Royal EVO Tutorial

Royal EVO Tutorial
EVO software version 1.26 (North American)
Multiplex EVO Tutorial
2
TABLE OF CONTENTS
1.
INTRODUCTION .............................................. 1
1. 1.
W idg ets , Cont ro l s, Ch an ne ls , M ix e rs ............................................ 2
1. 2.
T h e M u ltipl e x P rog r am mi ng Con c ept ............................................ 2
2.
INITI AL CONSIDERATIONS ............................... 4
2. 1.
Pl an nin g th e M odel ...................................................................... 4
2. 2.
Pl an nin g th e T ran s mitt e r .............................................................. 5
3.
MIXING ......................................................... 7
3. 1.
M ixer O v e rv i ew ............................................................................ 7
3. 2.
Cr e atin g a M ix e r ......................................................................... 12
4.
PROGRAMMING ............................................. 14
4. 1.
E VO P ro g r a mmi ng Flow Ch art .................................................... 14
4. 2.
E VO P ro g r a mmi ng M enu C h a rt ................................................... 16
4. 3.
Cr e ate a New M odel .................................................................... 18
4. 4.
As s i gn t h e W i dge ts an d Cont r o l s ............................................... 19
4. 5.
As s i gn S e rv os ............................................................................ 21
4. 6.
Al e r t – E r ron eou s in iti al f lap v a lu e ............................................. 24
4. 7.
Che c ki ng Inpu ts ......................................................................... 26
4. 8.
Dua l R ate s ................................................................................. 26
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3
DIGI-ADJUSTERS........................................... 28
5. 1.
As s i gni ng a Di gi- Ad j us te r .......................................................... 28
5. 2.
How to E r as e the D igi - Ad j u st o r As s ign m ent ............................... 30
6.
TIMERS ........................................................ 30
6. 1.
M o tor Ru n T im e r ........................................................................ 30
6. 2.
T h e SUM T ime r ........................................................................... 32
6. 3.
T h e SLO T T im er ......................................................................... 33
6. 4.
T h e CO UNT -DO W N T im e r ............................................................ 33
7.
FLIGHT PHASES ............................................ 35
7. 1.
Flig ht Ph a se N a me s ................................................................... 36
7. 2.
Flig ht Ph a se S el ec t ion ............................................................... 38
7. 3.
Flig ht Ph a se D ef ini tio n .............................................................. 39
7. 4.
Flig ht Ph a se Fu nct ion s .............................................................. 40
7. 5.
S et t i n g t h e F l ig h t Pha s e Set t ing s ............................................... 41
8.
THE MIX 1, MIX 2, MIX 3 FUNCTION .................. 43
9.
ADV ANCED MIXER CONCEPTS ......................... 47
10.
PROGRAMMING FULL-HOUSE S AILPL ANES ....... 51
10 . 1. P rog r amm ing O v e rv iew .............................................................. 51
10 . 2. Cr e ate A C ust om As s ign m ent Li st .............................................. 51
10 . 3. Cr e ate T h e M ixe r s ...................................................................... 52
10 . 4. Cr e ate T he M odel ....................................................................... 55
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10 . 5. Ad ju st T h e M ix e r V alu e s ............................................................. 56
10 . 6. S erv o C al ib r atio n ....................................................................... 57
10 . 7. Ref in em ent Pos s ibi liti e s ............................................................ 58
11.
10.7.1.
Al t e r n a t i v e E l e v a t o r C o m p e n s a t i o n P o s s i b i l i t i e s . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 5 8
10.7.2.
Al t e r n a t i v e R e f l e x / C a m b e r P o s s i b i l i t i e s . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 5 8
PROGRAMMING ELECTRIC RES SAILPL ANES ..... 60
11 . 1. P rog r amm ing So luti on ............................................................... 60
11 . 2. Uniq u e M ix er s tha t are N e ede d ................................................... 61
11 . 3. Cont ro l W idg et As s ign me nts ...................................................... 61
11 . 4. Sw itc h W idg et As s i gn me nt ......................................................... 61
11 . 5. S erv o As s ig n m ent s .................................................................... 62
11 . 6. M ixer T r av el S ettin g s ................................................................. 62
11 . 7. M ixer R e sul t s a nd E xp la nat ion s ................................................. 62
11.7.1.
Throttle > Elevator Compensation Expl ained ................................... 62
11.7.2.
Spoiler > Elevator Compensation Explained .................................... 63
11 . 8. Ai l e ron > Rud d e r Cou p l ing ......................................................... 64
11.8.1.
12.
Au t o m a t i c Ai l e r o n > R u d d e r C o u p l i n g U s i n g a M i x e r . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 6 4
EX AMPLE SCENARIOS .................................... 66
12 . 1. S el ec tab l e Cr ow (Butt e rfl y) B r ak ing ........................................... 66
12 . 2. Rudd e r Com p e n s ati on W ith T hrott l e T r av e l ................................ 68
12 . 3. A D i sc us- L a unc h M o me nta r y Rud d e r P r e set ............................... 69
12 . 4. Au t o mat ic El ev a t o r Co mp en s at i o n w it h T h ro t t l e an d
Spo il e r D eplo ym e nt .................................................................... 70
12 . 5. Au t o mat ic R udd e r Dua l R at e Wh en Fl ap e ron s Ar e
Dep lo ye d P a st A C e rta i n Po int ................................................... 72
12 . 6. Sn ap Fl ap s ................................................................................. 75
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12 . 7. Sn ap Ro ll ................................................................................... 78
13.
ORIGINAL MULTIPLEX MIXER DEFINITIONS ....... 83
13 . 1. El ev a t o r + ................................................................................... 83
13 . 2. V-T ai l + ....................................................................................... 83
13 . 3. De lta + ........................................................................................ 84
13 . 4. Ai l e ron + ..................................................................................... 84
13 . 5. F la p + ......................................................................................... 84
14.
ACKNOWLEDGEMENTS AND CREDITS ............... 85
© 2004 James “Joedy” Drulia
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1. INTRODUCTION
Welcome to the Multiplex Royal EVO tutorial. This tutorial is endorsed and sponsored by
Hitec-USA, Inc. This tutorial is copyrighted and all rights are reserved. This tutorial may be
used for personal purposes, but it may not be used for commercial purposes without the
expressed permission of the author.
The reader is allowed to print this tutorial for personal use. Copies of this tutorial may be
freely distributed only in its completed form.
With the exception of the personal use allowance previously listed above, no duplication of
the tutorial in part or whole is allowed without the expressed permission of the author. This
includes, but is not limited to, internet web pages, magazines, and books. For exceptions to
this limitation, contact the author for permission to duplicate this tutorial.
This tutorial is primarily catered to new Multiplex EVO pilots who have recently converted to
the Multiplex EVO or who are currently in the process of upgrading to an EVO with a
background working with and programming Asian-based radios (AR).
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The tutorial also assumes that the reader has read the manual. The reader should be
comfortable entering information into the EVO and should be reasonably adept in using the
input keys as well as the digi-adjuster keys for data input.
1.1. WIDGETS, CONTROLS, CHANNELS, MIXERS
First and foremost the new Multiplex user should immediately endeavor to become
acclimated with the specific terminology used in this tutorial as well as within the Multiplex
community in general.
The author recommends using Mike Shellim's approach to the following unique Multiplex
vocabulary terms:
Widget :
Sticks, switches, buttons, and sliders. On the EVO, the trim buttons, the digiadjusters and the menu buttons near the bottom of the transmitter case are
NOT considered a widget.
Control :
What the function of the widget is. Initially, a widget doesn't do anything on
Multiplex radios. The pilot must instruct the EVO as to what the effect that the
widget will have.
Channel :
Servo input signal. For this tutorial, you cannot have more servos in a plane
than you have channels. The RE9 has nine and the RE12 has twelve.
Mixer :
A miniature list of up to five control inputs that can each provide a control signal
to a servo. Servos only have one physical plug end. Mixers allow for more than
one control input to command a servo to move. Mixers will be addressed in
detail in a later lesson. Mixers are not physical elements, but are created and
stored in the EVO software.
1.2. THE MULTIPLEX PROGRAMMING CONCEPT
For a new user of the EVO, the MPX logic sequence can be very confusing at first. It is
helpful to keep in mind the following programming logic sequence:
WIDGET
CONTROL
MIXER (OPTIONAL)
SER V O
This is best understood as, "The servo is assigned to the Mixer, which is assigned to a
control, which is then assigned to a widget."
With MPX, none of the widgets are established as controls initially. The widgets don't and
won't do anything when the EVO is taken right out of the retail box. The actual data streams
to the servos (which are the controls), however, already exists within the transmitter, but
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since they're not yet assigned to a widget, to a new MPX user it appears that there are no
functions on the EVO!
Mixers can be pre-made by Multiplex or can be a custom made that the pilot can create.
Mixers will be discussed in detail later in this tutorial.
The idea that widgets don't do anything
right out of the box is a major hurdle to
overcome when converting from an Asian
radio brand to a Multiplex brand radio.
On an AR, the widget (the switch) that commands the flaps is already established to a
control (activating the flap servo). This widget is permanently wired to a channel that sends a
signal to the flap servo. Because the widget and the channel are permanently connected,
none of the attributes such as the widget, control, or channel can be changed on an AR. The
flap widget on an AR will always be a flap widget - it cannot be set to effect another servo or
control such as a landing gear, tow release or wheel brake. This applies to the other prewired widgets on the ARs as well.
With an AR, since the widget and the channel are already hardwired for you from the
factory, it is common practice to refer to a "flap channel" or a "spoiler channel." This is a
practice that can no longer continue since it will cause the reader a lot of grief when
attempting to understand the MPX approach.
With the MPX radios there are no connections between the widgets, controls and servos.
There is, however, a software connection that can be established within the MPX
transmitter. In fact, this ability is the pivotal concept that allows the MPX radios such a
tremendous amount of flexibility and programming power.
“So, how do these connections become
established on the EVO?”
The pilot establishes these connections. The pilot decides which widget should effect which
control and then established which servo receives that control signal. With MPX, the pilot will
no longer need to plug specific servos into specific slots in the receiver - MPX allows the pilot
to determine which control signal goes to which output on the receiver.
So, now that we have an understanding of the MPX logic, should the next step be to jump
right in and begin programming the EVO?
No.
Before the pilot begins to program the EVO, they should spend a moment to consider the
plane, their preferred flying style, and the specific controls that will be needed for the plane.
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They should also consider which widgets that they would like to use and how they should be
utilized (always "ON" or switched off or on a slider?)
2. INITIAL CONSIDERATIONS
So, there the EVO sits on the workbench just out of the package. Perhaps the pilot has
already read the manual, but perhaps they just charged the EVO up and turned it on and
started playing around with the widgets and menu buttons.
"Ugh?" they may have wondered. "Where is the dual-rate switch? Doesn't this thing have a
crow switch? How about a simple landing gear switch?"
These are probably all valid first impressions if the pilot is transitioning from an Asian radio
(AR) to the EVO.
Notice that all of the widgets on the EVO are designated with a letter. One slider, for
example, is labeled as "E" and the other is designated with an "F". Other switches and
buttons have their own letter designations.
There is a valid reason for this approach by MPX. Since the widgets are not assigned to a
control or to a function from the factory, assigning a generic letter code to each widget allows
a way to indicate a particular widget to the EVO by referencing the letter code.
Also, take this time now to consider whether the pilot will be installing the short, medium or
long buttoned axis sticks. Install that set that is most comfortable. Although the long sticks are
for finger tip flying, they feature extra buttons that can be used later to control features or to
turn on and off certain functions.
So, are the readers now ready to begin setting up the EVO?
No.
It's now time to put some thought into how the pilot likes to fly and what type of ship the pilot
will be programming into the EVO.
For this example, we will be using the Omega 1.8E that is an ARF composite glider that has
ailerons, v-tail and proportional motor controls. This is a plane is representative of many hot
liners. The reader should keep in mind, however, that many of the steps that will be illustrated
in this tutorial can be used to work with other planes.
2.1. PLANNING THE MODEL
Before commencing the EVO programming, it will be necessary to consider the following
items:
§
How many servos will be installed in this plane?
§
Are non-flying functions such as a landing gear switches or a timer functions
needed?
§
Should certain functions be designated as "Always on" or "Switched on"?
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§
Which widgets should be used and which widgets should remain dormant?
§
Should more than one control movement affect a servo?
The plane example used in this tutorial has a total of four servos, one each for the ailerons
and one each for the v-tail surfaces. Although there will be no servo controlling the motor,
there will be an ESC which will be considered a "servo" since it will require a data stream
from one of EVO's channels in order to operate.
This means that there will be at least five essential control channels necessary for flight.
This satisfies the first of the pre-programming questions.
Next, since there will not be a landing gear, this function will not be needed. A tow release
function will not be needed as well. However, a timer function that will keep track of the motor
run time will be a nice feature. Since the author doesn’t want to fool with a switch to turn the
timer on or off, the timer should start and remaining running only when the throttle is turned
on automatically.
Dual-rates on the aileron, rudder and elevator controls will be needed. This to be turned on
and off with a switch.
Rudder should be added with ailerons for coordinated turns. This should be switched on
and off with a widget as well.
Aileron differential will possibly be needed in case the Omega experiences adverse yaw
when ailerons are used. This should always on, but there needs to be a way to adjust and
fine tune the amount of differential compensation while flying the plane.
A spoileron and flaperon function will be needed that will be set on a slider for camber and
reflex settings. This widget will work as a set-and-forget slider to adjust the reflex setting for
penetration flight and the camber setting for thermal flight.
Another control will be spoilerons and this will be assigned to the left axis stick. This will be
used for landing purposes.
2.2. PLANNING THE TRANSMITTER
We've determined which control functions should be used on the plane, but now it's time to
decide which widgets should be programmed. The pilot can pick any widget to have any
function, but some things are pretty obvious - assigning the elevator control to a two position
switch would not be very beneficial. The three main flying functions (elevator, rudder and
ailerons) will be assigned on the axis sticks working in mode two. The right control stick will
control elevator and ailerons and the left stick will control the rudder.
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If the reader has not set ratcheting on the left
stick and disabled the spring tensions in the up
and down motions, this is ok. The EVO will work
fine without this being set, but if the reader
would like their EVO to resemble the feel of most
Mode 2 factory set transmitters, change the
settings of the left stick to be ratcheting in the
forward and back motion. The spring tension can
also be disabled in the forward and back widget
motion. By doing this, the reader can use the left
stick as a throttle control or as a landing control
for flaps, spoilers or crow functions.
For the throttle functions, the "E" widget will be used. When it's all the way towards the
bottom of the transmitter, the motor should be off.
The "L" three-position switch will be used for dual rates since this will allow for two “on”
positions for dual rates. One in the upper and another dual rate setting the lower position with
the center position being utilized for no dual rate setting (full high-rates.)
The aileron differential should be set to a switch as well. The "I" widget will be used since
it's close to the aileron control widget and will be easy to locate by fingers.
The reflex/camber function will be put on the "F" slider. Center detent will be no reflex or
camber.
The spoiler function will be assigned to the left axis stick.
Observant readers will note here that three widgets have been assigned to control the
spoilerons: the right axis stick, the "F" slider and the left axis stick.
Consider this: the aileron servos should to respond to the aileron widget (the right axis
stick), to the reflex/camber ("F" slider) widget so that they both go up and down together and
they should also respond to the left axis stick which will be the spoileron landing control.
But, here's the problem: The left and right aileron servos have only one physical plug
ending each. We could plug the left aileron servo into a slot on the receiver that is
commanding the left aileron signal, but then, how can we get the signals coming from the "F"
slider and the left axis stick to the left and right ailerons? With only one plug ending, we can
only get one channel signal to the servo!
“How can we work around this?”
The answer is to establish a mixer.
Recall the definition of a mixer that was given earlier.
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Mixer :
A miniature list of up to five control inputs that can each provide a control
signal to a servo. Servos only have one physical plug end. Mixers allow for
more than one control input to command a servo to move.
Our solution is to make a mixer that will accept the widget movement instructions from the
"F" slider (reflex control), the left axis stick (spoileron landing control) and from the right axis
stick (aileron control). The mixer does not "mix" up these signals, but it will send a signal to
the aileron servos whenever one, two or all three of these widgets are moved. With a mixer,
whenever a signal is encountered from any of the control inputs, a signal will be sent to the
servo that is assigned to the mixer. How much the aileron servos will move, their directions of
travel and their limits of travel as a result of getting signals from the mixer will all be set by the
pilot.
This mixer must be created before proceeding further. Greater discussion of the MPX mixer
concept is necessary as well.
3. MIXING
For new users of the MPX EVO and especially if they are upgrading from an Asian radio
(AR), the MPX concept of mixing is probably one of the most difficult concepts to understand
at first.
So far, it has been decided which widgets to use for flying the plane. It has also been
discovered that since the servos on the aileron only have one physical plug connector, that
by plugging it into a receiver port, it would be impossible to send more than one channel
signal to the servo.
This is anticipated to be a problem since it will be necessary to have a reflex/camber slider
control, a spoileron control on the left axis and the standard aileron controls on the right axis
stick. All of these widgets are to send a signal to the aileron servos when the pilot moves
them.
A mixer will be necessary in order to accomplish this.
3.1. MIXER OVERVIEW
Mixer definitions (the name of the mixer, the control inputs to the mixer, whether they're
always on or switched, and the description of the assigned servo’s movement) are
considered global. This simply means that the definitions are not created when the model is
created in the EVO. If this were the case, the pilot would have to create each mixer from
scratch every time they set up a new model.
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The Multiplex approach to mixers allows the pilot to save time while programming future
models after initially creating their unique mixers.
So, while it may seem strange at first to not be able to make a mixer while you are
programming your specific plane into the EVO, keep in mind that by creating the mixer under
the SETUP menu, it will become available to other planes. So while the pilot may initially
create the mixer for one plane, the mixer can later be used on another plane. This saves a lot
of time and programming steps.
So, how many mixer definitions can be saved? On the EVO, there can be up to 14. The first
five mixers are made courtesy of Multiplex to assist users who don't want to create from
scratch commonly used control scenarios. These are things such as v-tail, delta wings and
flap landing mixers. There is also a specialized elevator mixer that was created with spoiler,
flap and throttle compensation. There is also a specialized aileron mixer which was created
by Multiplex with spoiler, flap and elevator compensation in mind.
Consider this: if a mixer is created (such as the one that will soon be created for the
Omega) suppose that while the servo travel functions work fine with this plane. But at a later
time when we assign this mixer to another similar glider, the mixer while it causes the servos
to move properly in the correct directions has way too much to too little servo travel? Do we
need to create another mixer?
The answer reveals that the question was a trick question!
Keep in mind that while a mixer does list the particular controls that will effect a
specific servo and describes how that servo will travel when the control’s widget is
moved (symmetrical, symmetrical with dead zone, single sided with offset, single
sided with dead zone or single sided with curve), the mixer does not contain any
specific definitions that provide travel volumes or provide travel distances for a servo
when it is defined.
"When creating a mixer, the pilot only
establishes a frame work, but no specific
servo travel distances?"
The answer is yes.
While the newly created mixer will be created as a global element, the travel values of each
control listed in the mixer will be modified only once the mixer has been assigned to a model.
This is a good programming approach since by only establishing the controls (or the
framework) that will affect a servo in the mixer definition and not the corresponding servo
travels of the controls listed in the mixer, it allows us to create "generic" (or global) mixers
which can be tweaked and modified when assigned to other planes. Consider that while you
may use one mixer with more than one plane, the servo travel limits for each plane will be
probably be different.
MPX mixing logic is set up to account for this.
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The following illustration shows how the aileron servos (which have only one physical plug
ending) are able to receive servo data signals from more than one control. (The Elevator and
Rudder widgets are omitted for clarity.) The mixer named “Ail Tut+” (which will later be
created in this tutorial) will accept signals from the aileron, flap and spoiler controls. When
any one of these controls sends a signal into the “Ail-Tut+” mixer, a corresponding servo
signal will be sent to all of the servos attached to the mixer. Observe that the MPX mixer
concept is not a slave/master technique. Each control input into the mixer is independent of
the other controls also entering into the mixer. When one, two, or all controls are activated,
the mixer will send a signal to the servos attached to it. The pilot establishes the levels of
signals that are sent to the servos by adjusting the servo output values within the mixer itself.
So for example, while the right axis stick widget might be set to give 100% of aileron servo
movement the, the “F” slider widget could be set to give only 20% of aileron servo movement.
The pilot establishes the blue lines by making assignments in the EVO. The red-colored
squares on the “Ail Tut+” mixer indicate that up to nine servos can be connected to the mixer.
On an EVO12, there would be 12 red-colored squares shown. If the pilot had a need to add
additional aileron servos (for a large scale plane, perhaps), the additional aileron servos
could be plugged into the “Ail Tut+” mixer. As a result, all of the aileron servos would move
the same. (The pilot needs not to be concerned about making the left and right aileron servos
move in opposite directions; the EVO figures out this by itself.) Observe the choice of widgets
and the blue lines that connect the widgets to the controls. The pilot also establishes which
widgets to use as well as which control that the widget should be assigned to.
The Throttle control has been assigned to the “E” slider widget in this illustration. The
throttle servo (or ESC) is assigned directly to the Throttle control and not to a mixer. The “E”
slider will be able to control the throttle servo/ESC without a problem, but this is the only
widget will be able to send any signals to this servo.
Observe how the “E” slider is controlling the throttle as well as the Sum Timer. On the EVO,
a widget can be used for multiple functions. This will be demonstrated in detail later in the
tutorial.
Observe also that there are still two remaining control input slots into the “Ail Tut+” mixer if
the pilot decided that additional controls should also effect the aileron servos.
Widgets
Right
Stick
"F"
Left
Stick
"E"
Controls
Elevator
Rudder
Aileron
Flap
Spoiler
Throttle
Timer
Ail Tut+
Mixer
Aileron
Servos
Σ
Throttle
Servo
(or ESC)
Sum
¹ Timer
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The following diagram shows how one mixer definition can be applied to multiple planes.
The two example planes shown are very different. One is a jet with a v-tail, flap, aileron and
throttle controls. The other example is a sailplane with v-tail, flap, aileron, and spoiler
controls.
Although each plane has different servo travel distances established within the mixer menu,
they both are utilizing the “V-Tail+” default mixer definition that comes pre-programmed within
the EVO from the factory.
Notice how some controls are not utilized such as the Spoiler control on the V-Tail Jet and
the Throttle control on the V-Tail Sailplane and are thus are dashed out to instruct the EVO to
ignore these specific controls.
There is no limit as to the number of times that a servo can be assigned to a defined mixer.
In fact, in this example, there are a total of four servos that are taking advantage of the
default “V-Tail+” mixer; each plane has two v-tail servos that are assigned to the “V-Tail+”
mixer.
As more planes are programmed into the EVO and take advantage of the default “V-Tail+”
MPX mixer, the servos of these additional planes can be assigned to the “V-Tail+” mixer.
Since the mixers in the EVO are global, they are accessible to all models. Within the setup of
each plane, up to nine servos on an EVO9 (and up to 12 servos on an EVO12) can be
assigned to this mixer.
On the left side of the diagram in the “Global Mixer Definitions” columns, the reader will
notice that there are no specific servo travel distances listed or shown. Travel distances are
not entered until a servo as been assigned to the mixer, and then within the plane’s Mixer
menu.
Observe also that the first five default mixers from MPX are shown in the Global Mixer
Definition column as well as a custom mixer named “CROWflap+”. This custom made mixer
was created for flap servos on a sailplane for Crow or Butterfly flight function. This custom
mixer contains an additional piece of information that is not observed within the first five
MPX-defined mixers; the “CROWflap+” mixer contains a listing in the middle column titled as
“Mix 1”.
The Mix 1, Mix 2 and Mix 3 functions will be explained in detail in a future chapter.
For the time being, however, take a moment to commit to memory that global mixer
definitions do not contain specific servo travel distance information.
Specific servo travel distances can be entered only once a servo has been assigned to a
mixer. This is done on a per model basis.
© 2004 James “Joedy” Drulia
All rights are reserved
No commercial reproduction of this material in part or whole is allowed.
Update B.03.16.04
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ü
Elevator
Spoiler
Flap
Thr -Tr
------Name
1
2
3
4
5
Elevator
Rudder
Spoiler
Flap
Thr -Tr
Name
1
2
3
4
5
Aileron
Elevator
Thr -Tr
--------------Name
1
2
3
4
5
Aileron
Spoiler
Flap
Ele -Tr
-------Name
1
2
3
4
5
Flap
Spoiler
Aileron
Ele -Tr
-------Name
1
2
3
4
5
å
Global Mixer Definitions
Name
1
2
3
4
5
11
Flap
Aileron
Spoiler
Brake
-------
Elevator+
----------------
Mixer Menu
V-Tail+
1
2
3
4
5
Trv
-90%
-90%
----20%
OFF
Elevator
Rudder
Spoiler
Flap
Thr -Tr
Trv
100%
100%
---20%
-25%
V-Tail+
---------------Delta+
Both V-Tail
Servos Assigned
to Mixer
----------------
V-Tail Jet
Aileron+
---------------Flap+
----------------
å
Mixer Menu
V-Tail+
1
2
3
4
5
Elevator
Rudder
Spoiler
Flap
Thr -Tr
Trv
-80%
-100%
30%
-30%
----
Trv
100%
100%
85%
30%
----
CROWflp+
- - Mix 1
Mix 1
Mix 1
-----
Both V-Tail
Servos Assigned
to Mixer
A total of 14 mixers can be
created and stored in the
EVO memory.
V-Tail Sailplane
© 2004 James “Joedy” Drulia
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12
Some additional things to keep in mind concerning mixers are:
§
There can be a maximum of five controls inputting a signal to a specific servo.
§
The pilot can have a mixer that only has one control input to a mixer, but if this is the
case, it is not necessary to even have a mixer. Instead just assign the control to the
servo - no mixer would be necessary in this case. For practical purposes, consider
that mixers by nature should contain at least two or more control inputs. The EVO
doesn't care, however, if the pilot establishes only one control input to a mixer. The
end result will be that the pilot will be using one of the 14 mixer slots for something
that is unnecessary.
§
Mixers can have up to eight characters in the mixer name. The pilot is not
constrained in any fashion as to the schematic or naming conventions of the mixers.
It would be wise to develop a habit of mixer naming patterns that is easy to see and
recognize. The typical MPX mixer naming schematic is to list the specific servo that
will be plugged into the mixer (for example, "Aileron") and then to add a "+" symbol
("Aileron+") to indicate that the mixer does more than just send aileron control signals
to the servo - it sends additional control signals from other widgets. This is a simple
way of designating a mixer.
§
It is highly recommended by Multiplex, other MPX users and this tutorial to not play
with the mixer definitions of the first five mixers that are provided by Multiplex in the
SETUP-Mixer Def. menu. You can open them up, look at them, write down their
control inputs, note their mixer options symbol and then use that information to create
a duplicate mixer that is custom made. This way, experimentation can be later
deleted without affecting the functionality of your pre-defined MPX mixers.
3.2. CREATING A MIXER
With this overview of MPX mixers in mind, create the mixer that will be needed for the
Omega 1.8E.
STEP ONE
Turn on the EVO and navigate to any of the main screens. Hit the SETUP button near the
bottom of the transmitter. Select "Mixer def." On the "Define mixer" menu, the first five premade by MPX mixers listed. Slot 6 should say "<<MIX6>>". (If the reader has already built
another other mixer in slot 6, use the next available free slot.) Go ahead and select slot 6.
STEP TWO
The next screen shown is the "Define mixer" menu. The name will be blank and all five of
the control inputs will have dashes shown since no controls have yet to be assigned to the
mixer.
Select the name field and enter the name of this mixer. Name this mixer as, "Ail Tut+". Hit
the enter key to confirm the mixer name.
© 2004 James “Joedy” Drulia
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No commercial reproduction of this material in part or whole is allowed.
Update B.03.16.04
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13
STEP THREE
Now, program the mixer with control inputs. Select the first line and input the "Spoiler"
control. The next column will remain as four dashes which means that the spoiler input will
always be fed into the mixer - it will not be switched on or off with a switch. The mixer option
symbol will be set as "single-sided linear with offset." The full action of the left axis stick
should begin to move the spoilerons as soon as it is moved from its full down position.
Otherwise, without an offset designated, the left axis stick (although it is being physically
moved by the pilot from the bottom-most down position) will not begin to transmit a signal to
the aileron servos until it reaches the center point of the left axis movement.
Input number two will be set as "Flap", always on (four dashes in the second column) and
the symbol will be symmetrical.
Input number three will be set as "Aileron", always on (four dashes in the second column)
and the symbol will be symmetrical.
This is how the mixer should appear on the "Define mixer" menu.
Be sure to save the changes when prompted by the EVO when exiting this screen
Under the "Define mixer" main menu, the readers will see the newly created mixer "Ail Tut+"
listed in slot number 6.
© 2004 James “Joedy” Drulia
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No commercial reproduction of this material in part or whole is allowed.
Update B.03.16.04
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14
4. PROGRAMMING
It may not seem that a lot of progress has been made thus far in getting ready to program
the EVO for the plane, but believe it or not, most of the hard work is already past!
It has already been determined which flight functions that the plane will have as well as how
those functions should be set (such as switched or always on.) It has also been decided
which widgets will effect specific functions or controls. A unique mixer named “Ail Tut+” has
been created that provides for a reflex/camber function, a spoileron function and the typical
aileron functions that will all effect the aileron servos.
4.1. EVO PROGRAMMING FLOW CHART
The following flowchart will provide the reader with a visual guide to assist in following the
tutorial and for future reference when programming additional planes into the EVO.
The dark highlighted areas above the squares correspond to the menus that are accessed
by pressing the buttons near the bottom of the transmitter case.
© 2004 James “Joedy” Drulia
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No commercial reproduction of this material in part or whole is allowed.
Update B.03.16.04
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15
EVO Model Programming
1 MEMORY
1 MEMORY
Create new model.
Select a template.
Select mode operation.
Select an assignment list.
SETUP
In the Mixer.def. submenu:
Properties sub-menu:
Are mixers
needed?
Enter model name.
Select the receiver shift.
Evaluate existing mixer
definitions.
Yes
Are the current mixer
definitions sufficient for this
model?
No
SETUP
In the
Assignment.switches
sub-menu:
SERVO
Yes
Assign servos to either
controls, existing mixers or
to newly created mixers.
Are timer functions
needed?
Establish the widgets to
control the timers.
Yes
Delete channels not
needed for flight.
SETUP
Create unique mixers if
existing mixers are not
sufficient.
No
º
When defining a new
mixer, establish the servo
output curve types and
assign the MIX1-MIX3
switches if switching is
needed.
TIMER
Set the actions and
operations of the timers to
perform as needed.
No
Are the current
widget assignments
correct?
No
SETUP
Assign the desired widgets
to the control functions as
well as to the switched
functions.
Yes
1 MEMORY
Establish the necessary
number of flight phases
and select the flight phase
names.
FINAL REQUIRED STEPS
Yes
Are flight phases
needed?
SERVO
Calibrate servos.
Charge Tx & Rx
batteries.
No
No
CONTROLS
Adjust servo travels, trim
settings and fixed values
for the aileron, elevator
rudder, flap and spoiler
controls for each flight
phase.
© 2004
James "Joedy" Drulia
Field test.
Were mixers
assigned to servos?
Σ
MIXER
Adjust the mixer travel
values for the desired
results.
Test
Flight
Yes
© 2004 James “Joedy” Drulia
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No commercial reproduction of this material in part or whole is allowed.
Update B.03.16.04
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16
4.2. EVO PROGRAMMING MENU CHART
The following EVO programming menu chart will provide the reader with a visual guide to
assist in following the tutorial and for future reference when programming additional planes
into the EVO.
The dark highlighted areas above the squares correspond to the menus that are accessed
by pressing the buttons near the bottom of the transmitter case.
For menu items that are not listed or shown in detail, see the EVO manual for instructions.
© 2004 James “Joedy” Drulia
All rights are reserved
No commercial reproduction of this material in part or whole is allowed.
Update B.03.16.04
MIXER
T
þ
Mix1-3
Mix1-3
Mix1-3
Mix1-3
Mix1-3
þ
© 2004 James “Joedy” Drulia
All rights are reserved
No commercial reproduction of this material in part or whole is allowed.
Mixers
(must be assigned
to a servo to appear)
Mixer Name
trv
Control
OFF
Control
%
Control
%
Control
%
Control
%
trv
%
%
%
%
%
Aileron differential
Mode
ON / OFF / Spoiler+
(selection affects
all flight phases)
Diff. % 4 ®
T. cut
Idle
Step
Slow
Contr.switch
Update B.03.16.04
Test Run
Monitor
SERVO
2/3/5P
Control
Time
*Õ
Õ
i
Control Name
0.1 — 4.0 seconds
Percentage — Graphical view
MPX/UNI
ñ
-100% — 100%
-100% — 100%
-100% — 100%
ñ
0.1 — 4.0 seconds
-100% — 100%
®
4®
%
0.5 / 1.5 / 2.5 /3.5%
0.1 — 4.0 seconds
1. Control
Calbri.Control
REV/CLR #
P1
%
P2
%
P3
%
P4
%
P5
%
2. ....
Assignment
1. Control
2. ....
Calibrate
E
F
ñ
Spoiler / Flap
Run time
Fixed val.
Throttle
%
0.5 / 1.5 / 2.5 / 3.5%
0 — 100%
0 — 100%
-100% — 100%
*
þ
Elevator / Rudder / Aileron
Trim
4
Step
D/R
®
4®
Trvl
Expo
®
Dynamic Menu
Only controls assigned to model are displayed
CONTROLS
&
Interval
Sum
Slot
Slot
Model
Timer
As above
As above
As above
00:00:00
00:00:00
00:00:00
00:00:00
00:00:00
TIMER
Difference
Switch
Time
Alarm
Time
Time
º
New Model
Memory Nr.
Template
Servo conf.
Mode
Assignment
OK
Properties
Template
Mode
Assignment
Name
Flight Phases (names vary)
NORMAL
SPEED1
x
THERMAL1
LANDING
Select Model
Copy Model
Erase Model
1 MEMORY
ñ
ñ
ñ
iþ
ñ
*
þ
Combi.Switch
ñ
Combi.switch
Aileron > Rudder 2 — 200%
Aileron < Rudder -2 — -200%
Σ
Transmitter
Trim graphics
Sounds
Battery alarm
Battery charge
Contrast
Check throttle ñ
Check RF
Mixer def.
Existing mixers
<<New mixer>>
1. Control
2. Control
3. Control
4. Control
5. Control
Assignment
Mode
ñ
Assignment
Name
Controls
Switches
Training
&
User
Õ
ñ
&
Global attribute
Can be assigned to a
digi-adjuster
Can be adjusted
separately per
flight phase
© 2004
James "Joedy" Drulia
is programmed by
the pilot
% Indicates a value that
only
i Provides information
2. .... Additional controls
are available for this
menu, but are not
displayed in this
guide
þ
®
4
Widget symbol
representation
Can be adjusted
separately per model
See EVO Manual for
detailed instructions
Symbol
Legend
software ver.1.26
*Õ
SETUP
T
T
T
T
EVO Programming Menus
T
Õ
*
*
*
Õ
T
T
Õ Õ
T
Õ
*
T
T
T
Õ
Õ
Multiplex EVO Tutorial
17
Multiplex EVO Tutorial
18
4.3. CREATE A NEW MODEL
STEP ONE
From any of the main screens, press the Memory button near the bottom of the transmitter.
Highlight "New Model" and press enter. On the new model menu the "Memory nr." number
will automatically assigned by the EVO. The pilot is not allowed to change this. The reader’s
individual “Memory nr” value may be different. On the next line, select the "Basic" template.
(The "BASIC" template is already built for a plane with one servo per aileron surface, one
servo per rudder, one servo per elevator and a motor control. The Omega is pretty close to
this setup, but a v-tail will be used instead. Under the "Assignment" pick "Glider+". (Note that
the user must pick from one of the existing three assignment lists that are provided by
Multiplex. There are also two empty assignment lists that customized by pilots for future use.)
An assignment list is just a pre-set list of what widgets will be set to effect which function.
Don't fret over these choices, since their default assignments can and will be changed
anyway.
Select the Mode as “2”. Keep in mind that this tutorial was written assuming that the pilot
will be flying in Mode 2.
The “Servo conf.” option allows the pilot to instruct the EVO to use Multiplex servo timing
pulse or the Universal servo timing pulse. The specifics of the servo timing are beyond the
scope of this tutorial. All servos being used in the North American market are set to use the
universal mode of servo timing.
Be sure to highlight the "OK" at the bottom of the screen and then press ENTER to create
the model.
The “OK” option is highlighted. Press ENTER to confirm.
STEP TWO
After hitting ENTER, the EVO will immediately navigate back to the "Memory" menu. Now
personalize this new model by selecting "Properties". On the "Properties" menu, notice that
the template is set as "BASIC". This cannot be changed now - it is permanently established.
The assignment list can be changed, however. Set the mode to number "2". Highlight the
name and change it to "Omega Tutorial" (there are two lines available for establishing the
© 2004 James “Joedy” Drulia
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No commercial reproduction of this material in part or whole is allowed.
Update B.03.16.04
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model name - it's easier to set the "Omega" part on the top line and the "Tutorial" part on the
lower name line.)
At the bottom of this screen, you can change the shift from "+" to "-" depending on the
brand of receiver that you will be using in your plane. Note that this step only applies to the
North American MPX market.
Receiver shift selecting is only needed in the North American market.
Save the changes and the EVO will navigate back to the "Memory" menu automatically.
STEP THREE
This step is not necessary, but if the reader selects the "Select model" menu, they will see a
screen showing the "Omega Tutorial x" listed in the "Select model" menu. The "x" simply
means that the Omega is currently selected as our model.
Navigate back to a main screen.
4.4. ASSIGN THE WIDGETS AND CONTROLS
STEP FOUR
Select the "Setup" button at the bottom of the transmitter. It's now time to instruct the EVO
as to which widgets will be controlling which functions. At the "Setup" menu, select
"Assignment."
On the "Assignment" menu, notice that the mode is already set as well as the assignment of
"GLIDER+". The EVO has carried all of these choices over for us.
© 2004 James “Joedy” Drulia
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No commercial reproduction of this material in part or whole is allowed.
Update B.03.16.04
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20
The “Assignment” sub menu within the main “Setup” menu.
Scroll down to the "Controls ...." field and hit ENTER.
Remember that assignment list (GLIDER+) that was chosen before? On the "Assign.
Controls" menu, observe the listing of the controls and their corresponding widgets that the
EVO established when we selected the "GLIDER+" assignment list. These can be changed
easily. In fact, do that now.
STEP FIVE
Select the "Throttle" control and press ENTER. (Press ENTER again to move past the
warning screen that the EVO presents.) Since the motor control should be on the "E" slider,
slide the "E" slider around until you see a letter "E" in the second column. Leave the "E" slider
in the downward position since this will later be our "no-throttle" position for motor control
channel.
Select the "Spoiler" control and move the left axis stick all the way down. This will be the
"no spoilerons" position for this widget.
Select the "Flap/RPM" control and set it to the "F" slider, but leave the "F" slider in the
center detent position. This will later be the "no reflex/camber" setting for this widget.
© 2004 James “Joedy” Drulia
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No commercial reproduction of this material in part or whole is allowed.
Update B.03.16.04
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21
The arrows point to the “ON” position of the control widget. The asterisk
symbol is shown indicating that the left axis widget (which has been
selected to command the Spoiler control) is physically resting in the “On”
position. In this screenshot, the left axis stick is currently all the way down.
Since no other controls are needed such as landing gear, tow release, brake, gyro and so
fourth, proceed to the next step.
STEP SIX
At the "Assignment" menu, select the "Switches ..." listing. At this screen notice that the
EVO has gone ahead and set the dual rates function for aileron, elevator and rudder on the
on the "L" switch. This is ok, since this just happens to be the initial widget that was decided
to install these functions onto. The "CombiSwitch" is what is used by the EVO for aileron and
rudder coupling. Change it to the "I" widget since it was decided earlier that this function's
widget was to be close to the aileron axis widget. Be sure to move the "I" down and leave it
there since this will tell the EVO that the "On" position will be in the down position. (This can
be changed later if it should be ON in the opposite position.)
Make sure that all switches below the "CombiSwitch" are turned off (they should all be set
to dashes.)
4.5. ASSIGN SERVOS
STEP SEV EN
The controls for this model have been set and the widgets have been assigned. It’s now
time to assign the servos.
Navigate to a main screen and press the "Servo" button near the bottom of the transmitter.
On the "Servo" menu, select the "Assignment ..." listing.
On the "Servo. Assign" menu, notice that the servos have already been assigned to the
receiver slots. The first seven slots have been assigned by the EVO. They are:
© 2004 James “Joedy” Drulia
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Update B.03.16.04
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22
Aileron
ELEVATOR+
Rudder
Throttle
Aileron
Spoiler
Spoiler
Since it won’t be necessary for this plane to have two separate servos for the spoiler
function, delete slots 6 and 7 now.
Currently in slots 1 and 5 are aileron controls. If the reader were to proceed with the model
set up and not change this control assignment, while the right axis stick would control the
ailerons properly, no signals from the "F" widget and the left axis stick could be sent to the
aileron servos. The only way to send more than one control signal to a servo is to assign the
servos to a mixer.
But wait, where can we find such a mixer that will send aileron, flap and spoiler signals to
the aileron servos?
Hey, wasn’t one created earlier? Yes!
Change slots 1 and 5 to the "Ail Tut+" mixer that was created earlier.
Since it was also determined that Omega would have a v-tail, change slot 2 ("Elevator+")
and slot 3 ("Rudder") both to the mixer "V-tail+".
"Wait," you say. "Where did this mixer come from? We didn't make it!"
That's correct. This is one of the pre-made mixers from Multiplex. It will save time (from
needing to create a v-tail mixer from scratch) and will keep the reader from using one of the 8
remaining mixer slots in their EVO.
The final "Servo.Assign" screen should now look like this.
© 2004 James “Joedy” Drulia
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Update B.03.16.04
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23
Leave the second column to "UNI" and the third column to "3P" for all slots 1 through 5.
The remaining throttle control does not need to be changed. Leave it as it is.
STEP EIGHT
Now that the servos have been assigned to mixers, the pilot is now able to adjust the travel
values of the servos assigned to the mixer.
Navigate to a main screen and press the "Mixer" button at the bottom of the transmitter.
On the "Mixer" menu, only the mixers that have been assigned to the servos in this model
will be displayed. "CombiSwitch" and "Ail. Diff" will always be listed at this screen before any
other mixers. This is set by Multiplex and cannot be changed. The reader does not have to
use these features, just keep in mind that they cannot ever be eliminated from this screen.
The mixer "Ail Tut+" will be listed on this screen. Select it now.
On the "5x Mixer.Ail. Tut+" screen, observe that spoiler, flap and aileron control inputs are
all set to "OFF". Keep in mind that these are all controls that will cause the aileron servos to
move.
Since it is not likely that the spoileron function should move the aileron surfaces to their
ends of travel, input 70% in the third column. The "Flap" control (remember that for this model
setup, it will be used as a reflex/camber slider on the "F" widget and not as a standard flap
surface) should have only about 20% of movement. You will notice that there is only one
input field for the "Flap" and this is because we initially set the "Flap" input in the mixer to be
symmetrical. Only one input field means that the travels will go 20% above the center detent
on the "F" slider and 20% below the center detent on the "F" slider. Notice that in the
screenshot example, the “20%” has been set to “-20%”. This is to reverse the direction of the
servo travels when the “F” widget is moved. The reader will have to set their own setting as
necessary.
The "Aileron" should be set to 100%. We want the aileron surfaces to move 100% of their
throws when the aileron widget (the right axis stick) is moved left and right.
The “Ail Tut+” mixer travel settings.
© 2004 James “Joedy” Drulia
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No commercial reproduction of this material in part or whole is allowed.
Update B.03.16.04
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24
Now, it's time to set the servo travels for the v-tail surfaces. Select the "V-TAIL+" mixer next.
On the "5x Mixer.V-TAIL+" screen, notice that all of the servo travel values have dashes in
them.
For the Elevator control, set the "trv {up}" value to 65% and the "trv {down}" value to 100%.
For the Rudder control, set these up and down travel values exactly the same as on the
Elevator control row. The Spoiler, Flap and Thr -tr values should all remain in the "OFF" state.
The spoiler, flap and throttle (without trim) widget movement should not affect the v-tail
servos.
The reason for setting the elevator and rudder servo travel values differently is to
demonstrate for the purposes of this tutorial, that you can have different servo travels for a
control when used in a mixer. By instructing the EVO to have more down travel than up
travel, we are essentially creating a v-tail differential action. Be sure to note that Multiplex
created the V-TAIL+ mixer up to have asymmetrical travel distances on the elevator and
rudder controls (from the neutral axis stick point.)
The “V-Tail+” mixer travel settings.
Exit this screen and navigate back to one of the main screens.
4.6. ALERT – ERRONEOUS INITIAL FLAP VALUE
All Royal EVO users are indebted to Harry Curzon for discovering and posting this
information.
There appears to be a software oversight on the behalf of Multiplex. This isn't really a
software malfunction, but if the readers don't anticipate it and account for it, it will cause them
to believe that their EVO is malfunctioning.
This is from Harry's posting at the www.rcgroups.com Multiplex Royal EVO thread:
© 2004 James “Joedy” Drulia
All rights are reserved
No commercial reproduction of this material in part or whole is allowed.
Update B.03.16.04
Multiplex EVO Tutorial
25
I believe there is a minor error in a default value for new models.
Problem:
New models default to the flap control having a fixed value of 20%
instead of being set to OFF.
Solution:
Every time you create a new model, the first thing to do is go to
controls, flap, and set the fixed val[ue] to OFF.
What is a fixed value? A fixed value is a set amount of travel that overrides the control
switch/slider. The flap control will generate a travel value of 20% (or
whatever value you alter it to) and ignore your movement of the flap
control widget.
Why have them?
There is a fixed value for each flight phase. This is useful for
example to set a defined landing phase flap, a defined launch phase
flap, a defined speed phase reflex, but if set to OFF in the cruise
phase then control is returned to the switch/slider for you to set as
you see fit.
What’s the problem? 1. Assign your flap servos direct to the flap control, as you might with
a scale power model. The flaps will go to 20% and refuse to move no
matter what you do with the flap switch/slider. If you are not familiar
with MPX and the features it has, this is going to cause you
frustration as you try to solve it.
2. Assign servos to a mixer that has flap as an input and it will
generate false servo neutrals, the neutral being the fixed value
multiplied by the flap mixer value. Also, when you move the flap
control widget, nothing will happen to the flaps, ailerons or elevator
trim offset since the flap control is sending its fixed value and
ignoring the switch/slider. The servos will respond to the other
controls. However because the servo is already offset from its centre
by some amount, it will reach either the Txs signal limit or the servo’s
mechanical limit earlier than expected in one direction of rotation.
The servo may stop moving before you have reached the end of the
control stick movement in that direction. This problem will not arise if
you assign servos to a mixer that has flap as an input but where the
flap value is set to OFF in the mixer since the flap control’s fixed
val[ue] does not get into the mixer.
The Solution:
Press the "Control" button at the bottom of the transmitter. On the
"Control" menu, select the "Flap ...." control. On the "Flap.NORMAL"
menu, you will see that the "Fixed value" has been set by default to
be 20%. Change this to "OFF".
You will need to do this step manually for each new plane that you
set up unless Multiplex releases a software patch that addresses this
issue.
© 2004 James “Joedy” Drulia
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4.7. CHECKING INPUTS
Let's see how the EVO is responding now. You will not need a plane in front of you to
evaluate your progress; let's use the servo monitoring function built into the EVO for
evaluating our results.
Press the "Servo" button at the bottom of the transmitter and select the "Monitor" option.
With the "E" slider all the way down, observe that servo 4 (throttle) moves up and down
when the slider is moved.
Switch the "I" widget to the up position (off). Move the right axis stick (aileron widget) left
and right and observe servos 1 and 5 move in opposite directions. Flip the "I" widget down
and continue moving the aileron widget and observe the screen. Now, rudder is added with
our aileron input. Keep in mind this plane is using a v-tail and both v-tail servos will move
when rudder is input. In fact, observe this action now - move the left aix stick (rudder widget)
left and right and watch servos 2 and 3 move. Notice here that there is a different amount of
servo travel in the v-tail servos when the rudder or elevator widget is moved to their extreme
ends of travel. This is a result of the settings that was programmed into the V-TAIL+ mixer.
Now, observe the reflex/camber slider "F" in action. Slide this slider down towards the
bottom of the transmitter case and observe that channels 1 and 5 (the aileron servos) go
upwards. “Wait a minute,” the reader wonders. “They both are moving upwards? Doesn't it
make more sense for them to go "down" when the "F" widget is moved "down"?” The author
agrees, but how can this be changed?
Navigate back to the mixer screen by pressing the "Mixer" button at the bottom of the
transmitter. Select "Ail Tut+" from the menu. In the "trv" value for the flap, highlight it and
press the REV/CLR button at the bottom of the transmitter. This will automatically change the
"20%" value to a "-20%". This is a shortcut and saves a little time from having to manually dial
in the opposite number from the "20%" position.
Navigate back to the servo monitor screen and move the "F" slider. The aileron servos 1
and 5 will now move downwards in concert together when the "F" widget is slid down towards
the bottom of the transmitter case.
This was very easy to do, indeed.
Also observe how the left axis stick (spoileron function) will move both of the aileron servos
upward when the stick is moved up. If the reader’s spoiler widget action shows it working in
reverse (the servos go "down" when the stick is raised from the bottom position), just change
the servo direction as shown with the previous "F" widget (reflex/camber control).
Since dual rate were another one of the initial requirements for this plane, establish the dual
rates now.
4.8. DUAL RATES
From any of the main screens, press the CONTROL button near the bottom of the
transmitter. Keep in mind that this menu is considered "dynamic" by MPX. This simply means
that the user will not see all of the controls that the EVO is able to support listed on this
screen. If that were the case, we would have to navigate among listings such as "L. gear,
Tow hook, Brake, Gyro, Mixture, AUX1, AUX2" even if the current plane isn't using these
controls.
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The Control menu will show only the controls that have been assigned to the current model.
This reduces the amount of screen clutter.
A widget for the dual rate control has already been established. This is widget "L". Keep in
mind that this widget is a three-position switch. For the purposes of this tutorial, the upper
(near the top of the transmitter case) position will be a dual-rate off, the bottom ("L" switch
towards the bottom of the transmitter case) position will be a dual-rate on and the last middle
position will be considered an "OFF" position. Keep in mind that the position listed on the
readers’ EVO as "ON" could be set the other way. (The “ON” position of a widget is
dependent on how they were initially set up. If the reader had the "L" widget in the down
position when they pressed ENTER to confirm the dual-rates choice, the “ON” position would
be established as down.) If the reader needs to change their widget’s ON setting, navigate
back to the "Setup" menu by pressing the SETUP button near the bottom of the transmitter.
Then move to the "Assignment" sub-menu and from there to the "Switches ...." sub-menu.
Change the dual rate setting by highlighting the listing, moving the "L" widget and leaving it in
the bottom (towards the bottom of the transmitter case) position. The EVO considers how the
widget is positioned when the user presses the ENTER button and considers that widget’s
position as “ON”. In fact, the EVO will display a small graphical arrow near the right of the
widget letter on this screen. The arrow will always "point" to the "ON" position for that widget.
Is there any benefit for having the "ON" widget switch in the down position? As far as the
EVO is concerned, it does not care one way or the other. However, the author likes to set his
dual-rates switch using a mnemonic device:
"Pull the switch DOWN to turn DOWN the
control rates."
Back at the main "Controls" menu, observe that the Aileron, Elevator, Rudder, Throttle,
Spoiler, Flap and Contr. switch controls are listed. Go ahead and select the Aileron control.
On the next screen, notice the specific settings listed for the aileron control. There will be a
trim percentage, a step value for the trim buttons, a "D/R" for the dual rates, a travel and an
exponential field displayed. To change the dual rates settings, simply highlight the field and
dial in a lower number. Select 50% for this tutorial.
Exit the aileron control menu and change the values of the dual rates for the rudder and the
elevator controls using the same procedure that was used for altering the aileron control. Set
both the rudder and the elevator to have a dual rate of 50% as well.
Once done, navigate back to any of the main screens.
Now, it’s time to observe the progress so far.
Press the SERVO button near the bottom of the transmitter and select the Monitor option on
the Servo menu.
With the "L" widget in the top position, move around the aileron, elevator and rudder
widgets to the extremes of their motions and observe their ranges of travels on the bar graph.
Now, pull the "L" switch in the downward position and observe how the aileron, elevator and
© 2004 James “Joedy” Drulia
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rudder travels have now been cut in half. This is a reflection that our dual rates (which were
set to 50% for all of theses controls) is now limiting the travels for these controls by 50%.
5. DIGI-ADJUSTERS
How does the reader know that 50% is enough (or not enough) dual rates for these items?
Suppose that after launching the plane, while although the rudder control has too much travel
with 50% of dual rates, perhaps the elevator is hyper sensitive even WITH the dual rates set
at 50%. Now, the pilot will be forced to land the wildly controllable model (hopefully, safely
and without damage), adjust the dual rate settings, hope and pray that they are close to the
optimum settings and launch again. This process will need to be repeated as necessary.
The EVO offers a much easier and safer way to solve this issue. They are called digiadjusters and can be used to alter just about any numerical value input - even while flying
the model!
This is a perfect scenario and application for the digi-adjusters (DA). In fact, just for the fun
of it, assign the rudder and the elevator dual rates on the two DAs. This way, once launching
the plane, the digi-adjusters will be able to alter the amount of dual rates on the elevator and
the rudder control by simply turning the DAs. Make it easy to remember which of the two DAs
will be affecting the elevator or rudder dual rate by establishing the right DA as the elevator
dual rate adjuster and the left DA as the rudder dual rate adjuster. If this assignment is
forgotten, this will be all right since the EVO will display our choices on the main screens for
quick reference.
5.1. ASSIGNING A DIGI-ADJUSTER
Navigate to any of the main screens. Press the CONTROL button near the bottom of the
transmitter.
Highlight the rudder control and select enter. Notice that this was the same screen that was
accessed when the value for the dual rates was modified earlier.
Highlight the dual rate field (which currently displays "50%" as the value.) Instead of
selecting a new numerical value, press the DIGI-ADJUSTER button at the bottom of the
transmitter. The "50%" displayed temporarily disappear and a symbol of a circle with a plus
sign will now appear in its place. Now, since the dual rate for the function is to be assigned to
the left DA, depress and hold down the left DA at the top of the transmitter. While holding
down the left DA, a "<" symbol will appear next to the circle with plus sign symbol. This is the
EVO confirming the choice of the left DA. Release the left DA and the last numerical figure
that was set when the rudder CONTROL screen was opened will be displayed. In this case, it
was 50% and "50%" will remain displayed in the D/R field.
Navigate back to the CONTROL menu by pressing the CONTROL button near the bottom
of the transmitter. Select the elevator control this time.
Highlight the dual rate field, which currently contains "50%" as the value. Instead of
selecting a new numerical value, press the DIGI-ADJUSTER button at the bottom of the
transmitter. The "50%" display will temporarily disappear and a symbol of a circle with a plus
sign will now appear in its place. Now, since the elevator dual rate function is to be assigned
to the right DA, depress and hold down the right DA at the top of the transmitter. As the DA is
© 2004 James “Joedy” Drulia
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held down, a ">" symbol will appear next to the circle with plus sign symbol. This is the EVO
confirming the choice of the right DA. Release the right DA and you will see the last
numerical figure that was set when the rudder control screen was accessed. The elevator
dual rate control will also show "50%" since this was the previous dual rate number that had
been set.
Exit this screen and navigate back to any of the main screens. Observe that "<Rudd D-R"
on the top left and "Elev D-R>" on the top right of the main screens. Displayed between these
two listings at the top of the screen will be either a locked or unlocked padlock symbol.
If the symbol appears to be 'unlocked', press the digi-adjuster key at the bottom of the
transmitter until it shows a locked symbol.
Now, turn the left DA either clockwise or counterclockwise. The screen display will show a
large "50%" momentarily and then return to the previous screen. Try the right DA, it will also
show a "50%" momentarily. (Note, that if you are at the battery management screen, the
screen will not change when you turn the DAs.)
What the EVO is saying is that the DAs have been locked (indicated by the locked padlock
symbol) and when the DAs are turned, the values currently set in the dual rates fields are not
being altered.
This is designed to prevent the pilot from accidentally changing the settings while in flight.
Now, unlock the DAs and change the settings. Press the digi-adjuster button at the bottom
of the transmitter. Observe that the center padlock symbol change into an 'unlocked' padlock
symbol.
Turn the left DA and observe the screen. Now, the numbers will change either up or now
depending on which direction that the left DA is rotated - clock or counterclockwise. Pretend
that about 75% of dual rate on the rudder is needed. Adjust the left DA until "75%" is
displayed on the screen. Keep in mind that in a real situation, the pilot would be currently in
flight and the feedback from the plane would be instantaneous. The proper amount of dual
rates could be easily set and verified while in flight.
Change the elevator dual rate now. Pretend that only 25% of dual rates is needed after
observing the plane while in flight. Turn the right DA until "25%" is displayed.
Now that the dual rates have been tweaked to perfection, lock the settings in place. Press
the digi-adjuster button near the bottom of the transmitter.
These choices are now locked again. Turning either DA will no longer change the dual rate
settings.
The pilot can observe these results in two ways. The first is to go servo monitor screen and
observe the servo travels in the bar graph and the other is to go to the CONTROLS menu
and select either the rudder or the elevator control. The pilot will see that the dual-rate
numbers for both the rudder and elevator are now showing what was dialed in with the DAs .
The author would like to point out with the EVO and its DAs is that the pilot is not limited to
only using them for adjusting dual rates. They could, for example, be set up to adjust the
amount of rudder to aileron compensation. In fact, just about any input field that will accept a
number can be set to one of the DAs for in-flight adjustment and fine tuning.
© 2004 James “Joedy” Drulia
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5.2. HOW TO ERASE THE DIGI-ADJUSTOR ASSIGNMENT
If there is a need to erase a DA assignment, do the following:
STEP ONE
Navigate to any of the main screens except the battery management screen. Press and
hold down the DA whose assignment that should be erased.
STEP TWO
While holding down the DA, press the "REV/CLR" button at the bottom of the transmitter.
The DA assignment will be erased and the main screens will reflect the erased assignment.
6. TIMERS
Another one of the initial requirements for this plane setup is timer functions.
Initially, since the Omega is a motorized glider, it was decided that a timer function would be
established that would keep track of the motor run time. This function could be used to
determine how long the motor had been running during the flying session.
But after some consideration, the author has decided that having only a motor run timer
would not give us a full idea of the flights with this plane.
Suppose that the pilot also wanted to know how long they were able to thermal the Omega
after shutting down the motor? And also, suppose that the pilot wanted like to set up a count
down timer so that they could practice timed landings for the local club contests?
With the EVO, all of these scenarios are possible.
Since it must be decided which widget shall control the timer functions, consider which of
the remaining widgets that could be used.(The author is assuming that the readers have not
yet installed the long axis sticks with the additional buttons and will not consider these
buttons as candidates for timer widget assignments. This will eliminate these two button
choices only for the purposes of this tutorial. If the readers have installed the long axis sticks,
they will be able to use the buttons on the long axis sticks for timer functions once they learn
how to establish the timer widget and program the timer functions.)
6.1. MOTOR RUN TIMER
Ok, consider the timer scenario again. The author would like to have a widget that will allow
him to record the amount of motor run time. This would be handy for several reasons. The
first would be an immediate direct feedback for the amount of motor run time that will be
displayed on the main timer screen. The pilot could use this information to determine how
long that the motor has run for the purposes of practicing for limited motor run (LMR)
contests. It could also be used as a very rough (and inaccurate) "fuel gauge" for the motor
battery. The pilot would have to carefully note over a period of time roughly how many
© 2004 James “Joedy” Drulia
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minutes (or even seconds) of motor run time with a particular motor battery before the ESC
cuts off the motor power for this to be of any benefit, though.
WARNING!
This is not a science, nor is it a reliable way
to calculate your remaining total flying time
if you are using the motor battery to also
provide power for the servos (which is how I
will be flying my Omega.) This technique is
mentioned as a way of gathering a sense of
the duration of motor drain. The actual
remaining motor battery capacity will be
dependent on many factors such as
mechanically or unsynchronized stalled
servos, battery wear and tear and other
electronic failures. Use your own proven
methods and techniques for calculating motor
battery endurance.
So, which widget should be used for the motor run timer? There are several spare widgets
to pick from. If a switch widget is used, the pilot will need to manually turn it on when the
motor is started and turn it off when the throttle slider "E" is slid back down. By using one of
the buttons mounted on the side of the transmitter case (widgets "H" and "M"), the pilot could
set either one to be the widget that starts and stops the timer.
These widgets are different than the switch widgets in that they can be set to be
momentarily operated (stays on while the pilot holds it down) or push ON/OFF operated
(push one time for "ON" and the function will remain on until the button is pressed again for
"OFF".)
But there is one major drawback to these buttons - it requires a vigilant effort on the part of
the pilot to always turn the timer on and off as the "E" widget (the throttle control) is slid on
and off. Otherwise, the timer results will not be an accurate assessment of the true motor run
time.
Wouldn't this particular situation be better served by having the throttle widget ("E") itself be
used as a switch for the motor run timer in addition to serving as a throttle control? This way,
by merely turning the motor on or off, the motor run timer will automatically be controlled by
the EVO! This would be another workload item that the pilot would not need to worry about
and the EVO would be happy to do. It will also ensure that the timer results for the motor run
time could not be inaccurate due to pilot error. When the "E" slider is slid up, the timer starts.
When it is slid down, the timer stops.
In fact, this is a better solution; set this now.
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6.2. THE SUM TIMER
STEP ONE
Before proceeding, establish a widget for the motor run timer.
Press the SETUP button at the bottom of the transmitter case. On the next menu, select the
"Assignment" option. On the next screen, select the "Switches ." option. On the
"Assign.Switches" menu, scroll down until a listing for "Sum" is shown. (There will be a small
mathematical SUM symbol displayed in front of the word "Sum" displayed on the screen.)
Select this listing (press ENTER to pass the warning screen) and then move the "E" slider.
Leave the "E" slider in the up position. The "Sum" listing will now show a letter "E" to indicate
that the "E" widget will be used to control the sum timer as well as an up arrow icon to
indicate that the on position will be as the "E" widget is slid upwards.
The "Sum" timer allows the pilot to start and stop the timer with a widget while the total
amount of time never resets back to zero - the timer continually "sums" up the total amount of
time while the widget remains in the "ON" position. In the case of the motor run timer, this is
exactly what is needed.
STEP TWO
Now that the "E" widget has been established for the sum timer, program it to work properly.
Navigate back to any of the main screens, and press the TIMER button at the bottom of the
transmitter. On the next screen, you will see a listing containing:
Model ...
Slot ...
Sum ...
Interval ...
Select the sum timer. On the "Sum" menu, you will see a display for the Time and the
Alarm. Slide the "E" widget in the up position and observe the sum timer clock value
increment upward. Slide the "E" widget back down to turn off the sum timer. Select and
highlight the "Time" field and press the REV/CLR button at the bottom of the transmitter. The
sum time value will now be reset back to zero.
The "Alarm" field will not be used in this tutorial. The Alarm field allows the pilot to set a
specified amount of time and the EVO will count down from that specific amount of time and
then produce an alarm. This has valuable functions (such as dialing in 30 seconds for LMR
timing functions), but for the purpose of this tutorial, the Sum timer should count only upwards
without producing an alarm.
STEP THREE
Navigate back to any of the main screens and enable the Timer main screen. In the center
of the screen observe the "sum" timer displayed. Also displayed to the right of the sum timer
clock is the corresponding widget that turns the sum timer on and off. Go ahead and turn the
"E" slider up and observe the sum timer begin to count up. Slide the throttle control back
down and see the sum timer stop. The sum timer will continue to count up until it is either
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disabled by removing the "sum" timer assignment in the "Assignment.Switches" menu or if
the sum timer is reset.
Notice carefully that while the "E" slider widget is moved upward, that until the widget
passes the halfway mark, the sum timer does not actually turn on. This could mean that the
motor could run slowly without increasing the timer. Change this so that when the "E" slider is
moved from its lowest position, it will immediately trigger the sum timer to start.
Press the CONTROL button at the bottom of the transmitter case. Scroll down until you see
a listing labeled, "Control.switch". Go ahead and select it. On the "Contr.switch" menu, you
will see three listings: an axis stick symbol, "E" and "F" widgets. Select the "E" widget and
change the number to "-99%".
What this means is that the trigger point for the "E" widget will be at the -99% point below
the center detent. If we set it to be -100% and move the "E" slider down as far as it will go,
the slider will not be able to control the sum timer since it cannot go below "-100%"
mechanically. In case the readers are curious, they can leave it set on "-100%" and navigate
back to the main timer screen. With the "E" slider all the way down, the sum timer will
continue to run. In fact, no amount of moving the "E" slider will turn it off. Go back and change
this setting to "-99%". Navigate back to the timer screen and now observe the action of the
"E" slider. It will now trigger the sum timer when it receives even one click of the slider ratchet
as it is moved from its lowest position.
Now that the sum timer has been set up, establish a timer that will record the total amount
of flight time- from takeoff to landing.
6.3. THE SLOT TIMER
Use the "H" widget to turn this function on and off. "Why use the "H" widget?" the readers
ask. Truthfully, there is no valid reason to use it or another widget; it's just a widget that the
author happened to choose.
Press the SETUP button at the bottom of the transmitter and then select the "Assignment"
option. On the next screen, select the "Switches …" listing. Scroll down the menu and select
"Slot". Once you hit ENTER to pass the warning screen, press the "H" widget. Press the "H"
widget repeatedly and observe the symbol listed to the right of the letter H on the screen
change from a momentary symbol (which looks like a little hat) to an ON/OFF symbol (which
looks like a poorly written letter `s'.) Be sure to establish the action of the "H" widget as
ON/OFF. Press ENTER to confirm the selection.
Navigate back to the main Timer screen and observe that there are now two sets of timers
displayed. A new one has now appeared on top of the sum timer. Press the "H" widget and
observe the top line. The slot timer begin to count up until the "H" widget is depressed again.
This will be used to record our total flight time.
To clear the slot timer, follow the same procedure that was used for resetting the sum timer.
For the purposes of this tutorial, the "Alarm" field that appears on the Slot menu will not be
utilized.
6.4. THE COUNT-DOWN TIMER
Now, set the last timer function which will be used to practice count-down timer landing
skills.
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Please note that this tutorial will be using a
truly unrealistic number of 30 seconds for
illustration purposes only.
Normally in a real-world setting, the pilot
would use a number of several minutes, but
since the author does not want the readers to
sit mindlessly by while the EVO counts down
from 5, 10 or whichever amount of minutes,
this tutorial will use a few seconds as an
example for demonstration purposes only.
Set the widget that will be used for the count down timer. Since the tutorial hasn’t utilized a
switch widget for a timer function as an example so far, use the "N" widget.
Navigate to any of the main screens and press the SETUP button at the bottom of the
transmitter then select "Assignment" from the menu. Select "Switches …" on the next menu.
Scroll down the "Assign.Switches" menu until a listing for "Interval" is displayed. Go ahead
and select this. Press ENTER to pass the warning screen. When the Interval field is
highlighted, move the "N" widget. Leave the "N" widget in the down position since this will be
our "ON" setting.
It is now necessary program 30 seconds into the count down timer. Exit this menu and
navigate back to any of the main screens. Now, press the TIMER button at the bottom of the
transmitter. Select the "Interval ..." listing. On the next screen, highlight the "Alarm" field and
program 30 seconds of time.
If the "N" widget is currently in the down ("ON") position as soon as the reader inputs 30
seconds into the Alarm field, they will see the "Time" field listed above the "Alarm" field begin
to count down from 30 seconds.
Exit this screen and navigate back to the main Timer screen. Push the "N" into the up
(towards the top of the transmitter case) position, then pull it down and observe the timer
clock shown on the bottom of the Timer screen. It will immediately change to 30 seconds and
begin to count down. If the reader moves the "N" widget up and back down again, it will reset
the count down timer to 30 seconds.
Once the interval timer has been started, and while the "N" widget remains "ON" (the down
position in this case) during the count down process, the interval timer will continue to reset
itself automatically back to 30 seconds once the interval timer reaches zero and will repeat
the cycle indefinitely.
If you reset the "N" widget by moving it up, down and then leaving it in the up position, when
the interval timer reaches zero from the 30 seconds, it will not reset itself back to 30 seconds
and start the countdown process all over again. It will instead commence counting from zero
upwards until it hits 4 hours and 30 minutes. This allows the pilot to turn on the interval timer
only occasionally without being forced to hear the alarm beep over and over again as the
© 2004 James “Joedy” Drulia
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interval timer cycles automatically from the count down start (which in this case has been set
to 30 seconds.)
The readers can reset their sum and the slot timers back to zero and play with the widgets
to see the effect of moving the timer widgets.
Keep in mind, that the readers can change any of the widgets assigned to the timers if they
prefer different widgets. They can also make use of the buttons on the long axis sticks if they
have been installed.
The SLOT Timer is set to widget “H”. The “H” widget has been established
to work as either ON or OFF and not in a momentary fashion.
7. FLIGHT PHASES
With the exception of calibrating the servos (which can only occur while the pilot has a
plane in front of them), the progress in the EVO programming is now sufficient for flight.
Servo calibration will not be covered in this tutorial. The EVO manual does a good job of
listing the steps involved in servo calibration.
Flight Phases (FPs) are not required for flight, but are additional tools that can be used to
reduce the amount of pilot workload.
So, what are flight phases?
The FP feature on the EVO allows the pilot to assign a specific set of parameters such as
servo travel limits, trim settings and specific pre-set servo settings to a widget. With FPs, the
pilot can establish a particular flying setup and transition to that setup at the flick or push of a
widget. The pilot can also use FPs as another means of establishing multiple dual rates since
each FP can have different limits of servo travel ranges.
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But still, why bother with FPs?
FPs are very similar to a feature on some automobiles known as driver settings. When a
different driver takes control of the automobile, they will adjust the seat to the proper height,
adjust the side and rear view mirrors to the proper setting, establish certain environmental
temperature controls and perhaps, set certain stations on the radio. When the next driver
assumes control, all of these steps must be manually changed again to suit the next driver.
With the driver settings feature, all of these particular settings are recorded at the press of a
button and saved for future reference. When a new driver sits in the automobile, they merely
press their settings button and the mirrors, seat position, temperature controls and radio
settings are all automatically set to that driver’s preferences.
FPs work very much the same way. Of course, the pilot can manually change each of the
widgets on their EVO while changing plane settings for a new flying style, but FPs make it
much easier to do this. FPs greatly reduces the amount of pilot workload if there is a need for
certain control settings during flight.
Some examples of FPs are:
A "Launch" FP for a glider
The flaps and ailerons would all travel down for increased
camber during the winch or highstart launch. The control travels
on the elevator control would be reduced to minimize over
controlling and thereby minimize airframe stressing.
A "Landing" FP
This FP would pre-set the flap servo settings, give spoileron
(crow) on the ailerons and pre-set the elevator servo for
compensation.
There are a total of four flight phase settings on the EVO. The tutorial will be establishing
four FPs. The "NORMAL" FP will be used when there should be full servo travel limits and no
servo pre set positions. Once the readers understand FPs, they will be able to set up their
own FPs for their own fleet.
7.1. FLIGHT PHASE NAMES
The FPs have names that are already established and set by MPX. They are as follows:
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NORMAL
START1
START2
THERMAL1
THERMAL2
SPEED1
SPEED2
CRUISE
LANDING
AUTOROT
HOVER
3D
ACRO
Be sure to note that these names are not flight phases in themselves, but instead are
simply names that the pilot chooses. By themselves, they do nothing but to help you identify
which set of servo settings are currently being used. The pilot will choose a name from the
above list and then modify the servo settings that will be used when the particular flight phase
has been activated.
Can the pilot choose the "CRUISE" FP listing, set the appropriate flap, aileron and elevator
travels and pre-sets and use that “CRUISE” FP for landing functions? Yes. The FP name is
nothing more than a name that helps the pilot recognize and identify specific servo settings.
Suppose that the pilot would rather have a FP whose name is a little more representative of
what the FP is being used for? For example, suppose that the pilot would like to have a preset for launching discus-launched gliders called, "DLG LNCH"? Can they simply rename one
of the above FPs?
Unfortunately, with the EVO 1.26 software release and below, this is not an implemented
feature. Please write to MPX and to HitechUSA and request that this feature be added on
future software releases. [This is one of the few complaints that the author has with his EVO.]
For the purposes of this tutorial, four flight phases will be set up. The main phase will be
selected as "NORMAL" and will feature full servo travels and no servo presets. FPs 1, 2 and
3 will be selected as, "START1, CRUISE, LANDING". This will cover about most of the flying
situations. The "NORMAL" FP (which incidentally will be numbered 4 on the Fight Phase
menu) will be considered the Main Phase and will override any of the other phases when
enacted. This, as it will later be demonstrated, will allow for immediate access to the main
phase in the event of a need to immediately exit another phase and gain full servo travels.
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To reduce possible confusion while the
readers establish and work with FPs, the
tutorial is going to undo some of the previous
EVO programming. Specifically, it will be
removing the dual-rate setting and the dualrate widget. It will also be deleting the digiadjuster assignments.
The tutorial is not deleting these
programming functions to enable the FPs to
work correctly; it is deleting them since
there can be come potential confusion which
can result by misinterpreting the servo
movement results if these previously
established widgets were to be accidentally
enabled.
Go ahead and delete the digi-adjuster (DA) assignments. From any of the main screens,
press and hold down the right DA and while holding down this DA, press the REV/CLR button
at the bottom of the transmitter case. Erase the left DA assignment by following the above
steps.
Now, change the dual rate setting for the aileron, elevator and the rudder. Hit the
CONTROL button at the bottom of the transmitter and select "Aileron ...". On the next screen,
change the "D/R" setting back to 100%. Exit this screen and do the same thing for the
elevator and the rudder "D/R" fields.
Now, remove the widget that was set for the dual rates. This was widget "L". Navigate back
to any of the main screens and press the SETUP button at the bottom of the transmitter. On
the next screen, select "Assignment ...." On the next "Assignment" screen, select "Switches
...." On the "Assign.Switches" screen, select the "DR-ai" listing, hit ENTER to bypass the
warning screen and then press the REV/CLR button at the bottom of the transmitter to clear
the setting from "<L" to "---". Do the same thing for the "DR-el" and the "DR-ru" listings,
erasing both of their widget assignment from "<L" back to "---" (unassigned).
7.2. FLIGHT PHASE SELECTION
Pause for a moment to consider which widgets that can be used for the FPs. By choosing a
three-position widget, the pilot can gain access to three of the four flight phases all on one
switch. They would then need only to choose one additional widget to active the main phase.
The "L" widget has just been freed from being used as the dual-rate control and can be reused for the FP assignment, but since this tutorial will later re-activate the "L" widget for the
dual-rates function, do not choose this widget.
The "O" three-position switch is not being utilized for any function. FPs 1, 2 and 3 can be
assigned to this widget. Widget "M" (which is the button underneath the "O" widget) would
make a good choice of the Main Phase widget. This puts all of the FPs widgets on one side
of the transmitter.
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On the EVO, the Main Phase will always override any other phase settings. This will allow
the pilots to quickly exit any particular phase for any reason. It will also assist the pilot in
preventing any unintentional phase setting activation.
Set the flight phases now.
7.3. FLIGHT PHASE DEFINITION
STEP ONE
Since FPs are unique to each model, they are accessed through the Memory menu. Press
the MEMORY button near the bottom of the transmitter. On the Memory menu, select the
"Flight phase ...." listing. On the Flight phase menu, select listing number one and change it
to "START1" and press ENTER.
Phases 2, 3, and 4 will be crossed out with a dashed line through them. If no flight phases
are ever set up, the EVO will consider that the first phase (listed in the number 1 row) is the
only flight phase and will cross out the other phases automatically.
Select the second field listing and press the REV/CLR button at the bottom of the
transmitter. This will remove the crossed out line over the phase name in the second row.
Change this phase name to "CRUISE" and press ENTER.
Following the procedure listed above, change the phase names for the third listing to
"LANDING" and for the fourth listing to "NORMAL".
Exit this menu back to any of the main screens.
STEP TWO
Now that the names of the FPs have been established, it's time to establish the widgets that
will control these flight phases. Keep in mind that the EVO mandates that phases 1, 2, and 3
to be on one widget, but it considers the "Main Phase" to be a separate function. The “Main
Phase” can be assigned to another widget. The pilot can choose to use as many or few FPs
as they wish, but any phase set up as the "Main phase" will always override any other FPs.
Press the SETUP button at the bottom of the transmitter. Select the "Assignment ...." listing
on the Setup menu. On the next menu named "Assignment" select the "Switches ...." listing.
On the "Assign.Switches" menu, scroll down the list until "Main phase" is displayed and select
it. Hit the ENTER key to pass the warning screen. Press the "M" widget button to assign the
main phase to this widget. Be sure to set the "M" widget button action as ON/OFF (which is
indicated by a small symbol to the right of the second column that looks something like a
poorly written letter 's'.) The button action is changed by repeatedly pressing the "M" widget
while remaining in the second column in the Main phase listing. Hit ENTER to confirm the
widget assignment.
Below the Main phase listing is the "Phases 1-3" listing. Select this, press ENTER to bypass
the warning screen and assign the "O" three-position widget by moving it around. Leave the
"O" widget in the uppermost vertical position and press ENTER to confirm the choice.
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STEP THREE
Now, observe the progress thus far. Navigate back to any of the main screens and press
the MEMORY button at the bottom of the transmitter. Select the "Flight phase ...." listing and
press ENTER.
On the "Flight phase" menu, observe that the widgets that are now assigned to each flight
phase are displayed to the right of the phase name. Phases 1, 2 and 3 display a "<O" and
phase number 4 ("NORMAL") shows a "<M" next to its name.
The “NORMAL” Flight Phase is currently active in this screenshot. The
“M” widget enables the “NORMAL” Flight Phase.
Press the "M" widget a few times and observe a small letter 'x' jump from the fourth line to
another line above it. The small 'x' indicates which phase is currently activated. Press the "M"
widget until the 'x' displayed to the right of the forth phase, the "NORMAL" phase.
Move the "O" three-position widget and observe how the 'x' will not move from the
"NORMAL" phase listing. This is indicative of the operation of the "M" widget which stays ON
until pressed again for OFF as well as indicative that while the main phase (the fourth phase,
named "NORMAL" in this case) is active, no other phases can be activated.
Press the "M" widget one more time which will turn off the “Main Phase”.
Now, move the three-position "O" widget and observe how the small 'x' will move from
phase to phase as the widget is moved among its three positions. If the "M" widget is pressed
again, the phase will revert back to the fourth listing which is the main phase.
Navigate back to the main screens and enable the Flight Phases main screen.
Activate the "M" and "O" widgets and the names of the FPs displayed on the screen will
change accordingly. Remember, while the main phase is active (the "NORMAL" phase in this
case), no other phases will be allowed to activate.
7.4. FLIGHT PHASE FUNCTIONS
Now it’s time to decide on the servo actions of each phase.
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For the NORMAL phase, 100% of servo travels and no pre-set trim settings should be set.
For the LANDING phase, the flaps should be set to go down as well as the servo travels on
the ailerons and elevator should be reduced. This will help to reduce over control during
landing.
For the CRUISE1 phase, the servo travels for the ailerons, rudder and elevator should be
reduced further to prevent over controlling.
Go ahead and set the individual FPs now.
7.5. SETTING THE FLIGHT PHASE SETTINGS
Press the CONTROL button at the bottom of the transmitter and then select "Aileron ...." on
the Control menu.
On the next screen, the aileron controls are displayed. If the "O" widget is changed, the
corresponding FP will be displayed on the top of the screen. Set the "O" widget to LANDING
phase by moving it to the lowest vertical position. Notice that is a small number displayed to
the right side of the "Trim" and the "Trvl" fields. This number corresponds to the FP number.
The LANDING FP was established as the third FP. When the "O" widget is moved to its
lowest position, a small number '3' will be displayed to the right of the "Trim" and the "Trvl"
fields.
Reduce the "Trvl" field for the ailerons to 75%. Leave the "Trim" field to "0.0%".
Exit this screen and now select the "Elevator ...." listing on the Control menu. Reduce the
"Trvl" field to 75% as well.
Set the travel field for the rudder to 75% by using the above steps.
Exit this screen and now select the "Flap ...." listing on the Control menu. The Flap control
(as well as the spoiler control) will not look the same as the aileron and the elevator control
screens. This control will have a "Run time" value as well as a "Fixed value". Select the
"Fixed value" field and change the listing from "OFF" to 100%. Be sure that there is a small
number '3' displayed to the right of the "Fixed value" field. If there is another number shown,
move the "O" widget to its lowest position. If there is a small number '4' displayed, then the
Main Phase has been activated. Press the "M" widget to turn it off.
Exit back to the main Flight Phase screen.
The LANDING FP has now been established. Move the "O" widget to the LANDING phase
and press the "M" widget to change to the NORMAL phase.
Go to the servo monitor screen by pressing the SERVO button at the bottom of the
transmitter and then selecting the "Monitor ...." listing.
Move the axis sticks around and observe that the servo travels have 100% of the travel
motions (or at least as much motion as the current mixers allow for.) Currently the NORMAL
FP is enabled. The default settings are already at 100% for this phase (as well as any other
phases.) Since 100% servo travel was decided for the NORMAL phase, there are no further
steps needed for the NORMAL FP.
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Move left axis stick all the way down and then move the "F" widget to the centered position
on the detent.
Press the "M" widget to turn off the NORMAL FP. Since the "O" widget is in its lowest
position, the FP will change to LANDING FP. Observe how the first and fifth servos go down
in conjunction. This reflects the "Fixed value" field that was changed from "OFF" to "100%".
Go ahead and move the "F" widget which is the flaps control widget. Notice how the first and
fifth servos will not move with the "F" widget motion any longer. This demonstrates that a
fixed value amount will always override the widget that controls the flaps or the spoilers.
Notice also that the aileron control travels have been limited.
Press the "M" widget again to change back into the NORMAL FP. Observe how the first and
fifth servos will slowly transition back to neutral settings. This reflects the EVO's programming
which allows for a gradual transition change from one phase to the next without abrupt servo
movements.
Enable the LANDING FP once again. Why do the first and fifth servos not go all the way
down? Wasn't the "Fixed value" field for the Flap control set to 100%? The answer is in the
"Ail Tut+" mixer values. Press the MIXER button at the bottom of the transmitter and then
select "Ail Tut+ ...." on the Mixer menu. The travel limit for the Flap was previously to "-20%".
If greater flaperon travel distance is desired, change the "-20%" value to a lower number such
as "-50%". Go ahead and change the Flap value in the “Ail Tut+” mixer now.
Go back to the servo monitor screen and observe the travel limits of the first and fifth
servos. With the LANDING FP activated, the ailerons will travel together downward much
more now (the results of the lower fixed value number that was input.) Keep in mind, though,
that the "F" widget, which commands the flap control, will also have a greater travel effect for
camber/reflex now.
Observe also that the left axis stick (which happens to be the spoiler widget in this tutorial)
will continue to effect the first and fifth servos (the ailerons) even though the fixed value for
the flaps has been set. This is also because of the mixer "Ail Tut+" which is set to provide
"70%" of spoileron travel. The spoiler control has not been altered with a fixed value. If the
CONTROL button is pressed at the bottom of the transmitter and then "Spoiler ...." is
selected, the spoiler control for all four FPs will indicate a fixed value of "OFF".
The other FPs settings can now be established. Following the above procedures change
the travel settings for the ailerons, elevator and rudder to the following travel limits:
START1 Trvl=80% (FP numbered 1)
CRUISE Trvl=25% (FP numbered 2)
NORMAL Trvl=100% (FP numbered 4)
Once the FPs have been set with their appropriate travels, observe their responses in the
servo monitor screen. Enable each FP, move the widgets and see what the effects of the
servo travels are.
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“Are FPs a form of dual rates?”
Yes.
Each FP can be altered to have different amounts of travel, which is what a dual rate
function does. Although this lesson has demonstrated how to change the servo travels in the
different phases, the official dual rate field has not been utilized.
The Dual Rate setting is universal across all flight phases. Press the CONTROL button at
the bottom of the transmitter case and then select the "Aileron ...." listing on the next screen.
Set the D/R field to "50%." Exit this screen and then select "Elevator ...." on the Control
menu. Change the dual rate for the elevator to 50%. Change the dual rate on the rudder
control to "50%" as well.
Earlier in this tutorial lesson, the dual rate widget assignment was deleted. Re-establish this
again. Select the SETUP button at the bottom of the transmitter. Select the "Assignment ...."
listing and then select the "Switches ...." listing on the Assignment menu. Select the "DR-ail"
listing, press ENTER to pass the warning screen and then move the "L" widget towards the
bottom of the transmitter case. Press ENTER to confirm. Assign the "DR-el" and the "DR-ru"
fields to the "L" widget as well. Sure that the "L" widget is shown as "ON" when it is in the
lowest position. (There will be a small arrow pointing down to the right of the "<L" displayed
on the screen.)
Go back to the servo monitor screen. Push the "L" widget into the OFF position. Enable the
NORMAL FP. Move the axis sticks and observe that the servo travels move to 100% of their
range. Move the "L" widget to the ON position and observe the servo travels. They have been
reduced to 50%. Enable the FP number one ("START1"). With the "L" in the ON position
(dual rates enabled) observe the motion of the servo travels. The servo travels have now
been reduced to 40%. This is a result of reducing the original 80% of servo travel in the
START1 FP by 50%, which results in 40%. While the dual rates "L" widget is ON, the travel
rates in all of the FPs will be reduced by 50% (except for the fixed values in the LANDING
phase.)
This has effectively allowed for a total of eight dual rate settings. In the START1 FP, the
travels are from 80% without the dual-rate "L" widget set, to 40% with it on. The CRUISE FP
has 25% of servo without the dual-rate "L" widget turned on and 14% with it on. The
LANDING FP has 75% travel without the "L" widget on and 36% of travel with the dual-rate
switch on. The NORMAL FP has 100% of travel with the dual-rates widget in the OFF
position and 50% of travel with the dual-rates turned on.
Of course, this does not consider the fact that the travel limits of the aileron, elevator and
the rudder in each flight phase can be assigned to one of the digi-adjuster buttons for even
more flexibility and adjustment if needed.
8. THE M I X 1, M I X 2, M I X 3 FUNCTION
While the term “mixer” is loosely used within the remote control community, a Multiplex
mixer stands apart from what many of the Asian based radios label as a ‘mixer’. Be sure to
re-read the mixer chapter in this tutorial if there are any doubts as to the concepts and the
workings of Multiplex mixers.
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Earlier in this tutorial, a specialized mixer was created named “Ail Tut+”. The controls in this
mixer are spoiler, flap and aileron. The flap control (the “F” widget), the spoiler control (the left
axis widget) and the aileron control (the right axis widget) were established to remain always
ON.
Since the sample plane being programmed into the EVO in this tutorial features a v-tail, the
elevator and rudder servos were assigned to a mixer that came from Multiplex already
programmed into the EVO. This mixer is named “V-TAIL+”. The control inputs in this mixer
were set to the following settings:
V-Tail+
Elevator
Rudder
Spoiler
Flap
Thr –Tr
65%
65%
OFF
OFF
OFF
100%
100%
OFF
OFF
OFF
For the sake of the tutorial, it will be assumed that a test flight has already occurred and it
was determined that automatic elevator compensation will reduce the pilot workload when
spoilerons are deployed.
Look again at the mixer named, “V-TAIL+”. Although the mixer has been established (by
Multiplex) to have a spoiler control input, in this tutorial lesson the spoiler control has been
set to “OFF”.
The spoiler control can be modified so that when the spoiler widget (the left axis stick) is
engaged, it will cause the v-tail servos to provide up elevator compensation. Simply press the
MIXER button at the bottom of the transmitter, select the “V-TAIL+…” listing and change the
spoiler control to have the following inputs:
V-Tail+
Elevator
Rudder
Spoiler
Flap
Thr –Tr
65%
65%
OFF
OFF
OFF
100%
100%
–20%
OFF
OFF
This is a quick and easy solution to providing Elevator->Spoiler Compensation (EPC). Go
ahead and view the results on the servo monitor screen. Move the left axis stick and observe
how elevator control will be added when the spoiler control is now moved to the end of its
travel.
Suppose, however, that the pilot does not want a particular control inputting into a mixer at
all times? Suppose that the pilot would like to be able to turn the EPC on and off simply by
flipping a switch? Is there a way to accomplish this?
Yes.
This is the purpose of the Mix1, Mix2 and Mix3 switches.
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“Wait a minute, where are these switches? They are not on the EVO transmitter case!” the
reader asks.
That is true. The MIX1-3 switches are a form of software switch that can be assigned to turn
on and off individual control inputs into a mixer.
Let’s make the EPC switchable.
STEP ONE
The “J” three-position widget will be used to turn on and off the EPC. It will be ON in its
lowest vertical position.
Ordinarily it is HIGHLY recommended that
the EVO user not modify the MPX provided
mixers, but for the purpose of this tutorial,
the “V-TAIL+” mixer will receive a slight
alteration which can be reversed without
harm. If you are uncomfortable with mixers
and do not trust your understanding and
ability to perform this modification, it is
suggested that you simply read this chapter
and not perform the modification of the “VTAIL+” mixer on your EVO. Failure to
perform the modification correctly can result
in your v-tailed models operating incorrectly.
Press the SETUP button at the bottom of the transmitter. Select the “Mixer def” listing and
then the V-TAIL+ mixer on the Define.mixer screen. Highlight the spoiler control in the middle
column, change the “----“ to “Mix1”. Do not change the servo output type symbol in the
rightmost column! Press ENTER to confirm the change to the mixer.
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Add only the “Mix1” switch to the Spoiler control!
STEP TWO
Establish the “J” widget to the Mix1 function.
Press the SETUP button at the bottom of the transmitter and then select “Assignment”.
Select the “Switches ..” listing on the Assignment menu.
Scroll down and highlight the “Mix-1” listing and press ENTER. Press ENTER again to pass
the warning screen. Move the “J” widget to assign it to the Mix-1 field and leave it in its lowest
position to indicate to the EVO that this is the “ON” position.
STEP THREE
Navigate back to any of the main screens and press the MIXER button at the button of the
transmitter. Select the “V-TAIL+ ..” listing.
Now there will be a letter ‘j’ displayed to the right of the spoiler control listing in the “VTAIL+” mixer screen. This indicates that the spoiler control input into the mixer is now
switchable. It will only be allowed to feed in a signal into the “V-TAIL+” mixer when the “J”
widget is in the “ON” position.
Go to the servo monitor screen and observe the action of the v-tail servos when the spoiler
control is engaged with the “J” widget in the “ON” position as well as what happens to these
servos when the “J” widget is switched to either the middle position or to its uppermost
vertical position.
EPC has now been added and its action has been changed from always ON to selectable
ON and OFF action.
But I thought that this was supposed to reduce the pilot workload? Can’t the EPC be
engaged automatically when the spoiler control is input – without the need to flip a separate
switch?
Yes.
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Earlier in the tutorial (in the Timers chapter) the motor run timer was assigned to the throttle
widget so that the timer would start and stop automatically when the motor was turned on and
off. The EPC function can work in a similar fashion to reduce pilot workload.
Press the SETUP button at the bottom of the transmitter case. Select “Assignment ..” and
then “Switches ..” Scroll back down to the “Mix-1” listing and select it. Press ENTER to pass
the warning screen. Move the left axis widget and leave it in its uppermost position to indicate
to the EVO that this is the ON position. The “J” widget assignment will be automatically
erased when this is done.
Exit this screen and go to the servo monitor screen and observe the servo actions when the
spoiler control is engaged. EPC will automatically kick in when the left axis stick is moved
upwards and the “J” widget will no longer have any effect to the EPC.
Notice that in this screenshot, channel 4 (the motor control) has been
moved to its lowest vertical position. The left axis widget (spoiler control)
when move to it’s top vertical position raises both aileron surfaces
upwards and also causes the v-tail surfaces to move downward.
The specific point during which the left axis stick begins to move the v-tail servos can be set
lower or higher. To do this, press the CONTROL button at the bottom of the transmitter and
scroll down to the bottom of the list and then select “Contr.switch ..” The first listing on the
“Contr.switch” menu can be modified to change the “trigger point” of the left axis stick. This
will be pilot-dependent and no one setting will be appropriate for all pilots.
The Mix2 & Mix3 are simply two more switches that can be used to select two additional
control inputs that can selectively switched on or off. These additional MIX switches can be
used in other mixers and are not required to all be used within only one mixer.
9. A D V AN C E D M I X E R C O N CE P T S
The EVO has only one official dual-rate (DR) utility. With flight phases (FPs), however, the
control travels of the elevator, rudder and aileron controls can be individually limited; this
results in essentially of up to four possible "dual-rate" settings on these controls.
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If the official dual-rate facility is enabled as well as the four FPs (with their own individual
sets of travel limits), the pilot is able to gain access to a total of up to eight different dual rate
settings on one model.
Suppose there is a scenario where the pilot does not want to use FPs, but would still like to
have different servo actions when a certain set of flight parameters occurs?
For this scenario, it will be assumed that the pilot would like to have three different elevator
dual rates. The pilot also does not want to use FPs.
STEP ONE
Create a new model. Use the BASIC Template and set the Assignment to POWER.
On the model Properties screen, name the model "Crazy Plane" and set the Assignment
listing to POWER.
STEP TWO
Create a new mixer named "Elev#". The mixer should be set up as shown.
Add the Mix1, Mix2 and Mix3 switches as shown.
Is it permitted to have the same controls listed multiple times in a mixer?
Yes. The rationale will be demonstrated shortly.
STEP THREE
Go to the servo assignment screen and replace the mixer "ELEVATOR+" on servo
numbered 2 with the "Elev#" mixer that was just created.
STEP FOUR
Now that a servo has been assigned to the "Elev#" mixer, the servo travels can now be set.
Set the servo travels in the mixer menu to the following:
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49
Elev#
Elevator ---Elevator ---Elevator ----
100%
50%
25%
STEP FIVE
When the "Elev#" mixer was defined, each line in the mixer was set to elevator control with
symmetrical output curves, however, each of the controls listed will be switched with the
MIX1, MIX2 and MIX3 switches.
Establish a widget to control these switches. In the SETUP-ASSIGNMENT-SWITCHES
menu, set Mix-1 to the "G" 3 position switch with the ON position towards the top of the
transmitter. Set Mix-2 to be also on the "G" widget, but the ON position should be in the lower
position. Set MIX3 to the "I" widget with the ON position to be in the lower position.
Go to the servo monitor screen. Set the "I" widget to the OFF position. Set the "G" widget to
the up position. Move the elevator control (the right axis stick) and observe that the elevator
has 100% of travel. Move the "G" widget in the lowest position and observe that the elevator
travel is now only 50%. The "G" widget is currently triggering the MIX2 switch which has been
set to activate one of the control inputs from a mixer. In this case, it is activating one of the
elevator controls in the "Elev#" mixer, which has been set to have only 50% of servo travel.
Move the "G" widget to the center position and then move the "I" widget to the ON position
(down). Observe the elevator servo travel. It has been reduced to 25% which reflects the
MIX3 switch which has been assigned to the third elevator control input in the "Elev#" mixer.
Move the "G" widget to the ON (down) position and set the "I" widget to the ON (down)
position and observe the results of the elevator servo travel. The resulting travel values will
now be 75% which is a reflection of the 50% from MIX2 and the 25% from MIX3. Since both
MIX2 and MIX3 are set to the on position, their resulting travels are added up to 75%.
This is a nifty trick to be able to extract additional dual rates by using a mixer and the MIX13 switches without using the official dual rate function or flight phases.
Keep in mind that the reader is not limited to using the MIX1, MIX2 and MIX3 switches only
one time. You can create a new mixer for the rudder with three inputs and assign one rudder
control to MIX1, another rudder control to MIX2 and the third rudder control to MIX3 in the
mixer definition screen. Replace the rudder servo assignment with this newly created rudder
mixer and set the travel values like the "Elev#" mixer shown above. The end result will be
elevator AND rudder dual rates when the "G" and "I" widgets are turned on.
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An important note!
The middle position on a three-position
switch means, "Neither UP or DOWN." Since
widget "G" in the up position means that MIX1
switch is ON and widget "G" in the down
position means that MIX2 is on, if widget "G"
is in the center, neither one of them are on.
If the "I" widget is also set to OFF (in the up
position), there will be no elevator servo
travel!
This is not a malfunction, but rather a
demonstration of one of the few limitations
of the Royal EVO. With the Profi 4000, each
position of a three position switch can be set
as "ON".
An even more important note!
Although you can establish a mixer with multiple rudder and elevator control inputs to create
a dual rate function, due to the Multiplex aileron sequencing rule, applying multiple aileron
inputs into a mixer to effect a dual rate function on the ailerons will cause the ailerons on the
plane to work improperly.
Aileron servos are required to be listed in a Left-Right-Left-Right order fashion so that the
EVO will know which aileron is the on the port side and which aileron is on the starboard side.
When two aileron controls are listed in a mixer in the aim of allowing for a dual rate function,
the EVO counts the occurrence of the second aileron control listed in the mixer as a “right”
servo and thereby sends a “left” aileron servo data to the next servo utilizing the mixer. In this
case “left” aileron signal will be sent to the right physical aileron servo! To the EVO, it is
following the L-R-L-R aileron rule, however both the left and right physical aileron servos on
the plane will only be receiving “left” aileron servo data signals. This will cause the ailerons on
the plane to act like spoilerons and flaperons.
Mixers are powerful programming tools and they are not limited to only providing mixing
function outputs to servos. They can also be used as another form of dual rates if the pilot
needs additional functionality on their EVO.
© 2004 James “Joedy” Drulia
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10.
51
P R O G R AM M I N G F U L L -H O U S E S A I L P L AN E S
This chapter is credited to Geir Wilkran and is used with his generous permission. The
author has modified the narration for clarity and has performed formatting alterations for
readability.
This chapter provides the readers with a detailed set of instructions for programming a fullhouse sailplane. Full-house sailplanes typically have the following functions: Elevator,
Aileron, Flap, Rudder. Some full-house sailplanes also have a separate spoiler control
surface, but the example plane that Mr. Wilkran is proposing in this chapter uses the aileron
surfaces as spoilerons for the spoiler channel; there are no separate spoiler flying surfaces
on his example full-house sailplane.
10.1.
PROGRAMMING OVERVIEW
This full-house sailplane setup assumes that the Elevator and Aileron controls are located
on the right stick widget (in mode 2 operation). The Rudder and Spoiler controls are located
on the left stick widget. The Flap control is located on the “E” slider widget. The Flap control
will be used for small amounts of camber and reflex while in flight.
The aileron surfaces should act as flaperons during full trailing edge flap settings and as
spoilerons during crow braking.
The flap surfaces should act as full span ailerons as well as act as conventional flaps.
The elevator surface should compensate when crow braking is enabled.
The “N” widget should switch between allowing the spoiler widget to effect either full span
flaps (flap and aileron travel downward together) or crow brake (flap surfaces go down and
aileron surfaces go up).
The “I” widget should turn aileron-rudder coupling on and off.
10.2.
CREATE A CUSTOM ASSIGNMENT LIST
First, set up a custom assignment list and define the mixers that are needed. Once hese
mixers and assignment list have been programmed, they will be considered global and can
be used with other sailplanes.
Begin by setting up a custom list of widget-to-control assignments.
Go to the main menu "Setup" and select "Assignment". In the "Assignment" screen move
down to "Assignment" and select it (by pressing the digi-adjusters or the ENTER key). Use
the digi-adjusters (or up/down keys) to select one of the two empty assignment lists, which
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will show up in the display as "4...." and "5....". Change the name of the assignment to
something meaningful.
Navigate to the "Controls" listing and select it. Highlight the "Spoiler" listing and select it.
Select the widget that will act as the Spoiler control by moving the left stick widget up and
down. Leave the stick in a forward position to set stick travel value from forward as negative
to backward as positive, and then press ENTER to confirm. This will navigate back to the
“Controls” list. Move down to "Flaps/RPM" and select it. Move the “E” slider widget and leave
it in an upward position before pressing the ENTER key.
Exit the "Assign Controls" screen.
Back in the "Assignment" screen, select "Switches". Move down to "CombiSwitch" (aileronrudder combination) and select the “I” widget. Leave the “I” widget in the downward position
as the “ON” position and press ENTER to confirm.
Move down to "Mix-1" in the list and select the “N” widget with upwards as being the “ON”
position. Move down to "Mix-2" and select the same “N” widget, but this time with downward
as being the “ON” position. The Mix-1 and Mix-2 switches will allow the pilot to change
between crow brake and full span flaps. This will be demonstrated later in the chapter.
This custom global assignment list is now complete and can now be used with additional
models.
10.3.
CREATE THE MIXERS
For setting up our full house glider, three different mixers will be needed: one to manage the
aileron servos, another to manage the flap servos, and one to manage the elevator servos.
These mixers will be named as, AILERONx, FLAPx, and ELEVATRx.
AILERONx mixer:
Press the "Setup" button at the bottom of the transmitter and select "Mixer def". In the
"Define mixer" screen scroll down the list and select an unused entry. In the next screen
change the name to "AILERONx". This is the mixer that will be used to effect the aileron
servos, so it must now be decided which controls should cause the aileron servos to move. In
the “Programming Overview” chapter, it was determined that the aileron servos should move
when the following events occur:
•
When the aileron widget is enabled, the aileron servos
should move.
•
When the flap widget is enabled, the aileron servos should
move for camber and reflex adjustments.
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•
When the “N” widget is forward in the Mix1 position, the
ailerons should move as spoilerons when crow braking is
enabled by the spoiler widget.
•
When the “N” widget is downward in the Mix2 position, the
ailerons should move as flaperons for full trailing edge
flaps.
Define the aileron mixer as shown below:
AILERONx
1.
2.
3.
4.
5.
Aileron
Flap
Spoiler
Spoiler
-------
------Mix1
Mix2
----
---
In the AILERONx mixer, line 1 receives the Aileron control as an input. The aileron servos
should move equally up and down in response to the aileron widget, so the symmetrical
output option is chosen. Since the symmetrical output option forces the servo to travel equally
above and below the neutral servo position, when the aileron servo travel adjustments are
later programmed into the mixer, only one value will need to be entered. However, the
asymmetrical output option could have been chosen in order to allow fine tuning the specific
upward and downward travel distance of the aileron surfaces. Is this how aileron differential is
programmed? No, aileron differential is a parameter that is adjusted with a separate function
on the EVO and not by the use of mixers. This will later be demonstrated.
Line 2 receives Flap as an input. The flap control is set with an asymmetrical output option.
With this option, separate values for the upward and for the downward movement of the
aileron surfaces can be programmed when the flap widget is enabled. These travel values
will be used to fine tune the amount of aileron surface travel when camber or reflex is
enabled with the “E” slider widget.
Line 3 receives Spoiler as an input only when the Mix1 switch is in the “ON” position.
(When the “N” widget is in the upward position.) The Mix1 switch will toggle the crow brake
function in response to the Spoiler widget. When the Mix1 switch is set to “ON”, the ailerons
should move in one direction only (upwards), so the single-sided with offset option is chosen.
The offset option allows the entire physical movement of the left axis stick (the spoiler widget)
from full up position (0% or neutral) to full down position (+100%) to be utilized to deploy the
ailerons as spoilerons.
Line 4 also receives Spoiler as an input, but only when the Mix2 switch is in the “ON”
position (when the “N” widget is in the downward position.) When the Mix2 switch is set to the
“ON” position, it will cause the ailerons to move as flaperons in response to the Spoiler
widget. This will be used in conjunction with the flap surfaces to allow the pilot to set full
trailing edge flaps.
Line 5 is not used and is left empty.
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FLAPx mixer:
Press the "Setup" button at the bottom of the transmitter and select "Mixer def". In the
"Define mixer" screen scroll down the list and select an unused entry. In the next screen
change the name to "FLAPx". This is the mixer that will be used to effect the flap servos, so it
must be decided now which controls should cause the flap servos to move. In the
“Programming Overview” chapter, it was determined that the flap servos should move when
the following events occur:
•
When the flap control is enabled (the “E” slider widget), the
flap servos should move a small amount of up for reflex and
a small amount of down for camber.
•
When the spoiler widget is enabled, the flap servos should
move down as far as possible.
•
When the aileron widget is moved, the flap servos should
work in conjunction with the aileron servos for full span
aileron function.
Define the mixer as shown below:
FLAPx
1.
2.
3.
4.
5.
Flap
Spoiler
Aileron
-------------
----------------
-----
Line 1 receives flap as an input. An asymmetrical output option is selected so that the
upward and downward movement distance of the flap servos can be adjusted as needed.
Line 2 receives spoiler as an input. The spoiler widget should cause the flap servos to move
only in one direction. The output option is chosen as single-sided with offset in order to allow
the full physical movement of the spoiler widget to be utilized.
Line 3 receives aileron as an input. An asymmetrical output option is selected so that the
upward and downward movement of the flap servos can be adjusted to match the aileron
surfaces for full span ailerons.
Lines 4 and 5 are unused and are left empty.
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ELEVATRx mixer:
Press the "Setup" button at the bottom of the transmitter and select "Mixer def". In the
"Define mixer" screen scroll down the list and select an unused entry. In the next screen
change the name to "ELEVATRx". This is the mixer that will be used to effect the elevator
servo, so it must now be decided which controls should cause the elevator servo to move. In
the “Programming Overview” chapter, it was determined that the elevator servo should move
when the following events occur:
•
When the elevator widget is enabled, the elevator servo
should move.
•
When the spoiler widget is enabled, the elevator servo
should move in order to provide compensation.
Define the mixer as shown below:
ELEVATRx
1.
2.
3.
4.
5.
Elevator
Spoiler
-------------------
----------------
-------
Line 1 receives Elevator as an input. An asymmetrical output option is selected so that the
upward and downward movement of the elevator servos can be adjusted as needed.
Line 2 receives Spoiler as an input. This input is used for elevator compensation when
Spoilers are deployed.
Lines 3, 4, and 5 are unused and are left empty.
10.4.
CREATE THE MODEL
Now that the mixers have been created, the model can now be created. Press the
MEMORY button near the bottom of the transmitter and then select "New model". In the "New
model" screen select "4 FLAPS" as the Template. Select "2" (Rudder on left stick, Elevator
and Aileron on right stick) as the Mode selection. For the Assignment list selection, choose
the custom assignment list that was made earlier. Finally, select "OK" and press ENTER.
Press the CONTROLS button near the bottom of the transmitter and then select "Fixed
value,” Make sure that the parameter "Fixed value" is set to OFF for the flap and spoiler
control.
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Press the SERVO button near the bottom of the transmitter and then select "Assignment".
Assign the AILERONx mixer to the two channels that will be used for the ailerons.
(Remember that that left wing should be on a lower channel number than the right wing in
order to observe the aileron sequencing rule.)
Assign the FLAPx mixer to the two channels that will be used for flaps. Remember that that
left flap should be on a lower channel number than the right flap in order to comply with the
sequencing rule. The two flap channels should be on higher numbered channels than the two
aileron channels.
Assign the ELEVATRx mixer to the channels that will be used for elevator.
Assign the Rudder control to the channel that will be used for rudder. The rudder control will
not need a mixer.
10.5.
ADJUST THE MIXER VALUES
Press the MIXER button near the bottom of the transmitter and then select the AILERONx
mixer. Enter the following travel values as shown below.
AILERONx
Aileron
Flap
Spoiler
Spoiler
---100%
OFF
OFF
100%
100%
-100% Mix1
100% Mix2
Press the MIXER button near the bottom of the transmitter and then select the FLAPx
mixer. Enter the following travel values as shown below.
FLAPx
Flap
Spoiler
Aileron
100%
OFF
OFF
100%
100%
-30%
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Press the MIXER button near the bottom of the transmitter and then select the ELEVATRx
mixer. Enter the following travel values as shown below.
ELEVATRx
Elevator
Spoiler
100%
OFF
100%
0%
By ensuring that all of the channels will receive full output from each control, it will be easier
to adjust the mechanical servo linkages and flying surfaces.
10.6.
SERVO CALIBRATION
Press the SERVO button near the bottom of the transmitter and then select "Calibrate".
Select each channel and make sure that both end points of the servo curve (P1 and P5) are
set to -/+100% value. Check that each control surface on the model is moving in the correct
direction. If any servo needs to be reversed, select that channel in the SERVO menu,
highlight the “REV/TRM” field and then press the REV/CLR button at the bottom of the
transmitter to invert the curve.
For each servo, adjust the mechanical linkage so that the full servo movement is used when
moving the control surface to its maximum needed deflection. (This may require adjusting the
clevises on the servo arms and control horns.) Even after completing this, there may still be
some servos that will attempt to move more that the mechanical linkage and control surface
will allow for. If this is the case, select the corresponding channel on the SERVO menu and
adjust the end points (P1 and P5) on the servo curve so that under no circumstance will the
servo move further than the mechanical linkage allows for.
The flap servos will require some special attention in order to synchronize them with the
aileron servos. The flap surfaces need to move only a few degrees upward travel for reflex.
However, the flaps should also move as much down as possible for braking. Therefore it is
desirable to preserve as much physical servo movement as possible for moving the flaps
downward. Turn on the receiver. Move the spoiler stick to neutral (full forward). Move the flap
slider (the “E” widget) full forward, so that both flap servos (and surfaces) move to their
upward ends of travel, and hold it there while turning off the receiver. (This will cause the
servos to “freeze” into place.) Adjust the mechanical servo linkages for the flaps so that the
flap surfaces are set to their maximum required reflex position. Turn the receiver on again,
and set the flap slider to neutral. The flap servos will now move to the servo neutral positions,
but the flap surfaces will physically be below the neutral point. Go into the calibration screen
for each flap channel and adjust the servo curve point P3 (center position) so that the flap
surfaces are at neutral when spoiler, aileron and flap widgets are at their neutral positions.
Go through each mixer (AILERONx, FLAPx, and ELEVATRx) and readjust the mixer travel
values as needed for the model.
The Flap control should produce only a small amount of flap surface movement (5-10
degrees) for reflex and camber settings. Within both mixers AILERONx and FLAPx, adjust
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the amount of flap control travel so that the flap surfaces move in response to the Flap widget
(the “E” slider) in the amounts that are needed for the model.
Press the MIXER button at the bottom of the transmitter and then select the “CombiSwitch”
listing. The Rudder-Aileron coupling for coordinated turns can be set up here. This can be set
so that either Ailerons or Rudder is considered master. (See section 15.1 in the manual.)
Within the customer assignment list that was created, the “I” widget has been programmed to
turn Aileron-Rudder combination ON and OFF.
Press the MIXER button at the bottom of the transmitter and then select the "Ail.Diff" listing.
The “Mode” parameter can be set to +SPOILER. (See section 15.2 in the manual.) In this
example setup, much of the aileron movement will be used in crow braking and in full span
flaps when deploying the Spoiler widget. Less aileron movement is remains for the Aileron
control when Spoilers are fully deployed, and this will cause degraded aileron response for
the plane when using spoilers. When the mode is set to +SPOILER, aileron differential will be
gradually reduced as Spoilers are progressively deployed. This will enable better aileron
response when deploying spoilers.
10.7.
REFINEMENT POSSIBILITIES
The following discussion are variations of other possibilities and refinements to the prior
example setup. There are other alternative EVO programming approaches that are possible,
but are not discussed below.
10.7.1.
ALTERNATIVE ELEVATOR COMPENSATION POSSIBILITIES
When the ELEVATRx mixer was defined, the Spoiler input was set with the "Singlesided with offset" output option. This option gives linear output to the elevator from the
first moment of spoiler deployment.
Perhaps this is not desired. Suppose that very little elevator compensation should
occur at the beginning of spoiler deployment, but more elevator compensation should
occur after the spoiler has passed a certain point? In this case, a "Single-sided with
curve" output option could be chosen instead. This will provide a two-point curve for
adjusting the elevator compensation rate instead of a straight linear elevator
compensation.
Or perhaps instead, no elevator compensation at all is desired until a given amount of
spoiler is deployed? In this case, a "Single-sided with dead zone" output option could
be chosen. This will allow the pilot to specify at which point during the spoiler
deployment that elevator compensation should begin.
10.7.2.
ALTERNATIVE REFLEX/CAMBER POSSIBILITIES
The flap control (which was assigned to the “E” slider widget) was programmed to
enable small adjustments of reflex and camber for penetration or thermal situations.
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For the fingers to find the “E” slider and moving it to the correct position, is sometimes
not as easy and quick as could be desired. In some situations, it is better to flip a switch
to set the flaps in speed, thermal, or normal positions. This could be obtained by
reassigning the flap control to a switch widget, for example to the 3-position “L” widget
(reflex in upper position, neutral in middle position, and camber in lower position).
However, if he pilot desires, they can leave the control assignment as it is and use the
forward and backward position of the “L” widget to quickly set reflex and camber while
at the same time have the “E” widget action slaved to the middle position of the “L”
widget. In another words, when the “L” widget is set to either reflex or camber, the “E”
slider will have not effect. When the “L” widget is in the center position, the “E” slider
will continue to allow the pilot to manually specify the amount of reflex or camber to
effect.
This will be done using a combination of Flight Phases and fixed values.
Press the SETUP button at the bottom of the transmitter and then select
"Assignment". Select "Switches", scroll down to "Phases 1-3" and select it. Move the
“L” widget to select it, and leave it in the forward position for Phase 1 before pressing
ENTER to confirm the choice.
Press the MEMORY button at the bottom of the transmitter and then select "Flight
phases". Navigate to the second line listed as Phase 2, select it (by pressing the digiadjuster or the ENER key) and change the name in the second line to "NORMAL" and
press ENTER.
Navigate to the Phase 3 line and change the name to "THERMAL1". Make sure the
“L” widget is in the forward position. This will select Phase 1 which is the phase that
already contains the previous settings. An "x" will appear on the display to indicate this.
Navigate back to the Phase 1 (line 1), select it and change the name to "SPEED1"
and press ENTER. The marker will now move to the "x" after the name of the phase.
Use the digi-adjuster (or up/down keys) to copy Phase 1 to Phase 2 (in the display a "c"
will show behind the phase that will be copied to). Copy Phase 1 to Phase 3 as well.
Now, all of the previous settings have been copied to these two new phases.
Press the CONTROL button at the bottom of the transmitter case and select "Flap".
Move the “L” widget to the upward position to enable the "Speed1" phase (phase 1).
Set the "Fixed value" to the required amount of reflex for this Flight Phase.
Move the “L” widget to the lower position to select "Thermal1" phase (phase 3), and
set the "Fixed value" to the required amount of camber for the Flight Phase.
Move the “L” widget to the middle position and ensure that the "Fixed value" is OFF in
the "Normal" phase. This will enable the “E” widget to continue to work as it did before
in the "Normal" phase. (Remember, even if the pilot chooses not to use Flight Phases,
the EVO considers that the “Normal” Flight Phase is enabled by default.)
One thing to be aware is that when you set fixed values the resulting output will be
limited to the maximum values set for that control in each mixer. For example, if in the
FLAPx mixer the travel values for Flap were set 25% upward travel and 30% downward
travel and a fixed value is set for Flap to -100% (up), the actual output from the mixer
will only be -25% (the maximum value in the mixer setup).
© 2004 James “Joedy” Drulia
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11.
60
P R O G R AM M I N G E L E C T RI C RES S A I L P L AN E S
On electric gliders, it is often beneficial to have a programming set up that allows the left
axis stick to control both the ESC (throttle) as well as the spoiler. During the launch stage or
during motor power-on, the left axis stick is used as a typical throttle control widget. However,
by programming the left axis stick to also control the spoiler function, it reduces the pilot
workload since it will not be necessary to utilize another slider widget or switch to enable the
spoilers.
This EVO programming scenario will have one widget that will be used to control two
independent servos, but not at the same time. Clearly, the spoilers and the throttle should not
both enable at the same time!
These two functions on the left axis stick will be switched by the position of widget “O”
which is a three-position widget on the left side of the transmitter, although any other threeposition switch widget could be utilized instead.
The top-most vertical position of the “O” widget will be for throttle control and the bottommost position will be for spoiler control. The middle position will be for nether control and
thus, will effectively be used as a “master kill switch” to prevent accidental spoiler or throttle
inputs during flight. This will be beneficial when the glider is very far away and it will be
impossible to quickly notice if the spoilers or the throttle have been accidentally turned on.
In addition to the selectable function of the left axis stick, different rates of elevator to
throttle and elevator to spoiler coupling will be added to further reduce the pilot workload
while in flight.
One last reduction of the pilot workload will be to combine the rudder control onto the right
axis stick for single-stick flying.
This setup will reduce the pilot workload to only three widgets, but will still allow the full
range of control for the RES-Electric sailplane.
11.1.
PROGRAMMING SOLUTION
The solution to this programming setup is rather unorthodox and goes against some
conventional EVO programming guidelines, but it works well and further demonstrates that
the EVO can be configured to work in a variety of ways with a little bit of thinking outside of
the box.
The answer to this programming set up is to use three custom made mixers and a
combination of the Mix1 and Mix2 software switches.
This solution also avoids having to use a Flight Phase (FP) assigned to a switch widget,
and thus, frees this tool for additional functions if the pilot determines later that a FP would be
of benefit.
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11.2.
61
UNIQUE MIXERS THAT ARE NEEDED
There will be three custom mixers that will be needed. Create these mixers as shown below
in the Mixer definition menu.
RES-Eele
Elevator
Throttle
Spoiler
---Mix1
Mix2
RES-Ethr
Throttle
Mix1
RES-Espl
Spoiler
Mix2
Conventional EVO programming specifies that if there is only a single control listed in a
mixer, a mixer is not necessary; the pilot would just assign the control to a widget.
But in this case, assigning the spoiler or the throttle control directly to a widget will not allow
the pilot to attach a “Mix1” or “Mix2” software switch to the control. This is why the last two
unorthodox mixer definitions are necessary.
11.3.
CONTROL WIDGET ASSIGNMENTS
Assign both the throttle control and the spoiler control to the left axis stick. Be sure that the
left axis stick remains in the down position when selecting ENTER to confirm your selection.
11.4.
SWITCH WIDGET ASSIGNMENT
Assign the “O” widget in the up-most position as “Mix1” in the bottom-most position as
“Mix2”.
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11.5.
62
SERVO ASSIGNMENTS
Assign the elevator servo to the “RES-Eele” mixer.
Assign the throttle servo (the ESC) to the “RES-Ethr” mixer.
Assign the spoiler servo to the “RES-Espl” mixer.
11.6.
MIXER TRAVEL SETTINGS
As a starting point, set the servo travels within each mixer to the following settings:
RES-Eele
Elevator
Throttle
Spoiler
---15%
30%
100%
25%
50%
-100%
100%
-100%
100%
RES-Ethr
Throttle
RES-Espl
Spoiler
11.7.
MIXER RESULTS AND EXPLANATIONS
Because the throttle control is set to the “Mix1” software switch, the left stick will only enable
the throttle when the “O” widget is moved to its upper-most vertical position. The spoiler servo
will not move at this time since it is programmed to move only when the “Mix2” software
switch is enabled (which is when the “O” widget is set in its lowest-most position.)
When the “Mix2” switch position is enabled, the left axis stick will control the spoiler only.
The elevator compensation for throttle and spoiler is handled within the “RES-Eele” mixer.
11.7.1.
THROTTLE > ELEVATOR COMPENSATION EXPLAINED
Throttle
15%
25%
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Because this input was originally defined as “single-sided linear with dead zone” when the
mixer was created, it allows the pilot to determine at what point should the elevator servo
begin to move when the throttle control (the left axis stick) is moved from it’s lowest position
of no throttle to its highest position of full throttle.
Consider this, in an electric glider and especially at low throttle speeds it may not be
necessary or even desirable to have the elevator servo attempt to compensate. At higher
throttle settings, it may be very necessary to have the elevator compensate the effects of the
higher throttle setting.
What the above mixer line is saying is that as the throttle control (the left axis stick) is being
moved from its lowest position of 0% travel until it reaches a point 15% along its total travel,
don’t add any elevator compensation. This is what the term “dead zone” refers to when
setting mixer options in the mixer definition stage. In this example, the dead zone (of which
there will be no elevator signal sent to the elevator servo) is from 0%-15% when the throttle
(the left axis stick) is moved.
Once the 15% point is passed on the throttle control however, the mixer is instructing the
elevator to add a maximum 25% of travel in a linear fashion.
If immediate elevator compensation is desired from the instant that the throttle control
widget is moved, change the RES-Eele mixer to the following:
RES-Ethr
Throttle
Off
100%
This setting will give elevator compensation as soon as the throttle widget is advanced.
11.7.2.
SPOILER > ELEVATOR COMPENSATION EXPLAINED
Spoiler
30%
50%
Because this mixer input line also was originally defined as “single-sided linear with dead
zone” when the mixer was created, it allows the pilot to determine at what point should the
elevator servo begin to move when the spoiler control (the left axis stick) is moved from it’s
lowest position of no spoiler to its highest position of full spoiler.
Remember, that the left axis stick is being used for BOTH the spoiler control as well as the
throttle control. The position of the widget “O” determines which control is being enabled as
the left axis stick is moved.
In this example, because the elevator doesn’t need to compensate much when the spoiler
is initially deployed, the dead zone is set to 30%. As the spoiler is deployed in flight, the
elevator will not attempt to compensate until the spoiler control (the left axis stick) passes
beyond the 30% trigger point in the widget movement travel.
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Once this occurs, the mixer is instructing the elevator servo to move up to 50% (in a linear
fashion) of its travel to compensate for the full spoiler deployment.
This means basically, that full spoiler is going to drop the glider like a rock and much more
elevator compensation will be necessary to maintain the flight path, but lesser amounts of
spoiler deployment (less than 30% spoiler deployment in this example) will not need to have
any elevator compensation. In this example, the dead zone for elevator compensation when
the spoiler control is enabled is from 0% to 30%.
This gives elevator compensation when the spoiler is opened.
11.8.
AILERON > RUDDER COUPLING
Assign the ailerons to rudder coupling to one of the digi-adjusters (DA) for fine tuning in
flight and for quickly setting pilot preferences. In the Mixer menu, select the “Combi…”
listing. Under the Combi screen, make sure that the Aileron > Rudder option is displayed and
press the Digi-Adjuster button at the bottom of the transmitter. Press either the left or the right
DA as desired. The coupling rate can now be adjusted while in flight. Be sure that a widget
has been assigned to the Combi function and that it is currently positioned to the “On”
position.
11.8.1.
AUTOMATIC AILERON > RUDDER COUPLING USING A MIXER
Another way to eliminate pilot workload is to create a custom mixer for the rudder servo that
has the following settings:
Ail>Rud+
Rudder
Aileron
-------
The travel distances for this mixer should be set to the following:
Ail>Rud+
Rudder
Aileron
-------
100%
100%
Assign the rudder servo to the “Ail>Rud+” mixer.
This will cause the aileron control (the right stick on a mode 2 setting in the EVO) to make
the rudder servo move. Because the aileron control input is set to be always on within the
mixer definition, the pilot will not need to be concerned about flipping a widget to enable
coupled aileron > rudder flight.
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The EVO will still allow the aileron control within the Ail>Rud+ mixer to be assigned to one
of the DA for fine tuning in flight. Highlight the 100% value for the Aileron control in the
Ail>Rud+ mixer screen, press the digi-adjuster button at the bottom of the transmitter and
then press either one of the DA buttons at the top of the transmitter.
Note:
The numerical values in the mixers in this
chapter are purely for instructional purposes
only and each plane will need to be adjusted
individually to suit pilot and plane
preferences.
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12.
66
E X AM P L E S CE N AR I O S
As the tutorial has demonstrated, the EVO is a very flexible and powerful transmitter. The
below listed scenarios and their necessary mixers will allow the reader to realize the
possibilities and strengths of utilizing MPX mixers.
12.1.
SELECTABLE CROW (BUTTERFLY) BRAKING
The pilot would like to have a full house glider to have crow braking enabled when the
spoiler control is activated. Enabling the Crow function should be handled with a switch
widget, which will allow the pilot to switch from full Crow to flaps-only landing setups.
Controls
Widgets
Flap control
“F” slider
Spoiler control
Left axis stick
Aileron control
Right axis stick
Crow control
“N” switch as “MIX1”
Two custom mixers will be needed. The “FLAPCROW” mixer will be for the flap servos and
the “AIL-CROW” mixer will have the aileron servos assigned to it.
Define the mixers in the Setup – Mixer def menu to the following:
FLAPCROW
Flap
Spoiler
AIL-CROW
-------
Flap
Spoiler
Aileron
---Mix1
---
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Set the mixer values in the mixer menu to the following settings:
FLAPCROW
Flap
Spoiler
AIL-CROW
30%
OFF
10%
100%
Flap
Spoiler
Aileron
30%
OFF
---
10%
-70% MIX1
100%
Comments:
Since the “F” slider is sending the same amount of servo travel to both the flap servos and
to the aileron servos, it will allow for full wingspan camber and reflex. At the neutral point of
the “F” slider, the flap and aileron surfaces will be at their neutral positions.
The spoiler control is always set to command the flap servos to move up to 100% of their
travels. The output curve is single-sided, linear with dead zone which will allow the spoiler
widget to be in the all the way up or down position resulting in a neutral position for the flaps.
When the “MIX1” switch is enabled (the “N” widget), moving the spoiler control will cause
the ailerons to travel upward to about –70% of their travel limits. With the “MIX1” switch off,
the spoiler control will not affect the ailerons.
The aileron control will affect the aileron servos up to 100% of their travel distances.
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12.2.
68
RUDDER COMPENSATION WITH THROTTLE TRAVEL
The pilot would like to have the EVO automatically add a small amount of rudder to
compensate for torque forces during rolling takeoffs. Since the pilot does not want this
compensation to always remain on, it should be selectable.
Controls
Widgets
Throttle control
Left axis stick (vertically)
Rudder control
Left axis stick (horizontally)
R/T compensation
“N” switch as “MIX1”
Only one mixer will have to be made. The rudder servo will be assigned to it.
Rud/Thr+
Rudder
Throttle
---Mix1
Rud/Thr+
Rudder
Throttle
----10%
100%
OFF
MIX1
Comments:
The rudder control will affect the rudder servo at all times to 100% of its travel distances.
When the “N” widget is in the ON position, advancing the throttle will move the rudder 10%
of its travel distance only to one side. When the “N” widget is in the OFF position, there will
be no rudder/throttle compensation.
The throttle setting in the mixer may need to be reversed depending on servo installation.
By setting the control switch setting, the rudder servo can be set to give compensation at
only high ends of throttle travel such as 90%, for example.
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12.3.
69
A DISCUS-LAUNCH MOMENTARY RUDDER PRESET
A pilot would like to have a momentary rudder compensation for launching discus-launched
gliders. The pilot does not want to use a Flight Phase for this.
Controls
Widgets
Tow Rel. control
“M” widget (momentary action)
Rudder control
Left axis stick (horizontally)
Only one mixer will be needed. The rudder servo(s) will be assigned to it.
RUD-DLG+
Rudder
Tow Rel.
-------
RUD-DLG+
Rudder
Tow Rel.
---OFF
100%
(-)10%
Comments:
The rudder control will affect the rudder servo at all times to 100% of its travel distances.
While the “M” widget is held down, it will enable the Tow Release control, which is set in the
above mixer to provide 10% of rudder travel in one direction. The pilot may need to adjust
this setting depending on how the rudder servos are installed.
This mixer demonstrates taking advantage of a control that is not being utilized for mixing
purposes.
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12.4.
70
AUTOMATIC ELEVATOR COMPENSATION WITH THROTTLE AND SPOILER DEPLOYMENT
The pilot desires to program the EVO to automatically give elevator compensation when
the throttle and the spoiler controls are deployed.
Controls
Widgets
Throttle control
Left axis stick (vertically)
Spoiler control
“E” slider widget
Elevator control
Right axis stick (vertically)
In this scenario, the elevator surface on the model should move when three events occur:
1) When the elevator widget is moved, the elevator servo should move.
2) When the throttle widget is moved, the elevator servo should compensate.
3) When the spoiler widget is moved, the elevator servo should compensate.
Since this scenario has three data streams that must somehow reach the elevator servo
and by the fact that there is only one physical plug ending on the elevator servo, a MPX mixer
is needed in order to get all three data streams to the elevator servo.
Only one mixer will be to be created. The elevator servo will be assigned to it.
EScomps+
Elevator
Throttle
Spoiler
----------
EScomps+
Elevator
Throttle
Spoiler
----------
100%
25%
15%
(The Throttle and Spoiler values may need to be converted to a negative number
depending on how the servos are installed in the plane.)
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Comments:
When the elevator widget is moved, the elevator servo will travel to its 100% position from
BOTH sides of the center position. This is because its movement action was set in the mixer
definition as being symmetrical.
When the Throttle widget is moved, the elevator servo will only move 25% of its total travel
from the center position in one direction only. This is because its movement action was set in
the mixer definition as single-sided with dead zone.
When the Spoiler widget is moved, the elevator servo will only move 15% of its total travel
from the center position in one direction only. Again, this is a result of the servo action being
set as single-sided with dead zone during the mixer definition stage.
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12.5.
72
AUTOMATIC RUDDER DUAL RATE WHEN FLAPERONS ARE DEPLOYED PAST A CERTAIN
POINT
The pilot desires to fly a DLG on a single stick, but notices that when flaperons are
deployed steeply, the control of DLG begins to diminish. In order to add greater control
authority, it is necessary to use greater amounts of rudder travel. Instead of a separate
rudder control dual rate, this programming solution allows for an automatic rudder dual rate
that is triggered by the flaperon setting.
This idea is credited to Mark Drela, but the instructions are the authors’.
This example plane is a DLG with Flaperons and separate elevator and rudder servos. Note
that this scenario is also using a rudder pre-set activated by the Tow Release control which is
assigned to the “M” button.
Create the following mixers:
(Use these names or create your own)
dlgAIL+
Aileron
Flap
-------
dlgRUD+
Rudder
Aileron
Aileron
Tow Rel.
---Mix1
Mix1
----
dlgELE+
Elevator
Flap
-------
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Assign the following widget controls:
Controls
Widgets
Flap/RPM control
Left Axis Stick (“ON” is down)
Tow Rel. control
M Button
Assign the following widget switches:
Switches
Widgets
Mix-1
Left Axis Stick (“ON” is down)
Combi.Switch
“I” widget (“ON” is upwards)
Set the control switch point on the left axis stick to “ON” at –65% of travel. The control
switch point is accessed by pressing the CONTROL button at the bottom of the transmitter
case and then selecting the “Contr. Switch” listing, which is the last item listed on the menu.
Access the MIXER Menu and set the travel for the CombiSwitch to 15%.
Set the travels for the dlgELE+ and the dlgAIL+ to the settings that are needed for your
model.
On the dlgRUD+ mixer, use the initial following settings:
dlgRUD+
Rudder
Aileron
Aileron
Tow Rel.
---------20%
100%
30%
-30%
OFF
The reader will most likely need to adjust these initial settings for their models.
Comments:
The CombiSwitch function can take care of the ordinary rudder coupling on the right axis
stick, but the dlgRUD+ mixer will allow for a dynamic alternate coupling rate of the rudder
control.
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The greater rudder travel setting in the dlgRUD+ mixer (30% as compared to the 15% that
was set with the Combi.switch setting) will only happen when the Mix1 switch has been
enabled.
The Mix1 one switch was assigned to the left axis stick, but since this widget isn’t a switch
(it’s really just a plain old slider), the EVO needs to be told at what point should the slider
“switch” on or off. This was done by entering a value for the Control Switch.
In this example, the Control Switch “trigger point” was set to –65%.
The flaps are also set to this same widget (the left axis stick). When the stick is pulled
down, the ailerons will act like flaperons. This is a result of the flap control being listed in the
dlgAIL+ mixer.
When the travel distance of the left axis stick triggers the control switch (passes the –65%
travel point), the Mix1 controls listed in the dlgRUD+ definition are turned “ON”.
In this case, it means that the rudder travel will be changing from 15% (the amount that was
set to the CombiSwitch setting) to 30% and –30% which is the amount of travel that was
entered into the eleRUD+ mixer setting.
Note that the Combi.switch is still transmitting the 15% value, but since the dlgAIL+ mixer is
sending a greater travel instruction, the end result is that the 15% signal from the
Combi.switch is not observed on the plane.
The negative number (-30%) in the dlgAIL+ mixer will allow for symmetrical rudder travel
since the rudder servo center point is considered “zero”, positive and negative travel values
will allow the rudder servo to move left and right from the servo center position.
This gives an automatic increase in the amount of rudder travel when the flaperons are
lowered past a certain point, which in turn will give a greater amount of control authority while
still allowing for single stick flying on the right axis stick.
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12.6.
75
SNAP FLAPS
The pilot desires to have the flaps assist with the elevator control to allow the plane to
respond more forcefully to elevator input. This is commonly known as Snap Flaps (SF).
Since minor adjustments of the elevator control should not cause the flaps to move, it is
necessary to establish a range of elevator control that do not cause the flaps to move until
this range is exceeded. When the specified elevator travel range has been exceeded, the
flaps will move in conjunction with the elevator servo(s) to intensify the elevator control
response.
Snap flaps are commonly used for aerobatic maneuvers and to assist in racing events
where quick turns are necessary.
The pilot desires to be able to turn the SF facility on an off with the selection of a switch
widget.
This scenario also assumes that the pilot’s plane features separate flap and aileron flying
surfaces for added complexity and demonstration purposes only.
Create the following mixers:
(Use these names or create your own)
sfFLAP+
Flap
Elevator
---Mix1
sfAIL+
Aileron
Elevator
---Mix1
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Assign the following widget controls:
Controls
Widgets
Flap
Left Axis Stick (“ON” is down)
Elevator
Right Axis Stick (Mode 2 operation)
Aileron
Right Axis Stick (Mode 2 operation)
Assign the following widget switches:
Switches
Widgets
Mix-1
“I” widget (“ON” is down)
Assign the sfFLAP+ mixer to the flap servos.
Assign the sfAIL+ to the aileron servos.
Use these initial following travel values for the following mixers:
sfFLAP+
Flap
Elevator
---33%
100%
30%
---33%
100%
30%
sfAIL+
Aileron
Elevator
The reader will likely need to adjust these initial settings for their models.
Comments:
The flap servos will respond when the flap widget (the left axis stick in the scenario) is
moved. The flap servos will also respond when the elevator widget is moved, but since the
elevator servo was programmed with a symmetrical with dead zone curve when the mixers
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sfFLAP+ and sfAIL+ were created, the elevator widget will only effect the flaps and the
ailerons when two events occur:
1. When the Mix1 switch (the “I” widget) is “ON”
2. When the dead band zone of 33% is exceeded
The initial elevator compensation has been set to a maximum of 30% of travel. This value
will need be adjusted differently as the pilot determines.
Another possible benefit of using a SF function is to use it in conjunction with a specific
Flight Phase. This will benefit the pilot in that the FP name displayed on the screen will notify
the pilot that the SF function has been enabled.
To do this, simply assign the Flight Phase to the same widget as the Mix1 switch. An
example could be to assign the “SPEED1” Flight Phase to the “I” widget with the “ON”
position being downwards as well as assign the Mix1 switch to the “I” widget with the “ON”
position being downwards.
The end result would be that the Snap Flaps would only be turned “ON” when the
SPEED1 Flight Phase is enabled (the “I” widget is moved downwards.)
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12.7.
78
SNAP ROLL
The idea and general programming approach for this scenario is credited to Harry
Curzon, but the instructions are the author’s.
The pilot desires to have a facility that allows for snap rolls with the activation of a widget.
The example plane used in this scenario has a total of four flying surfaces – elevator, rudder,
left aileron and right aileron.
In this scenario, it will be assumed that the pilot desires to have the two button widgets
“M” and “H” automatically move the ailerons to a pre-set position for counterclockwise and
clockwise axial rolls. These widgets will be set for momentary action. When released, the
ailerons will return to neutral position automatically.
To further add and demonstrate additional abilities of the EVO, the pilot should have
access to three different snap roll “rates” while flying. One snap roll rate will provide only 25%
of aileron travel and the other two should provide 50% and 75% roll “rates” respectively. The f
Snap Roll “rates” will be determined by the position of a three-position widget.
This programming approach takes advantage of the following capabilities of the EVO –
fixed values, flight phases and the software switches Mix1-Mix2.
On the EVO, the flap and spoiler controls are capable of fixed values. Fixed values are a
way of automatically moving the flaps or spoiler surfaces to a pre-set position irregardless of
the position of a widget that has been assigned to control the flaps or the spoilers. Fixed
values also have the added benefit of being assignable to multiple flight phases with different
fixed values.
The drawback to using fixed values, though, is that they cannot be assigned to a widget
or controlled by a widget. However, by utilizing flight phases (which can be assigned to a
widget) and the ability to link fixed values to a specific flight phase, the EVO provides the pilot
with a crafty work around for this limitation.
While this example plane does not have spoiler flying surfaces and will not require a
widget to be assigned to the spoiler, a data stream from the spoiler channel can still be
generated by the EVO. To do this, two custom mixers will be created that will allow the
ailerons to receive instructions from a spoiler channel that will not have a widget assigned to
it or, furthermore, even have a spoiler surface on the plane! Instead, a flight phase will be
programmed to generate a spoiler signal through the use of the fixed values property.
Two mixers will be needed for this example.
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Create the following mixers:
(Use these names or create your own)
LsnpROLL
Aileron
Spoiler
Spoiler
---Mix1
Mix2
RsnpROLL
Aileron
Spoiler
Spoiler
---Mix1
Mix2
If your assigned template has the spoiler control assigned to a widget, delete this
assignment now. A spoiler widget will not be necessary for this scenario and may cause
confusion if inadvertently activated.
Assign the following widget controls:
Controls
Widgets
Rudder
Left Axis Stick
Elevator
Right Axis Stick (Mode 2)
Aileron
Right Axis Stick (Mode 2)
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Assign the following widget switches:
Switches
Widgets
Mix-1
“M” widget (momentary action)
Mix-2
“H” widget (momentary action)
Phase 1
“J” widget (upwards for “ON”)
Phase 2
“J” widget (center for “ON”)
Phase 3
“J” widget (downwards for “ON”)
Main Phase
“I” widget (downwards for “ON”)
Select “SPEED1” for the flight phase (FP) number 1, “SPEED2” for FP number 2, “3D” for
FP number 3 and “NORMAL” for FP number 4.
Press the CONTROLS button at the bottom of the transmitter. Navigate to the spoiler
control and change the fixed value for FP number 1 to 25%. For FP number 2, change the
value to 50% and for FP number 3, change the value to 100%. The “Normal” FP (phase
numbered 4) will not have fixed value for the spoiler, so the fixed value should be set to
“OFF.”
Assign the LsnpROLL mixer to the left aileron servo through the SERVO menu.
Assign the RsnpROLL mixer to the right aileron servo through the SERVO menu.
Enter these values for the mixers in the MIXER menu.
LsnpROLL
Aileron
Spoiler
Spoiler
----------
100%
100% Mix1
-100% Mix2
----------
100%
-100% Mix1
100% Mix2
RsnpROLL
Aileron
Spoiler
Spoiler
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Comments:
When the “I” widget is downwards to the “ON” position, the aileron servos will respond to
the right axis widget at all times up to 100% of their programmed travel distances.
Because the LsnpROLL and the RsnpROLL mixers list the spoiler control as an input, the
ailerons will also respond when the spoiler control is activated.
Although there is no widget assigned to the spoiler control nor is there a spoiler surface on
the plane, the EVO can still produce a spoiler control data stream by using the fixed value
facility.
Since a fixed value for the spoilers has been entered for the “SPEED1”, “SPEED2”, and
“3D” flight phases, a spoiler control data stream is generated when these phases are
activated.
When the “I” widget is moved upwards, the Main Phase (“NORMAL” FP) is turned off, which
allows the “J” three position widget to enable the “SPEED1”, “SPEED2” or the “3D” FP.
The spoiler data stream for the FP “SPEED1”, “SPEED2” and “3D” have been set to 25%,
50% and 100% respectively.
When one of these FPs is activated by the “J” three position widget, a 25%, 50% or 100%
spoiler data stream is generated.
The LsnpROLL and the RsnpROLL mixers instruct the aileron servos to move when two
events occur – when the aileron widget is moved and when either the Mix1 or the Mix2 switch
is enabled.
1. When the Mix1 switch is depressed and held down (the “M”
widget), the LsnpROLL and the RsnpROLL mixer instructs
that either 100% or –100% of the spoiler fixed value should be
sent to the aileron servo. The amount of fixed value of the
spoiler channel is determined by the position of the “J”
widget. When the “J” widget is upwards, 25% of spoiler input
will effect the aileron servos. When the “J” widget is in the
center position, 50% of the spoiler input will effect the aileron
servos and when the “J” widget is in the downward position,
100% of spoiler input will effect the aileron servos.
2. When the Mix2 switch is depressed and held down, the
LsnpROLL and the RsnpROLL mixer instructs that either
100% or –100% of the fixed value should be sent to the
aileron servo. (The negative number “reverses” the direction
of the aileron servo for an opposite roll effect.) The amount of
fixed value of the spoiler channel is determined by the
position of the “J” widget as described above.
© 2004 James “Joedy” Drulia
All rights are reserved
No commercial reproduction of this material in part or whole is allowed.
Update B.03.16.04
Multiplex EVO Tutorial
82
When neither the Mix1 nor the Mix2 software switch is activated (neither “M” nor “H”
widgets are depressed), the only widget that will command the aileron servos is the aileron
control (right axis widget).
It is important to note that two mixers are necessary to obtain the proper operation of the
aileron servos. This is not due to a conflict with the aileron sequencing rule, but due to the
nature of how the EVO considers the spoiler channel.
If only one mixer is created and used, when the spoiler control is enabled by the use of
either the “M” or the “H” widgets, both aileron surfaces will move as spoilerons or as
flaperons. By using two separate mixers for the left and the right aileron servos, the direction
of each spoiler input into each mixer can be adjusted for proper aileron action.
If the aileron travel results are backwards, then alter the spoiler values in the LsnpROLL
mixer from positive to negative. Do the same for the RsnpROLL mixer.
Some pilots may elect to simplify this scenario by assigning the “J” widget to also be the
Mix1 and Mix2 switches in upward and downward positions. The center position can be set to
the “NORMAL” flight phase. This will reduce some pilot workload, but it will also eliminate the
multiple snap roll “rates” option.
Note that ailerons are not the only surfaces that can be assigned to a snap roll function. The
elevator and rudder control can be assigned to custom mixers that make use of the spoiler or
the flap control fixed value property in conjunction with flight phases. This opens the
possibility of specific “snap” surface settings that the pilot desires for certain maneuvers. This
allows for a pre-set snap setting for ailerons, elevator and rudder if desired.
Another possible refinement is to assign the Mix1 switch to the momentary button on the
long axis stick (KTa). This would allow pilots to perform a single-direction snap roll without
needing to remove their fingers from the long axis stick. The opposite snap roll direction
(Mix2) could be assigned to the other button on the long axis stick, KSw. Although this widget
cannot be set to momentary action, it can still be utilized for snap functions if the pilot desires.
© 2004 James “Joedy” Drulia
All rights are reserved
No commercial reproduction of this material in part or whole is allowed.
Update B.03.16.04
Multiplex EVO Tutorial
13.
83
O RI G I N AL M U L T I P L E X M I X E R D E F I N I T I O N S
The original factory-established settings of the mixers that come pre-programmed into the
EVO are shown below.
If the reader has accidentally erased or modified the original mixers to where they no longer
work as designed, the original mixer settings are shown below.
13.1.
ELEVATOR+
Elevator+
Elevator
Spoiler
Flap
Thr -Tr
13.2.
-------------
V-TAIL+
V-Tail+
Elevator
Rudder
Spoiler
Flap
Thr -Tr
----------------
© 2004 James “Joedy” Drulia
All rights are reserved
No commercial reproduction of this material in part or whole is allowed.
Update B.03.16.04
Multiplex EVO Tutorial
13.3.
84
DELTA+
Delta+
Aileron ---Elevator ---Thr -Tr ----
13.4.
AILERON+
Aileron+
Aileron
Spoiler
Flap
Ele -Tr
13.5.
-------------
FLAP+
Flap+
Flap
Spoiler
Aileron
Ele -Tr
-------------
© 2004 James “Joedy” Drulia
All rights are reserved
No commercial reproduction of this material in part or whole is allowed.
Update B.03.16.04
Multiplex EVO Tutorial
14.
A CK N O W L E DG E M E N T S
85
AND CREDITS
I would like to thank the following individuals for their valuable time and input into this
tutorial.
Harry Curzon for his prompt, expert answers and guidance to all Multiplex users as well as
to the author himself. Without Harry’s generous time and effort to proofread this tutorial, there
would have been many errors and oversights.
Geir Wilkran for his valuable full-house sailplane guide.
Bill Glover for his steady and persistent assistance to all Multiplex users. Bill, like Harry,
spends valuable time generously assisting new Multiplex pilots in their programming
questions.
Mark Drela for posting and providing a DLG preset mixer method using the momentary side
buttons.
Lawrence Hare for his generous assistance in the formatting and layout of the tutorial as
well as his feedback and opinion. Without Lawrence’s assistance, this tutorial would not exist
in its current literary and print-ready state.
Max Zuijdendorp for suggesting and providing a guide for the EVO Programming Menu
chart.
To all of the individuals who wrote to say that this tutorial either convinced them to purchase
an EVO or that the tutorial allowed them to fully enjoy and understand the possibilities of their
EVO.
To all of the individuals who wrote personal notes thanking me for this tutorial.
Fly Multiplex!
Joedy Drulia
joedydrulia@hotmail.com
© 2004 James “Joedy” Drulia
All rights are reserved
No commercial reproduction of this material in part or whole is allowed.
Update B.03.16.04
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