e 6 -1 8: Pa ram ete rs di sp l aye d i n the ou tp ut o f th
the SHOW X2 5T COUNT
UNT co m mand.
nd .
E x a m p le s
Pa r am et e r
Me an i ng
T25 timeouts
The number of times a timeout occurred for the window
rotation timer.
T26 timeouts
The number of times a timeout occurred for the Interrupt
timer.
Retrys Exceeded
The number of times the retry counter was exceeded.
To display the counters for X.25 DTE interface 1, use the command:
SHOW X25T=0 COUNT
See A l so
CREATE X25T
DESTROY X25T
SET X25T
RESET X25T
SHOW X2 5T CPAR
Syn tax
SHOW X25T CPAR[=call-index]
where:
■
D e sc r ip t i on
call-index is the index of the call parameters to display.
This command displays a set of call parameters for X.25 (Figure 6-23 on
page 6-66, Table 6-19 on page 6-67). If the call parameter index is specified, that
call parameter entry is displayed, otherwise all call parameter entries are displayed. The call parameters must already exist.
Fi gu r e 6 -23 : Exa mp l e o utput
pu t fr
fr o m th e SH
SHOW X25 T CPAR co mm an d.
X.25 DTE call parameters
Index:
1
References:
0
Receive window:
2
Transmit window:
Receive data:
128
Transmit data:
User data: 80 00 00 00 08 00
NUI string: bt_test_host
Index:
2
References:
3
Receive window:
2
Transmit window:
Receive data:
128
Transmit data:
User data: 80 00 00 00 81 37
NUI string:
2
128
2
128
Software Release 1.7.2
J613-M0274-00 Rev.B
UNS
UN SU P PO R T ED
X.25
SHOW X25 T CPAR
6 - 67
Tab l e 6 -19 : Pa ram eters d i sp la yed i n th e o utput
pu t o f th
th e SH
SHOW X25 T CPAR co mm an d.
E x a m p le s
Pa r am et e r
Me an i ng
Index
The index of the call parameter set.
References
The number of PVCs and X.25 DTE logical interfaces
defined that reference this call plus the number of calls in
progress using this call parameter set.
Receive window
The reception window size for this call parameter set.
Transmit window
The transmission window size for this call parameter set.
Receive data
The maximum packet size for reception for this call
parameter set.
Transmit data
The maximum packet size for transmission for this call
parameter set.
User data
The value to be used in the user data field of a call request
for this call parameter set.
NUI string
The Network User Identification to be used for this call
parameter set.
To display the configuration of all X.25 DTE call parameter sets, use the command:
SHOW X25T CPAR
See A l so
Software Release 1.7.2
J613-M0274-00 Rev.B
ADD X25T CPAR
CREATE X25T
DELETE X25T CPAR
SET X25T
SET X25T CPAR
6-68
SHOW X25 T CPAR
UNS
UN SU P PO R T ED
R e fer en ce M anua
nu al
Software Release 1.7.2
J613-M0274-00 Rev.B
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