Field Artillery Gunnery

Field Artillery Gunnery
FM 3-09.8
Field Artillery
Gunnery
JULY 2006
DISTRIBUTION RESTRICTION:
Approved for public release; distribution unlimited.
HEADQUARTERS
DEPARTMENT OF THE ARMY
This publication is available at
Army Knowledge Online (www.us.army.mil) and
General Dennis J. Reimer Training and Doctrine
Digital Library at (www.train.army.mil).
FM 3-09.8
Headquarters
Department of the Army
Washington, DC, July 31, 2006
Field Manual
No. 3-09.8
Field Artillery Gunnery
Contents
Page
PREFACE ............................................................................................................vii
Chapter 1
INTRODUCTION ................................................................................................ 1-1
Scope.................................................................................................................. 1-1
General Content ................................................................................................. 1-2
Chapter 2
SAFETY.............................................................................................................. 2-1
Section I – Certification, Battle Focus, Duties, and Responsibilities ......... 2-1
Certification......................................................................................................... 2-1
Battle Focus........................................................................................................ 2-2
Responsibilities and Duties ................................................................................ 2-2
Section II – Procedures.................................................................................... 2-5
Cannon Safety.................................................................................................... 2-5
Cannon Safety Aids............................................................................................ 2-6
Section III – Manual Computation of Safety Data.......................................... 2-9
Manual Safety Computation Procedure ............................................................. 2-9
Safety Card......................................................................................................... 2-9
Basic Safety Diagram ....................................................................................... 2-10
Computation of Low-Angle Safety Data ........................................................... 2-12
Safety T ............................................................................................................ 2-16
Updating Safety Data After Determining a GFT Setting................................... 2-17
Determination of Maximum Effective Illumination Area.................................... 2-30
Safety Considerations for M549/M549A1 RAP ................................................ 2-31
Safety Considerations for M864 Base Burn DPICM/M795A1 Base Burn HE.. 2-31
Safety Procedures for M712 Copperhead........................................................ 2-31
Computation of High-Angle Safety Data .......................................................... 2-32
Section IV – Determining Minimum Quadrant Elevation ............................ 2-41
Minimum Quadrant Elevation ........................................................................... 2-41
Paladin Firing Safety ........................................................................................ 2-47
Section V – MLRS Safety Procedures .......................................................... 2-51
Distribution Restriction: Approved for public release, distribution is unlimited.
i
Contents
Section VI – Computation of MLRS/HIMARS Safety Data...........................2-53
General .............................................................................................................2-53
MLRS Surface Danger Zone Values ................................................................2-54
Computing Safety Data.....................................................................................2-55
Section VII – Check Data for M270A1/ACTD HIMARS/M142
HIMARS/IPDS/M270 ........................................................................................2-85
M270A1, ACTD HIMARS, M142 HIMARS, and IPDS ......................................2-86
M270 .................................................................................................................2-87
Chapter 3
FIRE SUPPORT TABLES ..................................................................................3-1
Introduction .........................................................................................................3-1
Training with Fire Support Tables.......................................................................3-2
Section I. Artillery Skills Proficiency Test for Fire Support..........................3-2
Requirements......................................................................................................3-3
Test Stations .......................................................................................................3-6
Section II – Fire Support Tables ....................................................................3-23
BFIST Table VII.A .............................................................................................3-30
FIST Table VIII ..................................................................................................3-31
Stryker/Knight Table VIII.A................................................................................3-32
BFIST Tables VIII.A and VIII.B .........................................................................3-35
FIST Table VIII.C ..............................................................................................3-41
Chapter 4
DELIVERY SECTION TRAINING.......................................................................4-1
Introduction .........................................................................................................4-1
Section I. Howitzer Section Tables .................................................................4-1
Artillery Skills Proficiency Test for Howitzer Sections.........................................4-1
Requirements......................................................................................................4-1
Test Stations .......................................................................................................4-2
Howitzer Tables ................................................................................................4-52
Section II. MLRS Section Tables ...................................................................4-90
Artillery Skills Proficiency Test for MLRS Section.............................................4-90
Requirements....................................................................................................4-91
MLRS Tables ..................................................................................................4-107
Chapter 5
RADAR SECTION TABLES...............................................................................5-1
Introduction .........................................................................................................5-1
Section I. Artillery Skills Proficiency Test For Radar Sections....................5-1
Requirements......................................................................................................5-2
Test Stations .......................................................................................................5-2
Section II. Radar Tables .................................................................................5-18
Chapter 6
FDC/BOC/POC SECTION TABLES ..................................................................6-1
Introduction .........................................................................................................6-1
FDC Critical Functions ........................................................................................6-1
Section I. Artillery Skills Proficiency Test for FDC Sections.......................6-1
Requirements......................................................................................................6-2
Test Stations .......................................................................................................6-2
Section II. FDC/BOC/POC Tables ..................................................................6-17
FDC Table IV: Occupation and Setup ..............................................................6-19
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FM 3-09.8
31 July 2006
Contents
FDC Table V: Compute Firing Data ................................................................. 6-20
FDC Table VI: Provide Command and Control ................................................ 6-20
FDC Tables VII/VIII: Training and Qualification ............................................... 6-21
Appendix A
MINIMUM QE RAPID FIRE TABLES ................................................................A-1
Appendix B
FIRE MISSION GRADING .................................................................................B-1
Appendix C
SAMPLE LEADER EXAMS...............................................................................C-1
Appendix D
THE CONTEMPORARY OPERATING ENVIRONMENT..................................D-1
GLOSSARY ..........................................................................................Glossary-1
REFERENCES ..................................................................................References-1
Figures
Figure 1-1. Gunnery progression chart ........................................................................... 1-3
Figure 2-1. Emplacing safety stakes for M119A1 ........................................................... 2-8
Figure 2-2. Example range safety card ......................................................................... 2-10
Figure 2-3. Example of a completed safety diagram (HE/WP/SMK) ............................ 2-12
Figure 2-4. Low-angle safety matrix .............................................................................. 2-15
Figure 2-5. Example low-angle safety matrix (shell HE/WP/SMK) ............................... 2-16
Figure 2-6. Example of a completed Safety T ............................................................... 2-17
Figure 2-7. Example of postoccupation low-angle safety with Range K applied
(shell HE/WP/SMK).................................................................................... 2-21
Figure 2-8. Example of a low-angle safety matrix (shell M825) .................................... 2-22
Figure 2-9. Example of safety table data (M825) .......................................................... 2-23
Figure 2-10. Example of postoccupation low-angle safety with Range K applied
(shell M825) ............................................................................................... 2-26
Figure 2-11. Example of a low-angle safety matrix (shell illumination) ......................... 2-27
Figure 2-12. Example of safety table data, M485 illumination ...................................... 2-28
Figure 2-13. High-angle safety matrix ........................................................................... 2-35
Figure 2-14. Example of a high-angle safety matrix (shell HE)..................................... 2-36
Figure 2-15. Example of a high-angle safety matrix (shell M825)................................. 2-37
Figure 2-16. Example of a high-angle safety matrix (shell illumination)........................ 2-38
Figure 2-17. Low-angle safety computations ................................................................ 2-39
Figure 2-18. High-angle safety computations ............................................................... 2-40
Figure 2-19. Angles of minimum QE ............................................................................. 2-42
Figure 2-20. Armed VT decision tree ............................................................................ 2-44
Figure 2-21. Boxed safety ............................................................................................. 2-48
Figure 2-22. Unboxed safety ......................................................................................... 2-49
Figure 2-23. Combat safety........................................................................................... 2-50
Figure 2-24. Illumination safety ..................................................................................... 2-50
Figure 2-25. Example impact area ................................................................................ 2-56
Figure 2-26. Example OPAREA azimuth limits ............................................................. 2-57
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FM 3-09.8
iii
Contents
Figure 2-27. Example development of target selection box azimuth limits ...................2-58
Figure 2-28. Example development of target selection box range limits.......................2-59
Figure 2-29. Example development of minimum and maximum quadrant ....................2-59
Figure 2-30. Safety T computations (fire missions) .......................................................2-61
Figure 2-31. Example Safety T ......................................................................................2-61
Figure 2-32. Firing OPAREA SDZ requirements ...........................................................2-63
Figure 2-33. Example exclusion areas M28A1/A2 ........................................................2-64
Figure 2-34. Example impact area.................................................................................2-66
Figure 2-35. Example OPAREA azimuth limits..............................................................2-67
Figure 2-36. Example of development of target selection box range limits...................2-68
Figure 2-37. Safety T computations (fire missions) .......................................................2-69
Figure 2-38. Example Safety T ......................................................................................2-70
Figure 2-39. Firing OPAREA SDZ requirements ...........................................................2-71
Figure 2-40. Example of exclusion areas for M28A1/A2 ...............................................2-72
Figure 2-41. Example of the development of target selection box azimuth limits .........2-73
Figure 2-42. Example of the development of target selection box range limits.............2-74
Figure 2-43. Example of an impact area........................................................................2-75
Figure 2-44. Example of azimuth limits calculations......................................................2-76
Figure 2-45. Example of computing safety data ............................................................2-78
Figure 2-46. Example of a Safety T ...............................................................................2-78
Figure 2-47. Example of a noise hazard area................................................................2-79
Figure 2-48. Flight corridor.............................................................................................2-80
Figure 2-49. Example of an impact area........................................................................2-81
Figure 2-50. Example of azimuth limits..........................................................................2-82
Figure 2-51. Example of fire missions for Safety T........................................................2-83
Figure 2-52. Example of a Safety T ...............................................................................2-84
Figure 2-53. Example of M28A1/A2 exclusion areas ....................................................2-85
Figure 3-1. Illustration of BFIST Tables VIII.A and VIII.B. .............................................3-36
Figure 3-2. Illustration of BFIST Tables VIII.A and VIII.B, Stages 1-3...........................3-36
Figure 3-3. Illustration of BFIST Tables VIII.A and VIII.B, Stages 4-7...........................3-37
Figure 3-4. Illustration of BFIST Tables VIII.A and VIII.B, Stages 8-10.........................3-38
Figure 3-5. Illustration of BFIST Tables VIII.A and VIII.B, Stages 11-14.......................3-39
Figure 4-1 ..................................................................................................................4-120
Figure 4-2 ..................................................................................................................4-121
Figure 4-3 ..................................................................................................................4-122
Figure 4-4 ..................................................................................................................4-122
Figure 4-5 ..................................................................................................................4-123
Figure 4-6 ..................................................................................................................4-124
Figure 4-7 ..................................................................................................................4-124
Figure 4-8 ..................................................................................................................4-125
Figure 4-9 ..................................................................................................................4-125
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FM 3-09.8
31 July 2006
Contents
Figure 4-10 ................................................................................................................. 4-126
Figure 4-11. Close kneeling valves ............................................................................. 4-127
Figure 4-12 ................................................................................................................. 4-128
Figure 4-13 ................................................................................................................. 4-129
Figure 4-15 ................................................................................................................. 4-130
Figure 4-16 ................................................................................................................. 4-131
Figure 4-17 ................................................................................................................. 4-131
Figure 4-18 ................................................................................................................. 4-132
Figure 4-20 ................................................................................................................. 4-133
Figure 4-21 ................................................................................................................. 4-133
Tables
Table 1-1. Required training frequency and table gates ................................................. 1-4
Table 2-1. Manual safety computation ............................................................................ 2-9
Table 2-2. Construction of a basic safety diagram........................................................ 2-11
Table 2-3. Low-angle procedures.................................................................................. 2-12
Table 2-4. Tables and addenda required for safety computations................................ 2-17
Table 2-5. Low-angle procedures using a GFT with GFT setting applied .................... 2-18
Table 2-6. Examples of low-angle safety ...................................................................... 2-20
Table 2-7. Procedures to determine maximum effective illumination area ................... 2-30
Table 2-8. Copperhead safety data procedures............................................................ 2-31
Table 2-9. High-angle safety procedures ...................................................................... 2-32
Table 2-10. Examples of high-angle safety................................................................... 2-34
Table 2-11. Manual minimum QE computations. .......................................................... 2-43
Table 2-12. RFT minimum QE computations................................................................ 2-43
Table 2-13. RFT example for howitzer platoon ............................................................. 2-43
Table 2-14. Manual armed VT minimum QE computations .......................................... 2-45
Table 2-15. RFT minimum QE computations................................................................ 2-45
Table 2-16. Intervening crest, option 1.......................................................................... 2-46
Table 2-17. Intervening crest, option 2.......................................................................... 2-47
Table 2-18. M28A1/A2 (combined) safety..................................................................... 2-54
Table 2-19. Exclusion areas.......................................................................................... 2-64
Table 3-1. Summary of tasks and tables for FS elements .............................................. 3-1
Table 3-2. MK-19 RWS skills test.................................................................................. 3-32
Table 3-3. MK-19 SWPQ table...................................................................................... 3-32
Table 3-4. M2 cal .50 RWS qualification table .............................................................. 3-33
Table 3-5. M2 cal .50 SWPQ table................................................................................ 3-34
Table 3-6. Ammunition for BFIST Tables VIII.A/B......................................................... 3-39
Table 4-1. Howitzer tables............................................................................................. 4-52
Table 4-2. M249 light machine gun (LMG) training....................................................... 4-54
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FM 3-09.8
v
Contents
Table 4-3. Practice/qualification table, tripod mounted..................................................4-55
Table 4-4. Mounted M2 qualification..............................................................................4-56
Table 4-5. Instructional fire exercise (zero/practice)......................................................4-57
Table 4-6. MK-19 qualification table ..............................................................................4-59
Table 4-7. MK-19 night fire qualification ........................................................................4-60
Table 4-8. MLRS launcher section tables....................................................................4-107
Table 5-1. Contents of radar tables. ................................................................................5-1
Table 5-2. Collective/individual radar task matrix. .........................................................5-18
Table 6-1. FDC/BOC/POC Tables. ................................................................................6-17
Table 6-2. Example of task selection.............................................................................6-18
Table A-1. Extracting ∠2 for a given PCR ...................................................................... A-1
Table A-2. Rapid Fire Table I.......................................................................................... A-1
Table A-3. Rapid Fire Table II......................................................................................... A-7
Gunnery Tables
FS Table I – Basic FIST skills (individual). ....................................................................3-23
FS Table II – Basic FIST skills (team)............................................................................3-25
FS Table III – Occupation of the OP ..............................................................................3-26
FS Table IV – Standard fire missions ............................................................................3-27
FS Table V – Special fire missions. ...............................................................................3-28
FS Table VII – Training ..................................................................................................3-28
Howitzer Table I – Individual/leader tasks .....................................................................4-52
Howitzer Table II – Crew/section special tasks .............................................................4-53
Howitzer Table III – Machine gun training .....................................................................4-54
Howitzer Table IV – Individual tasks for direct fire.........................................................4-61
Howitzer Table V – Deliberate occupation tasks ...........................................................4-61
Howitzer Table VI – Hasty occupations under unique conditions .................................4-74
Howitzer Tables VII/VIII – fire missions .........................................................................4-84
MLRS Table III – M249 LMG training ..........................................................................4-108
Radar Table III – M249 LMG .........................................................................................5-20
Radar Table IV – RSOP tasks .......................................................................................5-21
Radar Table V – March order tasks...............................................................................5-21
Radar Table VI – Perform surveillance and locate targets. ...........................................5-22
Radar Tables VII/VIII – Training and qualification tasks................................................5-23
FDC Table IV—Occupation and setup ..........................................................................6-19
FDC Table V – Tasks for computing firing data.............................................................6-20
FDC Table VI – Provide command and control .............................................................6-21
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FM 3-09.8
31 July 2006
Preface
This manual describes how the field artillery (FA) gunnery program is executed to produce combat-proficient
FA personnel, leaders, crews, and sections. This manual provides standards, principles, and techniques for
achieving technical proficiency and safety in the operation of Field Artillery systems and weapons.
FM 3-09.8 is an integrated presentation that addresses all FA systems in a safe, technically and doctrinally
grounded, progressive, task-oriented training model. This manual is designed for artillery leaders at all levels
and is a resource for all types of artillery units. The programs outlined in this manual follow the concepts and
guidance provided in FM 7-0 and FM 7-1.
The tasks, conditions, and standards in this manual are based on system technical manuals, training products,
and tasks in military occupational specialty (MOS) 13-series Soldier’s manuals, and Army Training and
Evaluation Program (ARTEP) 6-series mission training plans. In all cases, use only the most current technical
manuals as references when executing the tables. All FA units are encouraged to provide ideas to upgrade the
tasks, conditions, and standards in this manual.
This publication applies to the Active Army, the Army National Guard (ARNG)/Army National Guard of the
United States (ARNGUS), and the U.S. Army Reserve (USAR) unless otherwise stated.
The proponent for this publication is the U.S. Army Training and Doctrine Command (TRADOC). Submit
changes for improving this publication on DA Form 2028 (Recommended Changes to Publications and Blank
Forms) and forward it to the Deputy Chief of Staff Operations and Plans, G3, United States Army Field
Artillery School, Fort Sill, Oklahoma 73503.
Unless this publication states otherwise, masculine nouns and pronouns do not refer exclusively to men.
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FM 3-09.8
vii
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Chapter 1
Introduction
This manual provides the guidelines for implementing an FA gunnery program that
incorporates all FA systems. The objective is a safe, technically and doctrinally
grounded, progressive, task-oriented training model. FA, as a system of systems,
requires integrating functions or tasks performed by the critical elements of the
gunnery team to provide timely and accurate fires. The artillery tables provide the
commander with a systematic means of training and qualifying each of the
sections/crews/teams that are critical to the solution of the gunnery problem. The
tables provide progressive, gated training—from MOS-qualified individual tasks
through collective tasks at the section level. These tables also provide all FA leaders
and Soldiers with the “what” and “how” to train materials that are standard across the
Army.
The FA commander continuously assesses the unit’s proficiency and readiness to
perform mission-essential tasks. Each commander implements gunnery programs to
achieve and sustain unit readiness and proficiency in these tasks. The commander
uses all the resources available to implement an efficient gunnery program; this
maximizes the use of ammunition, training area availability, and Soldier training time
to sustain proficiency. The unit master gunner is a primary advisor and manager of
the commander’s gunnery program.
FA master gunners are the commander’s key resource and the unit focal point for
administering the training and qualification programs in this manual. Master gunners
are selected for their technical education and skills in their MOS, training
management, and individual instructor proficiency, as well as for breadth of
proficiency in various artillery skills. A master gunner is an operations staff asset,
having specified training management responsibilities for gunnery, technical
standardization, and safety oversight. The master gunner is responsible for the
selection, training, and certification of evaluators for implementing the tables in this
manual. He will assist in the execution of the commander’s safety certification
program. The master gunner will also assist the commander in developing programs
and training future master gunners in the organization.
SCOPE
1-1. FM 3-09.8 is a design standardizing gunnery training for the FA force in the midst of changes
brought on by the contemporary operational environment (COE). COE is a “condition” applied in the
effective training of FA units. (For a more detailed discussion of the application of the conditions for
training under COE, see Appendix D.) Effective FA training throughout the years has always required
tough, thorough, and achievable standards. Technical proficiency and flexibility in a resource- and timeconstrained environment is the hallmark of the FA branch.
31 July 2006
FM 3-09.8
1-1
Chapter 1
GENERAL CONTENT
1-2. The general content of FM 3-09.8 provides—
z
Tables with procedures and individual tasks based on the associated system technical manuals
(TMs) for the equipment assigned to the section being trained. References are provided for all
tasks in the tables.
z
Focus on FA gunnery procedures, in the provision of an Armywide FA standard gunnery
training program, in a common tabular format consistent with maneuver branch tables.
z
Procedures for certification/qualification of all crews/sections involved in gunnery. For the
purpose of this manual, certification refers only to the commander’s live-fire safety certification
program as presented in chapter 2. The tables provide crew/section/team qualification tables
(Radar Table VIII, chapter 5) as required to support the commander’s assessment of training
readiness, in accordance with AR 220-1.
STANDARDIZATION
1-3. Standardization is simply the best in practice provided as a guideline to unit commanders and
Soldiers for application in their training environment. Using these practices depends on the planning and
expertise of Soldier leaders in their environment. This manual is a prescriptive source to sustain the
technical body of knowledge in a force performing a multitude of Soldier tasks related and unrelated to
gunnery proficiency. Standardization—
z
Provides prescriptive guidelines and rationale for standardized gunnery in U.S. Army FA units.
z
Accommodates command, table of organization and equipment (TOE), and unit-peculiar
requirements (such as theater of operations, mission-essential task list [METL], airborne, and air
assault) while capturing artillery standards at the same time.
z
Provides baseline proficiency requirements for unit(s) retraining from nonartillery employments.
z
Allows commanders to incorporate training conditions, exercises, and focus.
SINGLE SOURCES
1-4. Though a single-source document, this manual is not an encyclopedic, multivolume recapitulation of
technical manuals. This manual is designed to be used with the up-to-date technical manuals required for
the safe and effective operation of all FA systems. Single source—
z
Provides actual information or bibliographical references to artillery documentation for training
FA tables to standard.
z
Provides a living document to the field Army by reference to the requirements for updated
technical manuals as they are developed for current and new systems.
TASK-BASED TRAINING STRATEGY
1-5. The artillery tables represent a task-based training strategy linked to required resources to assist the
commander and training manager in the development of realistic, battle-focused gunnery training. The
artillery training and standards in this manual are, by design, related to other available descriptive
collective training strategies available to unit leaders. These strategies include the following:
z
The Combined Arms Training Strategies (CATS) for artillery battalions include a strategy, the
supporting resources and recommended events, training aids, devices, simulators, and
simulations (TADSS), and supporting training support packages (TSP) for the training of the
artillery tables. The CATS ammunition resources are based on the Standards in Training
Commission (STRAC) allocations.
z
DA Pam 350-38 provides descriptive strategies, combining ammunition allocations and TADSS
based on the overarching CATS.
1-2
FM 3-09.8
31 July 2006
Introduction
ARTILLERY TABLE TRAINING AND QUALIFICATION
1-6. The overall training and qualification program of the FA tables provides a methodology for
progressively training sections and crews and integrating them into the system of systems that is the FA
unit. The cost of training an FA unit requires that leaders take full advantage of the training benefits of
every round of ammunition fired during live-fire exercises. Unit leaders ensure that unit training plans
maximize the benefits of available resources by taking advantage of multi-echelon training opportunities.
1-7. The iterative, gated, tabular model, illustrated in figure 1-1, is designed to ensure that all sections and
crews can safely and effectively perform required gunnery tasks before entering live-fire. Artillery live-fire
exercises are executed after the command assessment of readiness for training at this level. The commander
must assess the status of each element participating in live-fire table VIII to ensure that participants are
trained to perform the required tasks safely, as validated by dry-fire tables for the section. Successful table
VIII training qualifies all members of the FA team, provides a readiness benchmark to the command, and
prepares the unit for collective training at battery and battalion levels requiring the presence and
participation of all elements of the FA team. Planning appropriate training exercises and thoughtful
expenditure of scarce resources allows all elements to share the training benefits.
Figure 1-1. Gunnery progression chart
1-8. FA gunnery training programs belong to commanders, leaders, and Soldiers and prepare them to
perform their missions in combat. The effective and efficient use of resources in a standardized program, as
provided in this manual, allows for unit flexibility in executing training while also attaining branch
standards and readiness requirements. The baseline tasks, conditions, and standards are provided here.
Units enhance the training value by adding conditions appropriate to the unit and any anticipated theater of
operations and by executing appropriate tactics, techniques, and procedures (TTP) while delivering safe
and accurate fires on target.
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FM 3-09.8
1-3
Chapter 1
QUICK REFERENCE GUIDE FOR USERS
1-9. The artillery tables in this manual support the training and qualification of —
z
observation teams (fire support team [FIST], battery fire support team [BFIST], combat
observation lasing team [COLT], and Knight) in chapter 3:
z
Delivery Sections (Howitzer and Launchers) in chapter 4.
z
Radar Sections (AN/TPQ-36 and -37) in chapter 5.
z
Fire Direction Center (FDC)/Battery Operations Center (BOC)/Platoon Operations Center
(POC) (Cannon and MLRS) in chapter 6.
1-10. Each chapter includes artillery skills proficiency tests (ASPTs) for each section type. The ASPT is a
gate for the tables to be conducted semiannually. Table 1-1 shows the required frequency of training and
the gates for each table. Hyperlinks are provided for users with an electronic version of this field manual.
The artillery tables are consistent with the events and resources in the unit CATS and DA Pam 350-38.
Table 1-1. Required training frequency and table gates
Table
Number
Table Contents
Gate
Frequency
Page
Number
Observer Sections/Teams
ASPT
Basic Required
Skills
Yes for Tables III-VIII
Semiannual
3-23
Table I
Individual Tasks
Yes for Tables II-VIII
Semiannual
3-23
Table II
Team/Section
Tasks
Yes for Tables III-VIII
Semiannual
3-26
Table III
Occupation of the
OP
Yes for Table VIII
Semiannual
3-27
Table IV
Standard Fire
Missions
Yes for Tables V-VIII
Semiannual
3-28
Table V
Special Fire
Missions
Yes for Tables VIIVIII
Semiannual
3-28
Table VI
Lethal and
Nonlethal FirePlanning
Table VII
Training
Yes for Table VIII
Semiannual
3-29
Table
VIII.A
Stryker/Kni
ght
Qualification on
Direct Fire System
(Day)
Yes for Table VIII
Semiannual
3-33
Table
VIII.A
BFIST
Direct/Indirect
(Day)
Yes for Table VIII B
Semiannual
3-34
Table
VIII.B
BFIST
Direct/Indirect
(Night)
Yes for Table VIII.C
(BFIST only)
Semiannual
3-34
Table
VIII.C
Qualification Live
Fire
Semiannual
3-35
1-4
To be
published in
a
subsequent
revision
FM 3-09.8
31 July 2006
Introduction
Table 1-1. Required training frequency and table gates
Table
Number
Table Contents
Gate
Delivery Sections (Howitzer)
Yes for Tables III-VIII
Frequency
Page
Number
Semiannual
4-1
ASPT
Basic Required
Skills
Table I
Individual/Leader
Tasks
Yes for Tables II-VIII
Semiannual
Includes
safety
certificatio
n 4-53
Table II
Special Tasks
Yes for Tables III-VIII
Semiannual
Air assault
capable
units only
4-54
Table III
Machine Gun
Training/Qualificati
on
Yes for Table VIII
Semiannual
4-55
Table IV
Direct Fire
Procedures
Yes for Table VIII
Semiannual
4-62
Table V
A/B
Deliberate
Occupations
Day/Night
Yes for Tables VI-VIII
Semiannual
4-63
Table VI
Preparation to Fire
Under Unique
Conditions
Yes for Table VIII
Semiannual
4-75
Table VII
Training
Yes for Table VIII
Semiannual
4-86
Table VIII
Qualification LTX
Yes for Unit LFX
Semiannual
4-93
ASPT
Delivery Section (Launchers)
Basic Required
Yes for Tables III-VIII
Skills
Semiannual
4-94
Table I
Individual Tasks
Includes safety
certification
Yes for Tables II-VIII
Semiannual
4-111
Table III
Machine Gun
Training/Qualificati
on
Yes for Table VIII
Semiannual
4-112
Table IV
Conduct OPAREA
Occupation
Yes for Table VIII
Semiannual
4-111
Table V
Reload Procedures
Yes for Table VIII
Semiannual
4-114
Table VI
Prepare HIMARS
for Air Transport
Yes for Qualification
Semiannual
4-119
Table VII
Training
Yes for Table VIII
Semiannual
4-138
Table VIII
Qualification
Yes for Unit LFX
Semiannual
4-138
31 July 2006
FM 3-09.8
1-5
Chapter 1
Table 1-1. Required training frequency and table gates
Table
Number
Table Contents
Frequency
Page
Number
Radar Sections
Yes for Tables III-VIII
Semiannual
5-2
Gate
ASPT
Basic Required
Skills
Table I
Individual Tasks
Yes for Tables II-VIII
Semiannual
5-20
Table III
Machine Gun
Training/Qualificati
on
Yes for Table VIII
Semiannual
5-20
Table IV
RSOP
Yes for Table VIII
Semiannual
5-21
Table V
March Order
Yes for Tables VI-VIII
Semiannual
5-21
Table VI
Perform
Surveillance and
Locate Targets
Yes for Table VII
Semiannual
5-22
Table VII
Training
Yes for Table VIII
Semiannual
5-23
Table VIII
Qualification
Yes for Unit LFX
Semiannual
5-23
Semiannual
6-2
FDC/BOC/POC Section
Yes for Table VIII
ASPT
Basic Required
Skills
Table I
Individual Tasks
Includes safety
certification
Yes for Table VIII
Semiannual
6-17
Table IV
Occupation and
Setup
Yes for Tables VI-VIII
Semiannual
6-20
Table V
Compute Firing
Data
Yes for Tables VIIVIII
Semiannual
6-22
Table VI
Provide Command
and Control
Yes for Table VIII
Semiannual
6-22
Table VII
Training
Yes for Table VIII
Semiannual
6-23
Table VIII
Qualification
Yes for Unit LFX
Semiannual
6-23
1-6
FM 3-09.8
31 July 2006
Chapter 2
Safety
The basic rule for preventing firing incidents is to recognize that individuals make
errors, and the best safeguard against those errors is an independent doublecheck of
all operations in which human error could cause a firing incident (sometimes referred
to as the two-man rule). A fundamental aspect of safety is that no one person
performs a critical live-fire task then checks that task himself. For every critical task
required for firing artillery safely, there is a person or persons designated to verify the
task. Verification of data includes independent checks by independent means.
SECTION I – CERTIFICATION, BATTLE FOCUS, DUTIES, AND
RESPONSIBILITIES
2-1. Live-fire safety is critical when training artillery units. The commander’s certification of leaders in
the required safety procedures is a gate for all subsequent live-fire training (for delivery sections, see
chapter 4). Training individual leader safety tasks is a critical first step in training the Field Artillery
Gunnery Tables.
CERTIFICATION
2-2. Conducting live-fire safety checks and verification is an integral responsibility in most leader duty
positions in FA units. Qualifying leaders to perform their responsibilities includes live-fire safety
procedures and positive checks required to perform duties as OIC, RSO, and safety-certified section chief.
Commanders are responsible for the safety certification/qualification of individual leaders to perform in the
duty positions listed in paragraph 2-3..
INDIVIDUAL SAFETY CERTIFICATION
2-3. The duty positions in a FA firing battery that require knowledge or skills that directly impact on livefire safety will be certified during individual certification of skills. A written test, a hands-on component,
or both may verify this certification. Written questions are available for leaders on the Fires Knowledge
Network, Master Gunner site (http://sill-www.army.mil/mg/). Tasks to support the hands-on component are
in appendix C. The duty positions requiring individual certification are—
z
Battery commander.
z
Battery executive officer (XO).
z
Battery fire direction officer (FDO).
z
Platoon leader.
z
Firing battery chief.
z
Gunnery sergeant.
z
Platoon sergeant.
z
Section chief.
z
FDC chief computer operator.
31 July 2006
FM 3-09.8
2-1
Chapter 2
SECTION/CREW/TEAM TRAINING
2-4. All sections/crews/teams that contribute directly to solving the gunnery problem will be trained in a
dry status, prior to live-fire qualification. Where available, TADSS will be used to support training such
as—
• GUARDFIST II.
• Call for fire trainer for FIST/COLT/Knight training.
• PC-based fire control panel trainer for MLRS training.
• FSCATT for howitzer section training.
BATTLE FOCUS
2-5. Live-fire safety requirements normally associated with ranges and range safety (such as the Safety T)
also apply to combat. The requirement to compute and check left and right limits, minimum and maximum
charges, fuze settings, deflections, and quadrant elevations are as critical in avoiding fratricide and
violation of FSCM during combat as are range safety precautions during live-fire training.
RESPONSIBILITIES AND DUTIES
COMMANDERS OF FIELD ARTILLERY BATTALIONS AND LARGER UNITS
2-6. Commanders establish and maintain a safety training and certification program for their personnel.
This program trains and qualifies firing battery personnel in safety procedures for their specific areas of
responsibility. When the commander is satisfied that the personnel are qualified to perform the safety
duties as required, he certifies them. Personnel who have not completed annual training and certification
will not be appointed as OIC or RSO. Additionally, the commander must—
z
Comply with the installation procedures for certifying OIC/RSO/LRSO.
z
Conduct risk management for all range operations.
OFFICER IN CHARGE
2-7. The OIC is the battery commander or his command safety-certified representative. The OIC is
responsible for all aspects of safety in the firing unit and on the assigned firing range. Before the firing
exercise, the RSO (XO or platoon leader) provides the OIC with the required safety data and firing
limitations. The OIC verifies that the unit is in the proper firing position, supervises the conversion of the
safety data into a safety diagram, and ensures that another command safety-certified individual verifies the
diagram. The safety data determined from the safety diagram provide right and left deflection limits,
minimum (min) and maximum (max) quadrant elevations (QEs) for authorized charges, and minimum safe
fuze times. The Safety T, modified as needed by the XO’s minimum QE, is given to the appropriate
members of the firing battery. The OIC ascertains locations of friendly personnel who may inadvertently
become exposed to artillery fires (through the installation RCO). The OIC ensures dissemination of this
information to platoon leaders, platoon sergeants, and section chiefs, as appropriate, to guard against
fratricide.
XO OR PLATOON LEADER
2-8. The XO or platoon leader-RSO is responsible for the safety practices of the firing element and
ensures that the section chiefs have safety data.
2-2
FM 3-09.8
31 July 2006
Safety
Cannon Units
2-9. The XO or platoon leader determines the lowest QE that can be fired safely from the firing position
and ensures that projectiles clear all immediate crests (for the XO’s minimum QE, see page 2-41). The
FDO, the platoon sergeant, and/or the gunnery sergeant will assist.
MLRS Units
2-10. The XO or platoon leader RSO ensures that section chiefs report firing data to the POC/BOC and
that the launcher danger area F and exclusion area I are clear.
FIRE DIRECTION OFFICER
2-11. The FDO has primary responsibility for computing safety data and ensuring that all safety data are
updated after registration and receipt of current meteorological data. The FDO, assisted by the chief
computer operator, plots the impact area on a map or chart in the FDC and ensures that all firing data are
within prescribed safety limits before they are sent to the firing sections. The FDO is responsible for
adjusting minimum QE for intervening crests.
FIRE DIRECTION CENTER CHIEF COMPUTER OPERATOR
2-12. The FDC chief computer assists the FDO in verifying initialization data in the Advanced Field
Artillery Tactical Data System (AFATDS)/ LCU. The FDC assists in constructing the safety diagram and
in verifying the data for the Safety T and the adjustment of minimum QE for intervening crest.
GUNNERY SERGEANT/CHIEF OF FIRING BATTERY (CFB)/PLATOON SERGEANT
2-13. The gunnery sergeant/CFB/platoon sergeant helps the XO or platoon leader and must be prepared to
perform many of the duties in the absence of the XO or platoon leader.
HOWITZER SECTION CHIEF
2-14. The howitzer section chief supervises all practices at or near the weapon. These practices include
verifying that the announced safety data are applied to the weapon and that the proper charge, fuze, and
projectiles are fired. The howitzer section chief has final responsibility for firing the weapon and performs
the following prefire checks, (in accordance with applicable operator-level TM-10 series):
z
Checks the serviceability and type of ammunition and fuze used.
z
Ensures the proper emplacement of safety stakes/tape.
z
Physically verifies that every charge is correct before loading.
z
Verifies the fuze/time setting on each round before loading.
z
Announces the time fuze setting on the round (for comparison with the announced fire
command).
z
Checks deflection and quadrant for each round by visual inspection of data, sight picture, and
leveling vials. Using the gunner’s quadrant, to verify quadrant, is mandatory for the first rounds
fired in each new mission.
MLRS Section Chief
2-15. The launcher section chief is responsible for the safe operation of the weapon system by the crew—
from the upload of live rockets through rocket launch(es). The launcher section chief ensures that all
procedures in the launcher are conducted in accordance with applicable technical manuals and all reports
and checks are verified in accordance with the procedures outlined in this chapter. The launcher section
chief is ultimately responsible for ensuring that munitions are neither armed nor fired until firing data is
properly verified as safe. The launcher section chief also ensures that the gunner is trained to properly read
and use a Safety T.
31 July 2006
FM 3-09.8
2-3
Chapter 2
RANGE CONTROL OFFICER
2-16. The RCO gives the following safety data to the firing unit OIC:
z
Grid coordinates of the firing position.
z
Lateral safety limits.
z
Minimum and maximum ranges.
z
Authorized ammunition to be fired (fuse, projectile, and charge).
z
Maximum ordinate (high angle or low angle).
z
Hours during which firing is to be conducted.
RANGE SAFETY OFFICER
2-17. Before granting clearance to fire, the RSO—
z
Ensures that weapons and personnel are properly positioned.
z
Ensures that authorized ammunition and explosives (to include proper charge, fuse, and fuse
settings) are used.
z
Ensures that firing settings and weapons systems are within prescribed safety limits and verified.
z
Ensures that the SDZ is clear of all unauthorized personnel.
z
Ensures that proper hearing protection is worn by personnel in noise hazard areas.
z
Ensures that proper eye protection is worn by personnel within eye hazard areas.
z
Ensures that permission is received from range control to begin training and live-fire operations.
z
Conducts final coordination with the OIC before beginning live-fire operations. (This
coordination will include a summary of checks, inspections, and actions that the RSO has
completed and verification that required communications have been established and a “hot
status” has been received from range control.)
z
Orders immediate cease fire or check fire when an unsafe condition occurs.
z
Is physically present at the training site.
z
Reports all accidents and ammunition malfunctions to the range OIC.
z
Verifies, upon completion of firing or firing order, to the OIC that all weapons and weapons
systems are clear and safe before allowing removal of weapons from the firing area.
LASER RANGE SAFETY OFFICER
2-18. The LRSO—
z
Ensures that unit personnel employing lasers receive thorough safety briefings (including
explanations of specific laser-related hazards, safety equipment, and detailed range safety
procedures) and comply with procedures in DA Pam 385-63, chapter 18.
z
Knows and observes horizontal and vertical safety limits of the laser range.
z
Follows unit SOPs for laser operations and training exercises.
z
Ensures that all personnel engaged in laser operations, including personnel in target areas,
maintain continuous communications.
z
Ceases laser operations immediately if communications or positive control of the laser beam is
lost.
2-19. The LRSO takes extreme caution when using a target-designating laser in conjunction with ordnance
delivery aircraft. The onboard laser seeker may lock onto the designator or its radiated energy (beam or
reflected beam) instead of the target. The LRSO uses the following procedures to reduce this risk:
z
Ensures that the pilot of the attacking aircraft has positive knowledge of the location of the
designator and the target area before releasing munitions.
z
Designates the approach paths and briefs both the designating and forward air controller and the
aircrews before conducting the mission. Plans aircraft approach paths to preclude crossing laser
2-4
FM 3-09.8
31 July 2006
Safety
z
z
designator beams with the laser seeker. (The laser seeker should intersect the designator beam
well forward of the laser firing point, angling toward the target.)
Ensures that only mission-essential personnel are within the area of effects for the weapon
employed from the designator or direct or reflected beam of the laser designator during
operations.
Does not launch or release munitions on a heading toward the laser designator. See applicable
technical manuals for recommended employment procedures.
OBSERVER
2-20. The observer ensures that the impact area is clear of personnel and equipment prior to firing and
spots all fired rounds. When the G/VLLD, mini-eyesafe laser infrared observation set (MELIOS), LLDR,
or any other device is used for lasing, the observer must ensure that all applicable laser safety procedures
are followed.
SECTION II – PROCEDURES
2-21. The following safety procedures include firing and computational procedures for both MLRS and
cannons. These procedures are identical to those in FM 6-40/MCWP 3-1.6.19, FM 6-50, and FM 6-60 and
are consolidated here for convenience. These procedures comply with AR 385-63/MCO P3570.1B and DA
Pam 385-63; however, if local range regulations are more restrictive than the material in this manual,
follow the local range regulations.
CANNON SAFETY
2-22. The following section identifies the specific duties of cannon battery personnel before, during, and
after firing.
2-23. Specific duties of safety personnel before firing include, but are not limited to, the following:
z
Verify that the data the RCO gives to the OIC apply to the unit firing, that the unit is in the
correct location, and that the data are correct (OIC and RSO).
z
Compute and verify the safety diagram (at least two safety-certified personnel, normally the
platoon leader and FDO).
z
Ensure that all personnel and equipment are clear from surface danger area E before firing (see
DA Pam 385-63 for the dimensions of surface danger area E for specific weapon systems).
z
Check the DA Form 581 (Request for Issue and Turn-In of Ammunition) and range safety card
to ensure that only authorized ammunition is fired (platoon leader or platoon sergeant).
z
Ensure that no safety violations occur at or near the weapon(s) (all members of the firing unit).
z
Check the weapons for correct boresighting (section chief).
z
Verify the lay of the battery (platoon leader or platoon sergeant).
z
Compute and verify minimum QE (platoon leader or FDO).
z
Compare minimum QE with the QE for minimum range shown on the safety diagram. Use the
larger of the two as the minimum QE (platoon leader or FDO).
z
Verify that the section chief has safety data (Safety T). Ensure that section chiefs are advised of
all friendly personnel in the area who may inadvertently be exposed to FA direct or indirect fires
(platoon leader or platoon sergeant).
z
Supervise and check the emplacement of safety aids (stakes, tape, and other devices) (platoon
leader, platoon sergeant, or gunnery sergeant).
z
Verify that range clearance has been obtained (platoon leader or FDO).
2-24. Specific duties of safety personnel during firing include, but are not limited to, the following:
z
Verify the serviceability of ammunition (section chief).
z
Supervise key safety personnel in the performance of their duties (OIC or RSO).
31 July 2006
FM 3-09.8
2-5
Chapter 2
z
z
z
z
z
Verify that the charges, projectiles, and fuses being fired are only those prescribed on the safety
card (section chief, platoon leader, or platoon sergeant).
Visually inspect to ensure that the correct shell-fuze combination, time (if required), and charge
are properly prepared and loaded on each round. Verify that the correct number of remaining
powder increments are removed to the powder pit before loading and firing each round (section
chief).
Verify that rounds are not fired below the minimum QE or above the maximum QE (section
chief, platoon leader, or platoon sergeant).
Verify that rounds are not fired outside the lateral (deflection) safety limits specified on the
range safety card (section chief, platoon leader, or platoon sergeant).
Verify that time-fused rounds are not fired with fuze settings that are less than the minimum
time prescribed on the safety diagram (section chief, platoon leader, or platoon sergeant).
2-25. On all commands that are unsafe to fire, command “CHECK FIRING,” and give the reason(s) why
the command is unsafe (section chief or anyone observing an unsafe act), as in the following examples:
DANGER
“UNSAFE TO FIRE 3 MILS OUTSIDE RIGHT SAFETY LIMIT AND 20
MILS ABOVE MAXIMUM QUADRANT ELEVATION.”
“UNSAFE TO FIRE 5 MILS BELOW MINIMUM QUADRANT
ELEVATION.”
z
z
Recompute and issue updated Safety Ts (FDC)—
„
When a registration is completed.
„
When meteorological conditions change.
„
When restrictions change.
Suspend firing when any unsafe condition exists (any person who sees an unsafe act). Examples
of unsafe conditions include the following:
„
Powder bags exposed to fire.
„
Personnel smoking near pieces of ammunition.
„
Improper handling of ammunition.
„
Time fuze previously set and not reset to safe.
„
Personnel or aircraft directly in front of the weapon.
„
Primer inserted into the firing assembly before breech is closed (separate-loading
ammunition).
„
Failure to inspect powder chamber and bore after each round is fired.
„
Failure to swab powder chamber after each round of separate-loading ammunition is fired.
2-26. Specific duties of safety personnel after firing include, but are not limited to, the following:
z
Verify that unused powder increments are disposed in an approved place in the correct manner.
z
Verify that all unfired ammunition is properly accounted for, repacked, and returned to the
ammunition resupply point.
z
Verify policing of the firing position.
z
Verify collection and proper disposal of all Safety Ts.
CANNON SAFETY AIDS
2-27. From the range safety card, the FDO prepares a safety diagram and Safety Ts for the safety-certified
personnel. Safety aids are used to ensure that only safe data are fired from the position. Two such safety
2-6
FM 3-09.8
31 July 2006
Safety
aids are the safety stakes and Safety Tape. These aids are used as a visual check to ensure that the howitzer
is laid within safety limits.
M102 OR M119A1 HOWITZER
2-28. Emplace safety aids for the M102 or M119A1 howitzer as follows:
z
Deflection safety aids (M102).
„
Set off the left deflection limit on the pantel by using the deflection counter.
„
Traverse the tube to establish the proper sight picture on the aiming point.
„
Emplace the safety stake against the right side of the lunette and drive it firmly into the
ground.
„
Mark the right deflection limit in the same manner, but emplace the safety stake on the left
side of the lunette.
z
Deflection safety aids (M119A1).
„
Lay in the center of traverse as shown in figure 2-1 (A).
„
Determine the left deflection limit and traverse the tube to the maximum left. Traverse the
carriage right until the tube is at the left deflection limit. Emplace the left deflection limit
safety stake as shown in figure 2-1 (B).
„
Determine the right deflection limit, and traverse the tube to the maximum right. Traverse
the carriage left until the tube is at the right limit. Emplace the right deflection limit safety
stake as shown in figure 2-1 (C).
z
Quadrant elevation safety aids (M102 and M119A1).
„
Use the cam follower as an index mark.
„
Set off the maximum QE on the fire control quadrant. Elevate the tube until the bubbles
center in the elevation level vials.
„
Mark the cam with a piece of tape in line with the cam follower.
„
Mark the minimum QE in the same manner.
31 July 2006
FM 3-09.8
2-7
Chapter 2
Figure 2-1. Emplacing safety stakes for M119A1
M198 HOWITZER
2-29. Emplace safety tape on the M198 howitzer as follows:
z
Deflection safety aids.
„
With the tube parallel to the azimuth of lay (AOL) (deflection 3,200), place a piece of tape
over the azimuth (AZ) counter (bottom carriage).
„
Set off the left deflection limit on the pantel by using the deflection counter. Traverse the
tube to establish the proper sight picture on the aiming point.
„
Using a straightedge, draw a line (on the tape placed on the bottom carriage) directly below
the azimuth counter index mark on the upper carriage. Record the left deflection limit next
to that line.
„
Mark the right deflection limit in the same manner.
z
Quadrant elevation safety aids.
„
With the tube elevated at 0 mil, place a piece of tape on the trunnion support, and draw a
straight line as an index.
„
Set off the minimum QE on the fire control quadrant. Elevate the tube until the bubble
centers in the elevation level vial.
„
Place a piece of tape on the quadrant mount. Draw a line across from the index line
established on the trunnion support. Record the minimum QE next to that line.
„
Mark the maximum QE in the same manner.
M109A2-A5 HOWITZER
2-30. Emplace safety aids on the M109A2-A5 howitzer as follows:
z
Deflection safety aids. (These may be marked on the exterior and/or interior of the hull.)
„
Make an index mark on the top carriage with a piece of tape.
„
Set off the left deflection limit on the pantel using the reset counter. Traverse to pick up a
proper sight picture on the aiming point.
2-8
FM 3-09.8
31 July 2006
Safety
Place a piece of tape on the bottom of the carriage directly under the index mark.
Mark the right deflection limit in the same manner.
Quadrant elevation safety aids. (These may be marked on the exterior or the interior of the
weapon.) Mark the exterior of the weapon as follows:
„
Make an index mark on the tube with a piece of tape.
„
Set off the maximum QE on the fire control quadrant. Elevate the tube until the bubble
centers in the elevation level vial.
„
Place a mark on the top carriage in line with the index mark.
„
Mark the minimum QE in the same manner.
„
„
z
SECTION III – MANUAL COMPUTATION OF SAFETY DATA
2-31. Minimum and maximum quadrant elevations, deflection limits, and minimum fuze settings must be
computed to ensure that all rounds fired impact or function in the target area. These data are presented and
arranged in a logical manner on a Safety T. This section describes how to manually compute safety data
using tabular and graphical equipment. (As stated earlier, the RCO gives the OIC the lateral safety limits
and the minimum and maximum ranges of the target areas These data must be converted to fuze settings,
deflections, and quadrants.) The computations discussed in this section should be performed by two safetycertified personnel working independently.
MANUAL SAFETY COMPUTATION PROCEDURE
2-32. Manual safety computations are completed in four steps—beginning with receiving the range safety
card and ending with constructing the Safety T. These steps are listed in table 2-1.
Table 2-1. Manual safety computation
Step
Action
1
Receive the range safety card (produced by unit or from range control).
2
Construct the safety diagram per the instructions in table 2-2, page 2-11.
3
Construct and complete the computation matrix. (Use figure 2-4 [page 2-17] for low-angle
safety matrix and figure 2-13 [page 2-35] for high-angle safety matrix).
4
Construct the Safety T and disseminate per the unit SOP.
Note. Figures 2-17 (page 2-38) and 2-18 (page 2-39) represent locally reproducible safety
computation forms. Reproduce these forms on 8½ x 11-inch paper. FM 6-40/MCWP 3-1.1.19
prescribes these forms.
SAFETY CARD
2-33. A range safety card (figure 2-2), which prescribes the hours of firing, the area where the firing will
take place, the location of the firing position, limits of the target area (per AR 385-63/MCO P3570.1B),
and other pertinent data is approved by the RCO and provided to the OIC. The OIC of firing gives a copy
of the range safety card to the position safety officer, who constructs the safety diagram based on the
prescribed limits.
Note. The range safety card shown in figure 2-2 is used for all safety computation examples in
this chapter.
31 July 2006
FM 3-09.8
2-9
Chapter 2
Range Safety Card
Unit/STR
K 3/11
ScheduledDate In Ø5/30/98
ScheduledDateOut Ø5/30/98
Time In
Ø7ØØ
Time Out
2359
Firing Point 185
(6Ø26 411Ø) HT 37Ø.Ø
Impact Area
S. CARLTON AREA
Weapon
M198 (155) Ammunition M1Ø7, M11Ø, M116, M825, M485, M557, M582, M732, M577
Type of Fire: LOW ANGLE: HE, WP, M825, ILA, M116
Type of Fire: HIGH ANGLE: HE, M825, ILA
Direction Limits: (Ref GN):
Left
134Ø mils
Right 19ØØ mils
Low-Angle PD Minimum Range
3,9ØØ meters
Minimum Charge 3GB
Fuze TI and High-Angle Minimum Range
4,ØØØ meters
Minimum Charge 3GB
To Establish Minimum Time for Fuze VT Apply +5.5 Seconds to the Low-angle PD Minimum Range
Maximum Range to Impact
6,2ØØ meters
Maximum Charge 4GB
COMMENTS
From AZ 134Ø to AZ 15ØØ maximum range is 57ØØ
SPECIAL INSTRUCTIONS
Shell illumination (all calibers)
A. Maximum QE will not exceed QE for maximum range to impact.
B. One initial illumination check round will be fired to ensure illumination flare remains in impact
area.
C. If initial illumination flare does not land in impact area, no further illumination will be fired at
that DF and QE.
D. ensure that all succeeding rounds are fired at a HOB sufficient to provide complete burnout
before reaching the ground.
E. For 155-mm Howitzer, charge 7 not authorized when firing proj illumination, M485.
Uncleared ammunition (fuses, projectiles, powder) will not be used.
Figure 2-2. Example range safety card
BASIC SAFETY DIAGRAM
2-34. Upon receiving the range safety card, the FDO constructs a basic safety diagram. The basic safety
diagram graphically portrays the data on the range safety card, or it is determined from the surface danger
zone (DA Pam 385-63, chapter 11) and need not be drawn to scale. Information shown on the basic safety
diagram includes the minimum and maximum range lines; the left, right, and intermediate (if any) azimuth
limits; the deflections corresponding to the azimuth limits; and the AOL.
2-35. Table 2-2 shows the steps for constructing a basic safety diagram. Figure 2-3 (page 2-12) is an
example of a completed safety diagram.
2-10
FM 3-09.8
31 July 2006
Safety
Table 2-2. Construction of a basic safety diagram
Step
1
Action
On the top third of a sheet of paper, draw a line representing the AOL for the firing unit.
Label this line with its azimuth and the common deflection for the weapon system.
Note. If the AOL is not provided, do the following to determine AOL:
•
Subtract the maximum left azimuth limit from the maximum right azimuth limit.
•
Divide this value by two.
•
Add the result to the maximum left azimuth limit, and express the result to the nearest 100 mils.
(Expressing to the nearest 100 mils makes it easier for the aiming circle operator to lay the
howitzers.)
2
3
Draw lines representing the lateral limits in proper relation to the AOL. Label these
lines with the corresponding azimuth from the range safety card.
Draw lines between these lateral limits to represent the minimum and maximum
ranges. Label these lines with the corresponding ranges from the range safety card.
These are the diagram ranges.
Note. If the minimum range for fuze time is different from the minimum range, draw a dashed line between
the lateral limits to represent the minimum range for fuze time. Label this line with the corresponding range
from the range safety card. This is the minimum time diagram range.
4
5
6
Compute the angular measurements from the AOL to each lateral limit. On the
diagram, draw arrows indicating the angular measurements and label them.
Apply the angular measurements to the deflection corresponding to the AOL (common
deflection) and record the result. This will be added to the drift and GFT deflection
correction determined in the safety matrixes to produce the deflection limits on the
Safety T.
Note.
If no GFT deflection correction has been determined—
deflection limits = drift + diagram deflection.
Note.
If a GFT setting has been determined—
deflection limits = drift + GFT deflection correction + diagram deflection.
Drift is applied to the basic safety diagram by following the “left least, right most” rule.
The lowest (least) drift is applied to all left deflection limits, and the highest (greatest)
drift is applied to all right deflection limits.
Label the diagram with the following information from the range safety card: firing point
location (grid and altitude), charge, shell, fuze, angle of fire, and AOL.
2-36. When the basic safety diagram is complete, it will be constructed to scale in red on the firing chart.
Plot the firing point location as listed on the range safety card. Using temporary azimuth indexes, an RDP,
and a red pencil, draw the outline of the basic safety diagram:
z
First draw the azimuth limits to include doglegs.
z
Then, by holding the red pencil firmly against the RDP at the appropriate ranges, connect the
azimuth lines.
Note. Only after drawing the basic safety diagram on the firing chart may the base piece location
be plotted and deflection indexes be constructed. Should the diagram be drawn from the base
piece location, it would be invalid unless the base piece was located over the firing point
marker.
2-37. After the basic safety diagram has been drawn on a sheet of paper and on the firing chart, it is drawn
on a map of the impact area using an RDP and a pencil. These limits must be drawn accurately because
they will be used to determine altitudes for vertical intervals. Determine the maximum altitude along the
minimum range line. This is used to ensure that the quadrant fired will cause the round to clear the highest
point along the minimum range line and impact (function) within the impact area. At the maximum range,
select the minimum altitude to ensure that the round will not clear the lowest point along the maximum
31 July 2006
FM 3-09.8
2-11
Chapter 2
range. Once the altitudes have been selected, label the basic safety diagram with the altitudes for the given
ranges.
Note. The rule for determining the correct altitude for safety purposes is called the mini-max
rule. At the minimum range, select the maximum altitude; at the maximum range, select the
minimum altitude. If the contour interval is in feet, use either the GST or divide feet by 3.28 to
determine the altitude in meters (feet ÷ 3.28 = meters). This rule applies to both manual and
automated procedures.
Figure 2-3. Example of a completed safety diagram (HE/WP/SMK)
COMPUTATION OF LOW-ANGLE SAFETY DATA
2-38. Use the steps outlined in table 2-3 and in the matrix in figure 2-4 as examples for organizing
computations. The low-angle safety matrix is used for all munitions except M712 CLGP (Copperhead).
Paragraph 2-49 (page 2-31) describes M712 safety computations. The data are determined by either
graphical or tabular firing tables. In the case of expelling charge munitions, the safety table located in the
firing tables or firing table addenda is used to determine elevation, time of flight, fuze setting, and drift.
Use artillery expression for all computations except where noted. A completed low-angle safety matrix is
shown in figure 2-5 (page 2-16).
Note. The safety tables used to compute the examples in this chapter are located after the
illumination and M825 low-angle examples (page 2-11).
Table 2-3. Low-angle procedures
Step
1
2-12
Action
On the top third of a blank sheet of paper, construct the basic safety diagram in
accordance with the range safety card (see table 2-2 [page 2-10] for procedures).
FM 3-09.8
31 July 2006
Safety
Table 2-3. Low-angle procedures
Step
Action
2
In the middle third of the sheet of paper, construct the low-angle safety matrix
(figure 2-4, page 2-15).
3
Record the diagram ranges from the basic safety diagram.
4
Record the charge from the range safety card.
5
Enter the range correction, if required. The range correction is necessary only if a
nonstandard condition exists and is not already accounted for in a GFT setting,
such as correcting for the always heavier than standard white phosphorous
projectile. See figure 2-4, paragraph (b) (page 2-15) to determine range
correction. If a range correction is required, it is expressed to the nearest 10
meters. If no range correction is required, enter 0 (zero).
6
Determine the total range. Total range is the sum of the diagram range and the
range correction. Total range is expressed to the nearest 10 meters.
7
Enter the Range K. Range K is required only if a GFT setting has been obtained
but cannot be applied to a GFT (for example, determining illumination safety with
an HE GFT setting). Range K is simply the total range correction from the GFT
setting expressed as a percentage. This percentage, when multiplied by the total
range, produces the entry range. If no GFT setting is available (for example,
preoccupation safety), enter 1.0000 as the Range K. If a GFT setting is available,
(for example, postoccupation safety), enter the Range K expressed to four
decimal places (for example, 1.1234). Step 7a shows how to compute Range K.
7a
Divide Range ~ Adjusted Elevation by the Achieved Range from the GFT setting
to determine Range K.
Range ~ Adjusted Elevation Divided by Achieved Range = Range K
8
Determine the entry range. Multiply the total range by Range K to determine the
entry range. If Range K is 1.0000, the entry range will be identical to the total
range. Entry range is expressed to the nearest 10 meters.
9
Following the mini-max rule, determine the VI by subtracting the unit altitude from
the altitude corresponding to the diagram range, and record it. VI is expressed to
the nearest whole meter.
Note. Diagram range is used to compute VI and site because this is the actual location of the minimum
range line. VI is not computed for minimum time range lines. The range correction, total range, and
Range K are used to compensate for nonstandard conditions and represent the aiming point that must
be used to cause the round to cross the diagram range.
10
Compute and record site to the diagram range. Use the GST from the head of the
projectile family when possible. Site is expressed to the nearest whole mil.
11
Determine the elevation from table C (base ejecting) or TFT/GFT (bursting), and
record it. Elevation is expressed to the nearest whole mil.
Note. GFT settings are not used to determine elevation. Range K represents total corrections;
therefore, using a GFT setting would double the effects of those corrections.
12
Compute the quadrant elevation and record it. Quadrant elevation is the sum of
elevation and site. Quadrant elevation is expressed to the nearest whole mil.
13
Determine and record the minimum fuze setting for M564/M565 fuses. These fuze
settings correspond to the entry range and are extracted from table C (base
ejecting) or TFT/GFT (bursting). Fuze settings are expressed to the nearest
tenth of a fuze setting increment.
Note. Minimum fuze settings are determined only for minimum range lines and may be computed for
separate minimum fuze range lines.
31 July 2006
FM 3-09.8
2-13
Chapter 2
Table 2-3. Low-angle procedures
Step
14
Action
Determine and record the minimum fuze setting for M582/M577 fuzes. These fuze
settings correspond to the entry range and are extracted from table C (base
ejecting) or TFT/GFT. Fuze settings are expressed to the nearest tenth of a
second.
Note. Minimum Fuze settings are determined only for minimum range lines and may be computed for
separate minimum fuze range lines.
15
Determine and record the time of flight corresponding to the entry range from
table C, (base ejecting) or TFT/GFT (bursting). Time of flight is expressed to
the nearest tenth of a second.
16
Determine the minimum fuze setting for M728/M732 fuses. Add 5.5 seconds to
the time of flight, and express to the next higher whole second. The VT fuze is
designed to arm 3.0 seconds before the time set. They have been known to arm
up to 5.5 seconds before the time set. That is why this value is added and always
expressed up to the next whole second. VT fuze settings are expressed up to
the next higher whole second.
Note. Minimum fuze settings are determined only for minimum range lines and may be computed for
separate minimum fuze range lines.
2-14
17
Determine and record drift corresponding to the entry range from table C (base
ejecting) or TFT/GFT (bursting). Drift is applied to the basic safety diagram by
following the “left least, right most” rule. The lowest (least) drift is applied to all left
deflection limits, and the highest (greatest) drift is applied to all right deflection
limits. Drift is expressed to the nearest whole mil.
18
Ensure that computations are verified by a second safety-certified person.
19
On the bottom third of the sheet of paper, record the data on the Safety T.
FM 3-09.8
31 July 2006
+
(b)
RG
CORR
=
(c)
TOT
RG
X
(d)
RG
K
=
(e)
ENTRY
RG
31 July 2006
CHG
(f)
VI
(g)
(i)
SI + EL =
(h)
QE
(j)
(k)
M564/
M565
(l)
M582
M577
TOF+
(m)
5.5=
(n)
(o)
M728
M732
2
DFT
(p)
CONDITION
–
CONDITION
STANDARD
=
STANDARD
CHANGE IN
X
FACTOR
RG CORR
=
CORRECTION
RANGE
This is the sum of the diagram range and the range correction. If there is no range correction, the total range will be the same as the diagram range.
CHG
NONSTANDARD
FM 3-09.8
2-15
Figure 2-4. Low-angle safety matrix
** Computed only for minimum entry ranges and only if applicable to the ammunition and the range safety card.
*See Table 2-4 (page 2-17) to determine the correct source table or addendum for computations.
(p) This is the drift corresponding to the entry range from table C (base ejecting), or GFT/TFT (bursting). Drift is applied to the range safety diagram by using the “left
least; right most” rule. The “least” or lowest drift is applied to all left deflection limits, and the “most” or greatest drift is applied to all right deflection limits.
(o) This is the sum of TOF + 5.5. It is the minimum fuse setting for M728/M732 VT fuses.**
(n) This is the safety factor applied to the time of flight to determine VT fuze data.**
(m) This is the time of flight from table C (base ejecting) or GFT/TFT (bursting), corresponding to the entry range.*/**
Note. This also applies to the M762, M767, and MOFA fuses.
(l) This is the minimum fuze setting for the M582/M577 fuze from table C (base ejecting) or GFT/TFT (bursting), corresponding to the entry range.*/**
(k) This is the minimum fuse setting for the M564/565 fuze from table C (base ejecting), or GFT/TFT (bursting), corresponding to the entry range.*/**
(j) This is the sum of elevation and site. It is the minimum or maximum quadrant elevation corresponding to the minimum or maximum range.
(i) This is the elevation from table C (base ejecting) or GFT/TFT (bursting).*
(h) This is the site determined to the diagram range by using the GST or TFT from the head of the projectile family (for example, the site for the M110 WP projectile is
determined with the AM-2; M825 site is computed using the AN-2). Site is computed to the diagram range, as that is where the vertical intervals are determined.*
(g) This is the vertical interval from the range safety diagram.
(f) This is the charge from the range safety card for this set of safety computations.
(e) This is the sum of the total range times the Range K factor. If there is no Range K factor, the entry range will be the same as the total range. Entry range is the range
to which elevation is determined.
(d) This is the Range K factor determined by using FM 6-40/MCWP 3-1.6.19, appendix F, paragraph F-6, technique 2. This is for postoccupation safety. It represents
total corrections for a registration, MET + VE, or other subsequent MET technique. It represents all nonstandard conditions—unless a separate nonstandard condition
such as change in square weight for WP is listed separately in column (b). It is multiplied by the total range to determine entry range. If there is no Range K, enter
1.0000.
(c)
RANGE
(b) This is the range correction for nonstandard conditions from table F (tabular firing tables), if required. This is typically for preoccupation safety or corrections for
nonstandard conditions not included in the Range K factor in column (d), such as WP weight. Examples of nonstandard conditions accounted for in (b) include, but
are not limited to, difference in projectile square weight, difference in muzzle velocity, or any nonstandard condition accounted for prior to determining a Range K
factor. If there is no change from standard, or all nonstandard conditions are accounted for in the Range K factor, this value is zero (0). To determine a range
correction from table F, use the following formula:
(a) This is the minimum or maximum range from the range safety diagram.
(a)
DIAGRAM
RG
Safety
Chapter 2
Figure 2-5. Example low-angle safety matrix (shell HE/WP/SMK)
SAFETY T
2-39. The Safety T is a convenient method of arranging safety data and is used to verify the safety of fire
commands (see figure 2-6). The information needed by the FDO, XO, or platoon leader and section chief is
organized in an easy-to-read format. The Safety T is labeled with a minimum of firing point location,
charge, projectiles(s), fuze(s), angle of fire, and AOL. Other optional entries are subject to unit SOP. Any
time new safety data are determined, new Safety Ts are constructed and issued after the old Safety Ts have
been collected (for example, after a move or after a registration or MET + VE). Use only one charge per
Safety T.
Note. The examples in this chapter demonstrate which data is transferred from the safety matrix
to the Safety T. This data is in bold type in the matrix and the associated Safety T.
2-40. The FDO ensures that all data transmitted from the FDC is within the limits of the Safety T. The
section chief ensures that all data applied to the ammunition or howitzer is within the limits of the Safety T.
The FDO must ensure that deflection to fire is between the deflections listed on the Safety T then
determine if the quadrant elevation corresponding to that deflection is between the minimum and maximum
QE on the Safety T. Finally, the FDO must ensure that the fuze setting is equal to (or greater) than the
minimum fuze setting listed on the Safety T for the specific fuze type.
Note. Figure 2-6 (DA Form 7353-R, Universal Safety T) represents a locally reproducible form.
Reproduce this form on 8½ x 11-inch paper. FM 6-40/MCWP 3-1.6.19 prescribes this form. DA
Form 7353-R is also available on the Army Publishing Directorate Web site at
www.APD.army.mil.
2-16
FM 3-09.8
31 July 2006
Safety
Figure 2-6. Example of a completed Safety T
Table 2-4. Tables and addenda required for safety computations
Weapon
System
Safety
Required for
Base
Projectile
Firing Table
for Base
Projectile
Firing Table
Addendum
M101A1
M314
M444
HE
HE
105-H-7
105-H-7
N/A
ADD-B-2
M102/
M314
M444
HE
HE
105-AS-3
105-AS-3
N/A
ADD-F-1
M485
M449
M483A1
M483A1
M825
M825
M825A1
M825A1
M692/
M731
M718/
M741
M898
HE
HE
HE
DPICM
HE
DPICM
HE
DPICM
DPICM
DPICM
DPICM
155-AM-2
155-AM-2
155-AM-2
155-AN-2
155-AM-2
155-AN-2
155-AN-2
155-AN-2
155-AN-2
155-AN-2
155-AN-2
N/A
ADD-I-2
ADD-R-1
ADD-J-2
ADD-T-0 w/ch 1
ADD-Q-O w/ch 1,
2
ADD-T-0 w/ch 1
ADD-Q-0 w/ch 1, 2
ADD-L-1 w/ch 1, 2
ADD-N-1 w/ch 1
ADD-W-0
M119
M198 or
M109A3/A5/A6
UPDATING SAFETY DATA AFTER DETERMINING A GFT SETTING
2-41. After a GFT setting is determined (the result of registration or MET + VE technique), the FDO must
compute new safety data. The GFT setting represents all nonstandard conditions in effect at the time it was
determined. The effect on safety is that, if the data determined before the GFT setting was found to no
31 July 2006
FM 3-09.8
2-17
Chapter 2
longer represent the safety box, it could result in an unsafe condition if not applied to safety computations.
In order to update safety, new elevations are determined, which correspond to the minimum and maximum
ranges. Deflections are modified by applying the GFT deflection correction to each lateral limit. Minimum
fuze settings are also recomputed. The basic safety diagram drawn in red on the firing chart does not
change. It was drawn on the basis of azimuths and ranges, and it represents the actual limits.
2-42. There are two techniques for updating safety computations: using the Range K method and applying
a GFT setting to a GFT. Both methods use the same safety matrices and apply to both low- and high-angle
fire. The preferred technique for updating safety computations is to apply a GFT setting to the appropriate
GFT. Unfortunately, not all munitions have associated GFTs. Application of total corrections is the same
as for normal mission processing. The total corrections, in the form of a GFT setting or Range K, must be
applied in accordance with the data on which they were determined (for example, the GFT setting for an
HE registration applies to all projectiles in the HE family, while a MET + VE for DPICM would apply to
all projectiles in the DPICM family). If automation is available, a false registration with M795 graze burst
data may be used to determine total corrections for all projectiles in the DPICM family. The principle
difference between the two techniques is the manner in which minimum fuze setting is determined.
DETERMINING MINIMUM FUZE SETTING USING A GFT WITH A GFT SETTING APPLIED
2-43. When a GFT setting is applied and a fuze setting is to be determined, it is extracted opposite the time
gaugeline (if it is the fuze listed on the GFT setting) or as a function of elevation (for all others). Use the
procedures in table 2-5 to update safety using a GFT with a GFT setting applied.
DETERMINING FUZE SETTING USING THE RANGE K TECHNIQUE
2-44. To simplify updating safety, the Range K technique determines all fuze settings as a function of
elevation. The difference between registered fuze settings and fuze settings determined using the Range K
technique in actual firings and computer simulations varies by only zero to two tenths (0.0-0.2) of a fuze
setting increment/second. The safety requirements in AR 385-63/MCO P3570.1B and incorporation of
minimum fuze setting range lines adequately compensate for the difference in computational techniques.
Figure 2-7 (page 2-58) demonstrates how to update safety when no GFT is available, using the Range K
technique. Use the procedures in table 2-3, page 2-12 (low angle) or table 2-9, page 2-32 (high angle) to
update safety using the Range K technique.
Table 2-5. Low-angle procedures using a GFT with GFT setting applied
Step
Action
1
On the top third of a blank sheet of paper, construct the basic safety diagram
per the range safety card. (See table 2-2, page 2-11 for procedures.)
In the middle third of the sheet of paper, construct the low-angle safety matrix
(see figure 2-4, page 2-15).
Record the diagram ranges from the basic safety diagram.
Record the charge from the range safety card.
Enter the range correction, if required. This range correction is only necessary
if a nonstandard condition exists which requires a change in aiming point and
is not already accounted for in a GFT setting, such as correcting for the
always heavier than standard white phosphorous projectile. See Figure 2-4,
paragraph (b) (page 2-15) to determine range correction. If a range correction
is required, it is artillery expressed to the nearest 10 meters. If no range
correction is required, enter 0 (zero).
Determine the total range. Total range is the sum of the diagram range and
the range correction. Total range is expressed to the nearest 10 meters.
Range K. This is not used when determining data with a GFT with a GFT
setting applied, as the elevation gauge line represents Range K.
2
3
4
5
6
7
2-18
FM 3-09.8
31 July 2006
Safety
Table 2-5. Low-angle procedures using a GFT with GFT setting applied
Step
Action
8
Entry Range. This value is the same as the total range. Entry range is
artillery expressed to the nearest 10 meters.
Following the mini-max rule, determine the Vertical Interval by subtracting the
unit altitude from the altitude corresponding to the Diagram Range, and record
it. VI is artillery expressed to the nearest whole meter.
9
Note. Diagram range is used to compute VI and SITE because this is the actual location of the
minimum range line. VI is not determined for minimum fuze range lines. The range correction,
total range, and Range K are used to compensate for nonstandard conditions, and represent the
aiming point which must be used to cause the round to cross the diagram range.
10
11
12
13
Compute and record site to the diagram range. Use the GST from the head of
the projectile family whenever possible. Site is artillery expressed to the
nearest whole mil.
Place the MHL on the entry range, determine the elevation from the elevation
gauge line on the GFT, and record it. Elevation is artillery expressed to the
nearest whole mil.
Compute the quadrant elevation and record it. Quadrant elevation is the sum
of elevation and site. Quadrant elevation is artillery expressed to the
nearest whole mil.
Using the procedures from appendix G, FM 6-40/MCWP 3-1.6.19, determine
and record the minimum fuze setting for M564/M565 fuses. These fuze
settings correspond to the entry range. If the GFT setting was determined
using the M564/M565 fuze, then determine the fuze setting opposite the time
gauge line. If the GFT setting was not determined using the M564/M565 fuze,
then extract the fuze setting corresponding to adjusted elevation. Fuze
settings are artillery expressed to the nearest tenth of a fuze setting
increment.
Note. Minimum fuze settings are only determined for minimum range lines and may be computed
for separate minimum fuze range lines.
14
Using the procedures from appendix G, FM 6-40/MCWP 1.6.19, determine
and record the minimum fuze setting for M582/M577 fuses. These fuze
settings correspond to the entry range. If the GFT setting was determined
using the M582/M577 fuze, then determine the fuze setting opposite the time
gauge line. If the GFT setting was not determined using the M582/M577 fuze,
extract the fuze setting corresponding to adjusted elevation. . Fuze settings
are artillery expressed to the nearest tenth of a second.
Note: Minimum fuze settings are only determined for minimum range lines and may be computed
for separate minimum fuze range lines.
15
16
Using the procedures from appendix G, FM 6-40/MCWP 1.6.19, determine
and record the time of flight corresponding to the entry range. Extract the time
of flight corresponding to adjusted elevation from the TOF scale. Time of
flight is artillery expressed to the nearest tenth of a second.
Using the procedures in appendix G, FM 6-40/MCWP 1.6.19, determine the
minimum fuze setting for M728/M732 fuses. Add 5.5 seconds to the time of
flight. VT fuze settings are expressed up to the next higher whole
second.
Note. Minimum fuze settings are only determined for minimum range lines and may be computed
for separate minimum fuze range lines.
17
31 July 2006
Determine and record drift corresponding to adjusted elevation. Drift is
applied to the basic safety diagram by following the “left least, right most” rule.
The smallest (least) drift is applied to all left deflection limits, and the greatest
(most) drift is applied to all right deflection limits. Drift is artillery expressed
FM 3-09.8
2-19
Chapter 2
Table 2-5. Low-angle procedures using a GFT with GFT setting applied
Step
Action
18
19
to the nearest whole mil.
Ensure that computations are verified by a second safety-certified person.
On the bottom third of the sheet of paper, record the data on the Safety T.
2-45. Figures 2-5 through 2-12 and table 2-6 provide examples of low-angle safety.
Table 2-6. Examples of low-angle safety
Figure
No.
2-5
2-6
2-7
2-8
Title
Description
Example of low-angle safety matrix,
shell HE/WP/SMK
Example of a completed Safety T
Completed low-angle safety matrix for
shell HE/WP/SMK
Safety T for low angle for shell
HE/WP/SMK
Completed postoccupation safety matrix
and Safety T for shell HE/WP/SMK
Example of postoccupation lowangle safety with Range K applied
(shell HE/WP/SMK)
Example of a low-angle safety matrix
(shell M825)
2-9
Example of safety table data (M825)
2-10
Example of postoccupation lowangle safety with Range K applied
(shell M825)
Example of a low-angle safety matrix
(shell illumination)
Example safety table data (M485
illumination)
2-11
2-12
2-20
FM 3-09.8
Completed low-angle safety matrix and
Safety T for shell M825 (improved smoke
and DPICM family)
Extracts from FT ADD-T-O to be used for
safety computation examples only
Completed postoccupation safety matrix
and Safety T for shell M825
Completed low-angle safety matrix for
shell illumination
Extracts from FT 155-AM-2 to be used for
safety computation examples only
31 July 2006
Safety
Figure 2-7. Example of postoccupation low-angle safety with Range K applied
(shell HE/WP/SMK)
31 July 2006
FM 3-09.8
2-21
Chapter 2
Figure 2-8. Example of a low-angle safety matrix (shell M825)
2-22
FM 3-09.8
31 July 2006
Safety
Ballistic Data for Safety Computations
FT ADD-T-0 Projectile Improved Smoke M825
Projectile Family = DPICM
Explanation:
The following listings contain ballistic data for safety computations. They are not to be used to
compute firing data as they do not account for submunition/payload delivery. These listings are to
be used in conjunction with chapter 15 of FM 6—40/MCWP 1.6.19 for safety computations only.
Listing Data:
The listings are arranged by charge as follows:
Charge:
Page
3G = Charge 3, M3A1
2
4G = Charge 4, M3A1
5
5G = Charge 5, M3A1
8
3W = Charge 3, M4A2
12
4W = Charge 4, M4A2
15
5W = Charge 5, M4A2
19
6W = Charge 6, M4A2
23
7W = Charge 7, M4A2
28
7R = Charge 7, M119A2 34
Columnar Data:
Column:
1. Range – The distance measured on the surface of a sphere concentric with the earth from
the muzzle to a target at the level point.
2. Elevation – The angle of the gun in the vertical plane required to reach the range tabulated
in column 1. The maximum elevation shown represents the highest angle at which
predictable projectile flight is possible under standard conditions of MET and material.
3. Fuze setting M577 – Fuze setting for a graze burst—numbers to be set on the fuze MTSQ
M577 or ET M762 that will produce a graze burst at the level point when firing under
standard conditions. This setting will produce a graze burst at the time of flight listed in
column 4.
4. Time of flight – The projectile travel time under standard conditions from the muzzle to the
level point at the range in column 1. Time of flight is used as fuze setting for fuze MTSQ
M577 and fuze ET M762.
5. Azimuth correction to compensate for drift – Because of the right-hand twist of the tube, the
drift of the projectile is to the right of the vertical plane of fire. This drift must be
compensated for by a correction to the left.
Figure 2-9. Example of safety table data (M825)
31 July 2006
FM 3-09.8
2-23
Chapter 2
Ballistic Data for Safety Computations
FT ADD-T-0 Projectile Improved Smoke M825
Projectile Family = DPICM
Charge 4G
Range (M)
0
3800
3900
4000
4100
4200
4300
4400
4500
4600
4700
4800
4900
5000
5100
5200
5300
5400
5500
5600
5700
5800
5900
6000
6100
6200
6300
6400
6500
6600
6700
6800
6900
7000
7100
7200
**********
2-24
Elevation (Mil)
Fuze Setting (M577)
Time of Flight (Sec)
0.0
246.4
254.3
262.3
270.4
278.6
287.0
295.5
304.1
312.9
321.8
330.9
340.2
349.7
359.4
369.3
379.5
389.9
400.5
411.5
422.8
434.5
446.5
459.0
472.0
485.5
499.7
514.6
530.4
547.3
565.4
585.2
607.3
632.5
663.2
705.5
************
0.0
14.2
14.6
15.1
15.5
16.0
16.4
16.9
17.3
17.8
18.3
18.8
19.3
19.8
20.3
20.8
21.3
21.9
22.4
23.0
23.5
24.1
24.7
25.4
26.0
26.7
27.3
28.1
28.8
29.6
30.5
31.4
32.4
33.5
34.9
36.7
************
FM 3-09.8
14.2
14.6
15.1
15.5
16.0
16.4
16.9
17.3
17.8
18.3
18.8
19.3
19.8
20.3
20.8
21.3
21.9
22.4
23.0
23.5
24.1
24.7
25.4
26.0
26.7
27.3
28.1
28.8
29.6
30.5
31.4
32.4
33.5
34.9
36.7
************
Drift (Mil)
0.0
3.9
4.0
4.2
4.3
4.4
4.6
4.8
4.9
5.1
5.2
5.4
5.6
5.8
6.0
6.2
6.4
6.6
6.8
7.0
7.3
7.5
7.8
8.1
8.4
8.7
9.0
9.4
9.8
10.2
10.7
11.2
11.8
12.5
13.5
14.9
************
31 July 2006
Safety
Ballistic Data for Safety Computations
FT ADD-T-0 Projectile Improved Smoke M825
Projectile Family = DPICM
Charge 4G
Range (M)
7200
7100
7000
6900
6800
6700
6600
6500
6400
6300
6200
6100
6000
5900
5800
5700
5600
5500
5400
5300
5200
5100
5000
4900
4800
4700
4600
4500
4400
4300
4200
4100
4000
3900
3800
3700
3669
31 July 2006
Elevation (Mil)
852.1
894.3
924.8
950.0
971.9
991.6
1009.7
1026.4
1042.1
1056.9
1071.0
1084.4
1097.3
1109.7
1121.6
1133.2
1144.3
1155.2
1165.7
1175.9
1185.9
1195.6
1205.1
1214.3
1223.3
1232.1
1240.7
1249.1
1257.2
1265.2
1272.9
1280.4
1287.7
1294.7
1301.5
1308.0
1310.0
Fuze Setting (M577)
Time of Flight (Sec)
42.4
44.0
45.0
45.9
46.6
47.2
47.8
48.3
48.7
49.2
49.6
49.9
50.3
50.6
50.9
51.2
51.5
51.8
52.1
52.3
52.5
52.8
53.0
53.2
53.4
53.6
53.8
54.0
54.2
54.4
54.6
54.8
55.0
55.2
55.4
55.6
42.4
44.0
45.0
45.9
46.6
47.2
47.8
48.3
48.7
49.2
49.6
49.9
50.3
50.6
50.9
51.2
51.5
51.8
52.1
52.3
52.5
52.8
53.0
53.2
53.4
53.6
53.8
54.0
54.2
54.4
54.6
54.8
55.0
55.2
55.4
55.6
FM 3-09.8
Drift (Mil)
21.0
23.2
25.0
26.6
28.2
29.7
31.2
32.6
34.1
35.6
37.2
38.7
40.3
42.0
43.7
45.6
47.5
49.5
51.7
54.0
56.6
59.3
62.3
65.6
69.3
73.4
78.1
83.4
89.4
96.4
104.5
113.9
124.9
138.0
153.3
171.2
2-25
Chapter 2
Figure 2-10. Example of postoccupation low-angle safety with Range K applied (shell M825)
2-26
FM 3-09.8
31 July 2006
Safety
Figure 2-11. Example of a low-angle safety matrix (shell illumination)
31 July 2006
FM 3-09.8
2-27
Chapter 2
Ballistic Data for Safety Computations
FT 155-AM-2 Projectile Illumination M485/M485A1/M485A2
Projectile Family = HE
Explanation:
The following listings contain ballistic data for safety computations. They are not to be used to compute
firing data as they do not account for submunition/payload delivery. These listings are to be used in
conjunction with chapter 15 of FM 6-40/MCWP 1.6.19 for safety computations only.
Listing Data:
The listings are arranged by charge as follows:
Charge:
1G = Charge 1, M3A1
2G = Charge 2, M3A1
3G = Charge 3, M3A1
4G = Charge 4, M3A1
5G = Charge 5, M3A1
3W = Charge 3, M4A2
4W = Charge 4, M4A2
5W = Charge 5, M4A2
6W = Charge 6, M4A2
7W = Charge 7, M4A2
8
=
Charge
8,
M119,M119A1
Page
2
4
6
9
12
16
19
23
27
32
38
(not applicable M198 Howitzer)
Columnar Data:
Column:
6. Range – The distance measured on the surface of a sphere concentric with the earth from
the muzzle to a target at the level point.
7. Elevation – The angle of the gun in the vertical plane required to reach the range tabulated
in column 1. The maximum elevation shown represents the highest angle at which
predictable projectile flight is possible under standard conditions of MET and material.
8. Fuze setting M565 – Fuze setting for a graze burst numbers to be set on the fuze MT M565
that will produce a graze burst at the level point when firing under standard conditions. This
setting will produce a graze burst at the time of flight listed in column 4.
9. Time of flight – The projectile travel time under standard conditions from the muzzle to the
level point at the range in column 1. Time of flight is used as fuze setting for fuze MTSQ
M577 and fuze ET M762.
10. Azimuth correction to compensate for drift – Because of the right-hand twist of the tube, the
drift of the projectile is to the right of the vertical plane of fire. This drift must be
compensated for by a correction to the left.
Figure 2-12. Example of safety table data, M485 illumination
2-28
FM 3-09.8
31 July 2006
Safety
Ballistic Data for Safety Computations
FT 155-AM-2 Projectile Illumination M485/M485A1/M485A2
Projectile Family = HE
Charge 3G
Range (m)
Elevation (mil)
0
100
0.0
6.4
3800
3900
4000
4100
4200
4300
4400
4500
4600
4700
4800
4900
5000
5100
5200
5300
5400
5500
5600
5700
5800
5900
6000
6100
6200
6300
6400
6500
6600
280.9
290.0
299.4
308.8
318.5
328.3
338.4
348.6
359.1
369.8
380.8
392.0
403.6
415.5
427.8
440.5
453.7
467.4
481.7
496.7
512.4
529.1
547.0
566.2
587.3
610.9
638.3
672.1
722.3
************
31 July 2006
************
Fuze Setting (M565)
15.1
15.5
16.0
16.5
17.0
17.5
18.0
18.5
19.0
19.5
20.1
20.6
21.2
21.8
22.3
23.0
23.6
24.2
24.9
25.6
26.3
27.1
27.9
28.7
29.6
30.6
31.8
33.2
35.2
************
FM 3-09.8
Time of Flight (sec)
Drift (mil)
0.0
0.4
0.0
0.1
15.2
15.7
16.2
16.6
17.1
17.6
18.1
18.7
19.2
19.7
20.3
20.8
21.4
21.9
22.5
23.2
23.8
24.4
25.1
25.8
26.5
27.3
28.1
28.9
29.9
30.9
32.1
33.5
35.5
6.5
6.7
7.0
7.2
7.5
7.7
8.0
8.3
8.6
8.9
9.2
9.5
9.8
10.1
10.5
10.9
11.3
11.7
12.1
12.6
13.1
13.6
14.2
14.9
15.6
16.5
17.5
18.8
21.0
************
************
2-29
Chapter 2
Ballistic Data for Safety Computations
FT 155-AM-2 Projectile Illumination M485/M485A1/M485A2
Projectile Family = HE
Charge 3G
Range (m)
Elevation (mil)
6600
6500
6400
6300
6200
6100
6000
5900
5800
5700
5600
5500
5400
842.7
892.6
926.2
953.2
976.6
997.4
1016.4
1033.9
1050.3
1065.8
1080.4
1094.4
1107.7
Fuze Setting (M565)
39.7
41.4
42.5
43.4
44.1
44.7
45.2
45.7
46.2
46.6
47.0
47.4
47.7
Time of Flight (sec)
40.0
41.7
42.8
43.7
44.4
45.0
45.6
46.1
46.5
47.0
47.3
47.7
48.0
Drift (mil)
27.1
30.2
32.5
34.5
36.5
38.3
40.1
42.0
43.8
45.6
47.5
49.5
51.5
DETERMINATION OF MAXIMUM EFFECTIVE ILLUMINATION
AREA
2-46. All illumination safety data are for graze burst; therefore, when illumination fire mission data are
computed, the QE determined includes the appropriate HOB. This will prevent achieving a 600-meter
HOB (750-meter HOB for 105 mm) at the minimum and maximum range lines. Before processing
illumination fire mission, determine the maximum effective illumination area for the current range safety
card. This area should be plotted on the firing chart to help determine if illumination can be fired and to let
the forward observers know where they can fire illumination effectively. This area will always be
significantly smaller than the HE safety area. See table 2-7 for steps outlining the general procedure. This
area can be increased by computing high-angle data.
Note. The procedures used to determine the maximum effective illumination area can be used
for all expelling charge munitions to show their maximum effective engagement area.
Table 2-7. Procedures to determine maximum effective illumination area
Step
Action
1
Look at the TFT, part 2, column 7 (RTI) and enter the nearest range listed without
exceeding the maximum range.
Determine the corresponding range to target in column 1. This is the maximum range
the unit can achieve with a 600-meter (155-mm) HOB and keep the projectile in the
safety box if the fuze fails to function.
Determine the minimum range for which a 600-meter (155 mm) HOB is achieved and
have the fuze function no earlier than the minimum range line. Look at the TFT, part
2, column 3 and enter the nearest listed FS that is not less than the determined
minimum FS. Column 3 is the fuze setting for the M565 fuze, so if M577 is to be
used, the fuze setting must be corrected by using table B. Determine the
corresponding range to target in column 1.
2
3
2-30
FM 3-09.8
31 July 2006
Safety
Table 2-7. Procedures to determine maximum effective illumination area
Step
Action
4
The area between these two lines is the maximum effective illumination area where a
600-meter HOB (155-mm) is achieved; the fuze functions no earlier than the
minimum range line and the round does not exceed the maximum range line if the
fuze fails to function.
Note. High-angle fire produces a much greater effective illumination area.
The FDO must use column 6, range to fuze function, to determine the minimum
effective illumination range line. The maximum effective illumination range line is
determined by using fuze setting corresponding to column 7 (range to impact).
SAFETY CONSIDERATIONS FOR M549/M549A1 RAP
2-47. RAP safety data are computed using the low-angle safety matrix or high-angle safety matrix, as
appropriate. The only difference is that a safety buffer must be incorporated for rocket failure or rocket cap
burn through. For firing in the rocket-off mode, a 6,000-meter buffer must be constructed beyond the
maximum range line to preclude the projectile exceeding the maximum range line. For firing in the rocketon mode, a 6,000-meter buffer must be constructed short of the minimum range line to preclude the
projectile falling short of the minimum range line.
SAFETY CONSIDERATIONS FOR M864 BASE BURN DPICM/M795A1
BASE BURN HE
2-48. Base burn safety data are computed using the low-angle safety matrix or high-angle safety matrix as
appropriate. The only difference is that a safety buffer must be incorporated for base burn element failure.
A 5,000-meter buffer must be constructed short of the minimum range line to preclude the projectile falling
short of the minimum range line.
SAFETY PROCEDURES FOR M712 COPPERHEAD
2-49. Copperhead safety data are determined from ballistic data developed specifically for the Copperhead
projectile. Computations are much like those for normal projectiles. The Copperhead round should never
be fired with standard data. Therefore, computing safety data requires solving a Copperhead MET-to-target
technique for each listed range using the FT 155-AS-1, as covered in chapter 13, section 1,
FM 6-40/MCWP 1.6.19. See table 2-8 for steps to compute Copperhead safety. SDZs for shell Copperhead
are significantly different from normal indirect fire SDZs. DA Pam 385-63, chapter 11, contains the
Copperhead SDZs.
2-50. All ranges listed on the range safety card may not fall within the ranges listed in the TFT charge
selection table for that charge and mode. Therefore, additional safety computations may be required for
additional charge(s) and mode(s) to adequately cover the impact area. If ranges listed on the range safety
card overlap charge and mode range limitations in the charge selection table, then safety for both affected
charges and modes must be computed.
Table 2-8. Copperhead safety data procedures
Step
Action
1
Construct the basic safety diagram.
2
For low angle, circle the lower left-hand corner of the safety diagram. Proceed in a
clockwise manner and circle every other corner. For high angle, start in the lower
right-hand corner and circle every other corner in a clockwise manner.
3
Complete a Copperhead MET-to-target technique for each circled corner. Record the
FS, deflection, and QE in the Safety T. The lower left-hand corner will provide the
minimum FS, maximum left deflection, and minimum QE. The upper right-hand
31 July 2006
FM 3-09.8
2-31
Chapter 2
Table 2-8. Copperhead safety data procedures
Step
Action
corner will provide the maximum right deflection and maximum QE. Intermediate
deflections and ranges will provide intermediate deflection limits.
COMPUTATION OF HIGH-ANGLE SAFETY DATA
2-51. The safety data for high-angle fire is computed in the same manner as that for low-angle fire except
for the ballistic variations caused by the high trajectory. Site is computed differently (by using the 10 mil
site factor and the angle of site/10) and mechanical or electronic fuze settings are not determined. Table 2-9
contains the steps required to compute high-angle safety.
Note. It is the FDO’s responsibility to ensure that all high-angle fuze settings will cause the fuze
to function within the safety box.
2-52. Use the steps outlined in table 2-9 and in the matrix in figure 2-13 (page 2-35) as examples for
organizing computations. The high-angle safety matrix is used for all munitions except M712 CLGP
(Copperhead). The data are determined by either graphical or tabular firing tables. In the case of expelling
charge munitions, the safety table located in the firing tables or firing table addenda is used to determine
elevation, time of flight, fuze setting, and drift. Use artillery expression for all computations except where
noted.
Note. The safety tables that are used to compute the high-angle examples are located after the
low-angle safety examples.
Table 2-9. High-angle safety procedures
Step
Action
1
On the top third of a blank sheet of paper, construct the basic safety diagram per the
range safety card (see table 2-2 [page2-11] for procedures).
2
In the middle third of the sheet of paper, construct the high-angle safety matrix (figure 213, page 2-35).
3
Record the diagram ranges from the basic safety diagram.
4
Record the charge from the range safety card.
5
Enter the range correction, if required. This range correction is only necessary if a
nonstandard condition exists which requires a change in aiming point and is not already
accounted for in a GFT setting, such as correcting for the always heavier than standard
white phosphorous projectile. See figure 2-13, paragraph (b) (page 2-35) to determine
range correction. If a range correction is required, it is artillery expressed to the nearest
10 meters. If no range correction is required, enter 0 (zero).
6
Determine the total range. Total range is the sum of the diagram range and the range
correction. Total range is expressed to the nearest 10 meters.
7
Enter the Range K. Range K is only required if a GFT setting has been obtained but
cannot be applied to a GFT (such as determining Illumination safety with a HE GFT
setting). Range K is simply the total range correction from the GFT setting expressed as
a percentage. This percentage, when multiplied by the total range, produces the entry
range. If no GFT setting is available (for example, preoccupation safety), then enter
1.0000 as the Range K. If a GFT setting is available (for example, postoccupation safety),
then enter the Range K expressed to four decimal places (for example, 1.1234). Step 7a
demonstrates how to compute Range K.
2-32
FM 3-09.8
31 July 2006
Safety
Table 2-9. High-angle safety procedures
Step
Action
7a
Divide Range ~ Adjusted Elevation by the Achieved Range from the GFT setting to
determine Range K.
Range ~ Adjusted Elevation Divided by Achieved Range = Range K
8
Determine the entry range. Multiply the total range times Range K to determine the entry
range. If Range K is 1.0000, then the entry range will be identical to the total range. Entry
range is artillery expressed to the nearest 10 meters.
9
Following the mini-max rule, determine the vertical interval by subtracting the unit altitude
from the altitude corresponding to the diagram range, and record it. VI is artillery
expressed to the nearest whole meter.
Note. Diagram range is used for computations of VI and Site because this is the actual location of the minimum
range line. The range correction, total range, and Range K are used to compensate for nonstandard conditions.
These represent the aiming point which must be used to cause the round to cross the diagram range.
10
Determine and record the angle of site divided by 10 to the diagram range. This is
performed by dividing the angle of site (use the appropriate GST, if possible) by 10.
<SI/10 is artillery expressed to the nearest tenth of a mil and has the same sign as
the VI.
11
Determine and record the 10 mil site factor from the GFT or TFT that heads the projectile
family. 10 mil site factor is artillery expressed to the nearest tenth of a mil and is
always negative.
Note. Remember to use the diagram range to compute 10 mil site factor.
Compute and record site. Site is the product of <SI/10 times 10 mil site factor. Site is
artillery expressed to the nearest whole mil.
12
13
14
Determine the elevation from Table C (base ejecting) or TFT/GFT (bursting), and record
it. Elevation is artillery expressed to the nearest whole mil.
Note. GFT settings are not used to determine elevation, as Range K represents total corrections,
and to use a GFT setting would double the effects of those corrections.
Compute the quadrant elevation and record it. QE is the sum of elevation and site. QE is
artillery expressed to the nearest whole mil.
15
Determine and record drift corresponding to the entry range from Table C (base ejecting)
or TFT/GFT (bursting). Drift is applied to the basic safety diagram by following the “left
least, right most” rule. The lowest (least) drift is applied to all left deflection limits, and the
highest (greatest) drift is applied to all right deflection limits. Drift is artillery expressed
to the nearest whole mil.
16
Ensure that computations are verified by a second safety-certified person.
17
On the bottom third of the sheet of paper, record the data on the Safety T.
Note. Minimum fuze settings are not computed for high-angle safety. It is the FDO’s
responsibility to ensure that all fuze settings will cause the projectile to function in the impact
area.
2-53. Figures 2-14 through 2-16 and table 2-10 provide examples of high-angle safety.
31 July 2006
FM 3-09.8
2-33
Chapter 2
Table 2-10. Examples of high-angle safety
Figure
No.
Title
Description
2-14
Example of high-angle safety (shell
HE)
Completed high-angle safety matrix and
Safety T for shell HE
2-15
Example of high-angle safety (shell
M825)
Completed high-angle safety matrix and
Safety T for shell M825
2-16
Example of high-angle safety (shell
illumination)
Completed high-angle safety matrix and
Safety T for shell illumination
2-34
FM 3-09.8
31 July 2006
+
(b)
RG
CORR
=
(c)
TOT
RG
X
(d)
RG
K
=
(e)
ENTRY
RG
31 July 2006
CHG
(f)
VI
(g)
(i)
<SI/10 X10mil Si Fac
(h)
=
SI
(j)
+
EL
(k)
=
QE
(l)
CHG
CONDITION
NONSTANDARD
–
STANDARD
CONDITION
=
STANDARD
CHANGE IN
X
FACTOR
RG CORR
=
RANGE
CORRECTION
FM 3-09.8
Figure 2-13. High-angle safety matrix
** See table 2-4 (page 2-17) to determine the correct source table or addendum for computations.
(m) This is the drift corresponding to Table C (base ejecting), or GFT/TFT (bursting). Drift is applied to the range safety diagram by using the “left least; right
most;” rule. The “least” or lowest drift is applied to all left deflection limits, and the “most” or greatest drift is applied to all right deflection limits.
(l) This is the sum of elevation and site. It is the minimum or maximum quadrant elevation corresponding to maximum or minimum range.
(k) This is the elevation to impact from Table C (base ejecting), or GFT/TFT (bursting).*
(j) This is site, the product of <site/10 X 10 mil site factor (Note. Site is determined for the diagram range).*
(i) This is the 10 mil site factor, determined from the GFT or TFT from the head of the projectile family; such as 10 mil site factor for the M110 WP projectile
would be determined with the AM-2; M825 10 mil site factor would be computed using the AN-2.*
(h) This is the angle of site divided by 10, determined by dividing vertical interval by entry range in thousands.
(f) This is the charge from the range safety card for this set of safety computations.
(e) This is the sum of the total range times the Range K factor. If there is no Range K factor, then the entry range will be the same as the total range. Entry
range is the range to which elevation is determined.
(d) This is the Range K factor determined by using technique 2 in FM 6-40/MCWP 1.6.19. This is for postoccupation safety. It represents total corrections
for a registration, MET + VE, or other subsequent MET technique. It represents all nonstandard conditions—unless a separate nonstandard condition such
as change in square weight for WP is listed separately in column (b). It is multiplied by the total range to determine Entry Range. If there is no Range K,
enter 1.0000.
(c) This is the sum of the diagram range and the range correction. If there is no range correction, then the total range will be the same as the diagram range.
RANGE
(m)
DRIFT
(b) This is the range correction for nonstandard conditions from table F (tabular firing tables), if required. This is typically for reoccupation safety or
corrections for nonstandard conditions not included in the Range K factor in column (d), such as WP weight. Examples of nonstandard conditions
accounted for in (b) include, but are not limited to, difference in projectile square weight, difference in muzzle velocity, or any nonstandard condition
accounted for prior to determining a Range K factor. If there is no change from standard, or all nonstandard conditions are accounted for in the Range K
factor, this value is zero (0). To determine a range correction from table F (tabular firing tables), use the following formula:
(a) This is the minimum or maximum range from the range safety diagram.
(a)
DIAGRAM
RG
Safety
2-35
Chapter 2
Figure 2-14. Example of a high-angle safety matrix (shell HE)
2-36
FM 3-09.8
31 July 2006
Safety
Figure 2-15. Example of a high-angle safety matrix (shell M825)
31 July 2006
FM 3-09.8
2-37
Chapter 2
Figure 2-16. Example of a high-angle safety matrix (shell illumination)
2-38
FM 3-09.8
31 July 2006
Safety
Figure 2-17. Low-angle safety computations
31 July 2006
FM 3-09.8
2-39
Chapter 2
Figure 2-18. High-angle safety computations
2-40
FM 3-09.8
31 July 2006
Safety
SECTION IV – DETERMINING MINIMUM QUADRANT ELEVATION
The XO or platoon leader is responsible for determining the lowest QE that can be
safely fired from his position that will ensure projectiles clear all visible crests
(minimum QE).
MINIMUM QUADRANT ELEVATION
ELEMENTS OF COMPUTATION
2-54. A minimum quadrant for each howitzer is ALWAYS determined. The maximum of these minimum
quadrants is the XO’s minimum quadrant. Using the RFT in appendix A is the fastest method of computing
minimum QE. The QE determined from appendix A is always equal to or greater than (more safe) manual
computations. Manual computations are more accurate than the rapid-fire tables and are used if the sum of
the site to crest and the angle needed for a 5-meter vertical clearance is greater than 300 mils. Figure 2-19
shows the following elements of minimum QE.
z
PCR is the horizontal distance between the piece and the crest—expressed to the nearest 100
meters. Procedures for measurement are discussed in page2-42 .
Note. All angles are determined and expressed to the next higher mil.
z
z
z
Angle 1 is the angle of site to crest measured by the weapons. Procedures are discussed in
paragraph 2-42.
Angle 2 is the vertical angle required to clear the top of the crest. For quick, time, and unarmed
proximity (VT) fuses, a vertical clearance of 5 meters is used. For armed VT fuses, see
paragraph 2-44 .
Angle 3 is the complementary angle of site. It is the complementary site factor (TFT, table G)
for the appropriate charge at the PCR multiplied by the sum of angles 1 and 2. Site is the sum of
angles 1, 2, and 3.
Note. The entry argument for table G is PCR. If it is not listed, do not interpolate; use the next
higher listed value.
z
z
z
31 July 2006
Angle 4 is the elevation (TFT, table F) for the appropriate charge corresponding to the PCR.
Angle 5 is a safety factor equivalent to the value of two forks (TFT, table F) for the appropriate
charge at the PCR.
The sum of angles 1 through 5 is the minimum QE for the weapon and the charge computed.
FM 3-09.8
2-41
Chapter 2
Figure 2-19. Angles of minimum QE
MEASURING ANGLE OF SITE TO CREST
2-55. As soon as the piece is “safed,” prefire checks have been conducted, and ammunition has been
prepared, position improvement begins with verification of site to crest as measured by the advance party.
The advance party measures site to crest with an M2 compass or aiming circle. The section chief measures
the angle of site to crest and reports this information to the XO or platoon leader. To measure the angle of
site to crest, the section chief sights along the bottom edge of the bore, has the tube traversed across the
probable field of fire, and has the tube elevated until the line of sight clears the crest at the highest point.
He then centers all bubbles on the elevation mount and reads the angle of site to the crest from the
elevation counter. This angle of site and the PCR are reported as part of the section chief’s report.
MEASURING PIECE-TO-CREST RANGE
2-56. There are five methods that can be used to measure PCR—
z
Taping. This is the most accurate method; however, it is normally too time-consuming.
z
Subtense. This method is fast and accurate.
z
Map measurement. This method is fast and accurate if the obstacle can be accurately located (for
example, a lone tree will not appear on a map).
z
Pacing. This method is time-consuming and depends on the distance and accessibility to the
crest.
z
Estimation. This method is the least accurate, but it is used when other methods are not feasible.
2-57. Regardless of the method used to measure PCR, the XO or platoon leader must verify PCR before he
computes QE. He can do this by using any of the five methods.
COMPUTATION FOR FUSES OTHER THAN ARMED VT
2-58. The XO or platoon leader performs the computations indicated in this section if the sum of angles 1
and 2 (figure 2-19) exceeds 300 mils or if the RFTs are not available. All angles are determined and
expressed to the next higher mil. Table 2-11 lists the steps and provides an example of an XO’s or platoon
leader’s manual computations.
2-42
FM 3-09.8
31 July 2006
Safety
Table 2-11. Manual minimum QE computations.
Step
Action
1
Howitzer 1 (M198) reports a site to crest of 16 mils at a PCR of 1,100 meters.
2
∠1 = site to crest = 16 mils
3
∠2 = (VI x 1.0186) ÷ PCR (in thousands)
= (5 x 1.0186) ÷ 1.1
= 4.6 ≈ 5 mils
This VI is a 5-meter vertical clearance safety factor. It can also be computed by using the
GST. Solve in the same way as angle of site (4.6 ≈ 5).
4
∠3 = (∠1 + ∠2) x CSF
= (16 + 5) x 0.010
= 0.210 ≈1 mil
5
∠4 = EL = 74.1 ≈ 75 mils
6
∠5 = 2 Forks (TFT, table F, column 6)
= 2 x 2 = 4 mils
7
Minimum QE = ∠1 + ∠2 + ∠3 + ∠4 + ∠5
= 16 + 5 + 1 + 75 + 4
= 101 mils
2-59. The same example is solved in table 2-12 by using the RFTs in appendix A.
Table 2-12. RFT minimum QE computations
Step
Action
1
Determine if the RFT can be used (∠1 + ∠2 ≤ 300 mils). Use appendix A, page A-1. Since
the sum of angles 1 and 2 is less than or equal to 300 (16 + 5 = 21), the RFT can be used.
2
Determine RFT value. Enter the appropriate RFT. The entry arguments are howitzer (M198),
propellant (M3A1, GB), fuze (PD), PCR (1100), and charge (3). The correct table is on
appendix A, page A-7. The RFT value is 86. This value equals the sum of angles 2, 3, 4, and
5 (∠2 + ∠3 + ∠4 + ∠5).
Note. Use the RFT labeled “M557, M564” for all minimum QE computations except armed VT. For armed VT, use
the RFT labeled “M728.”
3
Determine the RFT minimum QE. This value equals the sum of angle 1 and the RFT value
(16 + 86 = 102).
2-60. One howitzer section may report a site to crest that is unusually high. If the XO or platoon leader
determines that it is the result of a single narrow obstruction (such as a tree), the piece can be called out of
action when firing a deflection that would engage the obstruction. This would enable the platoon to use the
next lower site to crest. Other alternatives are to remove the obstruction or move the weapon.
2-61. Table 2-13 shows why minimum QE is computed for all guns, regardless of which has the largest
site to crest.
Table 2-13. RFT example for howitzer platoon
GUN
CHG
SITE TO CREST
+ RFT
= MINIMUM QE
1
3GB
800
128
64
192
2
3GB
1,000
105
80
185
3
3GB
1,500
92
116
208
4
3GB
1,200
115
93
208
31 July 2006
PCR
FM 3-09.8
2-43
Chapter 2
COMPUTATIONS FOR ARMED VT FUZE (LOW-ANGLE FIRE)
2-62. The method of computing the XO’s minimum QE for firing a projectile fused with an M728 or
M732 fuze depends on the method in which the fuze is used. The proximity (VT) fuze is designed to arm 3
seconds before the time set on the fuze; however, some VT fuses have armed as early as 5.5 seconds before
the time set on the fuze. Because of the probability of premature arming, a safety factor of 5.5 seconds is
added to the time of flight to the PCR. Since time on the setting ring is set to the whole second, the time
determined in computing minimum safe time is expressed up to the nearest whole second. A VT fuzewill
not arm earlier than 2 seconds into time of flight, which makes it a bore-safe fuze.
2-63. In noncombat situations, the XO or platoon leader determines the minimum safe time by adding 5.5
seconds to the time of flight to the minimum range line as shown on the range safety card. The minimum
QE determined for fuses quick and time is also valid for fuze VT.
2-64. In combat situations, the XO or platoon leader determines the minimum QE and a minimum safe
time for fuze VT. The minimum QE determined for PD fuses is safe for VT fuses if the fuze setting to be
fired is equal to or greater than the minimum safe time determined in the computation (paragraph 2-41). If
the XO or platoon leader finds it necessary to fire a VT fuze with a time less than the minimum safe time,
he must modify the minimum QE. He does this by increasing the vertical clearance to ensure that the fuze
will not function as it passes over the crest. In addition, he must ensure the fuze will not function over any
intervening crests along the gun-target line (see paragraph 2-46).
2-65. If the projectile is to be fired with the VT fuze set at a time less than the minimum safe time,
allowance must be made for vertical clearance of the crest. Vertical crest clearances for armed M728 and
M732 VT fuses fired over ordinary terrain for all howitzer systems is 70 meters.
2-66. If the projectile is to be fired over marshy or wet terrain, the average HOB will increase. The vertical
clearance is increased to 105 meters. If the projectile is fired over water, snow, or ice, the vertical clearance
is 140 meters.
2-67. The minimum QE for armed fuze VT, when a fuze setting less than the minimum safe time is fired,
is based on the PCR and a vertical clearance as indicated in paragraph d and paragraph e above.
2-68. Figure 2-20 shows a decision tree for applying armed VT minimum QE.
Figure 2-20. Armed VT decision tree
2-69. Table 2-14 shows an example of computations to determine minimum QE for an armed VT fuze.
2-44
FM 3-09.8
31 July 2006
Safety
Table 2-14. Manual armed VT minimum QE computations
Step
Action
1
Howitzer 1 (M198) reports a site to crest of 16 mils at a PCR of 1,100 meters.
2
∠1= site to crest= 16 mils
3
∠2 = (VI x 1.0186) ÷ PCR (in thousands)
= (70 x 1.0186) ÷ 1.1
= 64.8 ≈ 65 mils
This VI is a 70-meter vertical clearance safety factor. It can also be computed by using
the GST. Solve in the same way as angle of site (64.7 ≈ 65)
4
∠3 = (∠1 + ∠2) x CSF
= (16 + 65) x 0.010
= 0.710 ≈ 1 mil
5
∠4 = EL = 74.1 ≈ 75 mils
6
∠5 = 2 Forks (TFT, Table F, column 6)
= 2 x 2 = 4 mils
7
Minimum QE = ∠1 + ∠2 + ∠3 + ∠4 + ∠5
= 16 + 65 + 1 + 75 +4
= 161 mils
8
Determine minimum safe time. This value is the sum of TOF to PCR and 5.5 expressed
up to the next higher second (4.1 + 5.5 = 9.6 ≈ 10.0 sec).
2-70. The same example is solved in table 2-15 by using the RFT in Appendix A.
Table 2-15. RFT minimum QE computations
Step
Action
1
Determine if the RFT can be used (∠1 + ∠2 ≤ 300 mils). This is done manually since
page A-1 (Appendix A) uses a vertical clearance of 5 meters. See step 3 in table 2-14 for
∠2. Since the sum of angles 1 and 2 is less than or equal to 300 (16 + 65 = 81), the RFT
can be used.
2
Determine RFT value. Enter the appropriate RFT. The entry arguments are howitzer
(M198), propellant (M3A1, GB), fuze (M728 or M732), PCR (1,100), and charge (3). The
correct table is in Appendix A, page A-13. The RFT value is 147. This value equals the
sum of angles 2, 3, 4, and 5 (∠2 + ∠3 + ∠4 + ∠5).
Note: Use the RFT labeled “M557, M564” for all minimum QE computations except armed VT. For armed VT,
use the RFT labeled “M728.”
3
Determine the RFT minimum QE. This value equals the sum of angle 1 and the RFT
value (16 + 147 = 163).
4
Determine minimum safe time. Use the same entry arguments as in step 2. The
minimum safe time is 10.0.
2-71. If the VT fuze setting to be fired is equal to or greater than the minimum safe VT time, the minimum
QE for fuses quick and time applies. If the fuze setting to be fired is less than the minimum safe time, the
minimum QE determined for armed VT applies.
USING MINIMUM QUADRANT ELEVATION
2-72. After computing minimum QE for each charge authorized, the XO or platoon leader must compare
the minimum QE to the QE required to clear the minimum range line. The XO must then select the highest
quadrant for each charge to be used as the minimum QE to be fired from that position.
31 July 2006
FM 3-09.8
2-45
Chapter 2
INTERVENING CREST
2-73. FDOs must ensure that artillery fires clear intervening crests. Intervening crests are defined as any
obstruction between the firing unit and the target not visible from the firing unit. The following are the
possible options, listed in order of preference:
z
Option 1: Determine firing data to the crest (include all nonstandard conditions) and add two
forks (table 2-16).
z
Option 2: Determine a minimum QE in a similar manner as XO’s minimum QE (table 2-17,
page 2-47).
z
Option 3: Use the trajectory tables in the appendix of the TFT.
2-74. Option 1 is preferred because it incorporates all current nonstandard conditions that will affect the
projectile along the trajectory. Based on the availability of corrections for nonstandard conditions, the FDO
has the responsibility to determine if this really is the best option. Table 2-16 lists the steps.
Table 2-16. Intervening crest, option 1.
Step
Action
1
Upon occupation, the FDO analyzes the terrain for intervening crests.
2
Upon determining the altitude of this crest, he computes QE firing data to this point. The
best solution includes all available corrections for nonstandard conditions (current and valid
GFT setting).
3
Add the value of two forks (TFT, table F, column 6) to the QE determined in step 2 to
ensure that round-to-round variations (probable errors) will clear this crest.
4
The FDO then records this QE and charge on his situation map as a check to ensure that
rounds will clear the intervening crest.
5
Upon receipt of a fire mission, the FDO will compare his intervening crest QE to his fire
mission quadrant. One of three situations will occur:
1. The target is located short of the intervening crest. The FDO does not consider the
effects of the crest at this time.
2. The mission QE exceeds intervening crest QE by a significant margin—indicating the
round will clear the crest.
3. Fire mission QE exceeds intervening crest QE by only a small margin or is less than
intervening crest QE, indicating the round may or may not clear the crest. The FDO must
determine if the round will clear after considering the following:
• Have all nonstandard conditions been accounted for?
• How old is the current MET message?
• Are registration corrections being applied to this mission?
• Upon realizing that the round may not or will not clear the crest, the FDO can fire
either high angle or a reduced charge. The quickest choice would be to fire high
angle, but tactical situations may prevent this. Firing a lower charge will increase
dispersion more than high angle. For example, at a range of 6,000 meters, the
following applies:
ƒ Low angle, charge 5: Probable error in range = 15 meters
ƒ High angle, charge 5: Probable error in range = 17 meters
ƒ Low angle, charge 4: Probable error in range = 23 meters
ƒ If a lower charge is selected, steps 2 through 5 must be repeated.
6
If VT fuses are to be fired (M700 series), the FDO must take additional action to ensure that
the VT fuze does not arm before passing over the crest. Follow the steps for determining
armed VT minimum QE and FS in paragraph 2-41.
2-46
FM 3-09.8
31 July 2006
Safety
2-75. Option 2 does not include current corrections for all nonstandard conditions. Table 2-17 lists the
steps.
Table 2-17. Intervening crest, option 2
Steps
Action
1
Upon occupation, the FDO analyzes the terrain for intervening crests.
2
The FDO determines and announces the grid and map spot altitude to the crest.
3
The HCO plots the grid and determines and announces range to the crest.
4
The VCO computes angle of site to the crest. This is the same as determining site to
crest for a howitzer.
5
Determine if the RFT can be used (∠1 + ∠2 ≤ 300 mils). Angle 1 equals angle of site to
the crest. Refer to ST 6-50-20, page A-1. Since ∠1 and ∠2 decrease with range, this
should not be a problem.
6
Determine RFT value. Enter the appropriate RFT. The entry arguments are howitzer
(M198), propellant (M3A1, GB), fuze (M728 or M732), PCR (1100), and charge (3). The
correct table is on ST 6-50-20, page A-13. The RFT value is 147. This value equals the
sum of angles 2, 3, 4, and 5 (∠2 + ∠3 + ∠4 + ∠5).
Note. Use the RFT labeled “M557, M564” for all minimum QE computations except armed VT. For armed VT,
use the RFT labeled “M728.”
7
Determine RFT intervening crest QE. This value is the sum of the angle of site to the
crest and the RFT value.
8
If VT is fired, enter the appropriate table and extract the correct information.
9
Follow steps 4 and 5 of table 2-16.
2-76. Option 3 is the least preferred option and uses the trajectory charts in the appendix of the TFT. This
offers a quicker but less accurate method to clear the intervening crest. The FDO must make a judgment
call when to use these charts. The FDO must use caution when making this decision.
PALADIN FIRING SAFETY
2-77. Firing safety is paramount—every secondary independent check verification ensures that fired
rounds impact and detonate on the desired target. Failure to conduct secondary independent checks is the
primary contributing factor to M109A6 Paladin firing incidents. Conducting procedurally correct crew
drills can help prevent firing incidents from occurring. The most frequent types of firing incidents during
Paladin live-fire operations that can be prevented by secondary independent checks are—
z
Firing at load elevation.
z
Degraded operations (appendix A, FM 3-09.70 ) –The leadership must be proactive under
degraded operations.
z
Charge error.
2-78. Target location and verification of target location are critical factors in fire mission FM processing as
well. The POC/BOC verifies target location at the battery level. Targets must be physically plotted and
checked to ensure that they plot safely and do not violate any FSCM. The following techniques aid the
FDC in ensuring that all target grids are cleared for safe engagement.
BOXED SAFETY
2-79. Safety is computed in accordance with FM 6-40/MCWP 1.6.19standards and can be derived from
automated range safety. The FDO computes safety from the center of radius grid used in the move order.
The safety data is valid for howitzers firing within a 750-meter radius of the surveyed grid. Using the range
fan, the FDO maximizes his safety box by determining his own limits within an approved impact area. The
left and right limits are input in the move order message format. The FDO determines minimum and
maximum quadrants.
31 July 2006
FM 3-09.8
2-47
Chapter 2
2-80. The minimum and maximum quadrants and charge-specific data are sent to the howitzers by digital
means on a SYS;PTM. The section chief enters the data into the Automatic Fire Control System (AFCS).
Minimum QE is entered into the AFCS. Maximum QE is input as maximum tube elevation. The FDO must
specify charge using this technique. He must select the optimum charge to fire based on the tactical
situation. Every mission sent to the howitzer must be checked, and the specified charge must be sent down
to the howitzers. The POC must check and resolve intervening crests (see figure 2-21).
Figure 2-21. Boxed safety
UNBOXED SAFETY
2-81. This technique requires the FDO to shrink the perimeter of the selected impact area 300 meters or
per local range safety regulations (whichever is safest) to account for PEs. The minimum quadrant to fire is
computed using the lowest optimum charge to the closest minimum range of the impact area.
2-82. The POC transmits minimum QE to the howitzer using the SYS;PTM format, and the COS inputs
minimum QE into the AFCS. The FDO does not send the howitzers a maximum QE. Not sending a
maximum QE allows the platoon greater flexibility to engage targets within their sectors and enables firing
of different charges per mission. The FDO determines the left and right azimuth limits using the outermost
edges of the shrunken impact area. The limits are sent to the howitzers on the movement order format. All
data is safe as long as howitzers remain within a 750-meter radius of the occupation grid (see figure 2-22).
The following are key points in unboxed safety:
z
Minimum QE is computed using the lowest optimum charge.
z
Left and right limits are sent on the movement order format.
z
Multiple charges can be fired.
z
Impact area is reduced by 300 meters or per local range safety regulations (whichever is safest)
to allow for probable errors.
z
Howitzer pairs work within a 750-meter radius.
Note. Boxed safety is similar to regular FA safety with the following exceptions:
• Not required to use range safety card.
• Use surveyed move order grid within training area with a 750-meter radius.
• Charge restricted.
2-48
FM 3-09.8
31 July 2006
Safety
Figure 2-22. Unboxed safety
COMBAT SAFETY
2-83. Combat safety (see figure 2-23) is similar to unboxed safety with the following exceptions:
z
Minimum QE is computed to the minimum range line (for example, FLOT/brigade CFL).
z
Left and right limits are computed to the brigade boundaries and sent in the move order.
z
The POC must check intervening crests.
Note. Minimum range is computed for lowest optimum charge. Grid fired must be verified by
at least three independent checks (FO/FIST, battalion FDC, POC/BOC). Howitzers input
minimum QE and left and right limits on move order. Multiple charges can be fired.
31 July 2006
FM 3-09.8
2-49
Chapter 2
Figure 2-23. Combat safety
ILLUMINATION SAFETY
2-84. Illumination safety (see figure 2-24) is similar to boxed safety and is computed using an approved
safety box in an impact area. Computations are made per the procedures in FM 6-40/MCWP 1.6.19. The
FDO computes minimum and maximum quadrants. Maximum QE is computed using range to impact. The
POC transmits the calculated data/Safety T to the howitzers via SYS;PTM. The chief records the data but
does not enter the Safety T limits into the AFCS. The key points are—
z
Similar to boxed safety.
z
Illumination Safety T is sent to guns via SYS;PTM.
z
The howitzer section chief does not enter Safety T data into AFCS, but records the data.
Figure 2-24. Illumination safety
2-50
FM 3-09.8
31 July 2006
Safety
SECTION V – MLRS SAFETY PROCEDURES
2-85. MLRS safety data may be calculated using a launcher’s fire control system (two check launchers) or
the SDC. The SDC may be used to compute safety data for OPAREA method 1, point-to-point, and firing
point methods of safety computation. Using the procedures in this chapter, check launchers determine the
data required to manually develop the Safety T. The SDC can also determine the data required for the
Safety T and produce the Safety T. SDC-generated Safety T data will be verified by one the following
methods:
z
The input of SDC data by a safety-certified individual and verified by a second safety-certified
individual. This process will be performed twice (the second time with a different safetycertified SDC operator) and both sets of Safety T data compared. The data on these Safety Ts
will be identical.
z
The input of SDC data by a safety-certified individual and verified by a second safety-certified
individual and by a check launcher performing the required check missions and commanded
data being within ±5 mils in AZ and QE and 0.5 seconds fuze time.
2-86. The following section will explain in detail how the FDC develops the SDZ diagram, along with
step-by-step procedures for the firing data that will be used to develop a Safety T.
2-87. SDC is a user-friendly operator interface wrapped around an existing FORTRAN program that
calculates MLRS ballistic firing data. SDC uses the same ballistic algorithm that is resident on the launcher
FCS. SDC calculates and displays a Safety T for the M270, M270A1, IPDS, advanced concept technology
demonstration (ACTD) HIMARS, and M142 HIMARS launchers using the methods outlined in this
chapter and FM 6-60, for example, point-to-point, firing point, and OPAREA method 1. SDC provides
commanders with an alternate means of developing safety data for live firings. Using tactical equipment
(check launchers) is optional when the SDC program is used. All other safety procedures and
requirements outlined in this chapter still apply.
2-88. The MLRS launcher FCS performs many repetitive self-tests during operations. Built into both the
launcher hardware and software, these tests check and continually monitor the launcher throughout its
operation. Additional manual checks should focus on areas of potential crew error in the area (based on
historical data and observations) that has caused most launcher-related firing incidents. Checks that verify
the accuracy and validity of all data input into the AFATDS/FDS, SDC, and launcher FCS eliminate most
of the causes of firing incidents.
2-89. MLRS firing data (azimuth, QE, and fuze setting) are computed by the FCS and SDC. To complete a
firing sequence, the LM must be oriented and maintain accuracy within ±3 mils in quadrant elevation and
±3 mils azimuth of the FCS solution (command versus actual data displayed on the FCP). If for any reason
the LDS fails (part wear, adverse mechanical failure, and so forth) thus preventing the LM from reaching
or maintaining its computed ballistic firing window, the FCS will cancel the fire mission and not allow the
crew to fire the rockets.
2-90. Additionally, while conducting every fire mission, the FCS further verifies its LM position by
comparing its SRP/PDS data (or PNU on the IPDS, M270A1, ACTD HIMARS, and M142 HIMARS)
against a mechanical reference provided by azimuth and elevation resolvers. The azimuth resolver is
attached to the rotating gear of the launcher turret and the elevation resolver is attached to the LM pivot
point where the cage and turret are connected. A failure of agreement between the FCS and its mechanical
resolvers will alert the crew with a warning message. Any indication of a system error (built in test (BIT)
light or critical failure prompt on the FCP) will cause the crew to immediately abort the mission in progress
and troubleshoot the fault before continuing. Strict adherence to the operator manual’s procedures and all
FCS warning indicators are necessary.
2-91. Operator error is minimized by verifying launcher firing data. A safety-certified individual must
make this verification. The independence of this check is maintained in two ways: 1) by ensuring that
safety data is input and verified by two different safety-certified personnel and 2) by a minimum of two
check launchers when conducting static firings to obtain safety data. This includes launcher startup data,
31 July 2006
FM 3-09.8
2-51
Chapter 2
MET data, and any subsequent MET updates, target grid coordinates, altitudes, and grid zones. It also
consists of a comparison of the command firing data from the FCS of both launchers. Tolerance between
check system command data is ±5 mils in azimuth and quadrant elevation and 0.5 seconds in fuze time.
2-92. The ±5 mil requirement between check systems does not apply when using SDC. SDC-generated
Safety T data will be verified by one of two methods.
z
In the first method, a safety-certified individual inputs SDC data, which is verified by a second
safety-certified individual. This process will be performed twice (the second time with a
different safety-certified SDC operator) and both sets of Safety T data compared. The data on
these Safety Ts must be the same.
z
In the second method, a safety-certified individual inputs SDC data which is verified by a second
safety-certified individual and by a check launcher performing the required check missions and
commanded data being within ±5 mils in AZ and QE and 0.5 seconds in fuze time.
Notes.
When using the SDC program, ensure that safety data input is input by a safety-certified
individual and verified by a second safety-certified individual.
Ensure that the MET data is valid. See chapter 6 of this manual or FM 6-15 for more
information on MET use criteria.
The M270A1, ACTD HIMARS, M142 HIMARS, and IPDS launchers do not require
calibration. Verifying the GPS data is done by map spot (PLGR, resection, and so forth).
The check launchers can be used as the firing launchers after completing the Safety T and
purging all databases.
2-93. Ensure that safety data input is input by a safety-certified individual and verified by a second safetycertified individual (for example, gunner and section chief for the FCS, and operations officer and battery
FD NCO for the AFATDS/FDS). Both the gunner and section chief of the firing launcher must verify that
the actual data (displayed at aim) falls within the Safety T when conducting live-fire exercises using the
safety computations in section IV or FM 6-60.
2-94. Additionally, the PADS-established SCP must always be verified. A copy of the data is sent via a
location status message to the BOC or POC, where it is verified by map spotting and printed out in hard
copy and retained. The BOC or POC file this information for historical record. The BOC or POC verify
that the MET data and impact area target location were correctly entered by the FDS/AFATDS operator
and transmitted digitally to the firing launcher(s) where the data are automatically entered into the FCS.
Independent verification of startup data by the launcher section chief and the platoon leader ensures that
accurate position data is used during fire mission computation. The gunner ensures, and the section chief
verifies, that start-up and update data are properly entered into the launcher FCS. Independent verification
of start-up data by the launcher section chief and the platoon leader ensures that accurate position data is
used during fire mission computation.
2-95. Procedures for firing safety involve a properly calibrated launcher, verification that the FCS is
functioning properly, and verification of launcher-firing position within a designated firing area. Strict
adherence to operator’s manual procedures and all FCS warning indicators are necessary. Additionally, a
printed copy of the launcher’s command data sent via MFR to the BOC or POC for historical record is
required.
2-96. Using observers located near and properly oriented on the impact area to observe safe impact for
M28A1 or M28A2 training rockets for safety verification depends on local installation range SOPs. If
spotting of the rocket impact is required, visual observers and/or radar tracking (AN/TPQ-36, -37, or -47)
may be used.
2-52
FM 3-09.8
31 July 2006
Safety
Note. Sample MLRS firing safety checklist are provided on pages 2-88 and 2-91.
SECTION VI – COMPUTATION OF MLRS/HIMARS SAFETY DATA
GENERAL
Note. Do not use M270 or M270A1 safety data for HIMARS. Compute safety data separately
for each weapon system.
2-97. Units using these procedures must be thoroughly familiar with the applicable terms contained in
DA Pam 385-63. To develop safety data for MLRS, there are three things that must be done:
z
Obtain a (range-specific) range safety card.
z
Develop an SDZ diagram.
z
Develop a Safety T based on munitions and current MET.
2-98. The installation RCO provides a range safety card to the OIC. This card states the location
coordinates of the launcher firing area and the location coordinates of the target(s) to be engaged. In some
cases, the range safety card will also contain left and right azimuth limits and minimum/maximum ranges
to impact. The RCO also identifies any special instructions that must be followed in firing at that range
(road guards, time constraints, Air Force overflights, and so forth).
2-99. Developing the SDZ diagram requires implementing the SDZ requirements referenced in the
TRADOC safety letters. The SDZ diagram is developed and maintained in the FDC. It is used to ensure
that targets lie within the target selection box and to define the launcher danger area, noise hazard area, and
exclusion areas between the firing points and the target selection box. The following terms and definitions
along with values in table 2-18 will be used to identify the SDZ for MLRS:
z
Surface danger zone. The ground and airspace designated within the training complex (to
include associated safety areas) for vertical and lateral containment of projectiles, fragments,
debris, and components resulting from the firing launching, or detonation of weapon systems to
include explosives and demolitions.
z
Installation impact area. An area that has been established by the installation RCO.
z
Usable portion of the installation impact area. That portion of the installation impact area that a
unit has been allowed to use, that is perpendicular to the azimuth of fire, and completely within
the installation impact area.
z
SDZ impact area. That portion of the impact area defined by applying Wmax, Xmax, and Ymax
inward from the usable portion of the impact area.
z
Target area. The area inside a specific point or location to which the weapon is fired (AR 38563/MCO P3570.1B). In addition, the point or location within the surface danger zone where
targets are emplaced for weapon system engagement (DA Pam 385-63).
z
Target selection box. That area inside the SDZ where targets must lie to meet the standard of
containing all but 1:1,000,000 normally functioning rounds.
z
Launcher danger area (area F). The area immediately behind the firing point or area that is at
risk from blast and debris.
z
Noise hazard area. The area to the rear and flanks of the firing point in which a noise hazard
exists. The launcher danger area is included in the noise hazard area.
z
Exclusion areas I and II. That part of the SDZ between the firing point and the target selection
box in which there is danger from short rounds.
z
Exclusion area III (M26 and M28 Only). That part of the SDZ that extends 1,800 meters from
the near edge of the SDZ impact area toward the firing point.
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Chapter 2
z
Safety T. A four-space table that shows the left and right azimuth limits and the minimum and
maximum QE for firing the M28A1/A2 (see figure 2-31, page 2-61).
Table 2-18. M28A1/A2 (combined) safety
Range to Target (meters)
W
X
Y
8,000 to 9,000
770
2,525
1,905
9,001 to 10,000
855
2,155
1,635
10,001 to 11,000
945
1,795
1,440
11,001 to 12,000
1,045
1,485
1,290
12,001 to 13,000
1,155
1,220
1,185
13,001 to 14,000
1,290
1,175
1,115
14,001 to 15,000
1,475
1,275
1,075
2-100. The Safety T defines the left and right limits for firing azimuth and the minimum and the
maximum limits for firing QE. It is maintained in the FDC and in the firing launchers.
Note. A six-space table that includes the minimum and maximum fuze times is used when
computing safety for firing the M26 rockets (along with other restrictions that is, fin failure
impact area, Exclusion area III [Area C], and so forth). See DA Pam 385-63.
MLRS SURFACE DANGER ZONE VALUES
2-101. The following terms and abbreviations are used to define MLRS safety danger zones.
Azimuth of fire.
AOF
H
Height of the launcher above mean sea level.
Distance W
A distance to either side of the target wide enough to include all debris (payload,
warhead skin, and rocket motor) from normally functioning rounds. Distance W is
the maximum lateral distance a projectile will ricochet after impacting within the
dispersion area. Distance W defines the maximum lateral edge of the ricochet area.
Wmax
The maximum possible value of W. For OPAREAs, this is the value of W at a range
from the rear edge of the OPAREA to the geographic center of the usable portion of
the installation impact area.
Distance X
A distance beyond the target adequate to contain rockets when the fuze fails to
function (M26/A1/A2/M28). Distance X is further defined as the maximum distance a
rocket will travel when fired or launched at a given quadrant with a given propulsion
system (M28A1/A2).
Xmax
The maximum possible value of X. For OPAREAs, this is the value of X at a range
from the forward edge of the OPAREA to the geographic center of the usable
portion of the installation impact area.
Distance Y
A distance short of the target sufficient to include all debris (payload, warhead skin,
and rocket motor) from normally functioning rounds.
Ymax
The maximum possible value of Y. For OPAREAs, this is the value of Y at a range
from the forward edge of the OPAREA to the geographic center of the usable
portion of the installation impact area.
Area F
The area immediately to the rear of the launcher that is directly exposed to blast
and debris (launcher danger area).
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FM 3-09.8
31 July 2006
Safety
COMPUTING SAFETY DATA
SAFETY COMPUTING METHODS
2-102. There are three methods to compute safety data for mlrs live firing: OPAREA, point-to-point, and
firing point. All of these methods apply to all of the SDZ requirements previously discussed.
Note. The numerical values for AZ, range, and QE in all of the figures in this section are
provided to assist in understanding the procedures for computing safety.
z
z
z
OPAREA method. This method requires a larger impact area but allows the unit to derive a
single Safety T for an entire launcher OPAREA firing into a target area. Selecting targets from
within the target selection box ensures that the firing unit will meet the 1:1,000,000 DA safety
standard. This method allows the unit to conduct more realistic and tactically driven live-fire
exercises, thus significantly enhancing training. There are two techniques (method 1 and method
2) to derive safety data using the OPAREA method. Both techniques will yield the same
azimuth limits and minimum and maximum quadrants if the minimum and maximum
altitudes/elevations at the minimum and maximum ranges of the target area are used. Method 2
has the execution steps in different order of application. OPAREA safety works well when
conducting live-fire exercises with the M28A1/A2 training rocket (reduced range). Small impact
areas may preclude using OPAREA safety procedures.
Point-to-point method. This method allows the unit to derive a Safety T from a specific firing
point to a specific point target that lies within a target area.
Firing point method. This method allows the unit to derive a Safety T for a single firing point
(firing into a target area). Selecting targets from within the target selection box ensures that the
firing unit will meet the 1:1,000,000 DA safety standard.
SAFETY COMPUTING PHASES
2-103. Safety computations for each of these methods are completed in four phases—
z
Phase I—applying the SDZ requirements (for the specific munitions) to the installation impact
area.
z
Phase II—deriving the firing limits in both AZ and QE.
z
Phase III—applying the SDZ requirements (for the specific munitions) to the launcher firing
point or OPAREA.
z
Phase IV—completing the flight corridor.
2-104. Paragraphs 2-106, 2-120, 2-131, and 2-145 contain step-by-step procedures the FDC uses to
develop the SDZ diagram.
OPAREA METHOD 1 OF COMPUTING SAFETY
2-105. This method requires a larger impact area but allows the unit to derive a single Safety T for an
entire launcher OPAREA firing into a target area.
Phase I OPAREA Method 1
2-106. Apply the SDZ requirements to the installation impact area (see figure 2-25, page 2-56).
Notes.
1. Both techniques will yield the same azimuth limits and minimum and maximum quadrants if
the minimum and maximum altitudes/elevations at the minimum and maximum ranges of the
target area are used. Method 2 has the execution steps in different order of application.
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Chapter 2
2. If you have been issued a range safety card from your range control office that takes into
account the MLRS SDZ requirements referenced in the TRADOC safety letters, the OIC/firing
unit must complete the SDZ diagram for their firing point(s) or firing OPAREA(s).
z
z
z
Step 1. Plot and draw the installation impact area on a map or overlay. If the existing installation
impact area to be used for MLRS firing is not a square or rectangle, the unit must draw a square
or rectangle inside the existing impact area. One side of the square or rectangle must be
perpendicular to the AOF from the center of the OPAREA to the center of the impact area. The
procedures in step 4 are only valid when applied to a square or rectangular impact area (see
Figure 2-25).
Step 2. Index the geographic center of the usable portion of the installation impact area (target)
(see figure 2-25).
Step 3. Index the center of the proposed firing OPAREA. Draw a circle around the index. (The
size of the circle will be allocated by range control.) This radius may be larger or smaller
depending upon the training area and/or impact area available to the unit. All of the OPAREA
firing points must be located in this OPAREA circle.
Note. If given an irregular firing OPAREA by range control, you must construct a circular
firing OPAREA that remains completely inside the area that you received from range control.
Note. As an example, we will use a large firing OPAREA with a radius of 1,000 meters for
graphical simplicity.
z
z
Step 4. Draw a line connecting the two indices from steps 2 and 3.
Step 5. Using the appropriate munition-specific table (table 2-18, page 2-54), derive and apply
the appropriate values of Wmax, Xmax, and Ymax to the edges of the installation impact area
(toward target) (see figure 2-25). For OPAREAs, the entry value for Wmax is the range from the
rear edge of the OPAREA to the target. The entry value for Xmax is the range from the forward
edge of the OPAREA to the target. The entry value for Ymax is the range from the forward edge
of the OPAREA to the target. This is the SDZ impact area.
Figure 2-25. Example impact area
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FM 3-09.8
31 July 2006
Safety
Phase II OPAREA Method 1
2-107. Determine the left and right azimuth limits of the OPAREA.
z
Step 1. Mark the most forward, rearward, right, and left positions along the circumference of the
OPAREA circle from phase I (see figure 2-26).
z
Step 2. Draw a safety fan from both the left and right positions (from step 1), which will keep
all rounds within the SDZ impact area. You must also apply any azimuth restrictions imposed by
the range control for the OPAREA (use the more restrictive of the two sets of azimuth limits).
Measure the left and right limits of each fan (see Figure 2-26). These are the initial left and right
azimuth limits for the entire live-fire OPAREA. (You will determine the final azimuth limits
with FCS in step 8.)
Figure 2-26. Example OPAREA azimuth limits
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31 July 2006
Step 3. Apply the lower (or left-most) value of the left azimuth limits (derived from the leftmost position) to the right-most position. Apply the higher (or right-most) value of the right
azimuth limits (derived from the right-most position) to the left-most position. Ensure that these
azimuths are marked separately and distinctly from the previous fans. They will be used to
complete a “target selection box” and will be referred to as “crossover azimuths.” Selecting
targets within this box reduces the chance of a normally functioning rocket traveling outside the
impact area to an acceptable level of less than 1:1,000,000 (figure 2-27).
FM 3-09.8
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Chapter 2
Figure 2-27. Example development of target selection box azimuth limits
2-108. Derive the minimum and maximum range limits.
Note. Range control may or may not provide a range safety card with the minimum and
maximum ranges identified. If minimum and maximum range is supplied, you must use these
values.
z
Step 4. Measure the minimum range from the most rearward position in the OPAREA to a point
just beyond the intersection of the left and right crossover azimuths. Ensure this point is inside
the SDZ impact area. From this point, or if this point is short of the SDZ impact area, move
along the azimuth limits until you can draw an arc between the original (not the crossover
azimuths) left and right azimuth limits and remain wholly within the SDZ impact area (see
figure 2-28). In drawing the minimum range arc, you must consider munitions capabilities and
any minimum range restrictions issued by range control.
Note. To use OPAREA safety, the crossover point of the left and right azimuth limits must occur
just inside or short of the SDZ impact area. If the crossover point is too far into the SDZ impact
area (or beyond it), the target selection box cannot be constructed inside the SDZ impact area
and OPAREA safety cannot be used.
z
Step 5. Measure the maximum range from the most forward position in the OPAREA to the
most distant point inside the SDZ impact area that will scribe an arc between the left and right
azimuth limits and remains wholly within the SDZ impact area (see figure 2-28).
Note. For the example in Figure 2-28, the crossover point was inside the SDZ impact area and
the range to the crossover point was 7,100 meters. The minimum and maximum range arcs for
the example were based on the M28A1 minimum and maximum ranges of 8,000 and 15,000
meters. These arcs fall inside the original SDZ impact area azimuth limits. (Remember, radius of
example OPAREA is 1,000 meters.) Measure the minimum range from the most rearward
position—10,000 meters. Measure the maximum range from the most forward position—13,000
meters.
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Safety
Figure 2-28. Example development of target selection box range limits
z
z
Step 6. Apply the minimum range from step 4 to the most forward position in the OPAREA by
drawing an arc between the left and right azimuth limits at the minimum range (see figure 2-29).
Step 7. Apply the maximum range from step 5 to the most rearward position in the OPAREA by
drawing an arc between the left and right azimuth limits at the maximum range (see figure 2-29).
This arc completes the drawing of the target selection box. (Range control may impose
additional range limits.)
Figure 2-29. Example development of minimum and maximum quadrant
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Chapter 2
Note. When using SDC, you are not required to use the check launchers. All other safety
procedures and requirements outlined in this chapter and local range regulations still apply.
z
Step 8. Compute the Safety T using two check launchers at a minimum. Both check launchers
must use the current MET to conduct four dry-fire missions, for a total of eight FMs—from front,
rear, left, and right OPAREA extremes as listed below (see figure 2-30, page 2-61). The FDC
will compare the command data between the two check launchers to ensure they agree within ±5
mils in azimuth and QE. (Range control may impose stricter tolerances.) The FDC will use the
most restrictive command data. Regardless of method used, the FDC must incorporate the
applicable range regulation tolerances for your specific installation.
2-109. SDC-generated Safety T data will be verified by one of two methods.
z
In the first method, a safety-certified individual inputs SDC data, which is verified by a second
safety-certified individual. This process is performed twice (the second time with a different
safety-certified SDC operator) and both sets of Safety T data are compared. The data on these
Safety Ts must be exactly the same.
z
In the second method, a safety-certified individual inputs SDC data, which is verified by a
second safety-certified individual and by a check launcher performing the required check
missions with command data within ±5 mils in AZ and QE and 0.5 seconds fuze time.
2-110. The FDC must ensure that the maximum altitude/elevation data from the target area is used at
minimum range and that the minimum altitude/elevation from the target impact area is used at maximum
range when computing safety data (mini-max rule). However, the actual launcher/firing point
altitude/elevation and actual target location elevation/altitude MUST be used during the live-fire regardless
of method used to properly account for vertical interval.
Note. When using the SDC program, ensure that safety data is input by a safety-certified
individual and verified by a second safety-certified individual. This process will be performed
twice (the second time with a different safety-certified SDC operator) and both sets of Safety T
data compared. The data on these Safety Ts must be exactly the same.
z
z
z
z
Fire mission 1. Forward-most OPAREA position to the lower left corner of the target selection
box. Apply the maximum altitude from the target area at minimum range (mini-max rule). This
yields the minimum QE.
Fire mission 2. Rearward-most OPAREA position to the upper left corner of the target selection
box. Apply the minimum altitude from the target area at maximum range (mini-max rule). This
yields the maximum QE.
Fire mission 3. Left-most OPAREA position to the lower right corner of the target selection
box. Apply the minimum altitude from the target area at maximum range (mini-max rule). This
yields the right azimuth limit.
Fire mission 4. Right-most OPAREA position to the lower left corner of the target selection
box. This yields the left azimuth limit.
Note. Check launchers can be used as firing launchers after completing the Safety T and
purging all databases.
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FM 3-09.8
31 July 2006
Safety
Figure 2-30. Safety T computations (fire missions)
Note. The target selection box size has been increased for viewing purposes. For a more
accurate relative size of the target selection box, see figures 2-29 or 2-33.
2-111. This completes the Safety T that establishes firing limits for the launcher within the OPAREA (see
figure 2-31).
Figure 2-31. Example Safety T
Phase III OPAREA Method 1
2-112. Apply the SDZ requirements (for specific munitions) to the launcher OPAREA and complete the
flight corridor.
2-113. This phase applies the launcher danger area (area F) and noise hazard area requirements to the
OPAREA. This is done by applying those requirements around the rear half of the circumference of the
OPAREA (see figure 2-32). Although these actual danger areas are a function of the specific launcher
31 July 2006
FM 3-09.8
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Chapter 2
location, controlling entry to the areas derived in this phase will allow more freedom of movement for the
launcher and will add realism to the live-fire training exercise.
z
Step 1. Area F (launcher danger area) is the area immediately to the rear of the launcher, which
is directly exposed to blast and debris. Divide the OPAREA in half by drawing a line through its
center, perpendicular to the AZ to the target constructed in Phase I. Extend outward along this
line to a point 400 meters on each side around the rear half of the OPAREA (see figure 2-32).
z
Step 2. The NHA extends an additional 300 meters for the M28A1/A2 behind Area F. Only
mission-essential personnel wearing double hearing protection can occupy it. There are two
means of constructing the NHA. The first is the most simple, while the second method
minimizes the size of the NHA, thus allowing less use of the training area.
2-114. Construct NHA using method A.
z
Step 2a. The following instructions apply to our example of a 1,000-meter radius OPAREA.
Draw a box that extends 400 meters plus the radius of your firing OPAREA to the left and right
(the 1,000-meter radius plus 400 meters) as well as 1,700 meters (the 1,000-meter radius plus
400 meters plus 300 meters) to the rear of the center of the firing OPAREA. The result for our
example is a box 2,800 meters wide and 1,700 meters deep. Standard instructions for
constructing the NHA using method A is simply to add 300 meters to the rear depth of area F.
Put simply, go left and right 400 meters from the edge of your specific firing OPAREA, add a
total of 700 meters to the rear edge of your firing OPAREA, and create a rectangle as shown on
the left side of figure 2-34 (page 2-66). Go to phase IV OPAREA method 1..
2-115. Construct NHA using method B.
z
Step 2b. From the center of the OPAREA, draw an arc (400 meters plus the radius of the
OPAREA) to the rear of the center of the OPAREA along the AOF to intersect the line
developed in step 1. (See figure 2-32, method B, to establish area F.)
z
Step 2c. Draw two lines parallel to the AOF on the left and right sides that extend back from the
perpendicular line drawn in step 1. (See figure 2-32, method B.)
z
Step 2d. From the center of the OPAREA, draw a line along the AOF to the rear that is equal to
the radius of OPAREA + 400 meters + 300 meters.
z
Step 2e. From the end of this line, draw an arc that intersects the two lines in step 2c to enclose
the NHA.
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FM 3-09.8
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Safety
Figure 2-32. Firing OPAREA SDZ requirements
Phase IV OPAREA Method 1
2-116. Complete the flight corridor.
z
Step 1. Construct line segments from points (3a and 3b) forward to the near edge of the
installation impact area. The line segments should be parallel to the left and right azimuth limits,
respectively. Since these line segments begin at points 400 meters to the left and right of the
OPAREA, danger area A (320 meters) has been accounted for. This describes the general flight
corridor (see figure 2-32).
z
Step 2. The exclusion area is that area of the SDZ flight corridor within a specified distance of
the far edge of the firing area. It is endangered by failure of the rocket motor during the boost
phase. The distance is based on acceptance of risk (approved by the installation commander per
TRADOC safety letters).
2-117. Construct exclusion area I.
z
Step 2a. Construct an arc, from the forward edge of the OPAREA, with a radius that extends
beyond the OPAREA by the distance in table 2-19 (based on the level of accepted risk for
exclusion area I). The area between the arc and the front of the OPAREA is exclusion area I.
The example in figure 2-33 shows both a 1:10,000 short round probability (2,500 meters) and a
1:1,000 short round probability (1,000 meters).
2-118. Construct exclusion area II.
z
Step 2b. The area between the arc of exclusion area I and the front of the impact area is
exclusion area II for the M28A1/A2 training rocket (reduced range). Exclusion area II can only
be occupied under waiver per TRADOC safety letters. Exclusion area I cannot be occupied (see
figure 2-33).
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FM 3-09.8
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Chapter 2
z
Step 2c. The AZ and range limits determined in steps 3, 6, and 7 of phase II also describe a
small area around the target. This is the target selection box. All targets selected from this box
will fall within the Safety T for the live-fire OPAREA (see figure 2-33).
Table 2-19. Exclusion areas
Short Round Probability
M28A1 and M28A2
Exclusion Area I
Exclusion Area II
1 per 1,000 firings
1 per 10,000 firings
1,000 meters
2,500 meters
See note
See note
Note. This distance will vary based on range to target and the size of the impact area. It is the area between exclusion area I
and the SDZ impact area.
Figure 2-33. Example exclusion areas M28A1/A2
OPAREA METHOD 2 OF COMPUTING SAFETY
2-119. This method requires a larger impact area but allows the unit to derive a single Safety T for an
entire launcher OPAREA firing into a target area.
Phase I OPAREA Method 2
2-120. Apply the SDZ requirements to the installation impact area.
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FM 3-09.8
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Safety
Note. Both techniques will yield the same azimuth limits and minimum and maximum quadrants
if the minimum and maximum altitudes/elevations at the minimum and maximum ranges of the
target area are used. The two methods differ in the order of the execution steps.
Note. If you have been issued a range safety card from your range control office that takes into
account the MLRS SDZ requirements referenced in the TRADOC safety letters, proceed to Step
1 of Phase II. Normally, the OIC receives this with the range card from range control.
z
z
z
Step 1. Plot and draw the installation impact area on a map or overlay. If the existing installation
impact area to be used for MLRS firing is not a square or rectangle, the unit must draw a square
or rectangle inside the existing impact area. One side of the square or rectangle must be
perpendicular to the azimuth of fire from the firing point to the center of the impact area. The
procedures in step 4 are only valid when applied to a square or rectangular impact area. Index
the approximate geographic center of the installation impact area (target) (see figure 2-34).
Step 1a. Index the geographic center of the installation impact area (target) (see figure 2-34).
Step 2. Index the center of the proposed firing OPAREA. Draw a circle around the index. The
size of the circle will be allocated by range control. This radius may be larger or smaller,
depending upon the training area and/or impact area available to the unit. All of the OPAREA
firing points must be located in this OPAREA circle (see figure 2-34).
Note. If range control gives you an irregular firing OPAREA, you must construct a circular
firing OPAREA that remains completely inside the area that you received. To compute
OPAREA safety, a circle with a radius must be used.
Note. As an example, we will use a large firing OPAREA with a radius of 1,000 meters for
graphical simplicity.
z
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31 July 2006
Step 3. Draw a line connecting the two indices from steps 1a and 2 (see figure 2-34).
Step 4. Using the appropriate munition-specific table (table 2-18, page 2-54), derive and apply
the appropriate values of Wmax, Xmax, and Ymax to the edges of the installation impact area
(toward target). For OPAREAs, the entry value for Wmax is the range from the rear edge of the
OPAREA to the target. The entry value for Xmax is the range from the forward edge of the
OPAREA to the target. The entry value for Ymax is the range from the forward edge of the
OPAREA to the target. Based on these entry ranges, extract the appropriate values from
Table 2-18 (page 2-54) and apply them from the edges of the installation impact area toward the
target. This is the SDZ impact area (see figure 2-34).
FM 3-09.8
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Chapter 2
Figure 2-34. Example impact area
Phase II OPAREA Method 2
2-121. Determine the initial left and right azimuth limits of the OPAREA.
z
Step 1. Mark the most forward, rearward, right, and left positions along the circumference of the
OPAREA circle from phase I OPAREA method 2 (see figure 2-35).
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Safety
Figure 2-35. Example OPAREA azimuth limits
z
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31 July 2006
Step 2. Draw a safety fan from both the left and right positions (from Step 1), which will keep
all rounds within the SDZ impact area. You must also apply any azimuth restrictions imposed by
range control for the OPAREA (use the more restrictive of the two sets of azimuth limits).
Measure the left and right limits of each fan (see figure 2-35). These are the left and right
azimuth limits for the entire live-fire OPAREA.
Step 3. Measure the maximum range from the most forward position in the OPAREA to the
most distant point inside the SDZ impact area that will scribe an arc between the left and right
azimuth limits that remains completely within the SDZ impact area (see figure 2-36).
FM 3-09.8
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Chapter 2
Figure 2-36. Example of development of target selection box range limits
Note. For the example shown in figure 2-36, the crossover point was inside the SDZ impact area
and the range to the crossover point was 7,100 meters. The minimum and maximum range arcs
for the example were based on the M28A1 minimum and maximum ranges of 8,000 and 15,000
meters, respectively. These arcs fall inside the original SDZ impact area azimuth limits.
(Remember, the radius of the example OPAREA is 1,000 meters.) Measure the minimum range
from the most rearward position—10,000 meters. Measure the maximum range from the most
forward position—13,000 meters.
Note. When using SDC, you are not required to use the check launchers. All other safety
procedures and requirements outlined in this chapter and local range regulation still apply.
z
z
Step 4. Draw an arc between the original left and right azimuth limits and remain completely
within the SDZ impact area. Measure the minimum range from the most rearward position in the
OPAREA to the lower left-hand corner of this arc. Ensure that this point is inside the SDZ
impact area (figure 2-36). In drawing the minimum range arc, you must consider munition
capabilities and any minimum range restrictions issued by range control.
Step 5. Compute the Safety T using two check launchers at a minimum. Both check launchers
must use the current MET to conduct four dry-fire missions, for a total of eight FMs—from
front, rear, left, and right OPAREA extremes as listed below (see figure 2-37, page 2-69). The
FDC will compare the command data between the two check launchers to ensure that they agree
within ±5 mils in AZ and QE. (Range control may impose stricter tolerances.) The FDC will use
the most restrictive command data. Regardless of the method used, the FDC must incorporate
the applicable range regulation tolerances for your specific installation.
2-122. SDC-generated Safety T data is verified by one of two methods.
z
In the first method, a safety-certified individual inputs SDC data, which is verified by a second
safety-certified individual. This process is performed twice (the second time with a different
safety-certified SDC operator) and both sets of Safety T data are compared. The data on these
Safety Ts must be exactly the same.
z
In the second method, a safety-certified individual inputs SDC data, which is verified by a
second safety-certified individual and by a check launcher performing the required check
missions with command data within ±5 mils in AZ and QE and 0.5 seconds fuze time.
2-123. The FDC must ensure that the maximum altitude/elevation data from the target area is used at
minimum range and that the minimum altitude/elevation from the target impact area is used at maximum
range when computing safety data (mini-max rule). However, the actual launcher/firing point
altitude/elevation and actual target location elevation/altitude MUST be used during the live-fire regardless
of the method used to properly account for vertical interval.
2-68
FM 3-09.8
31 July 2006
Safety
Note. When using the SDC program, ensure that safety data is input by a safety-certified
individual and verified by a second safety-certified individual.
z
z
z
z
Fire mission 1. Forward-most OPAREA position to the lower left corner of the target area.
Apply the maximum altitude of the target area at minimum range (mini-max rule). This yields
the minimum QE.
Fire mission 2. Rearward-most OPAREA position to the upper left corner of the target area.
Apply the minimum altitude of the target area at maximum range (mini-max rule). This yields
the maximum QE.
Fire mission 3. Left-most OPAREA position to the lower right corner of the target area (minimax rule). This yields the right azimuth limit.
Fire mission 4. Right-most OPAREA position to the lower left corner of the target area. This
yields the left azimuth limit.
Note. The check launchers can be used as the firing launchers after completing the Safety T and
purging of all databases.
Figure 2-37. Safety T computations (fire missions)
2-124. This completes the Safety T that establishes firing limits for the launcher within the OPAREA (see
figure 2-38).
31 July 2006
FM 3-09.8
2-69
Chapter 2
Figure 2-38. Example Safety T
Phase III OPAREA Method 2
2-125. Apply the SDZ requirements (for the specific munition) to the launcher OPAREA and complete
the flight corridor. This phase applies the launcher danger area (area F) and noise hazard area requirements
to the OPAREA. This is done by applying those requirements around the rear half of the circumference of
the OPAREA (see figure 2-39). Although these actual danger areas are a function of the specific launcher
location, controlling entry to the areas derived in this phase will allow more freedom of movement for the
launcher and will add realism to the live-fire training exercise.
z
Step 1. Area F (launcher danger area) is the area immediately to the rear of the launcher, which
is directly exposed to blast and debris. Divide the OPAREA in half by drawing a line through its
center, perpendicular to the AZ to the target constructed in Phase I. Extend outward along this
line to a point 400 meters on each side around the rear half of the OPAREA (see figure 2-39).
z
Step 2. The NHA extends an additional 300 meters for the M28A1/A2 behind Area F. Only
mission-essential personnel wearing double hearing protection can occupy it. There are two
means of constructing the NHA. The first is the most simple, while the second method
minimizes the size of the NHA, thus allowing less use of training area.
2-126. Construct NHAusing method A.
z
Step 2a. The following instructions apply to our example of a 1,000-meter radius OPAREA.
Draw a box that extends 400 meters plus the radius of your firing OPAREA to the left and right
(the 1,000-meter radius plus 400 meters) as well as 1,700 meters (the 1,000-meter radius plus
400 meters plus 300 meters) to the rear of the center of the firing OPAREA. The result for our
example is a box 2,800 meters wide and 1,700 meters deep. Standard instructions for
constructing the NHA using method A is simply to add 300 meters to the rear depth of area F.
Put simply, go left and right 400 meters from the edge of your specific firing OPAREA, add a
total of 700 meters to the rear edge of your firing OPAREA, and create a rectangle as shown on
the left side of figure 2-39. Go to phase IV OPAREA method 2.
2-127. Construct NHAusing method B.
z
Step 2b. From the center of the OPAREA, draw an arc (400 meters plus the radius of the
OPAREA) to the rear of the center of the OPAREA along the AOF to intersect the line
developed in step 1. (See figure 2-39, method B, to establish area F.)
z
Step 2c. Draw two lines parallel to the AOF on the left and right sides that extend back from the
perpendicular line drawn in step 1. (See figure 2-39, method B.)
2-70
FM 3-09.8
31 July 2006
Safety
z
z
Step 2d. From the center of the OPAREA, draw a line along the AOF to the rear that is equal to
the radius of OPAREA + 400 meters + 300 meters.
Step 2e. From the end of this line, draw an arc that intersects the two lines in Step 2c to enclose
the noise hazard area.
Figure 2-39. Firing OPAREA SDZ requirements
Phase IV OPAREA Method 2
2-128. Complete the flight corridor.
z
Step 1. Construct line segments from points (3a and 3b) forward to the near edge of the
installation impact area. The line segments should be parallel to the left and right azimuth limits,
respectively. Since these line segments begin at points 400 meters to the left and right of the
OPAREA, danger area A (320 meters) has been accounted for. This describes the general flight
corridor (see figure 2-39).
z
Step 2. The exclusion area is that area of the SDZ flight corridor within a specified distance of
the far edge of the firing area. It is endangered by failure of the rocket motor during the boost
phase. The distance is based on acceptance of risk (approved by the installation commander per
TRADOC safety letters).
2-129. Construct exclusion area I.
z
Step 2a. Construct an arc, from the forward edge of the OPAREA, with a radius that extends
beyond the OPAREA by the distance in table 2-17, page 2-47 (based on the level of accepted
risk for exclusion area I). The area between the arc and the front of the OPAREA is exclusion
area I. The example in figure 2-39 shows both a 1:10,000 short round probability (2,500 meters)
and a 1:1,000 short round probability (1,000 meters).
2-130. Construct exclusion area II.
31 July 2006
FM 3-09.8
2-71
Chapter 2
z
z
Step 2b. The area between the arc of exclusion area I and the front of the impact area is
exclusion area II for the M28A1/A2 training rocket (reduced range). Exclusion area II can only
be occupied under waiver per TRADOC safety letters. Exclusion area I cannot be occupied (see
figure 2-40).
Step 2c. The AZ and range limits determined in steps 2, 3, and 4 of phase II also describe a
small area around the target. This is the target selection box. All targets selected from within this
box will fall within the Safety T for the live-fire OPAREA (see figure 2-40).
Figure 2-40. Example of exclusion areas for M28A1/A2
z
2-72
Step 3. Apply the lower (or left-most) value of the left azimuth limits (derived from the leftmost position) to the right-most position. Apply the higher (or right-most) value of the right
azimuth limits (derived from the right-most position) to the left-most position. Ensure that these
azimuths are marked separately and distinctly from the previous fans. They will be used to
complete a target selection box and will be referred to as “crossover azimuths.” Selecting targets
within this box reduces the chance of a normally functioning rocket traveling outside the impact
area to an acceptable level of less than 1:1,000,000 (see figure 2-41).
FM 3-09.8
31 July 2006
Safety
Figure 2-41. Example of the development of target selection box azimuth limits
z
z
31 July 2006
Step 4. Apply the minimum range from step 3 of phase II to the most forward position in the
OPAREA by drawing an arc between the left and right azimuth limits at the minimum range
(see Figure 2-42).
Step 5. Apply the maximum range from step 3 of phase II to the most rearward position in the
OPAREA by drawing an arc between the left and right azimuth limits at the maximum range
(see figure 2-42). This arc completes the drawing of the target selection box. (Range control
may impose additional range limits.)
FM 3-09.8
2-73
Chapter 2
Figure 2-42. Example of the development of target selection box range limits
POINT-TO-POINT METHOD OF COMPUTING SAFETY
2-131. Point-to-point method allows the unit to derive a Safety T from a specific firing point to a specific
point target that lies within a target area.
Phase I Point-to-Point Method
2-132. Apply the SDZ requirements to the installation impact area (figure 2-43).
Note. If you have been issued a range safety card from your range control office that takes into
account the MLRS SDZ requirements referenced in the TRADOC safety letters, proceed to step
1 of phase II. Normally, the OIC receives this with the range card from range control.
Note. The target box given by range control for computational procedures is a very small box in
which the exact target grid is located (normally 200 meters square). Range control may also give
azimuth and range limits from the firing point. If you are not required by range control to use the
point-to-point method, use the firing point method to increase your target selection
opportunities.
z
2-74
Step 1. Plot and draw the installation impact area on a map or overlay. If the existing installation
impact area to be used for MLRS firing is not a square or rectangle, the unit must draw a square
or rectangle inside the existing impact area. One side of the square or rectangle must be
perpendicular to the azimuth of fire from the firing point to the geographic center of the usable
FM 3-09.8
31 July 2006
Safety
z
z
z
z
portion of the impact area. The procedures in step 4 are only valid when applied to a square or
rectangular impact area.
Step 1a. Index the geographic center of the usable portion of the installation impact area (target)
(see figure 2-43).
Step 2. Index the firing point (see figure 2-43).
Step 3. Draw a line connecting the two indices from steps 1 and 2 (see figure 2-43, page 2-75).
Step 4. Using the appropriate munition-specific table (table 2-18, pages 2-54), derive and apply
the appropriate values of Wmax, Xmax, and Ymax to the edges of the usable portion of the
installation impact area (toward target). The entry values for Wmax, Xmax, and Ymax are the
ranges from the specified firing point on the range safety card to the specific point target listed
on the range safety card. This is the SDZ impact area (see figure 2-43).
Figure 2-43. Example of an impact area
Phase II Point-to-Point Method
2-133. Determine the initial left and right azimuth limits.
z
Step 1. Draw lines from the firing point to the right and left inner edges (far corners) of the SDZ
impact area, which will keep all rounds within the SDZ impact area. The azimuths for these
lines will be stated on the range safety card. This will be your initial left and right limit. These
limits will be further refined in step 2 (see figure 2-44).
31 July 2006
FM 3-09.8
2-75
Chapter 2
Figure 2-44. Example of azimuth limits calculations
2-134. Derive the Minimum and Maximum Values for QE.
z
Step 2. Determine the minimum range at which a vertical line can be scribed between the left and
right azimuth limits that lies completely within the SDZ impact area (see figure 2-44) developed
in phase I or given by range control. This line shows the minimum range limit of the target box.
You must also observe any additional range restrictions imposed by the range safety office (or
munitions limitations).
z
Step 3. Determine the maximum range at which a vertical line can be scribed between the left and
right azimuth limits that lies completely within the SDZ impact area (see figure 2-44). This line
shows the maximum range limit of the target box. You must also observe any additional range
restrictions imposed by the range safety office (or munitions limitations).
Note. When using SDC, you are not required to use check launchers. All other safety
procedures and requirements outlined in this chapter and local range regulations still apply.
2-135. Determine safe firing data and compute the Safety T.
z
Step 4. Using the current MET message, compute the Safety T using two check launchers at a
minimum. Check launchers will conduct two dry-fire missions each and determine firing data
from the specified firing point to the lower left-hand corner and upper right-hand corner of the
target box as presented along the gun target line (see figure 2-45). The FDC will compare the
command data between the two check launchers to ensure that they agree within ±5 mils in
azimuth and QE. Range control may impose stricter tolerances. SDC-generated Safety T data
will be verified by one of two methods:
z
2-76
In the first method, a safety-certified individual inputs SDC data, which is verified by a second
safety-certified individual. This process is performed twice (the second time with a different
FM 3-09.8
31 July 2006
Safety
safety-certified SDC operator) and both sets of Safety T data compared. The data on these
Safety Ts must be exactly the same.
z
In the second method, a safety-certified individual inputs SDC data, which is verified by a second
safety-certified individual and by a check launcher performing the required check missions and
command data being within ±5 mils in AZ and QE and 0.5 seconds fuze time.
2-136. The FDC must ensure that the maximum altitude/elevation data from the target area is used at
minimum range and that the minimum altitude/elevation from the target impact area is used at maximum
range when computing safety data (mini-max rule). However, the actual launcher/firing point
altitude/elevation and actual target location elevation/altitude MUST be used during the live-fire regardless
of method used to properly account for vertical interval.
Note. When sing the SDC program, ensure that two different safety-certified personnel verify
safety data input. This process will be performed twice (the second time with a different safetycertified SDC operator) and both sets of Safety T data compared. The data on these Safety Ts
must be identical.
Note. The check launchers can be used as the firing launchers after completing the Safety T and
purging all databases.
Fire mission 1. From the specified firing point (location will be given on the range safety card)
to the lower left-hand corner of the target box. Apply the maximum altitude at minimum range.
This yields the left azimuth limit and minimum QE.
Fire mission 2. From the specified firing point (location will be given on the range safety card)
to the upper right-hand corner of the target box. Apply the minimum altitude at maximum range.
This yields the right azimuth limit and the maximum QE.
z
z
2-137. The check launchers with current MET will report their actual (if layed on target) and command
check data to the FDC. The FDC will compare the command data between the two check launchers to
ensure that they agree within ±5 mils in AZ and QE. (Range control may impose stricter tolerances.) The
FDC will use the more restrictive command data. Regardless of method used, the FDC must incorporate
the applicable range regulation tolerances for your specific installation.
2-138. SDC-generated Safety T data will be verified by one of two methods:
z
In the first method, a safety-certified individual inputs SDC data, which is verified by a second
safety-certified individual. This process will be performed twice (the second time with a
different safety-certified SDC operator) and both sets of Safety T data compared. The data on
these Safety Ts must be exactly the same.
z
In the second method, a safety-certified individual inputs SDC data, which is verified by a second
safety-certified individual and by a check launcher performing the required check missions and
command data being within ±5 mils in AZ and QE and 0.5 seconds fuze time.
2-139. The FDC must ensure that the maximum altitude/elevation data from the target area is used at
minimum range and that the minimum altitude/elevation from the target impact area is used at maximum
range when computing safety data (mini-max rule). However, the actual launcher/firing point
altitude/elevation and actual target location elevation/altitude MUST be used during the live-fire regardless
of method used to properly account for vertical interval.
2-140. This completes the Safety T for the point-to-point method. See figure 2-46 for an example.
Note. If the local range safety regulation lists a variance/tolerance between check systems, the
range-specific tolerances will be used.
Note. The check launchers can be used as the firing launchers after completing the Safety T and
purging all databases.
31 July 2006
FM 3-09.8
2-77
Chapter 2
Figure 2-45. Example of computing safety data
Figure 2-46. Example of a Safety T
Phase III Point-to-Point Method
2-141. Apply the SDZ requirements to the launcher firing point.
z
Step 1. Area F (launcher danger area) is the area immediately to the rear of the launcher that is
directly exposed to blast and debris. It extends 350 meters to the left and right of the launcher
firing point (perpendicular to the AOF) and 400 meters to the rear of the firing point (parallel to
the AOF). Personnel are prohibited from occupying this area (see figure 2-47).
2-78
FM 3-09.8
31 July 2006
Safety
z
Step 2. The NHA extends behind area F. Only mission-essential personnel wearing double
hearing protection can occupy this area. Draw a box that extends beyond area F an additional
300 meters, for M28A1 or M28A2 training rockets, to the rear of the firing point (see
figure 2-47).
Figure 2-47. Example of a noise hazard area
Phase IV Point-to-Point Method
2-142. Complete the flight corridor.
z
Step 1. Draw lines from the left and right forward edge of Area F to the left and right rear edge
of the installation impact area, respectively, that are parallel to the left and right azimuth limits
(see figure 2-48).
z
Step 2. The exclusion area is that area of the SDZ flight corridor within a specified distance of
the downrange edge of the firing area. It is endangered by failure of the rocket motor during the
boost phase (see figure 2-48).
2-143. Construct exclusion area I.
z
Step 2a. Construct an arc, centered on the firing point, with a radius derived from table 2-17,
page 2-47 (based on the level of accepted risk for Exclusion Area I). The area between the arc
and the firing point is Exclusion Area I (see figure 2-48).
Note. A 1:1,000 or 1:10,000 short round probability is used when calculating risk under waiver
in accordance with AR 385-63/MCO P3570 and DA Pam 385-63.
2-144. Construct exclusion area II.
z
Step 2b. The area between the arc of exclusion area I and the forward edge of the SDZ impact
area is exclusion area II for the M28A1/A2 training rocket (reduced range) (see figure 2-48).
31 July 2006
FM 3-09.8
2-79
Chapter 2
Figure 2-48. Flight corridor
Note. Exclusion area II can only be occupied under waiver in accordance with the TRADOC
safety letters. Exclusion area I cannot be occupied.
FIRING POINT METHOD OF COMPUTING SAFETY
2-145. The firing point method allows the unit to derive a Safety T for a single firing point (firing into a
target area).
Phase I Firing Point Method
2-146. Apply the SDZ Requirements to the installation impact area.
Note. The difference between the firing point method of computing safety and the point-to-point
method of computing safety is that, with the firing point method, a larger target selection box
allows the launcher to fire at different targets, whereas the point-to-point method allows firing at
one target within a much smaller target box.
Note. If you have been issued a range safety card from your range control office that takes into
account the MLRS SDZ requirements referenced in the TRADOC safety letters, proceed to
step 1 of phase II. Normally, the OIC receives this with the range card from range control.
z
2-80
Step 1. Plot and draw the installation impact area on a map or overlay. If the existing installation
impact area to be used for MLRS firing is not a square or rectangle, the unit must draw a square
or rectangle inside the existing impact area. One side of the square or rectangle must be
perpendicular to the AOF from the firing point to the geographic center of the usable portion of
FM 3-09.8
31 July 2006
Safety
z
z
the impact area. The procedures in step 4 are only valid when applied to a square or rectangular
impact area.
Step 1a. Index the geographic center of the usable portion of the installation impact area (target)
(see figure 2-49).
Step 2. Index the firing point (see figure 2-49).
Figure 2-49. Example of an impact area
z
z
Step 3. Draw a line connecting the two indices from steps 1a and 2 (see figure 2-49).
Step 4. Using the appropriate munition-specific table (table 2-18, page 2-54 ), derive and apply
the appropriate values of Wmax, Xmax, and Ymax to the edges of the usable portion of the
installation impact area (toward target). The entry value for Wmax is the range from the FP to
the target. The entry value for Xmax is the range from the FP to the target. The entry value for
Ymax is the range from the FP to the target. This is the SDZ impact area (see figure 2-49).
Phase II Firing Point Method
2-147. Determine the initial left and right azimuth limits.
z
Step 1. Draw lines from the firing point to the right and left edges of the SDZ impact area,
which will keep all rounds within the SDZ impact area. Draw the left line from the firing point
to the upper left-hand corner of the SDZ impact area. Repeat this process by drawing a line from
the firing point to the upper right-hand corner of the SDZ impact area. This will be your initial
left and right limit. These limits will be further refined in step 2. You must also apply any
azimuth restrictions imposed by range control for the firing area (see figure 2-50, page 2-98).
2-148. Derive the minimum and maximum values for QE.
Note. Range control may or may not provide a range safety card with the minimum and
maximum ranges identified. If minimum and maximum range is supplied, you must use those
values.
z
31 July 2006
Step 2. Determine the minimum range at which an arc can be scribed between the left and right
azimuth limits and lie completely within the SDZ impact area. Draw a line on the arc between
FM 3-09.8
2-81
Chapter 2
z
the left and right azimuth limits (see figure 2-50). This line shows the minimum range limit of
the target selection box/target area. The target selection box and target area are the same area
when using the firing point method of safety computation. You must also observe any additional
range restrictions imposed by the range safety office. (For our example, installation range safety
office limitations of 8,000 and 13,000 meters were applied.)
Step 3. Determine the maximum range at which an arc can be scribed between the left and right
azimuth limits and lie completely within the SDZ impact area. Draw a line on the arc between
the left and right azimuth limits (see figure 2-50). This line shows the maximum range limit of
the target selection box/target area. The target selection box and target area are the same area
when using the firing point method of safety computation. You must also observe any additional
munition-specific limitations or range restrictions imposed by the range safety office.
Figure 2-50. Example of azimuth limits
2-149.
Determine the safe firing data and compute the Safety T.
Note. When using SDC, you are not required to use the check launchers. All other safety
procedures and requirements outlined in this chapter and local range regulation still apply.
Note. The check launchers can be used as the firing launchers after completing the Safety T and
purging all databases.
2-82
FM 3-09.8
31 July 2006
Safety
Figure 2-51. Example of fire missions for Safety T
Step 4. Using the current MET message, compute the Safety T using two check launchers at a
minimum. Check launchers will conduct two dry-fire missions each and determine firing data
from the specified firing point to the lower left-hand corner and upper right-hand corner of the
target selection box. The target selection box and target area are the same area when using the
firing point method of safety computation (see figure 2-51).
Fire mission 1. From the specified firing point to the lower left-hand corner of the target
selection box/target area. Apply the maximum altitude at minimum range. This yields the left
azimuth limit and minimum QE.
Fire mission 2. From the specified firing point to the upper right-hand corner of the target
selection box/target area. Apply the minimum altitude to the maximum range. This yields the
right azimuth limit and the maximum QE.
z
z
z
2-150. The check launchers with current MET will report their actual and command check data to the
FDC. The FDC will compare the command data between the two check launchers to ensure that they agree
within ±5 mils in azimuth and QE. (Range control may impose stricter tolerances.) The FDC will use the
more restrictive command data. Regardless of method used, the FDC must incorporate the applicable range
regulation tolerances for your specific installation.
2-151. SDC-generated Safety T data will be verified by one of two methods:
z
In the first method, a safety-certified individual inputs SDC data, which is verified by a second
safety-certified individual. This process is performed twice (the second time with a different
safety-certified SDC operator) and both sets of Safety T data compared. The data on these
Safety Ts must be exactly the same.
z
In the second method, a safety-certified individual inputs SDC data, which is verified by a second
safety-certified individual and by a check launcher performing the required check missions and
command data within ±5 mils in AZ and QE and 0.5 seconds fuze time.
2-152. The FDC must ensure that the maximum altitude/elevation data is used at minimum range and that
the minimum altitude/elevation is used at maximum range when computing safety data (mini-max rule).
However, the actual launcher/firing point altitude/elevation and actual target location elevation/altitude
MUST be used during the live-fire regardless of method used to properly account for vertical interval.
31 July 2006
FM 3-09.8
2-83
Chapter 2
2-153. This completes the Safety T for the firing point method (see figure 2-52).
Figure 2-52. Example of a Safety T
Phase III Firing Point Method
2-154. Complete the launcher danger areas.
z
Step 1. Area F (launcher danger area) is the area immediately to the rear of the launcher that is
directly exposed to blast and debris. It extends 350 meters to the left and right of the launcher
firing point (perpendicular to the AOF) and 400 meters to the rear of the firing point (parallel to
the AOF). Personnel are prohibited from occupying this area (see figure 2-53).
z
Step 2. The NHA extends behind area F. Only mission-essential personnel wearing double
hearing protection can occupy this area. Draw a box that extends beyond area F an additional
300 meters for M28A1/A2 to the rear of the firing point (see figure 2-53).
z
Step 3. The exclusion area is that area of the SDZ flight corridor within a specified distance of
the downrange edge of the firing area. It is endangered by failure of the rocket motor during the
boost phase (see figure 2-53).
2-84
FM 3-09.8
31 July 2006
Safety
Figure 2-53. Example of M28A1/A2 exclusion areas
2-155. Construct exclusion Area I.
z
Step 3a. Construct an arc, centered on the firing point, with a radius derived from table 2-19,
page 2-64 (based on the level of accepted risk for exclusion area I). The area between the arc
and the firing point is exclusion area I (see figure 2-53).
Note. A 1:1,000 or 1:10,000 short round probability is used when calculating risk under waiver
per the TRADOC safety letters.
2-156. Construct exclusion area II.
z
Step 3b. The area between the arc of exclusion area I and the forward edge of the SDZ impact
area is exclusion area II for the M28A1/A2 training rocket (reduced range).
Note. Exclusion area II can only be occupied under waiver per TRADOC safety letters.
Exclusion area I cannot be occupied.
SECTION VII – CHECK DATA FOR M270A1/ACTD HIMARS/M142
HIMARS/IPDS/M270
Note. When using SDC, you are not required to use check launchers. SDC alleviates the need
for check launchers; all other safety procedures and requirements outlined in this chapter and
local range regulations still apply.
2-157. Check data is the process of developing and verifying firing data by using a minimum of two
check launchers to determine the most accurate data possible to ensure safe live-fire exercises. This section
contains procedures for the safe operation of the M270A1, ACTD HIMARS, M142 HIMARS, IPDS, and
M270. See example live-fire safety checklists and check data checklists, pages 2-88 and 2-91.
31 July 2006
FM 3-09.8
2-85
Chapter 2
Note. The term “ACTD HIMARS” refers to the prototype variant that currently uses the IPDS
FCS. All other HIMARS launchers are the M142 HIMARS.
2-158. There are three methods used to develop a Safety T (OPAREA, point-to-point, and firing point).
Each of these methods requires two check launchers at a minimum to develop a Safety T. The check
launchers will determine firing data for the required number of fire missions based on the method selected.
Check launchers will report their actual and command data to the FDC. The FDC will apply the applicable
range regulation tolerances specific to your installation and use the more restrictive command data.
2-159. The FDC must ensure that the maximum altitude/elevation data is used at minimum range and that
the minimum altitude/elevation is used at maximum range when computing safety data (mini-max rule).
However, the actual launcher/firing point altitude/elevation and actual target location elevation/altitude
MUST be used during the live-fire regardless of method used to properly account for vertical interval.
Note. The check launchers can be used as the firing launchers after completing the Safety T
and purging all databases.
M270A1, ACTD HIMARS, M142 HIMARS, AND IPDS
2-160. The following material covers M270A1-, ACTD HIMARS-, M142 HIMARS-, and IPDS-unique
operational functions relating to check data. The introduction of GPS as a source of navigation presents
new operational factors that must be addressed. The following procedures incorporate the new operational
factors and MUST be followed when using the M270A1, M142 HIMARS, ACTD HIMARS, and IPDS
launcher for check data:
z
The database must be purged of any previous fire mission or MET data.
z
The section chief will verify FCS resolver readouts and ensure that they are within the correct
tolerances (at stow).
Note. IPDS and ACTD HIMARS azimuth resolver ±1.8, elevation resolver ±2.0, M270A1
azimuth resolver ±2.0, elevation resolver ±2.0. M142 HIMARS azimuth resolver ±1.3 mils,
elevation resolver ±1.0. All launchers must be parked within ±100 mils of the FCS-command
parking heading and less than 89 mils slope (M270A1, M270, and IPDS can fire up to a 266mils slope). Check launchers and firing launchers will use the same current MET.
z
z
z
Check data can be computed from the firing point or an alternate location with the M270A1, and
M142 HIMARS. IPDS and ACTD HIMARS must occupy the FP.
Valid weekly GPS keys will be used and the chief will verify that the launcher is operating in
the GPS-aided mode (keys loaded and verified).
If it is not possible to operate in the GPS-aided mode prior to moving to the firing point to
develop firing data, the launcher must perform a system parameter update on a verified SCP and
ensure that the launcher performed a ZUPT.
Note. The M270A1 and M142 HIMARS launchers will not accept a position update while in
the GPS-aided mode. ACTD HIMARS and IPDS will ignore a position update once the vehicle
is moved.
z
z
2-86
A digital or manual fire mission requires the chief and gunner to verify that the launcher’s
ballistic solution is computed by either occupying the firing point or by using the assigned firing
point location.
A manual fire mission requires the chief or gunner to read back all data to the FDC. If check
launchers are not using the ballistic solution function, they must occupy the mission firing point
FM 3-09.8
31 July 2006
Safety
and lay their LM on target and report the actual and command data to the FDC. This ensures that
the FCS performs a complete computation of the fire mission (displaying CMD and actual data)
using all external factors, thereby providing the most accurate data possible.
Note. M270A1, ACTD HIMARS, M142 HIMARS, and IPDS launchers do not require
calibration.
WARNING
Standard MET WILL NOT be used to develop check data.
Note. Check launchers WILL use the command data (not actual data) in developing Safety T
data.
Note. The check launchers can be used as the firing launchers after completing the Safety T and
purging all databases.
M270
2-161. The following action/procedures must be followed when using the M270 launcher for check data:
z
The database must be purged of any previous fire mission, firing points, and MET data.
z
The section chief will verify FCS resolver readouts and ensure that they are within the correct
tolerances (±1.8 mils azimuth, ±2.0 mils QE).
z
All launchers must be parked within ±100 mils of the FCS-command parking heading and less
than 89 mils slope recommended (M270 can fire up to a 266-mils slope).
z
Check launchers and firing launchers will use the same current MET.
z
Check launcher must complete a successful calibration; the launcher chief records odometer
scale factor, azimuth crab angle, and elevation crab angle. Launcher must perform a PDS update
on a verified SCP before moving to the firing point.
Note. SRP realignment should be conducted at this time. It must not expire during check data
missions.
z
z
z
A digital or manual fire mission requires the chief and gunner to verify that the launcher is
occupying the assigned firing point.
A manual fire mission requires the chief or gunner to read back all data to the FDC and verify
that the launcher is occupying the assigned firing point.
When aiming the LM on target to compute a firing solution, launchers must wait for the LM to
finish aiming before using the CMD data. Laying on target is not necessary when using the
Preview FM Data option to acquire CMD data. The Preview FM Data option only displays
CMD data; to obtain the firing solution (actual data), the LM must be laid.
Note. Check launchers WILL use the command data (not actual data) in developing Safety T
data.
31 July 2006
FM 3-09.8
2-87
Chapter 2
WARNING
Standard MET WILL NOT be used to develop check data.
Note. The check launchers can be used as the firing launchers after completing the Safety T and
purging all databases.
EXAMPLE OF A
LAUNCHER LIVE-FIRE SAFETY CHECKLIST
BEFORE FIRING
1.
Launcher completes calibration; launcher chief records odometer scale factor, azimuth
crab angle, and elevation crab angle.
Note. IPDS, ACTD HIMARS, M142 HIMARS, M270A1 launchers do not require calibration.
2.
3.
4.
5.
6.
Launcher crews receive a prefire safety briefing from the FDC/OIC.
FDC/OIC reviews the Safety T with the launcher chiefs.
Section chief conducts a prefire safety briefing with his crew and reviews the Safety T.
Section chief verifies that the correct option is selected for Hang Fire “STOP,” Misfire
“STOP,” Use LP/C 2 on Rocket Malfunction, “NO.” Section chief reviews hang fire and
misfire procedures according to SOP.
Chief verifies resolvers (at stow).
Note.M270, IPDS, HIMARS azimuth resolver ±1.8, elevation resolver ±2.0, M270A1 azimuth resolver ±2,
elevation resolver ±2. M142 HIMARS azimuth resolver ±3 mils, elevation resolver ±3.0 mils.
7.
Chief will verify that no immediate mask is present at the FP. If mask is present, it will
be measured and reported to the FDC for input.
Note.High QE will be selected by launchers during start-up procedures.
LAUNCHER CHECKLIST
8.
9.
10.
Chief inspects ammunition (dents, cracks, gouges, shorting plug) before performing
loading and records lot/SN.
Launcher chief ensures that the gunner purges all previous MET and FMs from the FCS
database.
The launcher moves to the SCP and updates (M270). If GPS is not available for the
M270A1, ACTD HIMARS, M142 HIMARS, IPDS, the launcher must perform a system
parameter update.
Note. If firing from a GPS-aided launcher, SCP updates are not required.
11.
12.
13.
Chief sends a “LCHR STATUS” to the FDC.
Launcher receives current MET from the FDC.
If manual MET is used, section chief will verify MET by reading back to the FDC.
Notes. Recommend that a few lines of MET be read back to the FDC even if it was sent digitally.
The range safety officer will verify all start-up data to include verification of current MET in use.
14.
15.
16.
17.
18.
2-88
Chief verifies that gunner performs rocket select (if required) before launcher receiving
the fire mission from the FDC.
Gunner transmits digital “WILL COMPLY” to the FDC.
Chief and gunner review and record the fire mission.
Launcher moves to the firing point.
Launcher is parked on firing point (distance from FP marker based on range control
limits) or within the OPAREA.
FM 3-09.8
31 July 2006
Safety
EXAMPLE OF A
LAUNCHER LIVE-FIRE SAFETY CHECKLIST
19.
20.
21.
22.
23.
24.
Launcher is parked within ±100 mils (or within range control limits if less) of the parking
heading.
Gunner lays the LM.
Chief visually verifies that the LM is oriented downrange (towards the AOF).
Chief ensures that the TC hatch and doors are closed, vent fan switch is set to MED,
firing damper is set to the firing position, and cab pressure gauge reads 0.25 inches of
water.
Chief and gunner verify that the actual data falls within the Safety T.
Chief directs gunner to arm and fire. Chief reports “SHOT” to the controlling FDC.
Note. During multiple firings, chief and gunner must ensure that the firing data stays within the Safety T. If the
firing data blanks out during firing, a check fire must be initiated (safe rockets) and the FDC notified.
AFTER FIRING
25.
26.
Chief reports “ROUNDS COMPLETE” to the FDC.
Chief verifies that no tube or grass fires exist.
Note. The LM is not to be stowed until all rounds are declared safe by the OIC.
27.
28.
FDC announces that all rounds were observed safe and instructs the launcher to stow
his LM.
Launcher stows and moves off the firing point.
EXAMPLE OF AN
OIC/FDC LIVE-FIRE SAFETY CHECKLIST
BEFORE FIRING
1.
2.
Ensure that the target is entered into the C2 system and verified by map spot.
Ensure that the start-up and calibration SCP grids are verified by survey.
Note. IPDS, ACTD HIMARS, M142 HIMARS, M270A1 launchers do not require calibration.
Note. When using SDC, you are not required to usecheck launchers. SDC alleviates the need for check
launchers; all other safety procedures and requirements outlined in this chapter and local range regulations
still apply.
3.
4.
Ensure that the surface danger zone computation and safety diagram are posted and
verified by the OIC.
Ensure MET validity.
Note. Up to 4-hour-old MET message may be used except during day/night transitions or frontal passages.
See FM 6-60 or FM 6-15 for more information on MET checking procedures.
5.
6.
7.
8.
9.
10.
11.
31 July 2006
Ensure that at least two launchers have dry-fired each check mission one time each
and that their firing solutions meet range-specific check tolerances. If SDC is used to
develop the Safety T, ensure that two safety-certified individuals verify all data input.
Ensure that launcher chief has verified that no immediate mask is present at the FP. If
mask is present, it will be measured and reported to the FDC for input.
FDC conducts downrange mask checks and inputs data if required.
FDC computes the data for each Safety T. On the Safety T, he will annotate the firing
point/OPAREA they apply to, the time the MET data was flown and the date it was
prepared, and the munitions in use. SDC automatically annotates this data on the
Safety T.
The FDC and the OIC/NCOIC verify the Safety T data.
OIC conducts a prefire safety briefing with the launcher chiefs.
Road guards are briefed and posted (if applicable).
FM 3-09.8
2-89
Chapter 2
EXAMPLE OF AN
OIC/FDC LIVE-FIRE SAFETY CHECKLIST
12.
13.
14.
15.
16.
17.
Observers have received necessary training, are briefed, have the required items, and
are posted.
FDC verifies that the range is clear, radar is set (if applicable), and observers are
oriented to observe the rockets.
Communication is established and maintained between the OIC, FDC, firing launcher,
observers, radar (if applicable), and road guards (if applicable). If at any time
communication is lost between any of these elements, all firing will be halted.
FDC contacts range control for a wet check-in code.
FDC receives a launcher status.
FDC transmits MET to launcher. If MET is manually entered, it will be read back to FDC
and verified.
Note. Recommend that a few lines of MET be read back to the FDC even if it was sent digitally.
Note. The same MET that was used to compute the Safety T must be sent to launcher for the live-fire mission.
18.
19.
20.
21.
OIC/FDC ensures that radar is set (if applicable), observers are ready, exclusion area I
is clear of personnel, and the roads are blocked (if applicable).
FDC transmits fire mission.
LCHR moves to the firing point, parks on the heading, and lays the LM.
FDC and OIC (FDC) ensure receipt of “Advanced Ready,” and verify the data is safe.
Note.The OIC will ensure that a DA Form 7232-R (MLRS FDC Fire Mission Log) is maintained in the FDC.
Note. If steps 1-21 are completed and verified, the launcher is prepared to fire.
DURING FIRING
22.
23.
24.
25.
26.
FDC sends the fire command.
Ensure that the chief reports “SHOT” to the controlling FDC.
Road guards remain in place (if applicable).
Communication is maintained.
All rockets launched safe; ensure that the chief reports “ROUNDS COMPLETE” to the
FDC.
Note. The LM is not to be stowed until all rounds are declared safe by the OIC.
AFTER FIRING
27.
28.
29.
30.
31.
2-90
Ensure that the FDC receives the MFR.
Observers and/or radar (if applicable) report rounds observed safe.
FDC announces that all rounds were observed safe, then instructs the launcher to stow
the LM.
Launcher stows and moves off the firing point.
FDC/FDNCO prints out all data for the fire mission.
FM 3-09.8
31 July 2006
Safety
EXAMPLE OF A
LAUNCHER CHECK DATA CHECKLIST
BEFORE COMPUTING CHECK DATA
1.
Launcher completes calibration; launcher chief records odometer scale factor, azimuth
crab angle, and elevation crab angle.
Note. IPDS, ACTD HIMARS, M142 HIMARS, M270A1 launchers do not require calibration.
2.
3.
4.
5.
Launcher crews receive a check data briefing from the FDC/OIC.
Chief conducts a check data briefing with his crew.
Section chief verifies that the correct option is selected for Hang Fire “STOP,” Misfire
“STOP,” Use LP/C 2 on Rocket Malfunction, “NO.” Section chief reviews hang fire and
misfire procedures per SOP.
Chief verifies resolvers (at stow).
Note. M270, ACTD HIMARS, IPDS azimuth resolver ±1.8, elevation resolver ±2.0; M270A1 azimuth resolver
±2.0, elevation resolver ±2.0. M142 HIMARS azimuth resolver ±3 mils, elevation resolver ±3.0 mils.
6.
If mask is present at the FP, it will be measured and reported to the FDC for input.
Note. High QE will be selected by launchers during start-up procedures.
LAUNCHER CHECKLIST
7.
8.
Chief ensures that the gunner purges previous MET, fire missions, and firing points
from the FCS database.
For M270 launchers, update its current location with the FP data given to develop the
Safety T.
Note. Not required for M270A1 or M142 HIMARS in the GPS-aided mode; IPDS/ACTD HIMARS must occupy
the actual FP.
9.
10.
11.
Chief sends a “LCHR STATUS” to the FDC.
Launcher receives current MET from the FDC.
If manual MET is used, section chief will verify MET by reading back to the FDC.
Note. Recommend that a few lines of MET be read back to the FDC even if it was sent digital.
Note. The range safety officer will verify all start-up data to include verification of current MET in use.
12.
13.
14.
15.
16.
17.
18.
19.
Launcher receives fire mission.
Gunner transmits digital “WILL COMPLY” to the FDC.
Chief and gunner review and record the fire mission.
Launcher moves to the firing point (required for ACTD HIMARS/IPDS; optional for M142
HIMARS/M270A1/M270) and selects a routine that computes command data without
aiming the LM.
Launcher is parked on firing point (distance from FP marker based on range control
limits) or within the OPAREA (required for ACTD HIMARS/IPDS; optional for
M270A1/M270/ M142 HIMARS).
All launchers are parked within ±100 mils (or within range control limits if less) of the
parking heading.
Gunner lays the LM (required for ACTD HIMARS/IPDS; optional for
M270A1/M270/M142 HIMARS).
Chief visually verifies that the LM is oriented downrange toward the AOF.
Note. The section chief will ensure that AZ, QE, and fuze time and other pertinent data are recorded on DA
Form 7233-R (MLRS Launcher Fire Mission Log) before rocket launch.
20.
31 July 2006
Chief reads CMD data to the FDC.
FM 3-09.8
2-91
Chapter 2
EXAMPLE OF A
CHECK DATA CHECKLIST USING LAUNCHERS
(OIC/FDC Check Data Checklist)
SAFETY T DEVELOPMENT
1.
2.
Ensure that the target is entered into the C2 system and verified by map spot.
Ensure that the start-up and calibration SCP grids are verified by survey.
Note. IPDS, ACTD HIMARS, M142 HIMARS, M270A1 launchers do not require calibration.
3.
Ensure MET validity.
Note. Up to 4-hour-old MET message may be used except during day/night transitions or frontal passages.
See FM 6-60 or FM 6-15 for more information on MET checking procedures.
4.
5.
6.
7.
8.
9.
Ensure that at least two launchers have dry-fired each check mission one time each
and that their firing solutions meet range-specific check tolerances.
Ensure that the launcher chief has verified that no immediate mask is present at the FP.
If a mask is present, it will be measured and reported to the FDC for input.
FDC conducts downrange mask checks and inputs data if required.
FDC contacts range control for a wet check-in code.
FDC receives a launcher status.
FDC transmits MET to launcher. If MET is manually entered, it will be read back to FDC
and verified.
Note. Recommend that a few lines of MET be read back to the FDC even if it was sent digitally.
Note. The same MET that was used to compute the Safety T must be sent to launcher for the live-fire mission.
10.
11.
12.
13.
14.
15.
2-92
FDC transmits fire mission.
Ensure that LCHR moves to the firing point, parks on the heading, and lays the LM.
(Required for ACTD HIMARS/IPDS; optional for M142 HIMARS/M270A1/M270.)
Chief reads back CMD data to the FDC.
FDC computes the data for each Safety T. The Safety T will include the firing
point/OPAREA they apply to, the time the MET data was flown and the date it was
prepared, and the munition in use.
Safety T data is verified by the FDC and the OIC/NCOIC.
Check data launchers are ordered to purge their databases and ensure that no previous
FMs, FPs, or MET exists in the FCS. This is required only if the launcher will be a livefire launcher.
FM 3-09.8
31 July 2006
Safety
EXAMPLE OF A
SDC CHECK DATA CHECKLIST
(OIC/FDC Check Data Checklist)
SAFETY T DEVELOPMENT
1.
2.
Ensure that the target is entered into the C2 system and verified by map spot.
Ensure that the start-up and calibration SCP grids are verified by survey.
Note. IPDS, M142 HIMARS, M270A1, ACTD HIMARS launchers do not require calibration.
3.
Ensure MET validity.
Note. Up to 4-hour-old MET message may be used except during day/night transitions or frontal passages.
See FM 6-60 or FM 6-15 for more information on MET checking procedures.
4.
5.
6.
7.
Develop and plot the SDZ requirements on a map or overlay. Identify the geographical
location of the target box or target selection boxes whichever is applicable. Range
control may or may not provide these locations.
Ensure that at least two safety-certified individuals verify all data input into the SDC.
FDC computes the data for each Safety T. The Safety T will include the firing
point/OPAREA they apply to, the time the MET data was received and the date it was
prepared, and the munitions in use.
Safety T data is verified by the FDC and the OIC/NCOIC.
FDC contacts range control for a wet check-in code.
Note. The firing launcher must use the same valid MET that was used in computing the Safety T. Safety Ts
will be updated upon receipt of new MET.
31 July 2006
FM 3-09.8
2-93
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Chapter 3
Fire Support Tables
This chapter provides commanders, fire support officers (FSOs) and FSNCOs a
standardized method of training and qualifying the fire support teams (FISTs)
assigned to their organizations. The chapter includes training and qualification
standards for all FISTs, Combat Observation and Lasing teams, Knight teams, and
Stryker fire support (FS) teams.
INTRODUCTION
3-1. The training and qualification of Observer teams (FIST, COLT, and Knight), as well as the joint
teams such as enlisted tactical air control (ETAC) teams and Naval surface fire support teams, share many
common tasks. Both Observer teams and joint teams must be proficient at observed fire procedures, tactical
movement, and force protection. They also must be able to communicate with the supported delivery
means or fire control element (FCE) and be familiar with doctrine and requirements of the supported force.
However, many critical differences related to the mission and equipment of each element must also be
addressed. These differences will be addressed in both the ASPT and the fire support qualification tables.
Table 3-1 is a summary of the content of the fire support qualification tables and the elements trained.
Table 3-1. Summary of tasks and tables for FS elements
Table
FIST
(LIGHT)
Artillery Skills Proficiency Test
BFIST
COLT
KNIGHT
BFIST
BFIST/
HMWVV
HMWVV
RWS
RWS
X
X
a. Vehicle skills proficiency
b. Mission equipment package
proficiency
c.
X
X
X
X
d. Dismounted land navigation
Mounted land navigation
X
X
X
X
e. Prepare laser range finder/ designator
for operation dismounted mode
X
X
X
X
f.
X
X
X
X
g. Terrain sketch
X
X
X
X
h. Combat vehicle identification (ROC-V)
Operate SINCGARS ICOM
X
X
X
X
Table I (Individual) Common to All
X
X
X
X
Table II (Section)
X
X
X
X
Table III (Occupation of Observation Posts)
X
X
X
X
Table IV (Standard Missions)
X
X
X
X
Table V (Special Missions)
X
X
X
X
Table VI (Lethal and Nonlethal Fires and
Effects Planning) -To be Published in
Subsequent FM Revision
X
X
X
X
Table VII (Training)
X
X
X
X
31 July 2006
FM 3-09.8
3-1
Chapter 3
Table 3-1. Summary of tasks and tables for FS elements
Table
FIST
(LIGHT)
Table VIII A (Qualification on Direct Fire
System/BFIST Direct/Indirect Fires) Day
BFIST
COLT
KNIGHT
Bradley
Tables IVIII
Bradley
Tables or
RWS
Qual
HMWVV/
RWS
Table
Table VIII.B (BFIST Direct/Indirect Fires)
(Night)
X
X
X
Table VIII.C (Qualification Live Fire)
X
X
X
X
TARGET LOCATION
3-2. The observer provides the accurate location and size of the target for the gunnery solution, one of the
five critical elements for accurate predictive fires. To accomplish that task, the observer must be proficient
at map reading and land navigation and know the location at all times. He must be proficient on the
equipment assigned that assists with target location and designation and must be able to communicate with
the delivery unit or means.
COMPANY FSO RESPONSIBILITIES
3-3. In addition to executing essential fire support tasks/essential field artillery tasks (EFST/EFAT), the
ESO is the maneuver commander’s principal advisor in all matters pertaining to indirect fires and effects.
The ESO must be well grounded in maneuver doctrine and be able to recommend the appropriate fire
support means to support the commander’s intent as well as the recommended FSCM to prevent fratricide.
FORCE PROTECTION
3-4. The FIST/COLT/Knight must be proficient in all force protection tasks, including qualification on
assigned direct fire systems, selection and occupation of OPs, tactical movement techniques, basic rifle
marksmanship, and CBRN protective measures and the standard battle tasks of the supported unit.
TRAINING WITH FIRE SUPPORT TABLES
3-5. The fire support tables provide a progressive, gated approach to training to assist commanders in the
assessment of training and horizontal integration of training across the combined arms team. Using these
tables assures the commander of the supported Bradley-equipped infantry company that the BFIST can be
integrated into combat formations and can direct fire battles while maintaining the capability to
simultaneously deliver indirect fires as required.
3-6. The tables also provide the means for Crawl, Walk, Run (C, W, R) training for the FIST leaders to
use during Sergeant’s Time training, as refresher training, or as a prelude to evaluating training. The
content of the ASPT and Tables I-V provide the individual and collective tasks to support the routine
training of FISTs.
SECTION I. ARTILLERY SKILLS PROFICIENCY TEST FOR FIRE SUPPORT
3-7. The ASPT evaluates the FIST/COLT/Knight member’s ability to execute selected FS-related skills.
The tasks listed in this chapter provide the unit commander a means to evaluate the fire support team
member’s basic proficiency before live-fire exercises. The ASPT can also be used as a guide for
identifying team strengths and weaknesses. The commander, master gunner, and senior FSO should use
ASPT results when structuring the unit’s annual gunnery training program.
3-2
FM 3-09.8
31 July 2006
Fire Support Tables
REQUIREMENTS
3-8. All MOS 13F personnel and any personnel assigned to a FIST/COLT/Knight (regardless of MOS or
grade) will be assessed in the ASPT. FS personnel are required to pass the ASPT prior to FISTs
qualification. To pass the ASPT, an observer must receive a GO on all stations. If an observer fails a task,
he must be retrained and retested on that station until he receives a GO. Appropriate manuals and other
references listed for each station must be used to prepare, administer, and evaluate the ASPT.
Note.: Evaluators must have passed the ASPT within 6 months before the testing.
SAFETY PRECAUTIONS
3-9. The commander will incorporate risk assessment in planning all aspects of this training. The unit will
conduct a safety briefing for each station in accordance with the unit SOP.
EVALUATION PROCEDURES
Administrative Process
3-10. Before the Soldiers arrive, the evaluator sets up the equipment and materials needed at each test
station. When the Soldiers arrive, the evaluator logs the Soldiers in on a roster at each station and provides
each Soldier with all materials and equipment displayed, as outlined on this section and in the Test
Administrative Guide for that station. The evaluator reads the instructions to the Soldier exactly as written
in the guide for each station. The evaluator must use the criterion-scoring checklist provided for each task
to evaluate each Soldier’s performance. As each Soldier finishes or the time limit is up (whichever occurs
first), the evaluator checks the Soldier’s performance as either GO or NO-GO, informs him of his
performance on that task and directs him either to the next station or to further training.
Administrative Procedures for Soldiers Receiving a NO-GO
3-11. If a Soldier does not meet the standard indicated on the criterion-scoring checklist, he receives a NOGO. The Soldier must then be critiqued on that task, given an explanation of his mistakes, and told what to
do to correct them. Soldiers will be retrained and retested in accordance with the local SOP.
Evaluation Criteria
3-12. See attached criterion-scoring checklist for each task provided in the test station administrative
guidance.
PERSONNEL, EQUIPMENT, AND MATERIAL REQUIRED
3-13. The personnel, equipment, and material in the following list should be considered for all stations but
their use depends on the task to be trained. Additional items, if required, are listed in the Test
Administrative Guide for each particular station:
z
Primary evaluator (SSG or above) in charge of administering the test (he may also occupy a test
station).
z
Station evaluator, SGT or above (one per test station).
z
Classroom or training area.
z
Stopwatch (one per evaluator).
z
Criterion-scoring checklist (one per Soldier).
z
Desk and chair or clipboard (one per Soldier).
z
Pencils (one per Soldier).
z
FM 3-09.8 (one per station).
31 July 2006
FM 3-09.8
3-3
Chapter 3
z
z
Lensatic compass.
Binoculars.
PLANNING CONSIDERATIONS
3-14. The evaluator tasked to conduct the ASPT should consider the following elements during his
planning:
Identify the Type of ASPT
3-15. The Evaluator must determine whether the ASPT will be a diagnostic test or record test. A
“diagnostic” ASPT identifies the unit’s strengths and weaknesses, provides information for the gunnery
program, and assesses newly assigned personnel. A “record” ASPT allows commanders to certify
proficiency of Soldiers to meet artillery table prerequisites.
Determine the Test Site
3-16. Establish a test site that will support the testing of all stations; for example, Station 7, Conduct a
Terrain Sketch, requires a clear view of surrounding terrain at ranges representing those of an OP. Refer to
the station conditions for each station to determine what is needed for that station.
Construct a Test Station Diagram (Flow Chart)
3-17. Before rehearsing the test, create a test station diagram or flow chart. This diagram will facilitate
management and control of the test. It will also aid in briefing Soldiers and evaluators. The diagram should
include the following elements: test stations, control station, direction of rotation, movement schedule, and
aid station/warm-up tent, if available.
Determine Resources
3-18. The evaluator must determine the resources necessary to support the ASPT. He must consider the
support of the test site, as well as the training aids required to conduct the test to standard. The evaluator
can determine training aids or actual equipment, such as a desktop computer, for ROC-V, BFIST, and laser
range finders (LRFs) by referring to the individual station in this and following chapters. To support the
test site, the NCOIC must determine the amount of support needed to conduct the test; for example, BFIST
with drivers, transportation to and from the test site, tents for warm-up briefings, stopwatches, tables for
scoring, chairs, medical support, and class I support if needed. Once the NCOIC has determined the
resources needed, he must coordinate the use of personnel and equipment. This coordination will usually
be made through the master gunner or battalion S3.
Select Evaluators
3-19. Evaluators should be selected as far in advance as possible. This gives the NCOIC time to select the
most qualified personnel available and time to coordinate with other units, if necessary; it also allows the
evaluator time to prepare. If the FSO/FSNCO must draw on resources from outside his unit, he should
request assistance from the master gunner. After the evaluators have been selected, the FSNCO will brief
them on their duties and responsibilities, the test schedule and location, and the station they will be testing.
Test Evaluators
3-20. Evaluators must be technically proficient in performing all tasks to standard. Each evaluator is tested
on all test stations.
Conduct a Rehearsal
3-21. Because of the size and scope of this test, it must be rehearsed before it is administered. This
rehearsal will be conducted at the test site with all evaluators present. The FSNCO should check each
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station to ensure that the evaluator is aware of his duties and responsibilities, the station is set up correctly
with all training aids and test materials on hand, and testing is conducted in accordance with the Test
Administrative Guides.
Conduct the ASPT
3-22. Before the testing, the FSNCO must ensure that the stations are set up and all equipment and training
aids are available. He must also ensure that the Soldiers are briefed on safety and the station locations and
that the Soldiers are assigned to the test stations. During testing, the FSNCO will spot-check each station to
ensure the task standards are being maintained and the evaluators are maintaining a roster of personnel
evaluating and annotating the scorecards correctly.
Conduct the AAR for the ASPT
3-23. The battalion master gunner or CSM should conduct an AAR to help the FSNCO understand his
actions and interactions during the conduct of the ASPT. The AAR should be conducted before the unit
commander’s debrief and should consist of a discussion of the strengths and weaknesses of the training
event. This will allow the FSNCO to better prepare the commander’s debrief as well as prepare him for the
next ASPT.
Prepare Debrief
3-24. Once the test is complete, the FSNCO will prepare a brief for the commander informing him of the
ASPT results. (This information will also be retained for training records.) As soon as the Soldiers
complete the training and before anyone leaves the test site, the Soldiers’ scorecards will be collected. The
evaluators can provide additional information about a Soldier’s test performance. After all data is collected,
they prepare a summarization of the results. Information from test results must be interpreted to determine
the strengths and weaknesses of the unit. At a minimum, this report will contain the following data:
z
A roster, by duty position, of each Soldier tested.
z
The scores of each Soldier tested.
z
The percentage of Soldiers passing the ASPT.
z
The percentage of GOs per station.
z
The percentage of NO-GOs per station.
z
Recommended corrective action.
TEST STATIONS
3-25. Each station consists of a Test Administrative Guide and criterion-scoring checklist as required.
INTEGRATED COMBINED ARMS BATTLE FOCUSED TRAINING
3-26. All combat vehicle crew proficiency tests and qualification tables (such as the Bradley Gunnery
Skills Test, Bradley Tables I-VIII, Stryker Skills Proficiency Test, and Remote Weapon Station [RWS]
Qualification) should be integrated with the training and qualification ranges of the supported force when
feasible.
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Chapter 3
TEST STATIONS
FIST TASKS FOR ASPT
1.
Vehicle Skills Proficiency Tests
2.
Mission Equipment Package Test Station
3.
Mounted Land Navigation Test Station
4.
Dismounted Land Navigation Test Station
5.
Prepare Laser Range Finder/Designator for Operation Dismounted Mode Test Station
6.
Operate SINCGARS ICOM W/VIC-1 Test Station
7.
Construct a Terrain Sketch Test Station
8.
Recognition of Combat Vehicles Test Station
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TEST STATION 1 –
BRADLEY GUNNERY SKILLS PROFICIENCY TEST STATION*
1.
2.
3.
4.
5.
6.
7.
8.
9.
10.
11.
12.
13.
14.
Clear, remove, disassemble, assemble, and install an M242 25-mm gun.
Load an M242 25-mm gun feeder.
Apply immediate action on an M242 25-mm gun.
Unload and clear an M242 25-mm gun feeder.
Install an M240C coax machine gun.
Load, fire, and apply immediate action on an M240C coax machine gun.
Clear an M240C coax machine gun and unload 7.62-mm ammunition.
Remove an M240C coax machine gun.
Disassemble (field strip) and assemble an M240C coax machine gun.
Boresight turret weapons systems.
Load and unload the 25-mm HE ready box.
Load and unload the 25-mm AP ready box.
Prepare a Bradley range card.
Identify combat vehicles.
REMOTE WEAPON STATION (RWS) SKILL PROFICIENCY TEST STATION*
1. Performance Checklists (M2 HB caliber .50)
Station 1. Clear, disassemble, assemble, set headspace and timing, and perform a function
check on the M2 HB caliber .50 machine gun.
Station 2. Load a caliber .50 machine gun, reduce a stoppage, and unload and clear a caliber
.50 machine gun.
2. Performance Checklists (MK-19 grenade machine gun)
Station 1. Disassemble, assemble, and perform a function check on an MK-19 machine gun.
Station 2. Load, apply immediate action, unload, and clear an MK-19 machine gun.
3. Performance Checklists (all weapons)
Station 1. Prepare a range card.
Station 2. Identify combat vehicles.
Note.
The combat vehicle proficiency test stations should be integrated with the training conducted
by the supported force.
*Comprises 14 stations of FM 3-22.1. Test may be taken with supported Bradley unit when possible.
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Chapter 3
MISSION EQUIPMENT PACKAGE TEST STATION
TEST ADMINISTRATIVE GUIDE
STATION 2 (BFIST, STRYKER, KNIGHT)
TASK: Prepare the Mission Equipment Package for Operation 061–354—3000
CONDITIONS: As a vehicle driver fire support specialist in an assembly area; given Stryker
or M707 (Knight) and TM 9-2350-362-10; when directed by the fire support team sergeant.
STANDARDS: In sequence, without damage to self, others, or equipment.
PERSONNEL, EQUIPMENT, AND MATERIAL REQUIRED:
•
Primary evaluator (SSG or above) in charge of administering the test (he may also occupy a
test station).
•
Station evaluator, SGT or above (one per test station).
•
Training area.
•
Stopwatch (one per evaluator).
•
Criterion-scoring checklist (one per Soldier).
•
Pencils (one per Soldier).
•
FM 3-09.8 (one per station).
•
M7 BFIST, M998A1, Stryker vehicle, or Knight vehicle.
•
Vehicle TM.
TEST PLANNING TIME:
•
Administrative time: 5 minutes
•
Test time: 7 minutes
•
Total time (per crewman): 12 minutes
OTHER INFORMATION: Before the crewman arrives, the evaluator will ensure that the
assigned fire support vehicle w/MEP is functional and that a distant communication station is
operational.
INSTRUCTIONS TO THE CREWMAN: “In front of you is an (M7 BFIST/Stryker/
Knight/FIST-V vehicle). You must prepare the mission equipment package (MEP) for
operation within 7 minutes. All components of the MEP must be safely and correctly
mounted, turned on, aligned, or boresighted. Do you understand the requirements of this
test? Do you have any questions? You may begin.” (Start the time.)
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Fire Support Tables
STANDARDS:
Performance Steps:
1. Set all vehicle power switches and circuit breakers to OFF.
2. Verify that the turret (travel) lock is engaged.
3. Verify that the isolation platform is in the lock position (operate).
4. Mount G/VLLD.
5. Mount nightsight.
a. Set MODE switch on power distribution unit (PDU) to TAC.
b. Set nightsight power switch to ON.
6. Turn PDU to the ON position.
7. Turn AN/PSG-11 (PLGR) on (BFIST and Knight only).
a. Place PLGR on CONT MODE.
b. Place PLGR on FOM1.
8. Set LCU (lightweight computer unit) power switch to ON.
a. Observe the LCU power and lamp indicators illuminate.
9. Turn targeting station control panel (TSCP) ON.
c.
Wait 25 seconds for initialization.
d. Ensure that PLGR displays “remote activate zerorize only.”
Note.:
Stryker vehicles need to verify that the vehicle motion sensor (VMS) is switched on before aligning the inertial
navigation system (INS).
10. Align INS.
a. Push INS ALIGN on the TSCP keypad.
b. Press PREV menu twice.
c.
Press SETUP.
d. Press INS SETUP.
e. Verify that TSCP displays “aligning.”
11. Boresight nightsight to the G/VLLD.
Performance Measures
GO
NO-GO
1. Verified that all vehicle power was off.
2. Verified that the travel lock was engaged (locked).
3. Verified that the isolation platform was in target (locked) position.
4. Mounted G/VLLD.
5. Mounted nightsight.
6. Turned PDU to the ON position.
7. Turned PLGR ON.
8. Set LCU power switch to ON.
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Chapter 3
Performance Measures
GO
NO-GO
9. Turned TSCP ON.
10. INS aligned.
11. Boresighted nightsight to the G/VLLD.
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Fire Support Tables
MOUNTED LAND NAVIGATION TEST STATION
TEST ADMINISTRATIVE GUIDE
STATION 3 (FIST, BFIST, STRYKER, KNIGHT, COLT)
TASK: Navigate from One Point on the Ground to Another Point While Mounted for
Operation 071-329-1030
CONDITIONS: Given a standard 1:50,000-scale topographic map of the area, a coordinate
scale, a protractor, and a compass; while mounted in a vehicle with cross-country capability;
and tasked to move from a known start point to one or more distant points.
STANDARDS: Direct the driver to the designated point(s) at a rate of 9 kilometers per hour
using terrain association and dead reckoning.
PERSONNEL, EQUIPMENT, AND MATERIAL REQUIRED:
•
Primary evaluator (SSG or above) in charge of administering the test (he may also occupy a
test station).
•
Station evaluator, SGT or above (one per test station).
•
Training area.
•
Stopwatch (one per evaluator).
•
Criterion-scoring checklist (one per Soldier).
•
Pencils (one per Soldier).
•
FM 3-09.8 (one per station).
•
M7 BFIST, M998A1 FISTV, Stryker vehicle, and Knight vehicle.
•
Vehicle TM.
TEST PLANNING TIME:
•
Administrative time: 5 minutes
•
Test time: 160 minutes
•
Total time (per vehicle): 165 minutes
OTHER INFORMATION: Before the Soldiers arrive, the evaluator will select an area that
has varying terrain and vegetation. The area must be large enough to have eight points that
are 1,000 to 5,000 meters apart. Each point is on or near an identifiable terrain feature and
is marked on the ground with a sign containing a letter or number. Dummy signs are placed
not less than 100 meters or more than 200 meters to the right and left of the correct point.
Clearly mark all correct points on the map. Prepare a sheet of paper giving the azimuth and
distance for each leg of the course. Have pencils available for the Soldiers.
INSTRUCTIONS TO THE SOLDIER: “You are currently located in the TAA. Your grid
location is as follows: ___________________. You must align your INS, and move to and
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Chapter 3
record each of the eight points provided. Do you understand the requirements of this test?
Do you have any questions?” (Start the time.)
Performance Measures
GO
NO-GO
1. Terrain association. Wrote the correct letter or number found at the end of
each leg of the course.
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Fire Support Tables
DISMOUNTED LAND NAVIGATION TEST STATION
TEST ADMINISTRATIVE GUIDE
STATION 4 (FIST, STRYKER, KNIGHT, COLT)
TASK: Navigate from One Point on the Ground to Another Point While Dismounted
CONDITIONS: Given a 1:50,000 scale map, a compass, a starting point, and the
coordinates of three points along a 3,000-meter cross-country course. The designated
points will be located on prominent terrain features. Soldiers will wear load bearing
equipment (LBE), rucksack packed according to unit TACSOP, Kevlar™ helmet, and will
carry assigned weapon.
STANDARDS: Move on foot to each of the three designated points in sequence at a rate of
3,000 meters per hour.
PERSONNEL, EQUIPMENT, AND MATERIAL REQUIRED:
•
Primary evaluator (SSG or above) in charge of administering the test (the primary evaluator
may also occupy a test station).
•
Station evaluator, SGT or above (one per test station).
•
Training area.
•
Stopwatch (one per evaluator).
•
Criterion-scoring checklist (one per Soldier).
•
Pencils (one per Soldier).
•
FM 3-09.8 (one per station).
•
1:50,000 scale map.
•
Compass.
•
Protractor.
•
Pencils.
TEST PLANNING TIME:
•
Administrative time: 5 minutes
•
Test time: 60 minutes
•
Total time (per Soldier): 65 minutes
OTHER INFORMATION: Before the Soldier arrives, the evaluator will select an area that
has varying terrain and vegetation. The area must be large enough to have three points that
are 500 to 1,000 meters apart. Each point is on or near an identifiable terrain feature and is
marked on the ground with a sign containing a letter or number. Dummy signs are placed
not less than 100 meters or more than 200 meters to the right and left of the correct point.
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Chapter 3
Clearly mark all correct points on the map. Prepare a sheet of paper giving the azimuth and
distance for each leg of the course. Have pencils available for the Soldiers. Time standard
may be corrected for local terrain and weather.
INSTRUCTIONS TO THE SOLDIER: “Your grid location is as follows: ____________
_______. You are to move on foot to each of the three designated points, record the data at
that point, and complete the course in 1 hour. Do you understand the requirements of this
test? Do you have any questions? You may begin.” (Start the time.)
Performance Measures
GO
NO-GO
1. Moved from the starting point to each of the designated points in
succession.
2. Moved to each point and recorded the data found at that point.
3. Completed course within 1 hour.
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Fire Support Tables
PREPARE LASER RANGE FINDER/DESIGNATOR FOR
OPERATION DISMOUNTED MODE TEST STATION
STATION 5 (ALL)
TASK: Prepare Laser Range Finder/Designator (G/VLLD, Melios, Viper, LLDR) for
Operation Dismounted Mode (061-274-5100) (061-283-1960)
CONDITIONS: Given a laser range finder/designator w/power conditioner, dismounted
collimator, compass, and an area of observation.
STANDARDS: Soldier performs PMCS on all equipment, properly sets up the laser range
finder/designator in a dismounted mode in accordance with the appropriate TM, prepares for
night operations, and performs initial check of equipment.
PERSONNEL, EQUIPMENT, AND MATERIAL REQUIRED:
•
Primary evaluator (SSG or above) in charge of administering the test (the primary evaluator
may also occupy a test station).
•
Station evaluator (SGT or above; one per test station).
•
Training area.
•
Stopwatch (one per evaluator).
•
Criterion-scoring checklist (one per Soldier).
•
Pencils (one per Soldier).
•
FM 3-09.8 (one per station).
•
Declinated compass.
•
Operational laser range finder/designator.
TEST PLANNING TIME:
•
Administrative time: 5 minutes
•
Test time: 10 minutes
•
Total time (per Soldier): 15 minutes
OTHER INFORMATION: Before the Soldier arrives, the evaluator will select an area with a
panoramic view of surrounding terrain such as an OP and have an operational AN/TVQ-2
(G/VLLD) or AN/PVS-6 Melios or LLDR ready for the Soldier.
INSTRUCTIONS TO THE CREWMAN: “You are currently located at an OP. You must
successfully perform pre-operation checks, properly set up the laser range finder/designator
for 24-hour operations, and perform the initial check of equipment in accordance with the
TM. This is a timed event. You will have 10 minutes to complete the assigned tasks. Do you
understand the requirements of this test? Do you have any questions? You may begin.”
(Start the time.)
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Chapter 3
G/VLLD 061-274-5100
Performance Measures
GO
NO-GO
GO
NO-GO
1.
The Soldier properly identified all equipment.
2.
The Soldier performed PMCS in accordance with the TM.
3.
The Soldier properly set up the equipment for 24-hour operations.
4.
The Soldier performed an operational check on the assigned laser
range finder/designator.
Melios 061-283-1960
Performance Measures
1. Performed before-operation checks and services.
2. Boresighted MLRF (Melios laser range finder).
3. Selected a target with distinct vertical edges at a range greater than 100
meters.
4. Measured target range and observed that the range display indicates
the correct range to the target.
5. Declinated compass/vertical angle measurement (C/VAM).
6. Zeroed C/VAM in the three different positions at each azimuth position.
7. Lazed the target and record data.
8. Performed four-shot compensation procedure.
9. Lazed the target and record data.
10. Performed shutdown procedures.
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Fire Support Tables
OPERATE SINCGARS ICOM W/VIC-1 TEST STATION
TEST ADMINISTRATIVE GUIDE
STATION 6 (ALL)
TASK: Operate Single-Channel Ground and Airborne Radio System ICOM W/VIC-1 (061275-8004)
CONDITIONS: Given a single-channel ground and airborne radio system (SINCGARS),
intercommunications (ICOM) set (AN/VIC-1), operational secure net control station (NCS),
electronic counter-countermeasures (ECCM), fill device with frequency hopping (FH) data,
unit signal operating instructions (SOI), TM 11-5820-890-10-1, and DA Form 2404
(Equipment Inspection and Maintenance Worksheet) and distant station.
STANDARDS: Successfully prepare the SINCGARS (ICOM) with VIC-1 for operation;
perform preventive maintenance checks and services (PMCS) and operator troubleshooting
procedures; and correctly establish communications from a control box in all required modes
with a distant station.
PERSONNEL, EQUIPMENT, AND MATERIAL REQUIRED:
•
Primary evaluator (SSG or above) in charge of administering the test (the primary evaluator
may also occupy a test station).
•
Station evaluator (SGT or above; one per test station).
•
Classroom or training area.
•
Stopwatch (one per evaluator).
•
Criterion-scoring checklist (one per Soldier).
•
Desk and chair or clipboard (one per Soldier).
•
Pencils (one per Soldier).
•
FM 3-09.8 (one per station).
•
SINCGARS ICOM, AN/VIC-1.
•
Fill device with frequency hopping data.
•
SOI.
•
TM 11-5820-890-10-1.
•
Operational distant station.
•
DA Form 2404.
TEST PLANNING TIME:
•
Administrative time: 5 minutes
•
Test time: 10 minutes
•
Total time (per Soldier): 15 minutes
OTHER INFORMATION: Before the Soldier arrives, the evaluator will check
communications with the distant station and ensure that all equipment is operational.
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Chapter 3
INSTRUCTIONS TO THE CREWMAN: “You must successfully prepare the SINCGARS
(ICOM) with VIC-1 for operation; perform preventive maintenance checks and services
(PMCS) and operator troubleshooting procedures; and correctly establish communications
from a control box in all required modes with a distant station. You have 10 minutes to
complete the task. Do you understand the requirements of this test? Do you have any
questions? You may begin.” (Start the time.)
Performance Measures
GO
NO-GO
1. Initiated DA Form 2404.
2. Performed safety safeguards.
3. Performed operator’s PMCS and troubleshooting procedures.
4. Prepared intercommunications set for operations.
5. Prepared SINCGARS for operation.
6. Operated radio set in SC mode. Performed radio check with NCS.
7. Operated SINCGARS in FH mode. Performed secure radio check with the
NCS.
8. Operated SINCGARS in data mode.
9. Used remote operation.
10. Performed operator’s troubleshooting procedures.
11. Performed stopping procedures.
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Fire Support Tables
CONSTRUCT A TERRAIN SKETCH TEST STATION
TEST ADMINISTRATIVE GUIDE
STATION 7 (ALL)
TASK: Construct a Terrain Sketch (061-283-5002), STP 6-13F14-SM-TG
CONDITIONS: You will be given a observer location, map with OF fan, declinated compass,
binoculars, a pad of paper, pencils, an information sheet containing a zone of observation
and responsibility, a location of three fired-on targets, and the location of a registration point
and an object to be center reference point (CRP).
STANDARDS: Present an accurate panoramic representation of the terrain in the zone of
observation and responsibility. Indicate the location of all three targets and the registration
point. Complete the terrain sketch within 10 minutes.
PERSONNEL, EQUIPMENT, AND MATERIAL REQUIRED:
•
Primary evaluator (SSG or above) in charge of administering the test (he may also occupy a
test station).
•
Station evaluator (SGT or above; one per test station).
•
Classroom or training area.
•
Stopwatch (one per evaluator).
•
Criterion-scoring checklist (one per Soldier).
•
Desk and chair or clipboard (one per Soldier).
•
Pencils (one per Soldier).
•
FM 3-09.8 (one per station).
•
Declinated compass.
•
Tactical overlay with zone of supported unit, location of three fired-on targets, a registration
point, and object to be CRP.
•
Map with OF fan.
TEST PLANNING TIME:
•
Administrative time: 5 minutes
•
Test time: 10 minutes
•
Total time (per Soldier): 15 minutes
OTHER INFORMATION: Before the Soldier arrives, the evaluator will select an area with a
panoramic view of surrounding terrain, such as an OP, and have pencils available for the
Soldier.
INSTRUCTIONS TO THE CREWMAN: “You are currently located at an OP. Your grid
location is as follows: __________________. You must successfully construct a terrain
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Chapter 3
sketch with direction measured within ±100 mils of actual direction in accordance with
FM 6-30. You have 10 minutes to complete the task. Do you understand the requirements of
this test? Do you have any questions? You may begin.” (Start the time.)
Performance Measures
GO
NO-GO
1. Drew skyline.
2. Drew intermittent crests, hills, and ridges.
3. Drew natural terrain features.
4. Drew all manmade objects.
5. Measured the direction to all known points, reference points, and
terrain features.
6. Labeled all points with direction and name of point using “T” format.
7. Labeled observer’s name, date, and location in lower right corner.
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Fire Support Tables
RECOGNITION OF COMBAT VEHICLES TEST STATION
TEST ADMINISTRATIVE GUIDE
STATION 8 (ALL)
TASK: Recognition of Combat Vehicles
CONDITIONS: You will be seated at the computer and administered the computer-assisted
ROC-V (Visible) posttest (all FIST, COLT, and Knight) and the ROC-V (1st or 2nd Gen)
BFIST/Knight.
STANDARDS: Each Soldier will achieve a minimum score of 70 on each sub-test (ROC-V
Visible, SMCT, ROC-V [1st or 2nd Gen if equipped with night-vision sights]).
PERSONNEL, EQUIPMENT, AND MATERIAL REQUIRED:
•
Primary evaluator (SSG or above) in charge of administering the test (the primary evaluator
may also occupy a test station).
•
Station evaluator (SGT or above; one per test station).
•
Classroom or training area.
•
Stopwatch (one per evaluator).
•
Criterion-scoring checklist (one per Soldier).
•
Desk and chair or clipboard (one per Soldier).
•
Pencils (one per Soldier).
•
FM 3-09.8 (one per station).
•
Computer hardware/software requirements as specified in POI for ROC-V.
TEST PLANNING TIME:
•
Administrative time: 5 minutes
•
Test time: 30 minutes
•
Total time (per Soldier): 35 minutes
OTHER INFORMATION: The commander must determine the appropriate threat vehicles to
include in the record test based on METL. The ROC-V instructor module allows the
selection of combat vehicles to be included. The program of instruction (POI) for ROC-V
Train-the-Trainer, ROC-V (Visible), ROC-V (1st Gen), and ROC-V (2nd Gen) are available
on CD-ROM and at http://rocv.army.mil/rocv/ROCV_desc.php.
INSTRUCTIONS TO THE CREWMAN:
ACTION: Complete Visible Posttest.
1. Select the posttest button and allow the test to load. An image will appear on the screen.
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Chapter 3
2. Select the vehicle name from the choices presented on the screen.
3. The next image will appear. Repeat step.
4. When finished with the last vehicle, an AAR will appear. You may scroll to view the entire screen.
The AAR summarizes how well you identified the targets in the images. The answers you correctly
gave are shaded in green. Incorrect answers are colored red. If you answered both correctly and
incorrectly for the same target during the testing process, the button will appear with both green and
red. Clicking in a red box will show your answer along with the correct vehicle so that you may see
the differences between the two.
5. Click on the Next button.
6. This will end the posttest and you will be taken to the ROC-V main menu.
ACTION: Complete the SMCT Test.
1. Click on the SMCT Test button.
2. The Login Screen appears. Complete login information screen and click on the Next button.
3. Select type and difficulty level for the test you would like to take. Click on the Next button.
4. Complete the SMCT test.
5. When finished with last vehicle, another AAR like the first will appear. Click on the Next button to
continue.
6. This will end the SMCT test and you will be taken to the ROC-V main menu.
“Do you understand the requirements of this test? Do you have any questions? You may begin.”
(Start the time.)
PERFORMANCE MEASURES: The performance measures for this task are included in the
computer-based training and pre-/posttests. As demonstrated levels of performance
increase, the time standards may be adjusted to increase the degree of difficulty of the tasks
or to simulate combat conditions as required.
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Fire Support Tables
SECTION II – FIRE SUPPORT TABLES
3-27. The fire support tables are designed to train the observer teams in the fire support tasks necessary to
provide timely and accurate indirect fires in support of the maneuver commander’s intent. The tables
provide a structure of progressive, gated training from individual through FIST to live-fire qualification at
the artillery team level.
FIRE SUPPORT TABLE I: INDIVIDUAL TASKS
3-28. Tasks listed in FS Table I are the basic individual tasks that members of the FIST must master before
proceeding to team-level tasks. Once the FIST has demonstrated proficiency in the basic skills required to
set up and operate the equipment by successfully completing the ASPT, they use those skills to perform the
basic tasks listed in Table I. The training on the basic individual tasks in FS Table I and basic team tasks in
FS Table II (page 3-26) should be trained and evaluated during the weekly Sergeant’s Time/team training.
Sample questions are available on the Fires Knowledge Network, Master Gunner Site for the commander’s
use in developing an examination for Table I tasks.
FS Table I – Basic FIST skills (individual).
Task Number
Task Title
Reference
Skill Level 1
Subject Area 2: Map Reading (SL 1)
071-074-0002
Determine a Grid Azimuth Using an M2 Compass
STP 6-13F14-SM-TG
071-329-1004
Determine the Elevation of a Point on the Ground
Using a Map
STP 6-13F14-SM-TG
071-329-1009
Convert Azimuths
STP 6-13F14-SM-TG
071-329-1014
Locate an Unknown Point on a Map and on the
Ground by Intersection
STP 6-13F14-SM-TG
071-329-1015
Locate an Unknown Point on a Map and on the
Ground by Resection
STP 6-13F14-SM-TG
071-510-0001
Determine Azimuth Using a Protractor
STP 6-13F14-SM-TG
071-510-0002
Compute Back Azimuth
STP 6-13F14-SM-TG
071-520-0001
Orient a Map Using an M2 Compass
STP 6-13F14-SM-TG
113-610-2044
Navigate Using the AN/ PSN-11
STP 6-13F14-SM-TG
Subject Area 3: Communications (SL 1)
061-275-8004
Operate SINCGARS ICOM w/VIC-1
STP 6-13F14-SM-TG
061-275-8007
Operate in a Radiotelephone Net
STP 6-13F14-SM-TG
061-275-8010
Use Field Wire Laying Techniques
STP 6-13F14-SM-TG
Subject Area 4: Digital Operations (SL 1)
061-299-5004
Maintain TAFCS Communications
STP 6-13F14-SM-TG
061-300-5003
Incorporate the Printer into the TAFCS
STP 6-13F14-SM-TG
061-300-5006
Process Geometry Data in the TAFCS
STP 6-13F14-SM-TG
061-300-5007
Update Unit Data in TAFCS
STP 6-13F14-SM-TG
061-300-5010
Configure Received Message Types
STP 6-13F14-SM-TG
061-300-5011
Process Messages for Transmission
STP 6-13F14-SM-TG
061-300-5012
Disseminate Information Via Data Distribution
STP 6-13F14-SM-TG
31 July 2006
FM 3-09.8
3-23
Chapter 3
FS Table I – Basic FIST skills (individual).
Task Number
Task Title
Reference
061-300-5013
Enter Commander's Guidance into the TAFCS
STP 6-13F14-SM-TG
061-300-5014
Prepare the TAFCS for Fire Mission Processing
STP 6-13F14-SM-TG
061-300-5015
Process Target Information
STP 6-13F14-SM-TG
061-300-5033
Initialize the AFATDS
STP 6-13F14-SM-TG
061-300-5034
Shut Down the AFATDS Workstation
STP 6-13F14-SM-TG
061-300-5035
Manage Map Functions
STP 6-13F14-SM-TG
061-300-5045
Run Munitions Calculator
STP 6-13F14-SM-TG
061-300-5046
Initiate a Target List Search
STP 6-13F14-SM-TG
061-300-5047
Process a Received Fire Support Munitions
Restriction Guidance Using an AFATDS
STP 6-13F14-SM-TG
061-300-5134
Manage the Master Unit List (MUL) Using AFATDS
STP 6-13F14-SM-TG
061-300-5182
Load AFATDS Software
STP 6-13F14-SM-TG
061-300-5183
Process Survey Control Point Information
STP 6-13F14-SM-TG
061-300-5184
Process MET Data
STP 6-13F14-SM-TG
061-355-5104
Transmit Information Messages
STP 6-13F14-SM-TG
061-355-5109
Process Medical Evacuation Information
STP 6-13F14-SM-TG
061-299-5002
Maintain Support Data
STP 6-13F14-SM-TG
061-299-5101
Perform LCU Shutdown Procedures
STP 6-13F14-SM-TG
061-299-5105
Enter Firefinder Search Parameters
STP 6-13F14-SM-TG
061-299-5302
Retrieve Data from Artillery Target Intelligence Files
STP 6-13F14-SM-TG
061-299-5304
Build a Fire Plan
STP 6-13F14-SM-TG
061-299-5305
Process a FASCAM Fire Plan
STP 6-13F14-SM-TG
061-301-5002
Process an Area Fire Mission Using the AN/PSG-7
STP 6-13F14-SM-TG
061-301-5010
Process Graphics Data in the AN/PSG-7
STP 6-13F14-SM-TG
061-301-5011
Process Fire Plan Information Using the AN/PSG-7
STP 6-13F14-SM-TG
061-301-8000
Prepare the AN/PSG-7 for Operation
STP 6-13F14-SM-TG
061-301-8001
Perform Self-Location Using the AN/PSG-7
STP 6-13F14-SM-TG
061-302-8000
Enter Member and Authentication Data
STP 6-13F14-SM-TG
061-302-8001
Transmit Information Messages with the AN/PSG-7
STP 6-13F14-SM-TG
061-302-8002
Establish the AN/PSG-7 Operational Parameters
STP 6-13F14-SM-TG
061-355-5106
Initialize the Graphics Map
STP 6-13F14-SM-TG
061-355-5107
Process Monitored Messages
STP 6-13F14-SM-TG
061-355-5108
Process Routed Messages
STP 6-13F14-SM-TG
Subject Area 5: Observed Fire Procedures (SL 1)
061-283-1001
Measure Direction Within the Target Area
STP 6-13F14-SM-TG
061-283-1002
Locate a Target by Grid Coordinates
STP 6-13F14-SM-TG
061-283-1003
Locate a Target by Polar Plot
STP 6-13F14-SM-TG
061-283-1004
Locate a Target by Shift from a Known Point
STP 6-13F14-SM-TG
061-283-1011
Engage Targets with Indirect Fires
STP 6-13F14-SM-TG
3-24
FM 3-09.8
31 July 2006
Fire Support Tables
FS Table I – Basic FIST skills (individual).
Task Number
Task Title
Reference
061-283-5002
Construct a Terrain Sketch
STP 6-13F14-SM-TG
Subject Area 7: Fire Support Planning (SL 1)
061-284-1011
Post Information on a Situation Map/Overlay
STP 6-13F14-SM-TG
Subject Area 8: Fire Support Vehicle Operations (SL 1)
061-354-2000
Prepare the Targeting Head for Operation
STP 6-13F14-SM-TG
091-109-7000
Operate a Power Generator Set
STP 6-13F14-SM-TG
Skill Level 2
Subject Area 1: Fire Support Vehicle Operations (SL 2)
061-354-1002
Operate the Smoke Grenade Launchers
STP 6-13F14-SM-TG
061-354-5200
Prepare the Smoke Grenade Launchers
STP 6-13F14-SM-TG
Subject Area 10: Communications (SL 2)
061-275-8014
Supervise the Operations of SINCGARS
STP 6-13F14-SM-TG
Subject Area 11: Digital Operations (SL 2)
061-300-5052
Validate Movement Request
STP 6-13F14-SM-TG
061-300-5064
Process a Movement Order Using AFATDS
STP 6-13F14-SM-TG
061-300-5148
Verify Trigger Events
STP 6-13F14-SM-TG
061-355-5201
View, Update, or Transmit Database Records from
the Graphics Map
STP 6-13F14-SM-TG
061-301-5001
Process a Precision Registration Mission Using the
AN/PSG-7
STP 6-13F14-SM-TG
061-301-5006
Conduct a Final Protective Fire Mission Using the
AN/PSG-7
STP 6-13F14-SM-TG
Subject Area 13: Laser Operations (SL 2)
061-274-3987
Construct a Laser Range Safety Fan
STP 6-13F14-SM-TG
061-274-5200
Engage Targets with Copperhead Munition
STP 6-13F14-SM-TG
061-354-2007
Measure Cloud Height
STP 6-13F14-SM-TG
Subject Area 14: Fire Support Planning (SL 2)
061-284-1001
Process Platoon Forward Observer Target List
STP 6-13F14-SM-TG
FIRE SUPPORT TABLE II: BASIC FIST SKILLS (TEAM)
3-29. The basic team tasks in FS Table II include both individual and team tasks that are prerequisites for
successful execution of tasks in subsequent tables. Unit CATS provide guidance to train FS Table II tasks.
FS Table II – Basic FIST skills (team).
Task Number
Task
Reference
061-275-8013
Construct a Field Expedient Antenna
STP 6-13F14-SM-TG
061-275-8014
Supervise the Operation of SINCGARS
STP 6-13F14-SM-TG
061-276-1012
Install Antenna Group OE-254/GRC
STP 6-13F14-SM-TG
113-573-0002
Conduct Operations Security (OPSEC) Procedures
STP 21-24-SMCT
31 July 2006
FM 3-09.8
3-25
Chapter 3
FS Table II – Basic FIST skills (team).
Task Number
Task
Reference
113-573-8006
Use an Automated Signal Operation Instruction (SOI)
STP 21-24-SMCT
061-300-5147
Input Trigger Events for the Current Situation
STP 6-13F14-SM-TG
061-300-5181
Load Digital Maps
STP 6-13F14-SM-TG
061-300-5185
Process a Fire Plan with AFATDS
STP 6-13F14-SM-TG
061-300-5186
Process Movement Data
STP 6-13F14-SM-TG
061-300-5200
Process Target Search Results
STP 6-13F14-SM-TG
061-300-5300
Determine Rules for a Trigger Event
STP 6-13F14-SM-TG
061-300-5400
Determine Commander's Guidance
STP 6-13F14-SM-TG
061-300-5401
Process Fire Support Plans
STP 6-13F14-SM-TG
061-299-5104
Enter and Process an Operations Order
STP 6-13F14-SM-TG
061-302-8000
Enter Member and Authentication Data
STP 6-13F14-SM-TG
061-301-5000
Process Recorded Target’s and Known Points using
the AN/PSG-7
STP 6-13F14-SM-TG
061-301-5007
Process Monitored Messages on the AN/PSG-7
STP 6-13F14-SM-TG
061-301-5008
Process Routed Messages as a FIST Using the
AN/PSG-7
STP 6-13F14-SM-TG
06-1-A039
Participate in Fire Support Rehearsal Operations
ARTEP 6-115-MTP
06-1-A048
Plan Fires in Support of Maneuver Operations
ARTEP 6-115-MTP
06-1-A049
Participate in Rehearsal Operations (Company Fire
Support Team)
ARTEP 6-115-MTP
FIRE SUPPORT TABLE III: OCCUPATION OF THE OP
3-30. Selecting and occupying the OP and positioning the FIST-V or BFIST in the maneuver formation are
critical tasks that share many of the same requirements. The changing face of the asymmetrical battlefield
under COE may have an impact on the use and importance of static OPs, but the tactical considerations in
selecting and occupying an OP also apply to the physical location of the observer in a tactical formation.
The tasks in FS Table III include establishing operations to most effectively accomplish the EFSTs
necessary to support the commander’s intent. This training should be conducted as a STX in a field
environment. FS Table III is a gate for FS Table VIII.E.
FS Table III – Occupation of the OP
Task Number
Task
Reference
06-5-A006
Establish an Observation Post (Fire Support Team)
ARTEP 6-115-MTP
06-5-A047
Establish Fire Support Operations
ARTEP 6-115-MTP
061-301-8000
Prepare AN/PSG-7 (FED) for Operation
TM 11-7025-275-10 3, 4,
5, 6
061-283-2051
Establish an Observation Post
061-355-5100
Prepare the FOS Device for Operation
061-355-5102
Initialize the FOS Device
STP 6-13F14-SM-TG
061-355-5103
Establish Operational Parameters in FOS Device
STP 6-13F14-SM-TG
061-299-5000
Prepare TAFCS for Operation
STP 6-13F14-SM-TG
061-301-8000
Prepare the AN/PSG-7 for Operation
STP 6-13F14-SM-TG
3-26
FM 3-09.8
STP 6-13F14-SM-TG
31 July 2006
Fire Support Tables
FS Table III – Occupation of the OP
061-302-8002
Establish the AN/PSG-7 Operational Parameters
STP 6-13F14-SM-TG
061-355-5106
Initialize the Graphics Map
STP 6-13F14-SM-TG
061-300-5000
Prepare the TAFCS for Operations
STP 6-13F14-SM-TG
061-300-5001
Configure the TAFCS Database
STP 6-13F14-SM-TG
061-300-5002
Establish TAFCS Communication Configurations
STP 6-13F14-SM-TG
071-326-5703
Construct Individual Fighting Positions
STP 21-1-SMCT
052-191-1361
Camouflage Yourself and Your Individual
Equipment
STP 21-1-SMCT
052-191-1362
Camouflage Equipment
STP 21-1-SMCT
191-376-4114
Control Entry to and Exit From a Restricted Area
STP 21-1-SMCT
301-371-1000
Report Intelligence Information
STP 21-1-SMCT
301-371-1050
Implement Operations Security Measures
STP 21-1-SMCT
071-331-0815
Practice Noise, Light, and Litter Discipline
STP 21-1-SMCT
FIRE SUPPORT TABLE IV: STANDARD FIRE MISSIONS
3-31. The tasks in FS Table IV are the standard fire missions, which include the basic skills that must be
mastered before proceeding to FS Table V. These tasks should be trained during Sergeant’s Time training
using available simulation such as the call for fire trainer (CFFT), GUARDFIST II, or training set fire
support observation (TSFO). These tasks should be trained using all tactical communications, digital entry
devices, and day and night vision devices assigned to the section.
FS Table IV – Standard fire missions
Task Number
Task
Reference
061-301-5001
Process a Precision Registration Mission
Using the AN/PSG-7
STP 6-13F14-SM-TG
061-354-2031
Conduct a High-Burst Registration
STP 6-13F14-SM-TG
061-283-2104
Conduct a Mortar Registration
STP 6-13F14-SM-TG
06-5-A008
Abbreviated PR
STP 6-13F14-SM-TG
061-283-1013
Conduct a Suppression Mission
STP 6-13F14-SM-TG
061-283-1014
Conduct an Immediate Suppression Mission
STP 6-13F14-SM-TG
061-283-2051
Establish an Observation Post
STP 6-13F14-SM-TG
061-283-2104
Conduct a Mortar Registration
STP 6-13F14-SM-TG
FIRE SUPPORT TABLE V: SPECIAL FIRE MISSIONS
3-32. The missions in FS Table V use many of the same procedures as the standard fire missions in Table
IV, such as target identification and location and elements of CFF but require different tactics, techniques,
and procedures (T,T,P) because of the differences in munitions, method of fire, delivery means, or other
unique requirements. FS Table V tasks should be trained under the same conditions as discussed for FS
Table IV using available simulation.
31 July 2006
FM 3-09.8
3-27
Chapter 3
FS Table V – Special fire missions.
Task Number
Task
Reference
061-283-2023
Conduct a Quick Smoke Mission
STP 6-13F14-SM-TG 4, 5, 6
061-283-2021
Conduct an Immediate Smoke Mission
STP 6-13F14-SM-TG 4, 5, 6
061-283-2002
Conduct Final Protective Fires
STP 6-13F14-SM-TG 4, 5, 6
061-283-1021
Conduct Coordinated Illumination
Conduct a SADARM Mission
STP 6-13F14-SM-TG
061-283-2206
Request Fire on Irregularly Shaped Targets
STP 6-13F14-SM-TG
061-284-5005
Control Close Air Support
STP 6-13F14-SM-TG
061-284-5006
Engage a Moving Target with Indirect Fire
STP 6-13F14-SM-TG
06-1-A050
Coordinate, Direct, and Adjust Other Fire
Support Assets
ARTEP 6-115-MTP
FIRE SUPPORT TABLE VI: LETHAL AND NONLETHAL FIRES AND EFFECTS
PLANNING
3-33. To be published in a subsequent revision of this FM.
FIRE SUPPORT TABLE VII: TRAINING
3-34. Table VII (table 3-7) integrates the fire missions and tasks of previous tables to provide a means to
evaluate all tasks in a dry status prior to live fire. This table is a gate for live-fire qualification, and must
assess performance of all critical tasks listed in Table VIII.E, Qualification. Table VII tasks will be
evaluated during an STX or LTX using available simulations, such as CFFT.
FS Table VII – Training
Task Number
Task
Reference
06-5-A047
Establish Fire Support Operations
ARTEP 6-115-MTP
06-5-A006
Establish an Observation Post
ARTEP 6-115-MTP
06-2-A000.06-C000
Establish and Maintain Communications
ARTEP 6-115-MTP
06-5-A008
Conduct Fire Missions (Fire Support Team)
ARTEP 6-115-MTP
EVALUATION
3-35. Annually, each FIST/COLT/Knight must be externally evaluated on the missions and tasks in Table
VII as a gate prior to Table VIII.E or other LFX. Senior FS personnel from the battalion/squadron, and
brigade/regiment FSEs should evaluate the company-level FISTs in coordination with the battalion master
gunner. This is a commander’s evaluation with the primary staff responsibility assigned to the battalion
master gunner. The selection of qualified evaluators will depend on the unit’s assets, mission, and the prior
training of personnel available.
3-36. The collective tasks in table 3-6 are the MTP tasks to be evaluated. Training support packages
(TSPs) have been developed and are available on the Fort Sill Training and Doctrine Web Site to support
Table VII, Evaluation. The TSPs (0011A Company FIST, 105-mm Towed; 0012A Company FIST 155mm SP) contain the orders, scenario, and supporting materials to conduct an evaluation using available
simulation (TSFO, GUARDFIST II, CFFT). The simulation must facilitate the use of tactical
communications and digital devices.
3-28
FM 3-09.8
31 July 2006
Fire Support Tables
FIRE MISSIONS
3-37. The following types of fire missions may be evaluated under Task 06-5-A008, Conduct Fire
Missions (Fire Support Team). The commander must determine, based on his METL assessment, which
fire missions will be evaluated. Simulation provides an opportunity to plan and conduct missions with
munitions that may not be fired live because of safety limitations such as FASCAM.
z
Request and Adjust Area Fire (Voice and Digital)
„
Adjust fire, low-angle, forward observer
„
Adjust fire, forward observer using: G/VLLD or radar observed
„
Adjust fire, high-angle, forward observer
„
Adjust Fire, high-angle, forward observer G/VLLD or radar observed
„
Adjust fire, coordinated illumination
„
Adjust fire, simultaneous missions
„
Adjust illumination
„
Adjust smoke
„
Adjust FPF
z
Conduct a Registration
„
Conduct precision registration
„
Conduct registration with radar
„
Conduct HB/MPI registration, with at least two observers
„
Conduct an abbreviated registration
z
Fire for Effect Missions
„
Time on Target (TOT); at my command (AMC); TOT
„
Large segmented target/irregular shaped target
„
FASCAM (target of opportunity)
„
Priority target; or final protective fire
„
Immediate suppression
„
Immediate smoke
„
Schedule of fire/fire plan
„
Engage a moving target, AMC, or TOT
„
SADARM
EVALUATION PROCEDURES
3-38. Time is a critical factor in most, but not all, fire missions. In some missions, correct procedures are
more important than observer time standards. For missions such as Registrations and Adjustment of Final
Protective Fires (FPF), the critical factors for a successful mission are accurate target location and correct
procedures, not time. Fire Mission grading procedures are provided in appendix B.
Note: A single time standard for observer times will be used for evaluating fire missions. This
time standard does not reflect a difference between manual and digital procedures and may
differ from the time standards published in ARTEP manuals.
3-39. The evaluation of Table VII tasks should replicate as closely as possible the conditions under which
Table VIII.E, Live-Fire Evaluation, will be conducted. The critical evaluation criterion for Table VII tasks
is ensuring that the FS section/team being evaluated can safely call for and adjust indirect fires.
31 July 2006
FM 3-09.8
3-29
Chapter 3
Table VII Evaluation Scenario (Sample)
TASK 1: Establish an Observation Post, 06-5-A006:
SUBTASKS:
1. Establish Fire Support Operations, 06-5-A047
2. Establish and Maintain Communications, 06-2-A000.06-C000
CONDITIONS: The FIST/COLT/Knight is provided an operation order and tactical overlays
and briefed that the supported unit is conducting combat operations. The enemy situation
requires continuous observation of the battle area. EFSTs have been assigned to the
FIST/COLT/Knight for execution.
STANDARDS:
C000)
See ARTEP 6-115-MTP (06-5-A006, 06-5-A047, 06-2-A000.06-
TASK 2: Conduct Fire Missions (Fire Support Team) 06-5-A008:
SUBTASKS: Selected fire missions from those listed in paragraph 3-10.b (page 3-29).
Based on the commander’s METL assessment, these missions will be evaluated using the
evaluation criteria on the sample score sheets (appendix B). The FIST/COLT/Knight team
must achieve a minimum score of 70 percent on all missions evaluated. The evaluation of
training tasks in Table VII is the confirmation that the team/section can perform all fire
missions on the unit METL to standard. The limited training resources available are
inadequate to support a live-fire evaluation of every FIST/COLT/Knight on every fire mission.
Follow-on Live-Fire Exercises for Artillery (Table VIII) must be multi-echelon and provide
concurrent training for all elements of the artillery system.
AFTER-ACTION REVIEW (AAR)
3-40. The evaluator will conduct an AAR of all tasks and missions evaluated in Table VII. The time
allocated for Table VII must include sufficient time for retraining and reevaluating any task not achieving a
GO.
BFIST TABLE VII.A
3-41. Bradley Tables I-VIII are gates for the integrated direct/indirect fire tables. The master gunner
should coordinate the scheduling of the BFIST tables with the supported units’ Bradley Fighting Vehicles
(BFV) tables. BFIST Table VII.A and Tables VIII.A and B (Day/Night) should be scheduled together over
a 2-day period to reduce orientation and setup time. The objective is to integrate direct and indirect fires to
form a team collective effort that train TTP to the task standards required.
3-30
FM 3-09.8
31 July 2006
Fire Support Tables
DEVELOPMENT OF EXERCISE
3-42. Units determine specific threat target types and engagement distances. Chapter 8 of FM 3-22.1, FM
6-30, and this chapter provide evaluation procedures and standards. Certain guidelines apply to all BFIST
tables.
Concept of the BFIST Tables
3-43. Leaders use a “scenario-based training” concept to develop the BFIST tables, which they resource
based on the unit METL. Each engagement’s tactical scenario includes battlefield awareness, situational
awareness, and SOPs. The crew then makes decisions based on this scenario.
Example 1. The BFIST crew occupies an OP position behind an infantry company in the
defense. The crew is presented with a moving Bronevaya Maschina Piekhota–Soviet Armored
Troop Carrier (BMP) at 1,200 meters, an RPG team at 600 meters, and a T-72 at 4,000 meters.
The crew should report the BMP and the RPG team and should initiate a report to the maneuver
commander on the T-72. The maneuver commander then makes the tactical decision to request
fire on the T-72.
Example 2. The BFIST crew has pushed forward with a dismounted scout section and set up an
OP. The BFIST’s EFST is to place fires on the attacking enemy’s tank elements and then engage
the direct-fire targets. The BFIST crew occupies a turret-defilade position. They are presented
with or are engaged by (signature device) an RPG team at 400 meters and a T-72 at 3,000
meters. They should engage the RPG team first, and then initiate a fire mission on the T-72.
General Requirements
3-44. BFIST Table VII.A. is a gate for BFIST Tables VIII.A and B, Integrated Indirect and Direct Fire
Qualification. Leaders conduct BFIST qualification in accordance with the guidelines and standards in this
chapter and in chapter 8, FM 3-22.1.
z
The Brigade FSO develops an OPORD to support the execution of the mission.
z
The unit master gunner coordinates all necessary resources and personnel to support the gunnery
exercise and coordinates the schedule with the supported unit’s BFV tables and crew gunnery
training.
z
The crews or FISTs will operate, scan, and laser targets in FIST mode. They will engage directfire targets in gun mode. This trains them to maintain their weapons status for their primary
mission.
z
BFIST crews must fire these tables in order to receive proper training on the total vehicle
operation. They must train as much as possible to ensure that they can smoothly move from
FIST mode to gun mode. They must know how to quickly and accurately reacquire target(s) and
engage with the 25 mm or coax.
FIST TABLE VIII
3-45. Executing the qualification tables for FISTs/COLTs/Knights is the culminating event for
section/team qualification and includes all of the critical tasks that an observer team or section must master
to qualify as combat ready. The unit training plan must be coordinated with the supported units’ conduct of
BFV tables or qualification of direct fire systems such as the RWS on the Stryker vehicle and the
HMWVV.
31 July 2006
FM 3-09.8
3-31
Chapter 3
STRYKER/KNIGHT TABLE VIII.A
MK-19 RWS
3-46. Vehicle commanders equipped with the MK-19 RWS will have passed the MK-19 RWS Skills Test
(table 3-2) within the previous 3 months and received a GO on qualification in accordance with the Stryker
Weapons Proficiency Qualification (SWPQ) table standards listed in table 3-3 (page 3-34) within the
previous 6 months before executing FS Table VII A.
Table 3-2. MK-19 RWS skills test.
MK-19 Remote Weapon Station Qualification
Day Qualification
Rounds
Frequency
DODIC
Task 1. Zero
4
4
B584
Task 2.
7
4
B584
Task 3.
7
4
B584
Task 4.
7
4
B584
Task 5.
14
4
B584
Task 6.
7
4
B584
Task 7.
7
4
B584
Task 8.
7
4
B584
Task 9.
7
4
B584
Task 10.
14
4
B584
Task 11.
7
4
B584
352
Total
Note: The table is conducted once for practice and once for record.
M2 CAL .50 RWS QUALIFICATION
3-47. Vehicle commanders equipped with the M2 Cal .50 RWS will pass the M2 Cal .50 RWS Skills Test
(table 3-4, page 3-35) within the past 3 months and receive a GO on qualification in accordance with the
SWPQ table standards listed in table 3-5 (page 3-35) within the past 6 months.
Table 3-3. MK-19 SWPQ table
Task
1.
Rds
Time/
Secs
Standards GO/
Target Set
NO-GO
Dismounted
infantry, 400m
4
N/A
2 rds in 10 m
2. Engage
stationary target
(stationary).
Dismounted
infantry, 400-600
m
7
50/30
1 x rd w/in 10 m
7 x IRETS
1 x bank of 4
1 x bank of 3
3. Engage
stationary target
(stationary). CBRN
Infantry in trench,
400-600 m
7
50/30
1 x rd w/in 10 m
6 x IRETS
2 x banks of 3
1 x 10-m trench
4. Engage
stationary target
(stationary). MANUAL
OP
1 x frontal truck,
800-1,000 m
7
50/30
1 x tgt down
Tgt sensitivity: 3
rds
1 x stationary
truck
3-32
Confirm Zero
Target
FM 3-09.8
31 July 2006
Fire Support Tables
Table 3-3. MK-19 SWPQ table
Task
Target
Rds
Time/
Secs
Standards GO/
5. Engage multiple
targets (stationary).
1 x bunker, 200400 m
7
50/30
Burst on target
CL IV 1 x
fighting psn
1 x trench, 200400 m
7
1 x rd w/in 10 m
Same as Eng #2
6. Engage moving
target (stationary).
*SWING TASK
1 x flank truck,
600-800 m
7
50/30
1 x tgt down, Tgt
sensitivity: 3 rds
1 x moving truck
7. Engage
stationary target
(moving).
1 x RPG team,
200-400 m
7
50/30
1 x rd w/in 10 m
3 x IRETS
1 x bank of 3
8. Engage moving
target (stationary).
NIGHT *SWING
TASK
1 x flank truck,
800-1,000 m
7
50/30
1 x tgt down
Tgt sensitivity: 3
rds
1 x moving truck
9. Engage stationary
target (stationary).
NIGHT
1 x window, 200400 m
7
50/30
1 x round through
window
1 x window
10. Engage multiple
targets (stationary).
NIGHT
1 x flank truck,
400-600 m
7
50/30
1 x tgt down (3
rds)
1 x RPG Tm, 200400 m
7
1 x stationary
truck
3 x IRETS
1 x bank of 3
1 x bunker, 200400 m
7
11. Engage stationary
target (stationary).
CBRN, NIGHT
Total Rounds
Target Set
NO-GO
1 x rd w/in 10 m
50/30
Burst on target
CL IV 1 x
fighting psn
88
Remarks:
•
RWS only
•
Swing tasks – engagements #5 and
#7
•
80% target location known; 20% unknown
(must be engagements #6 and #9)
•
Critical engagements (must pass) –
1 x CBRN engagement and any
2 x night engagements
Table 3-4. M2 cal .50 RWS qualification table
M2 Cal .50 Remote Weapon Station Qualification
Day Qualification
Rounds
Frequency
DODIC
Task 1. Zero
14
4
A557
Task 2.
14
4
A557
Task 3.
14
4
A557
Task 4.
14
4
A557
Task 5.
28
4
A557
Task 6.
14
4
A557
Task 7.
14
4
A557
31 July 2006
FM 3-09.8
3-33
Chapter 3
Table 3-4. M2 cal .50 RWS qualification table
M2 Cal .50 Remote Weapon Station Qualification
Day Qualification
Rounds
Frequency
DODIC
Task 8.
14
4
A557
Task 9.
14
4
A557
Task 10.
28
4
A557
Task 11.
14
4
A557
Total
728
Note. The table is conducted once for practice and once for record.
Table 3-5. M2 cal .50 SWPQ table.
Task
Target
Rds
Time/
Secs
Go/No-Go
Standards;
1. Confirm Zero
Dismounted
infantry, 400 m
14
N/A
Burst on target
2. Stationary
target (vehicle
stationary)
Dismounted
infantry, 400600 m
14
50/30
1 x tgt set down
7 x IRETS
1 x bank of 4
1 x bank of 3
3. Stationary
target (vehicle
stationary)
Infantry in trench,
400-600 m, CBRN
14
50/30
1 x tgt set down
6 x IRETS
2 x banks of 3
1 x 10-m trench
4. Stationary
target (vehicle
stationary)
1 x stationary
frontal truck, 8001,000 m, MANUAL
OP
14
50/30
1 x tgt down
Tgt sensitivity: 3
rds
1 x stationary
frontal truck
5. Multiple targets
(vehicle
stationary)
1 x bunker, 200400 m
14
50/30
Burst on target
CL IV 1 x fighting
position
1 x trench, 200400 m
14
1 x tgt set down
Same as Eng #2
6. Moving target
(vehicle
stationary)
*SWING TASK
1 x moving flank
truck, 600-800 m
14
50/30
1 x tgt down,
Tgt sensitivity: 3
rds
1 x moving flank
truck
7. Stationary
target (vehicle
moving)
1 x RPG team,
200-400 m
14
50/30
Tgt set down
3 x IRETS
1 x bank of 3
8. Moving target
(vehicle
stationary)
*SWING TASK
1 x moving flank
truck, 8001,000 m, NIGHT
14
50/30
1 x tgt down
Tgt sensitivity: 3
rds
1 x moving flank
truck
9. Stationary
target (vehicle
stationary)
1 x window, 200400 m, NIGHT
14
50/30
1 x round
through window
1 x window
3-34
FM 3-09.8
Target Set
31 July 2006
Fire Support Tables
Table 3-5. M2 cal .50 SWPQ table.
10. Multiple
targets (vehicle
stationary)
1 x stat flank truck,
400-600 m
14
1 x RPG Tm, 20040 0m, NIGHT
14
11. Stationary
target (vehicle
stationary)
1 x bunker, 200400 m, CBRN,
NIGHT
14
Total Rounds
50/30
50/30
1 x tgt down (3
rds)
1 x stationary
flank truck
Tgt set down
3 x IRETS; 1 x
bank of 3
Burst on target
CL IV 1 x fighting
position
182
Remarks:
• RWS only
•
Digital commo linked w/engagements
•
Swing tasks – engagements #5 and #7
•
80% target location known; 20%
unknown (must be engagements #6
and #9)
•
Standards for each engagement –
GO/NO-GO; suppress enemy only
•
Critical engagements (must pass) – 1 x
CBRN engagement and any 2 x night
engagements
•
182 rds cal .50 vs. 280 authorized
day/night total
•
Standards for SWPC – Pass/Fail; must
pass 70% of engagements (7 out of 10)
Day/Night combined (must pass 2 x
night engagements)
BFIST TABLES VIII.A AND VIII.B
3-48. Chapter 8 of FM 3-22.1, this chapter, and FM 6-30 provide evaluation procedures and standards.
Certain guidelines apply to all BFIST tables. Bradley Tables I-VIII and BFIST Table VII.A are gates for
the integrated direct/indirect fire tables, BFIST Table VIII.A and B (Day/Night). All BFISTs must qualify
on BFIST Tables VIII.A and B on an annual basis in accordance with STRAC guidance (see figure 3-1).
LIVE-FIRE REQUIREMENTS
3-49. Leaders conduct live-fire collective tasks on the range complex that provides the best available
observed-fire targets, maneuver area, and direct-fire targets.
3-50. Leaders can conduct crew practice (BFIST Table VII) and qualification (BFIST Table VIII.A/B) on
the same range; however, they use a different target-presentation sequence for each.
3-51. When the target array consists of more than one target, all targets are presented for a particular task
simultaneously. They require crews to use proper battlefield analysis, situational awareness, and
engagement techniques.
3-52. Targets should represent realistic threat arrays that a crew might encounter on the battlefield. Leaders
can include friendly targets to emphasize the importance of fratricide training. Figures 3-2, 3-3, 3-4, and
3-5 (pages 3-37 through 3-39) provide examples of how the engagement sequence and range operation
may be accomplished.
31 July 2006
FM 3-09.8
3-35
Chapter 3
Figure 3-1. Illustration of BFIST Tables VIII.A and VIII.B.
Figure 3-2. Illustration of BFIST Tables VIII.A and VIII.B, Stages 1-3.
3-36
FM 3-09.8
31 July 2006
Fire Support Tables
Figure 3-3. Illustration of BFIST Tables VIII.A and VIII.B, Stages 4-7.
31 July 2006
FM 3-09.8
3-37
Chapter 3
Figure 3-4. Illustration of BFIST Tables VIII.A and VIII.B, Stages 8-10.
3-38
FM 3-09.8
31 July 2006
Fire Support Tables
Figure 3-5. Illustration of BFIST Tables VIII.A and VIII.B, Stages 11-14.
AMMUNITION
3-53. Table 3-12 provides the required ammunition by quantity and type to conduct Tables VIII.A and B
for each assigned BFIST.
Table 3-6. Ammunition for BFIST Tables VIII.A/B.
Ammunition for BFIST Tables VIII A/B
Type
DODIC
Quantity
25-mm TPDS-T
A940
54
7.62 mm
A131
600
155 mm, HE
D544
36
Fuze, PD
N340
36
Prop Chg
DA12/DA13
36
120-mm Mortar
C623
36
Hoffman
LA06
30
Hoffman
LA07
30
3-54. The ammunition listed in Table 3-6 supports the engagements for Tables VIII.A/B as follows:
z
BFIST Table VIII.A:
„
Three indirect-fire engagements (FA/120-mm mortar).
„
One 25-mm point engagement.
„
Two 7.62-mm coaxial engagements (one point and one area).
31 July 2006
FM 3-09.8
3-39
Chapter 3
z
BFIST Table VIII.B:
„
Three indirect-fire engagements.
„
Two 25-mm point engagements.
„
One 7.62-mm coaxial engagement (area).
PERSONNEL AND EQUIPMENT REQUIREMENTS FOR BFIST TABLES VIII.A/B
Personnel Support
3-55. The Command and Control cell consists of the brigade FSE with TF augmentation. The brigade FSO
must coordinate with both the DS and FA Battalion and with the supported unit for artillery and mortar fire
support. The FSO coordinates the range schedule to follow the Bradley Tables.
z
OIC-Brigade FSO.
z
NCOIC-Brigade FSNCO.
z
RSO/OPS-2 X TF FSO.
z
BFIST crew evaluators-3 X TF FSNCO.
z
Bradley master gunner.
Equipment/Unit Support
z
z
z
z
155-mm Platoon.
1 X BFIST Observation Vehicle.
1 X Brigade FSE C2 Vehicle.
1 X 120-mm Platoon.
Minimum Standards
3-56. The crew must meet the following minimum standards:
z
Engagement standards. Crews use the engagement standards from generic Bradley tasks for
direct-fire targets. However, on indirect-fire missions, crews have 30 seconds to identify the
target, give the proper fire command, lase the target, and send the fire mission. Scoring criteria
follow:
„
T: Identify the target and send the fire mission within 20 seconds.
„
P: Identify the target and send the fire mission within 30 seconds.
„
U: Fail to identify the target or send the fire mission within 31 seconds.
z
Task standards. Leaders use generic Bradley engagement task standards for BFIST direct-fire
targets. Evaluators score the BFIST’s proficiency in lasing, in using the proper fire command,
and in transmitting the FR message during gunnery.
„
Target kill standards. During range setup, the master gunner records grid
coordinates for all fire-mission targets. To receive target-kill credit, the
crew must send the correct target grid (accurate to within 150 meters) to the
FSE. For all fire missions, master gunners use the farthest targets on the
range.
„
BFIST exposure matrixes. Leaders use generic Bradley exposure matrixes
for BFIST direct-fire engagements. The BFIST crew engages indirect-fire
targets from turret defilade. If the crew exposes the vehicle, then the BFV
matrix standard applies in accordance with the conditions of the
engagement and the threat vehicle’s capability to engage the BFIST.
Whether in the defense, the offense, or retrograde, the BFIST crew has 30
seconds to identify and engage indirect-fire targets.
„
Timing of the engagement. Time begins when the indirect-fire target is
fully exposed (target locked). Evaluators time this engagement separately
3-40
FM 3-09.8
31 July 2006
Fire Support Tables
from the self-defense engagement. For example, due to range and time
limitations, all indirect targets have one condition—normal.
3-57. If the crew exposes the vehicle, leaders use the matrixes in chapter 8, FM 3-22.1. For example,
target-exposure time for a stationary T-72 at 2,500 meters is 23 seconds.
z
After the BFIST crew engages the indirect target, direct-fire targets are presented. Time target
exposures separately for indirect-fire and direct-fire targets.
z
Whether or not the BFIST crew engages the indirect-fire target, the direct-fire target(s) must
appear as soon as the 30-second, indirect-fire period expires. Crew must pass all subtask
standards in order to meet task standards.
Critical subtask standards
3-58. Evaluators use critical subtask standards to score the BFIST crew’s ability to engage indirect-fire
targets in less than normal operating conditions. Before the crew can meet a task’s overall engagement
standards, it must first meet the subtask standards. Until then, leaders consider the crew untrained on that
task.
3-59. The crew engages all target(s) in the FIST mode.
z
Gunner’s engagement. The gunner uses his hand-station to identify and lase targets in the FIST
mode. The gunner also operates the targeting-station control panel (TSCP).
z
Commander’s engagement. The commander uses his hand-station to identify and lase targets in
the FIST mode.
Crew engagement
3-60. The crew switches to gun mode when presented with direct-fire targets. The gunner or the BC lases
in FIST mode, switches to gun mode, and then reacquires the target for engagement.
Leader subtask standard
3-61. The leader subtask evaluates the BFIST commander’s ability to control the crew, vehicle, MEP, and
self-defense system. The BFIST commander must maintain control to synchronize reengagements and
operate efficiently. He must also use the proper fire-mission commands for each indirect engagement and
while engaging direct-fire targets.
FIST TABLE VIII.C
3-62. The final qualification table for all observer teams is the live-fire exercise. The tasks to be evaluated
are identical to those in BFIST Table VII. Evaluation of fire missions will use the sample score sheets in
appendix B and the grading procedures in appendix B. Units are resourced to live-fire 80 percent of their
METL-related missions twice annually. The CATS and chapter 3, DA Pam 350-38 provide the commander
with strategies and recommended events to train his unit. The commander must apply his METL and
training assessment to determine a unit training plan that will best meet the needs of his training
environment. The evaluation of FISTs during live-fire events must take advantage of multiple events.
BFIST Table VIII.C. verifies BFIST Tables I-VII. The observer teams will have performed all tasks to
standard prior to live-fire events. The live-fire evaluation is the run-level culmination of all previous
training. In units with FIST elements assigned to maneuver commands, such as the Stryker Brigade and
UA brigade combat teams (BCTs), the FSO must ensure that FISTs complete BFIST Tables I-VII prior to
FA Battalion and Battery LFXs. The FSO will coordinate closely with the DS FA Battalion to integrate
FISTs into all live-fire training and help coordinate supporting indirect fires for BFIST Tables VIII.A and
B.
31 July 2006
FM 3-09.8
3-41
This page intentionally left blank.
Chapter 4
Delivery Section Training
The artillery tables for field artillery delivery systems provide a methodology for
training and evaluating individual and crew/section—tasks required to safely
emplace; prepare for firing; fire; and displace all cannon, rocket, and missile systems.
INTRODUCTION
4-1.
The methodology and format of the delivery section tables are identical to those presented in chapter
3, fire support tables. The tables provide a progressive, gated approach to conducting training to assist
commanders in assessing and integrating training across the combined arms team. The tables also provide the
means and tasks for C, W, R training for the section chief to use during sergeant’s time training, as refresher
training, or as a prelude to evaluating training. The contents of the ASPT and table I (page 4-52) provide the
individual tasks and collective tasks to support routine training of sections and crews. This chapter includes the
section/crew tasks from FM 6-50, FM 6-60, and FM 3-09.70 organized by howitzer delivery system and
rocket/missile delivery system.
SECTION I. HOWITZER SECTION TABLES
ARTILLERY SKILLS PROFICIENCY TEST FOR HOWITZER
SECTIONS
4-2. The ASPT evaluates the howitzer section member’s ability to execute selected crew skills. The tasks
listed in this chapter give the unit commander a means to evaluate the howitzer section member’s basic
proficiency prior to LFXs. The ASPT can also be used to assess section strengths and weaknesses. The
commander, master gunner, and battery leaders should use ASPT results when structuring the unit’s annual
gunnery training program.
REQUIREMENTS
4-3. All MOS 13B personnel and any personnel assigned to a howitzer section (regardless of MOS) will
be given the ASPT. (Howitzer section members are required to pass the ASPT prior to howitzer section
qualification.) To pass the ASPT, a Soldier must receive a GO on all stations. If a Soldier fails a task, he
must be retrained and retested on that station until he receives a GO. Appropriate manuals and other
references listed for each station must be used to prepare, administer, and evaluate the ASPT.
Note. Evaluators must pass the ASPT within six months prior to testing.
4-4. Evaluation Procedures. Detailed procedures for setting up and conducting the evaluation and for
conducting the AAR are in chapter 3, section I, of this manual.
4-5. Test Stations. Each test station consists of a test administrative guide and criterion-scoring checklist.
31 July 2006
FM 3-09.8
4-1
Chapter 4
TEST STATIONS
TEST STATIONS
1. Disassemble the breech mechanism test station
2. Assemble the breech mechanism test station
3. Perform micrometer test on the gunner’s quadrant test station
4. Conduct gunner’s quadrant end-for-end test test station
5. Identify and prepare artillery ammunition test station
6. Prepare a howitzer range card test station
7. Conduct gunner’s qualification test test station
8. Measure site-to-crest using an M2 compass test station
4-2
FM 3-09.8
31 July 2006
Delivery Section Training
DISASSEMBLE THE BREECH MECHANISM TEST STATION
TEST ADMINISTRATIVE GUIDE
STATION 1 (ALL)
TASK: Disassemble the Breech Mechanism
CONDITIONS: Given an operational howitzer.
STANDARDS: Disassemble the breech, firing mechanism, and obturator group as outlined
in the technical manual without error. Perform all actions in a safe manner without damage
to equipment or injury to personnel.
PERSONNEL, EQUIPMENT, AND MATERIAL REQUIRED:
•
Primary evaluator (SSG or above) in charge of giving the test (he may also occupy a test
station).
•
Station evaluator, SGT or above (one per test station).
•
Training area.
•
Stopwatch (one per evaluator).
•
Criterion-scoring checklist (one per Soldier).
•
Pencils (one per Soldier).
•
FM 3-09.8 (one per station).
•
Assigned section howitzer.
•
Technical manual for assigned howitzer.
TEST PLANNING TIME:
•
Administrative time: 5 minutes
•
Test time: 4-8 minutes
•
Total time (per section): 9-13 minutes
INSTRUCTIONS TO THE CREWMAN: “While conducting the before-operations checks on
your howitzer, you noted a malfunction in the breech mechanism. To troubleshoot the exact
cause, you decide that the breech mechanism must be disassembled. However, you may
not physically perform any action. You have 1 minute to select the section member(s) to
perform this task and to assemble all required tools and manuals.
At the end of 1 minute, the evaluator gives the following instructions to the section
member(s) performing the task.
31 July 2006
FM 3-09.8
4-3
Chapter 4
INSTRUCTIONS TO THE SECTION MEMBER: ”You are to disassemble the breech
mechanism, to include removing the breech block and firing mechanism. Even though this is
a timed event, perform all actions in the prescribed safe manner. Do you understand the
requirements of this test? Do you have any questions? You may begin.” (Start the time.)
4-4
M102/M119A1
M198
M109 Series
Points
0-3:45
0-3:30
0-3:45
49
3:01-3:25
3:31-4:00
3:46-4:05
36
3:26-3:40
4:01-4:20
4:06-4:20
24
3:41-8:00
4:21-10:00
4:21-8:00
12
Longer than 8:00
Longer than 10:00
Longer than 8:00
0
FM 3-09.8
31 July 2006
Delivery Section Training
ASSEMBLE THE BREECH MECHANISM TEST STATION
TEST ADMINISTRATIVE GUIDE
STATION 2 (ALL)
TASK: Assemble the Breech Mechanism
CONDITIONS: Given the components of the breech-block assembly disassembled in the
previous task.
STANDARDS: Reassemble breech, firing mechanism, and obturator group as outlined in
the technical manual without error. Perform all actions in a safe manner without damage to
equipment or injury to personnel.
PERSONNEL, EQUIPMENT, AND MATERIAL REQUIRED:
•
Primary evaluator (SSG or above) in charge of administering the test (he may also occupy a
test station).
•
Station evaluator, SGT or above (one per test station).
•
Training area.
•
Stopwatch (one per evaluator).
•
Criterion-scoring checklist (one per Soldier).
•
Pencils (one per Soldier).
•
FM 3-09.8 (one per station).
•
Assigned howitzer with section equipment.
•
Appropriate technical manual.
TEST PLANNING TIME:
•
Administrative time: 5 minutes
•
Test time: 5-12 minutes
•
Total time (per vehicle): 10-17 minutes
INSTRUCTIONS TO THE SOLDIER: “Assume that you have repaired the malfunction in the
breech mechanism. At this time, you will be evaluated on your ability to reassemble the
breech mechanism to its original configuration. Are you ready? Do you understand the
requirements of this test? Do you have any questions? You may begin.” (Start the time.)
31 July 2006
FM 3-09.8
4-5
Chapter 4
Performance Measures
GO
NO-GO
1. The breech mechanism was properly assembled in accordance with the
appropriate operator’s manual and in a safe manner.
Note. M119 SERIES: Failure to use retaining tool or to perform firing pin test is an automatic
NO-GO.
4-6
M102/M119A1
M198
M109 Series
Points
0-3:30
0-4:00
0-4:15
25
3:31-4:00
4:01-4:30
4:16-4:35
15
4:01-4:20
4:31-4:50
4:36-4:50
10
4:21-12:00
4:51-15:00
4:51-12:00
5
12:01-Longer
15:01-Longer
12:01-Longer
0
FM 3-09.8
31 July 2006
Delivery Section Training
PERFORM MICROMETER TEST
ON THE GUNNER’S QUADRANT TEST STATION
TEST ADMINISTRATIVE GUIDE
STATION 3 (ALL)
TASK: Perform Micrometer Test on the Gunner’s Quadrant
CONDITIONS: Given a howitzer with Basic Issue List Items (BILI).
STANDARDS: Perform micrometer test on the gunner’s quadrant as outlined in the
technical manual without error.
PERSONNEL, EQUIPMENT, AND MATERIAL REQUIRED:
•
Primary evaluator (SSG or above) in charge of administering the test (he may also occupy a
test station).
•
Station evaluator, SGT or above (one per test station).
•
Training area.
•
Stopwatch (one per evaluator).
•
Criterion-scoring checklist (one per Soldier).
•
Pencils (one per Soldier).
•
FM 3-09.8 (one per station).
•
Howitzer with BILI.
TEST PLANNING TIME:
•
Administrative time: 5 minutes
•
Test time: 1 minute
•
Total time (per Soldier): 6 minutes
INSTRUCTIONS TO THE SOLDIER: “Because of recent firing inaccuracies, the platoon
leader has told each howitzer section to perform the micrometer and end-for-end tests on its
gunner’s quadrants. You (or any member of your section) will perform the micrometer test
and announce any error and corrective action. After the micrometer test, do not remove the
gunner’s quadrant from the breech until told to do so by the evaluator. Do you understand
the requirements of this test? Do you have any questions? You may begin.” (Start the time.)
31 July 2006
FM 3-09.8
4-7
Chapter 4
Performance Measures
GO
1.
Inspected the gunner’s quadrant and the quadrant seats,
plates, and planes for dirt, nicks, or burrs.
2.
Set index arm at +10 and micrometer knob at 0.
3.
Pointed the line-of-fire arrow toward the muzzle end.
4.
Elevated or depressed tube to center bubble.
5.
Set index arm at 0 and micrometer knob at 10.
6.
Pointed line-of-fire arrow toward muzzle end.
7.
Determined if micrometer is in error or not and
described/demonstrated action to be taken if it was in error.
8.
Followed correct procedures in performing the micrometer test
(per the -10 technical manual for the howitzer).
NO-GO
SCORING: If all GO ratings are awarded, determine points for the task by the speed of
execution as outlined in the table below. If a NO-GO rating is awarded, award 0 points for
the entire task.
4-8
Time (Seconds)
Points
0-0:30
25
0:31-0:40
20
0:41-0:50
15
0:51-1:00
10
1:01 or Longer
0
FM 3-09.8
31 July 2006
Delivery Section Training
CONDUCT GUNNER’S QUADRANT END-FOR-END TEST TEST STATION
TEST ADMINISTRATIVE GUIDE
STATION 4 (ALL)
TASK: Conduct Gunner’s Quadrant End-for-End Test
CONDITIONS: Given a howitzer with Basic Issue List Items (BILI); Soldier has completed
the gunner’s quadrant micrometer test.
STANDARDS: Soldier will conduct the gunner’s quadrant end-for-end test to determine
serviceability/error per the appropriate technical manual.
PERSONNEL, EQUIPMENT, AND MATERIAL REQUIRED:
•
Primary evaluator (SSG or above) in charge of administering the test (he may also occupy a
test station).
•
Station evaluator, SGT or above (one per test station).
•
Training area.
•
Stopwatch (one per evaluator).
•
Criterion-scoring checklist (one per Soldier).
•
Pencils (one per Soldier).
•
FM 3-09.8 (one per station).
•
Howitzer with BILI.
TEST PLANNING TIME:
•
Administrative time: 5 minutes
•
Test time: 2 minutes
•
Total time (per Soldier): 7 minutes
INSTRUCTIONS TO THE CREWMAN: “Now that the micrometer test has been
done, you (or any member of your section) will perform the end-for-end test on your
gunner’s quadrant. At the conclusion of the test: Leave the gunner’s quadrant on the
breech. Announce the error to the evaluator. Announce to the evaluator if the
gunner’s quadrant is serviceable or unserviceable. Do you understand the
requirements of this test? Do you have any questions? You may begin.” (Start the
time.)
Performance Measures
GO
1.
Followed the correct procedures in performing the end-for-end test.
2.
Announced the correct quadrant error.
31 July 2006
FM 3-09.8
NO-GO
4-9
Chapter 4
Performance Measures
3.
GO
NO-GO
Declared the quadrant unserviceable if the error exceeded ±0.4 mils or
declared the quadrant serviceable if the error was less than 0.4 mils.
SCORING: If all GO ratings are awarded, determine points for the task by the speed of
execution as outlined in the table below. If a NO-GO is awarded, award 0 points for the
entire task.
4-10
Time (Minutes)
Points
0-1:00
25
1:01-1:20
20
1:21-1:30
15
1:31-1:40
10
1:41-1:50
5
1:51-2:00
2
2:01 or Higher
0
FM 3-09.8
31 July 2006
Delivery Section Training
IDENTIFY AND PREPARE
ARTILLERY AMMUNITION TEST STATION
TEST ADMINISTRATIVE GUIDE
STATION 5 (ALL)
TASK: Identify and Prepare Artillery Ammunition
CONDITIONS: Given ammunition, section equipment, assistance, and firing data.
STANDARDS: Select the correct projectile and/or fuze combination, fuze the projectile, set
the correct setting, and prepare the announced charge. Round must be prepared in
accordance with the firing data provided.
PERSONNEL, EQUIPMENT, AND MATERIAL REQUIRED:
•
Primary evaluator (SSG or above) in charge of administering the test (he may also occupy a
test station).
•
Station evaluator, SGT or above (one per test station).
•
Classroom or training area.
•
Stopwatch (one per evaluator).
•
Criterion-scoring checklist (one per Soldier).
•
Desk and chair or clipboard (one per Soldier).
•
Pencils (one per Soldier).
•
FM 3-09.8 (one per station).
TEST PLANNING TIME:
•
Administrative time: 10 minutes
•
Test time: 10 minutes
•
Total time (per Soldier): 20 minutes
EVALUATION PREPARATION: Setup: Ensure that all the equipment is available and ready
for use. Use the references and the evaluation guide to score the Soldier’s performance. To
evaluate this task requires inert munitions, training aids, computer-based training, or written
examination. Sample questions are available on the Fires Knowledge Network, Master
Gunner Site.
31 July 2006
FM 3-09.8
4-11
Chapter 4
CAUTION
Handle all inert training aids as if they were live ammunition. Some of
the projectiles are heavy enough to cause injury, so use caution at all
times. Ammunition needs protection from improper handling.
Ammunition should not be carried or transported when fused. Do not
drop or throw ammunition. Do not spin fuzes. Smoking is not allowed
within 50 feet of artillery weapons and ammunition. Take care to
protect ammunition from weather such as rain, snow, ice, and extreme
heat.
Note. Semifixed ammunition is characterized by an adjustable propelling charge. This charge is
divided into increments or charges contained in cloth bags that are tied together with acrylic
cord in numerical sequence. These charges are stored in a canister, which is loosely fitted to the
projectile. The projectile and the canister are loaded at the same time. The primer is an
integrated part of the canister. Semifixed ammunition is used in the 105-mm howitzer and may
be fused or unfused.
Note. Separate-loading ammunition has four separate components: primer, propellant, projectile,
and fuse. The components are issued separately. Separate-loading ammunition components are
used in 155-mm howitzers.
Note. The propelling charge explosive train consists of the primer, igniter, and propellant.
Performance Steps
1. Select the proper shell-fuse combination (assisted by the ammunition team chief [ATC]) when
firing data is given.
a. Identify ammunition by color code and markings stenciled on the projectile and/or
containers.
b. Inspect and clean the projectile. Inspection criteria for projectiles require you to check for
rust, nicks, burrs, and so forth.
c.
Remove the grommet from the projectile.
d. Inspect the rotating band.
e. Open all ammunition containers safely.
2. Prepare the projectile.
a. Remove the lifting plug and inspect the fuze well. Ensure that the fuze well is clean and the
threads are not stripped. Ensure that the projectile filler is not seeping through the fuze
well.
b. Remove the supplementary charge when firing VT fuzes.
c.
Select the correct fuze for the projectile being used.
(1) The MTSQ M582 is the same fuze as the M577 except for an additional booster. The
fuze is authorized for HE and WP projectiles. It is mated with the M18 fuze wrench,
and the time is set with the M35 fuze setter in a counterclockwise motion. The fuze is
shipped on black triangle 93.5 to 95.5, and set on black triangle 98.0 for super-quick
action. The fuze contains a timing mechanism that may be set to function at any time
from 2 to 200 seconds.
4-12
FM 3-09.8
31 July 2006
Delivery Section Training
Performance Steps
(2) The proximity fuze M728 (VT) is an adjustable delayed arming fuze used against
surface targets and is authorized for HE projectiles. It is mated with the M18 fuze
wrench, and the time setting is set only in whole increments with the M27 fuze setter.
The M728 contains a radio transmitter and/or detector with antennas and a power
supply that performs the target function. The M728 fuze is a long intrusion fuze that
requires the removal of the supplementary charge before placing the fuze on the
projectile fuze well. This fuze can also be set in the PD mode.
(3) The proximity fuze M732 is a short intrusion VT fuze that does not require the removal
of the supplementary charge when placed on HE projectiles. Time settings of 5 to 150
seconds (in whole increments) are set off by using the M27 fuze setter. The M18 fuze
wrench is used to mate the M732 fuze on HE projectiles.
(4) The PD fuze M739A1 is a selective super-quick or delay-impact fuse. The M739A1
fuze is authorized for HERA and WP projectiles. It is mated with the M18 fuze wrench.
The M739A1 fuze has a rain-insensitive sleeve that allows firing in heavy rain with
reduced probability of downrange premature functioning.
(5) The M78 CP fuze is constructed especially for spotting and destroying concrete
targets. The M78 fuze is used on the HE projectile. The M78 fuze must be used with
the M25 booster; if it is not used, the projectile will not detonate on impact (dud). The
M78 fuze and booster are placed on the HE projectile with the M16 fuze wrench.
(6) The mechanical time fuze M563 is used with flechette-loaded 105-mm projectiles. The
fuze is shipped set on muzzle action, but time settings of 0.5 second to 100 seconds
can be set by using the M34 fuze wrench.
(7) The MTSQ M564 fuze is used when a choice of time or super-quick action is desired.
The M564 fuze is authorized for HE and WP projectiles. It is mated with the M18 fuze
wrench. The fuze setting is set with the M34 fuze wrench. Time setting can be
achieved between 2 and 100 seconds, with a separate setting for super-quick action.
(8) The mechanical time fuze M565 is used on base-ejecting projectiles. The M565 is
placed on illumination, hexachloroethane (HC) smoke, and ICM projectiles with the
M18 fuze wrench, and the desired fuze setting is set with the M34 fuze setter.
(9) The MTSQ M577 fuze is used with base-ejecting projectiles carrying payloads that are
expelled during flight. The fuze contains a timing mechanism that may be set to
function from 2 to 200 seconds in increments of tenths of a second. Three digital
rotating dials indicate the time setting. The fuze is authorized for area denial artillery
munitions (ADAM), RAAMS, illumination, ICM, DPICM, and M825 felt WP. It is mated
with the M18 fuze wrench, and the time is set by using the M35 fuze setter in a
counterclockwise motion. The fuze is shipped on black triangle 93.5 to black triangle
98.0 for super-quick action.
d. Seat all fuses (except the M78 CP fuze) with the M18 fuze wrench. Use the M16 fuze
wrench to seat the M78 fuse.
3. Set the fuze with the proper fuze setter.
a. Set impact fuses for super quick or delay with the M18 fuze wrench.
b. The M18 fuze wrench is used to mate all fuses to projectiles, except the M78-series CP
fuse. Point-initiating and/or base-detonating fuses are installed at the manufacturer.
c.
Set the mechanical time fuze to the nearest 0.1 second with the proper fuze setter.
d. Set the proximity fuze (VT) with the proper fuze setter to the nearest second.
e. The M762, M767 series, and M782 fuses are set with the new PIAFS.
31 July 2006
FM 3-09.8
4-13
Chapter 4
Performance Steps
4. Inspect and prepare the propellant.
a. Cut the charge as announced. Ensure that the igniter tube is not loose, bent, or broken; the
holes are sealed to keep the filler inside the igniter tube; and only light brown oxidation is
present.
b. In separate-loading ammunition, the igniter is in a red bag sewn to the center of the base
increment of the propellant. When ignited by the primer, the igniter sends hot flaming
gases around the charge to ignite the propellant.
c.
In separate-loading ammunition, the inspection criteria for the igniter pad requires a check
for rips and tears to ensure that it is properly sewn on the base charge and no lumps are
caused by moisture. It should have a sandy, gritty feel.
d. Semifixed ammunition propellant comes in seven increments that are numbered 1 through
7 and are connected by a thin acrylic cord. Each increment is a different size since each is
a premeasured amount of propellant.
e. Inspecting the propellant includes removing the seven increments to ensure that all are
present and in numerical order. Check the increment for rips, tears, lumps, and
discoloration caused by moisture. Charge 5 includes pieces of metal foil that act as a
decoppering agent to prevent buildup of brass in the cannon tube during firing. Charge 5
for 105-mm propellant will have lumps due to the decoppering compound.
f.
In separate-loading ammunition, the propellant charges come as a separate unit of issue
sealed in canisters to protect the propellant.
g. The 155-mm GB propellant is designed with zones 1 through 5. The bags are fastened
together with four cloth straps sewn to the base and hand tied to the top of increment 5.
The 155-mm GB propellant canisters contain two complete charges.
h. The 155-mm WB propellant is designed with zones 3 through 7. Its basic configuration is
the same as the GB.
i.
Charge 8 WB, M119 series, is a single increment 155-mm WB charge with a perforated
igniter core tube extending through the center of the propellant and a flash reducer sewn to
the forward end. Charge M119 series can only be used in the M109A2/A3 and the M198
howitzers.
j.
Charge 7 RB, M119A2, is a single increment zone 7 RB for firing in the M109A2/A3 and
M198 howitzers. The forward end of each charge has four pockets sewn longitudinally to
the circumference. Each of the four pockets contains 4 ounces of potassium sulfate to act
as a flash reducer. Charge 7 RB can be used interchangeably with charge 8 WB with only
a minor difference in muzzle velocity.
k.
The M203 propellant is a zone 8 charge designed to provide extended range for the M198
howitzer. The M203 propellant charge is a single increment, RB charge, with a central
ignition core extending through the center of the charge for almost its entire length and a
donut-shaped flash reducer at the forward end of the charge. The M203 propellant is used
only with the M549A1 (loaded with TNT) RAP for use in the M198 howitzer.
l.
In separate-loading ammunition, the primer comes as a separate item of issue. Some
155-mm propellant canisters come with the MK2A4 primer inside.
m. The M82 primer is used on all M198 series and M109 series. Inspection criteria for the
M82 include checking for rust, pits, and corrosion. Normal brown oxidation is acceptable.
Check to ensure that the primer has not been previously fired and to ensure that the end is
sealed to keep the black powder in the primer.
5. Give the prepared round to the designated cannoneer.
4-14
FM 3-09.8
31 July 2006
Delivery Section Training
INSTRUCTIONS TO THE CREWMAN: ”You must select the proper shell-fuse combination
from the fuses and shells present, set the fuze (if required), and cut the charge in
accordance with the announced firing data without error. Do you understand the
requirements of this test? Do you have any questions? You may begin.” (Start the time.)
Performance Measures
GO
NO-GO
1. Selected the proper shell-fuse combination assisted by the ATC when
firing data was given.
a. Identified the correct ammunition.
b. Inspected and cleaned the projectile.
c.
Removed the grommet.
d. Inspected the routing band.
e. Opened all ammunition containers safely.
2. Prepared the projectile(s).
a. Removed lifting plug and inspected the fuze well.
b. Selected the correct fuze for the projectile being used.
c.
Seated the fuze with the correct fuze wrench.
3. Set the fuze using the proper fuze setter.
a. Set impact fuze for super quick or delay with the M18 fuze wrench.
b. Set mechanical time fuze to the nearest 0.1 second with the proper
fuze setter.
c.
Set proximity fuze (VT) with the proper fuze setter to the nearest
second.
4. Inspected and prepared the announced propellant charge(s) assisted
by the ATC.
a. Cut the charge as announced.
b. Inspected the propellant.
5. At the appropriate time, gave the prepared round to the cannoneer
responsible for loading the weapon.
31 July 2006
FM 3-09.8
4-15
Chapter 4
PREPARE A HOWITZER RANGE CARD TEST STATION
TEST ADMINISTRATIVE GUIDE
STATION 6 (ALL)
TASK: Prepare a Howitzer Range Card
CONDITIONS: Given a battery/platoon position area with howitzers emplaced.
STANDARDS: You will prepare a howitzer range card in accordance with the procedures in
FM 6-50.
PERSONNEL, EQUIPMENT, AND MATERIAL REQUIRED:
•
Primary evaluator (SSG or above) in charge of administering the test (he may also occupy a
test station).
•
Station evaluator, SGT or above (one per test station).
•
Training area.
•
Stopwatch (one per evaluator).
•
Criterion-scoring checklist (one per Soldier).
•
Pencils (one per Soldier).
•
FM 3-09.8 (one per station).
•
DA Form 5699-R (Howitzer Range Card).
TEST PLANNING TIME:
•
Administrative time: 5 minutes
•
Test time: 10 minutes
•
Total time (per Soldier): 15 minutes
OTHER INFORMATION: Before the Soldier arrives, the evaluator will select an area with
howitzers in position and have pencils and blank DA Forms 5699-R available.
INSTRUCTIONS TO THE CREWMAN: “You have occupied a firing position, are laid and
ready to fire, and your section has begun position improvements. The platoon sergeant/chief
of firing battery has assigned a primary sector of fire and directed that a howitzer range card
be prepared. Do you understand the requirements of this test? Do you have any questions?
You may begin.” (Start the time.)
4-16
FM 3-09.8
31 July 2006
Delivery Section Training
Performance Measures
GO
NO-GO
1. The Soldier began a sketch of the area.
2. Left and right limits and potential targets and/or reference points were in the
sector of fire section.
3. Targets were identified and/or reference points in his sketch were
numbered in the order from the most probable to the least probable.
4. The section chief sited (along the bottom of the bore) and directed the
gunner to traverse and elevate or depress until the weapon was sighted on the
left limit.
5. The gunner turned the head of the pantel without traversing the tube onto
the collimator (or primary reference point) and read the deflection from the reset
counter (or azimuth and azimuth micrometer scale).
6. The Soldier recorded the deflections on the range card in the spaces
marked right DF and left DF. (If the left/right deflection is also the target, record
the deflection in the DF column on the appropriate line for the target number.)
7. The quadrant was measured and recorded in the quadrant column for each
target and the measured quadrant and range was given to the FDC to be
converted into a true quadrant (the true quadrant will then be recorded on the
range card in the QE column).
8. A brief description was annotated for each target in the description column.
9. The section chief determined the shell, fuse, and charge to be fired for the
appropriate columns.
10. The remarks column was used to record additional information needed to
engage the target.
31 July 2006
FM 3-09.8
4-17
Chapter 4
CONDUCT GUNNER’S QUALIFICATION TEST TEST STATION
TEST ADMINISTRATIVE GUIDE
STATION 7 (ALL)
TASK: Conduct Gunner’s Qualification Test
CONDITIONS: The gunner’s qualification test will be administered to all personnel assigned
to a howitzer section, regardless of grade or MOS, on a semiannual basis. The test will
include the tasks in the gunner test tasks table and may include additional tasks.
SUPPORTING COLLECTIVE TASKS
Task
Number
Subject
Elements
Points per
Element
Maximum
Credit
1
Lay the cannon for initial direction of fire using the
aiming circle
1
4
4
2
Lay the cannon for initial direction of fire using the
M2 compass
1
4
4
3
Lay the cannon for initial direction of fire using a
distant aiming point
1
4
4
4
Lay another cannon reciprocally
1
4
4
5
Refer the piece
1
4
4
6
Align the collimator
1
4
4
7
Align the aiming post
1
4
4
8
Boresight the howitzer
5
4
20
9
Verify boresight with the M140/M139
1
4
4
10
Conduct fire missions
5
4
20
11
Direct fire
4
4
16
12
Lay a howitzer for quadrant with the range quadrant
1
4
4
13
Measure the quadrant with the range quadrant
1
4
4
14
Initialize the automatic fire control system (AFCS)
1
4
4
15
Prepare to fire using the AFCS
1
4
4
16
Conduct fire missions using the AFCS
1
4
4
17
Perform direct fire using AFCS
1
4
4
Total Points Possible: 112
4-18
FM 3-09.8
31 July 2006
Delivery Section Training
STANDARDS OF PRECISION:
The following standards apply to all tasks evaluated. Failure to meet these standards will result in
the loss of four points on each task.
•
Settings must be exact. Bubbles in leveling vials must be centered exactly.
•
The vertical crosshairs of the pantel reticle pattern must be aligned exactly on the left edge of
the aiming posts, the 0 line of the collimator, or on exactly the same part of the designated
aiming point each time the piece is laid.
•
The last motion of elevating handwheel must be in the direction that raises cannon tube or
direction of the greater resistance.
•
The last motion of all knobs should be from lower to higher readings. For all knobs not
associated with scales, the last motion should be clockwise. The last motion of the traversing
handwheel should cause the howitzer or sighting device to approach aiming point from left to
right. The last motion of the pitch/elevation and cross level control knobs will be in a
clockwise direction.
•
The appropriate deflection correction must be set on the correction counter.
•
Read backs must be done while looking at and reading from the azimuth counter.
•
Correct terms and hand and arm signals must be used.
PERSONNEL, EQUIPMENT, AND MATERIAL REQUIRED:
•
Primary evaluator (SSG or above) in charge of administering the test (he may also occupy a
test station).
•
Station evaluator, SGT or above (one per test station).
•
Classroom or training area.
•
Stopwatch (one per evaluator).
•
Criterion-scoring checklist (one per Soldier).
•
Desk and chair or clipboard (one per Soldier).
•
Pencils (one per Soldier).
•
FM 3-09.8 (one per station).
•
An in-briefing station.
•
A chief examiner.
•
An examiner for each station and an assistant if required.
•
Six howitzers in the firing position with BILI.
•
An aiming circle with communications.
•
Two direct fire targets, 600 meters in front of the test site and 50 meters apart.
•
At least one distant aiming point.
31 July 2006
FM 3-09.8
4-19
Chapter 4
Recommended Grading Sheet
Gunner’s Name
Section
Unit
Section Chief
Date
Weapon System
Task
Points Achieved
Task 1
Lay a howitzer for initial direction of fire using
the aiming circle
NO-GO = 0 Points
Time____=____Points
Task 2
Lay a howitzer for initial direction of fire using the
M2 compass
NO-GO = 0 Points
Time____=____Points
Task 3
Lay a howitzer for initial direction of fire using a
distant aiming point
NO-GO = 0 Points
Time____=____Points
Task 4
Lay another howitzer reciprocally
NO-GO = 0 Points
Time____=____Points
Task 5
Refer the piece
NO-GO = 0 Points
Time____=____Points
Task 6
Align the collimator
NO-GO = 0 Points
Time____=____Points
Task 7
Align the aiming posts
NO-GO = 0 Points
Time____=____Points
Task 8A
Boresight the howitzer (pantel) with the test
target
NO-GO = 0 Points
Time____=____Points
Task 8B
Boresight the howitzer (elbow telescope) with the
test target
NO-GO = 0 Points
Time____=____Points
Task 8C
Boresight the howitzer (pantel) using a distant
aiming point
NO-GO = 0 Points
Time____=____Points
Task 8D
Boresight the howitzer (elbow telescope) using a
distant aiming point
NO-GO = 0 Points
Time____=____Points
Task 9
Verify boresight with the M140/M139 alignment
device
NO-GO = 0 Points
Time____=____Points
Task 10A
Conduct fire mission
NO-GO = 0 Points
Time____=____Points
Task 10B
Conduct fire mission
NO-GO = 0 Points
Time____=____Points
Task 10C
Conduct fire mission
NO-GO = 0 Points
Time____=____Points
Task 10D
Conduct fire mission
NO-GO = 0 Points
Time____=____Points
Task 10E
Conduct fire mission
NO-GO = 0 Points
Time____=____Points
4-20
FM 3-09.8
31 July 2006
Delivery Section Training
Recommended Grading Sheet
Gunner’s Name
Section
Unit
Section Chief
Date
Weapon System
Task
Points Achieved
Task 11A
Perform direct fire
NO-GO = 0 Points
Time____=____Points
Task 11B
Perform direct fire
NO-GO = 0 Points
Time____=____Points
Task 11C
Perform direct fire
NO-GO = 0 Points
Time____=____Points
Task 11D
Perform direct fire
NO-GO = 0 Points
Time____=____Points
Task 12
Lay a howitzer for quadrant with the range
quadrant
NO-GO = 0 Points
Time____=____Points
Task 13
Measure the quadrant using the range quadrant
NO-GO = 0 Points
Time____=____Points
Task 14
Initialize the AFCS
NO-GO = 0 Points
Time____=____Points
Task 15
Prepare for firing using the AFCS
NO-GO = 0 Points
Time____=____Points
Task 16
Conduct a fire missions using the AFCS
NO-GO = 0 Points
Time____=____Points
Task 17
Perform direct fire using the AFCS
NO-GO = 0 Points
Time____=____Points
Total Points
TEST PLANNING TIME: 4 hours
•
Administrative time: 2 minutes per task
•
Test time: 10 seconds to 120 seconds per task
•
Total time (per Soldier): 68 minutes
OTHER INFORMATION: Before the Soldier arrives, the evaluator will—
•
Determine the exact data setting to be used throughout that particular test. The values for
deflections, quadrants, and setups (that is, within “so many” mils) presented in the gunner’s
test are guides. Plus or minus 10 mils is acceptable, but must be consistent for all examinees
on that test.
31 July 2006
FM 3-09.8
4-21
Chapter 4
Note. Successful administration of the test is enhanced by efficiently organizating the testing
site. The specific approach will depend on the availability of equipment, space, and qualified
personnel to administer the test. Whenever possible, use multiple stations in a “round-robin”
setup. Such an approach uses equipment more efficiently, particularly in tasks requiring the
aiming circle or a second weapon. Also, each Soldier is exposed to a given task on the same
equipment and evaluated by the same examiner.
Note. The tasks in this test should be used as a training tool. The Soldier should practice each
task under close supervision to acquire the proficiency required by the standards stated in this
test.
Note. This test can bolster the esprit and motivation of the Soldier by recognizing individual
proficiency. The artillery clasp for the marksmanship badge will be awarded upon completing
this test (see AR 600-8-22).
TASK SCORING: Scoring will be per the standards for each task. A NO-GO will be given if
any of the standards of precision (page 4-19) or the standards of a specific task are not met,
and 0 points will be awarded. If the Soldier receives all GO ratings for the standards, points
for the task will depend on the speed of execution.
QUALIFICATION SCORES: Scores determining the qualification status of the gunner are
shown in the tables below.
Weapon/Score
Classification
M102
M119A1
M198
M109A2-A5
M109A6
Expert gunner
92-84
72-64
84-75
92-84
92-84
Gunner first class
83-76
63-57
74-67
83-76
83-76
Gunner second class
75-66
56-50
66-58
75-66
75-66
Unqualified
65-0
49-0
57-0
65-0
65-0
INSTRUCTIONS TO THE CREWMAN: ”Brief all personnel on the conduct and purpose of
the training. Explain the scoring system and standards of precision. Explain the organization
of the training area and general administrative and safety procedures. Ask if there are any
questions pertaining to any portion of the test.”
4-22
FM 3-09.8
31 July 2006
Delivery Section Training
TASK 1: Lay a howitzer for initial direction of fire using the aiming circle (061-266-2004)
CONDITIONS: Soldier will be given a howitzer in the firing position with the cannon tube 50
mils off the AOF and at loading elevation (unit SOP). Bubbles will be level and special
corrections are 0. An assistant examiner will operate the aiming circle, which will be located
50 meters to the left front of the howitzer. Soldier positions himself as gunner and
announces when ready. The assistant examiner commands NUMBER 1 ADJUST, AIMING
POINT THIS INSTRUMENT, DEFLECTION (XXXX).
TIME: Time will start on the last digit of deflection of the initial command and will stop when
the assistant examiner states that NUMBER 1 IS LAID.
Scoring
GO
NO-GO
a. Standards of precision were met (if applicable).
b. Correct steps were followed to complete the task.
c.
If steps a and b were not followed, Soldier receives a NO-GO and 0
points. If Soldier received a GO on steps a and b, use the table below
to determine score.
M102
M119A1
M198
M109s
Time in Seconds
Points
-29
-29
-34
-29
4
30-34
30-34
35-39
30-34
3
35-39
35-39
40-45
35-39
2
40-50
40-50
45-50
40-50
1
51-
51-
51-
51-
0
SCORE EXAMPLE: (M102 howitzer) If the Soldier performs task 1 in 29.59 seconds, he
scores 4 points. If the Soldier performs task 1 in 50.59 seconds, he scores 1 point.
31 July 2006
FM 3-09.8
4-23
Chapter 4
TASK 2: Lay a howitzer for initial direction of fire using the M2 compass (061-266-2003)
CONDITIONS: The Soldier will be given a howitzer in the firing position. The cannon tube is
50 mils off the AOF and at loading elevation (unit SOP). Bubbles will be level and special
corrections at 0. An assistant examiner will be at the M2 compass located 10 meters to the
left front of the howitzer. The Soldier positions himself as the gunner and announces when
ready. The assistant examiner commands NUMBER 1 ADJUST, AIMING POINT THIS
INSTRUMENT, DEFLECTION (XXXX).
TIME: Time will start on the last digit of the deflection of the initial command and will stop
when the assistant examiner announces that NUMBER 1 IS LAID.
Scoring
GO
NO-GO
a. Standards of precision were met (if applicable).
b. Correct steps were followed to complete the task.
c.
If steps a and b were not followed, Soldier receives a NO-GO and 0
points. If Soldier received a GO on steps a and b, use the table below
to determine score.
M102
M119A1
M198
M109s
Time in Seconds
4-24
Points
-17
-17
-22
-17
4
18-20
18-20
23-25
18-20
3
21-23
21-23
26-28
21-23
2
24-25
24-25
29-30
24-25
1
26-
26-
31-
26-
0
FM 3-09.8
31 July 2006
Delivery Section Training
TASK 3: Lay a howitzer for initial direction of fire using a distant aiming point (061-2662003)
CONDITIONS: Soldier will be given a howitzer in firing position with the cannon tube 50 mils
off the AOF and at loading elevation (unit SOP). Bubbles will be level and special
corrections at 0. The Soldier positions himself as gunner and announces when ready. The
examiner commands NUMBER 1 ADJUST, AIMING POINT (NAME OF OBJECT AND
LOCATION), DEFLECTION (XXXX).
TIME: Time will start on the last digit of the deflection of the initial command and will stop
when the examiner states that NUMBER 1 IS LAID.
Scoring
GO
NO-GO
a. Standards of precision were met (if applicable).
b. Correct steps were followed to complete the task.
c.
If steps a and b were not followed, Soldier receives a NO-GO and 0
points. If Soldier received a GO on steps a and b, use the table below
to determine score.
M102
M119A1
M198
M109s
Time in Seconds
Points
-17
-17
-22
-17
4
18-20
18-20
23-25
18-20
3
21-23
21-23
26-28
21-23
2
24-25
24-25
29-30
24-25
1
26-
26-
31-
26-
0
31 July 2006
FM 3-09.8
4-25
Chapter 4
TASK 4: Lay another howitzer reciprocally (061-266-2002)
CONDITIONS: The Soldier will be given a howitzer in the firing position and already laid for
initial direction of fire. Bubbles will be level and special corrections at 0. The pantel will be 50
mils off the howitzer to be laid. An assistant examiner will act as the gunner of the howitzer
to be laid. The Soldier positions himself as gunner and states when ready. The examiner will
say BEGIN.
TIME: Time will start when the examiner says BEGIN and will stop when the gunner says
NUMBER 2 IS LAID.
Scoring
GO
NO-GO
a. Standards of precision were met (if applicable).
b. Correct steps were followed to complete the task.
c.
If steps a and b were not followed, Soldier receives a NO-GO and 0
points. If Soldier received a GO on steps a and b, use the table below to
determine points.
M102
M119A1
M198
M109s
Time in Seconds
4-26
Points
-12
-12
-12
-12
4
13-15
13-15
13-15
13-15
3
16-18
16-18
16-18
16-18
2
19-20
19-20
19-20
19-20
1
21-
21-
21-
21-
0
FM 3-09.8
31 July 2006
Delivery Section Training
TASK 5: Refer the piece (061-266-2231)
CONDITIONS: The Soldier will be given a howitzer in the firing position that has already
been laid for initial direction of fire. Bubbles will be level and special corrections at 0. The
pantel will be oriented on the collimator. An assistant examiner will be operating the aiming
circle 50 meters to the howitzer’s left front. The Soldier positions himself as the gunner and
announces when ready. The assistant examiner commands NUMBER 1 REFER, AIMING
POINT THIS INSTRUMENT.
TIME: Time will start on the word REFER and will stop when the last digit of deflection is
announced.
Scoring
GO
NO-GO
a. Standards of precision were met (if applicable).
b. Correct steps were followed to complete the task.
c.
If steps a and b were not followed, Soldier receives a NO-GO and 0
points. If Soldier received a GO on steps a and b, use the table below
to determine score.
M102
M119A1
M198
M109s
Time in Seconds
Points
-12
-12
-12
-12
4
13-15
13-15
13-15
13-15
3
16-18
16-18
16-18
16-18
2
19-20
19-20
19-20
19-20
1
21-
21-
21-
21-
0
31 July 2006
FM 3-09.8
4-27
Chapter 4
TASK 6: Align the collimator (061-266-2000, 061-266-2001)
CONDITIONS: The Soldier will be given a howitzer in the firing position that has already
been laid on the initial direction of fire. Bubbles will be level and special corrections on 0. An
assistant examiner will be posted at the collimator, 4-15 meters off the howitzer’s left front.
The collimator will be on the tripod but will not be sighted in on the pantel and will not have
its legs sandbagged. The Soldier positions himself as gunner and announces when ready.
The examiner will say BEGIN.
TIME: Time will start when the examiner says BEGIN and will stop when the gunner states
that the collimator is set.
Scoring
GO
NO-GO
a. Standards of precision were met (if applicable).
b. Correct steps were followed to complete the task.
c.
If steps a and b were not followed, Soldier receives a NO-GO and 0
points. If Soldier received a GO on steps a and b, use the table below
to determine score.
M102
M119A1
M198
M109s
Time in Seconds
4-28
Points
-17
-17
-22
-17
4
18-20
18-20
23-25
18-20
3
21-23
21-23
26-28
21-23
2
24-25
24-25
29-30
24-25
1
26-
26-
31-
26-
0
FM 3-09.8
31 July 2006
Delivery Section Training
TASK 7: Align the aiming posts (061-266-2000, 061-266-2001)
CONDITIONS: The Soldier will be given a howitzer in the firing position that has already
been laid on the initial direction of fire. Bubbles will be level and special corrections on 0.
The pantel will be oriented on the collimator. Aiming posts will be emplaced in the ground at
50 and 100 meters from the howitzer, but will not be aligned. An assistant examiner will be
posted at the far aiming post. The Soldier will position himself as gunner and announce
when ready. The examiner will say BEGIN.
TIME: The time will start when the examiner says BEGIN and will stop when the gunner
states that the aiming posts are set.
Scoring
GO
NO-GO
a. Standards of precision were met (if applicable).
b. Correct steps were followed to complete the task.
c.
If steps a and b were not followed, Soldier receives a NO-GO
and 0 points. If Soldier received a GO on steps a and b, use
the table below to determine score.
M102
M119A1
M198
M109s
Time in Seconds
Points
-17
-17
-22
-17
4
18-20
18-20
23-25
18-20
3
21-23
21-23
26-28
21-23
2
24-25
24-25
29-30
24-25
1
26-
26-
31-
26-
0
31 July 2006
FM 3-09.8
4-29
Chapter 4
TASK 8: Boresight the howitzer
TASK 8A: Boresight the howitzer (pantel) with the test target
CONDITIONS: The Soldier will be given a howitzer in the firing position. Bubbles will be
level and special corrections on 0. The pantel will be 10 mils off the test target, and the
cover of the detent shaft will be on. The cannon tube will be aligned on the test target, which
will be posted 50 meters in front of the howitzer. Boresight will be off by 5 mils and the
Soldier will be given the tools needed to adjust the sight. The Soldier will position himself as
gunner and will announce when ready. The examiner will say BEGIN.
TIME: The time will start when the examiner says BEGIN and will stop when the gunner
states that the howitzer is boresighted.
Scoring
GO
NO-GO
a. Standards of precision were met (if applicable).
b. Correct steps were followed to complete the task.
c.
If steps a and b were not followed, Soldier receives a NO-GO and
0 points. If Soldier received a GO on steps a and b, use the table
below to determine score.
M102
M109s
Time in Seconds
4-30
Points
-45
-45
4
46-60
46-60
3
61-89
61-89
2
90-120
90-120
1
121-
121-
0
FM 3-09.8
31 July 2006
Delivery Section Training
TASK 8B: Boresight the howitzer (elbow telescope) with the test target (061-266-2005)
CONDITIONS: The Soldier will be given a howitzer in the firing position. The cannon tube is
aligned on the test target but the elbow telescope will not be aligned on the test target. The
test target will be located 50 meters in front of the howitzer, and the Soldier will be given the
tools needed to adjust the sight. The Soldier will position himself as the gunner and
announce when ready. The examiner will say BEGIN.
TIME: The time will start when the examiner says BEGIN and will end when the gunner
states that the howitzer is boresighted.
Scoring
GO
NO-GO
a. Standards of precision were met (if applicable).
b. Correct steps were followed to complete the task.
c.
If steps a and b were not followed, Soldier receives a NO-GO and 0
points. If Soldier received a GO on steps a and b, use the table
below to determine points.
M102
M109s
Time in Seconds
31 July 2006
Points
-45
-45
4
46-60
46-60
3
61-89
61-89
2
90-120
90-120
1
121-
121-
0
FM 3-09.8
4-31
Chapter 4
TASK 8C: Boresight the howitzer (pantel) using a distant aiming point (061-266-2005)
CONDITIONS: The Soldier will be given a howitzer in the firing position. Bubbles will be
level and special corrections on 0. The cannon tube will be aligned on the DAP, but the
pantel will be aligned 10 mils off the DAP. Boresight will be 5 mils off, and the cover will be
on the detent shaft (if applicable). The Soldier will be given the tools needed to adjust the
sight. The Soldier will position himself as the gunner and will announce when ready. The
examiner will say BEGIN.
TIME: The time will start when the examiner says BEGIN and will stop when the gunner
states that the howitzer is boresighted.
Scoring
GO
NO-GO
a. Standards of precision were met (if applicable).
b. Correct steps were followed to complete the task.
c.
If steps a and b were not followed, Soldier receives a NO-GO and 0
points. If Soldier received a GO on steps a and b, use the table below
to determine score.
M102
M119A1
M198
M109s
Time in Seconds
4-32
Points
-45
-45
-45
-45
4
46-60
46-60
46-60
46-60
3
61-89
61-89
61-89
61-89
2
90-120
90-120
90-120
90-120
1
121-
121-
121-
121-
0
FM 3-09.8
31 July 2006
Delivery Section Training
TASK 8D: Boresight the howitzer (elbow telescope) using a distant aiming point
CONDITIONS: The Soldier will be given a howitzer in the firing position. The cannon tube
will be aligned on the DAP, but the elbow telescope will not be aligned on the DAP. The
Soldier will be given the tools needed to adjust the sight. The Soldier will position himself as
assistant gunner and will announce when ready. The examiner will say BEGIN.
TIME: The time will start when the examiner says BEGIN and will stop when the assistant
gunner states that the howitzer is boresighted.
Scoring
GO
NO-GO
a. Standards of precision were met (if applicable).
b. Correct steps were followed to complete the task.
c.
If steps a and b were not followed, Soldier receives a NO-GO and 0
points. If Soldier received a GO on steps a and b, use the table below
to determine score.
M102
M198
M109s
Time in Seconds
Points
-45
-45
-45
4
46-60
46-60
46-60
3
61-89
61-89
61-89
2
90-120
90-120
90-120
1
121-
121-
121-
0
31 July 2006
FM 3-09.8
4-33
Chapter 4
TASK 9: Verify boresight with the M140/M139 alignment device (061-266-2239)
CONDITIONS: The Soldier will be given a howitzer in the firing position with level bubbles
and special corrections on 0. The cannon tube will be at 0 mils elevation, and the azimuth
counter will be set at 1600. The Soldier will be given an M140/M139 alignment device. The
Soldier will position himself as gunner and will announce when ready. The examiner will say
BEGIN.
TIME: The time will start when the examiner says BEGIN and will stop when the gunner
states that boresight is either verified or not verified.
Scoring
GO
NO-GO
a. Standards of precision were met (if applicable).
b. Correct steps were followed to complete the task.
c.
If steps a and b were not followed, Soldier receives a NO-GO and 0
points. If Soldier received a GO on steps a and b, use the table below to
determine score.
M102
M119A1
M198
M109s
Time in Seconds
4-34
Points
-17
-17
-17
-17
4
18-20
18-20
18-20
18-20
3
21-23
21-23
21-23
21-23
2
24-25
24-25
24-25
24-25
1
26-
26-
26-
26-
0
FM 3-09.8
31 July 2006
Delivery Section Training
TASK 10: Conduct fire missions
Note. The missions in task 10 are one continuous mission.)
TASK 10A:
CONDITIONS: The Soldier will be given a howitzer in the firing position. The howitzer will be
laid and both the collimator and aiming posts will be emplaced. The pantel will be aligned on
the collimator. Bubbles will be level and special corrections will be at 0. The cannon tube will
be oriented on the primary direction of fire and elevated to 315 mils. The Soldier will position
himself as gunner and will announce when ready. The examiner will command FIRE
MISSION, PLATOON ADJUST, NUMBER 1, 1 ROUND, SHELL HE, CHARGE (XX), fuze
QUICK, DEFLECTION 3225 (M101A1 USE DEFLECTION 2825), QUADRANT 315.
TIME: The time will start on the last digit of the deflection and will stop when the gunner
says READY.
Scoring
GO
NO-GO
a. Standards of precision were met (if applicable).
b. Correct steps were followed to complete the task.
c.
If steps a and b were not followed, Soldier receives a NO-GO and 0
points. If Soldier received a GO on steps a and b, use the table below
to determine score.
M102
M119A1
M198
M109s
Time in Seconds
-10
-10
Points
-10
-8
4
11-12
11-12
11-12
9-10
3
13-14
13-14
13-14
11-12
2
15-16
15-16
15-16
13-14
1
17-
17-
17-
15-
0
31 July 2006
FM 3-09.8
4-35
Chapter 4
TASK 10B:
CONDITIONS: Continuation from task 10A. The Soldier will announce when ready. The
examiner will command SPECIAL CORRECTIONS, RIGHT 4, DEFLECTION 3194,
QUADRANT 315.
TIME: The time will start on the last digit of deflection and will stop when the gunner states
READY.
Scoring
GO
NO-GO
a. Standards of precision were met (if applicable).
b. Correct steps were followed to complete the task.
c.
If steps a and b were not followed, Soldier receives a NO-GO and 0
points. If Soldier received a GO on steps a and b, use the table below
to determine score.
M102
M119A1
M198
M109s
Time in Seconds
4-36
Points
-11
-11
-11
-9
4
12-13
12-13
12-13
10-11
3
14-15
14-15
14-15
12-13
2
16-17
16-17
16-17
14-15
1
18-
18-
18-
16-
0
FM 3-09.8
31 July 2006
Delivery Section Training
TASK 10C:
CONDITIONS: Continuation from task 10B. The Soldier will announce when ready. The
examiner will cancel special corrections, say that the collimator has fallen down and will
direct the gunner to use the aiming posts. The examiner will command DEFLECTION 3180,
QUADRANT 315.
TIME: The time will start on the last digit of deflection and will stop when the gunner states
READY.
Scoring
GO
NO-GO
a. Standards of precision were met (if applicable).
b. Correct steps were followed to complete the task.
c.
If steps a and b were not followed, Soldier receives a NO-GO and 0
points. If Soldier received a GO on steps a and b, use the table below
to determine score.
M102
M119A1
M198
M109s
Time in Seconds
Points
-12
-14
-14
-10
4
13-14
15-16
15-16
11-12
3
15-16
17-18
17-18
13-14
2
17-18
19-20
19-20
15-16
1
19-
21-
21-
17-
0
31 July 2006
FM 3-09.8
4-37
Chapter 4
TASK 10D:
CONDITIONS Continuation from task 10C. The Soldier will announce when ready. The
examiner will command DEFLECTION 3230, QUADRANT 315.
TIME: The time will start on the last digit of deflection and will stop when the gunner states
READY.
Scoring
GO
NO-GO
a. Standards of precision were met (if applicable).
b. Correct steps were followed to complete the task.
c.
If steps a and b were not followed, Soldier receives a NO-GO and 0
points. If Soldier received a GO on steps a and b, use the table below
to determine score.
M102
M119A1
M198
M109s
Time in Seconds
4-38
Points
-11
-11
-11
-9
4
12-13
12-13
12-13
10-11
3
14-15
14-15
14-15
12-13
2
16-17
16-17
16-17
14-15
1
18-
18-
18-
16-
0
FM 3-09.8
31 July 2006
Delivery Section Training
TASK 10E:
CONDITIONS: Continuation from task 10D. The Soldier will announce when ready. The
examiner will command GAS (waits for the Soldier to mask), DEFLECTION 3242,
QUADRANT 315.
TIME: The time starts on the last digit of deflection and stops when the gunner states
READY.
Scoring
GO
NO-GO
a. Standards of precision were met (if applicable).
b. Correct steps were followed to complete the task.
c.
If steps a and b were not followed, Soldier receives a NO-GO and 0
points. If Soldier received a GO on steps a and b, use the table below
to determine score.
M102
M119A1
M198
M109s
Time in Seconds
Points
-11
-11
-11
-9
4
12-13
12-13
12-13
10-11
3
14-15
14-15
14-15
12-13
2
16-17
16-17
16-17
14-15
1
18-
18-
18-
16-
0
31 July 2006
FM 3-09.8
4-39
Chapter 4
TASK 11: Perform direct fire (061-266-2235)
Note. The fire mission in task 11 is one continuous mission. The central or reticle method of
sighting may be used. Only the one-man/one-sight technique of direct fire will be used.
TASK 11A
CONDITIONS: The Soldier will be given a howitzer in the firing position. The howitzer will be
laid and the pantel will be oriented on the collimator. Bubbles will be level and special
corrections at 0. The cannon tube will be at 0 mils elevation and oriented so that the trails
will not have to be shifted during the mission to engage the direct fire target. The Soldier will
be told which direct fire target he is to engage. The Soldier will position himself as gunner
and will announce when ready. The examiner will command FIRE MISSION, TARGET
THAT (XXX), (direction), SHELL HE, CHARGE (XX), fuze QUICK, LEAD RIGHT 15 MILS,
RANGE 600, FIRE AT WILL.
TIME: The time will start when the examiner states FIRE AT WILL and will stop when the
gunner says FIRE.
Scoring
GO
NO-GO
a. Standards of precision were met (if applicable)..
b. Correct steps were followed to complete the task..
c.
If steps a and b were not followed, Soldier receives a NO-GO and 0
points. If Soldier received a GO on steps a and b, use the table below
to determine score.
M102
M119A1
M198
M109s
Time in Seconds
4-40
Points
-11
-11
-11
-9
4
12-13
12-13
12-13
10-11
3
14-15
14-15
14-15
12-13
2
16-17
16-17
16-17
14-15
1
18-
18-
18-
16-
0
FM 3-09.8
31 July 2006
Delivery Section Training
TASK 11B:
CONDITIONS: Continuation from task 11A. The Soldier will announce when ready. The
examiner will command RIGHT 5, ADD 100.
TIME: The time will start when the examiner states ADD 100 and will stop when the gunner
says FIRE.
Scoring
GO
NO-GO
a. Standards of precision were met (if applicable).
b. Correct steps were followed to complete the task.
c.
If steps a and b were not followed, Soldier receives a NO-GO and 0
points. If Soldier received a GO on steps a and b, use the table below
to determine score.
M102
M119A1
M198
M109s
-6
-6
-6
-4
4
7-8
7-8
7-8
5-6
3
9-10
9-10
9-10
7-8
2
11-12
11-12
11-12
9-10
1
13-
13-
13-
11-
0
Time in Seconds
31 July 2006
Points
FM 3-09.8
4-41
Chapter 4
TASK 11C
CONDITIONS: Continuation of task 11 B. The Soldier will announce when ready. The
examiner will command LEFT 10, ADD 100.
TIME: The time will start when the examiner states ADD 100 and will stop when the gunner
states FIRE.
Scoring
GO
NO-GO
a. Standards of precision were met (if applicable).
b. Correct steps were followed to complete the task.
c.
If steps a and b were not followed, Soldier receives a NO-GO and 0
points. If Soldier received a GO on steps a and b, use the table below
to determine points.
M102
M119A1
M198
M109s
Time in Seconds
4-42
Points
-6
-6
-6
-4
4
7-8
7-8
7-8
5-6
3
9-10
9-10
9-10
7-8
2
11-12
11-12
11-12
9-10
1
13-
13-
13-
11-
0
FM 3-09.8
31 July 2006
Delivery Section Training
TASK 11D:
CONDITIONS: Continuation from task 11C. The Soldier will announce when ready. The
examiner will command LEFT 15, DROP 100.
TIME: The time will start when the examiner states DROP 100 and will stop when the
gunner states FIRE.
Scoring
GO
NO-GO
a. Standards of precision were met (if applicable).
b. Correct steps were followed to complete the task.
c.
If steps a and b were not followed, Soldier receives a NO-GO and 0
points. If Soldier received a GO on steps a and b, use the table below
to determine points.
M102
M119A1
M198
M109s
Time in Seconds
Points
-6
-6
-6
-4
4
7-8
7-8
7-8
5-6
3
9-10
9-10
9-10
7-8
2
11-12
11-12
11-12
9-10
1
13-
13-
13-
11-
0
31 July 2006
FM 3-09.8
4-43
Chapter 4
TASK 12: Lay a howitzer for quadrant with the range quadrant
CONDITIONS: The Soldier will be given a howitzer in the firing position with the cannon
tube at 0 mils elevation. Bubbles will be level and special corrections at 0 mils. The Soldier
will position himself as gunner/assistant gunner and will announce when ready. The
examiner will command QUADRANT 215.
TIME: The time will start when the examiner states QUADRANT 215, and will stop when the
gunner/assistant gunner states SET.
Scoring
GO
NO-GO
a. Standards of precision were met (if applicable).
b. Correct steps were followed to complete the task.
c.
If steps a and b were not followed, Soldier receives a NO-GO and 0
points. If Soldier received a GO on steps a and b, use the table below
to determine score.
M102
M119A1
M198
M109s
Time in Seconds
4-44
Points
-9
-9
-9
-8
4
10-11
10-11
10-11
9-10
3
12-13
12-13
12-13
11-12
2
14-15
14-15
14-15
13-14
1
16-
16-
16-
15-
0
FM 3-09.8
31 July 2006
Delivery Section Training
TASK 13: Measure the quadrant using the range quadrant
CONDITIONS: The Soldier will be given a howitzer in the firing position with the cannon
tube at 245 mils. The range quadrant will be at 0 mils and the cross level bubble will be
centered. The Soldier will position himself as the gunner/assistant gunner and will announce
when ready. The examiner will state BEGIN.
TIME: The time will start when the examiner states BEGIN and will stop when the
gunner/assistant gunner states QUADRANT 245.
Scoring
GO
NO-GO
a. Standards of precision were met (if applicable).
b. Correct steps were followed to complete the task.
c.
If steps a and b were not followed, Soldier receives a NO-GO and 0
points. If Soldier received a GO on steps a and b, use the table below
to determine score.
M102
M119A1
M198
M109s
Time in Seconds
-9
-9
Points
-9
-8
4
10-11
10-11
10-11
9-10
3
12-13
12-13
12-13
11-12
2
14-15
14-15
14-15
13-14
1
16-
16-
16-
15-
0
31 July 2006
FM 3-09.8
4-45
Chapter 4
TASK 14: Initialize the automatic fire control system (AFCS)
CONDITIONS: The Soldier will be given a howitzer parked within 1 meter of a SCP. The
Soldier will receive data for the SCP and initialization data. The Soldier will position himself
as section chief and will announce when ready. The examiner will state BEGIN.
TIME: The will time start when the examiner states BEGIN and will stop when the Soldier
announces INITIALIZED.
Scoring
GO
NO-GO
a. Standards of precision were met (if applicable).
b. Correct steps were followed to complete the task.
c.
If steps a and b were not followed, Soldier receives a NO-GO and 0
points. If Soldier received a GO on steps a and b, use the table below
to determine score.
M109A6
Time in Minutes
4-46
Points
-7
4
8-13
3
14-15
2
16-17
1
18-
0
FM 3-09.8
31 July 2006
Delivery Section Training
TASK 15: Prepare for firing using the automatic fire control system
CONDITIONS:The Soldier will be given a howitzer, aligned along the AOF, and in travel
lock. The “emplace” screen is displayed on the AFCS. The Soldier will position himself as
the section chief and will announce when ready. The examiner will state BEGIN.
TIME:The time will start when the examiner states BEGIN and will stop when the Soldier
sends the updated piece status.
Scoring
GO
NO-GO
a. Standards of precision were met (if applicable).
b. Correct steps were followed to complete the task.
c.
If steps a and b were not followed, Soldier receives a NO-GO and 0
points. If Soldier received a GO on steps a and b, use the table below
to determine score.
M109A6
31 July 2006
Time in Minutes/ Seconds
Points
-1:30
4
1:31-1:45
3
1:46-1:55
2
1:56-2:10
1
2:11-
0
FM 3-09.8
4-47
Chapter 4
TASK 16: Conduct a fire mission using the automatic fire control system (AFCS)
CONDITIONS:The Soldier will be given a howitzer at loading elevation. The Soldier will
position himself as the section chief and will announce when ready. The examiner will have
a digital call-for-fire transmitted to the AFCS.
TIME: The time will start when the fire mission is received at the AFCS and will stop when
the howitzer is laid on the target.
Scoring
GO
NO-GO
a. Standards of precision were met (if applicable).
b. Correct steps were followed to complete the task.
c.
If steps a and b were not followed, Soldier receives a NO-GO and 0
points. If Soldier received a GO on steps a and b, use the table below
to determine score.
M109A6
4-48
Time in Minutes/Seconds
Points
-15.0
4
15.1-16.0
3
16.1-20.0
2
20.1-22.0
1
22.1-
0
FM 3-09.8
31 July 2006
Delivery Section Training
TASK 17: Perform direct fire using the automatic fire control system (AFCS)
CONDITIONS:The Soldier will be given a howitzer, aligned on the AOF, and out of travel
lock. The Soldier will be shown which target he is to engage and an assistant examiner will
be provided to lay for deflection. The Soldier will position himself as the section chief and will
announce when ready. The examiner will state BEGIN.
TIME:The time will start when the examiner says BEGIN and will stop when the Soldier
states SET.
Scoring
GO
NO-GO
a. Standards of precision were met (if applicable).
b. Correct steps were followed to complete the task.
c.
If steps a and b were not followed, Soldier receives a NO-GO and 0
points. If Soldier received a GO on steps a and b, use the table below
to determine score.
M109A6
31 July 2006
Time in Minutes/Seconds
Points
-20.0
4
20.1-22.0
3
22.1-23.0
2
23.1-30.0
1
30.1-
0
FM 3-09.8
4-49
Chapter 4
MEASURE SITE-TO-CREST USING AN M2 COMPASS TEST STATION
TEST ADMINISTRATIVE GUIDE
STATION 8 (ALL)
TASK: Measure Site to Crest Using an M2 Compass
CONDITIONS: Given an M2 compass and designated position area for the howitzer.
STANDARDS: Sight on and measure the highest crest in the sector of fire and report the
site to crest to the FDC.
PERSONNEL, EQUIPMENT, AND MATERIAL REQUIRED:
•
Primary evaluator (SSG or above) in charge of administering the test (he may also occupy a
test station).
•
Station evaluator, SGT or above (one per test station).
•
Training area.
•
Stopwatch (one per evaluator).
•
Criterion-scoring checklist (one per Soldier).
•
Pencils (one per Soldier).
•
FM 3-09.8 (one per station).
•
M2 compass.
TEST PLANNING TIME:
•
Administrative time: 5 minutes
•
Test time: 2 minutes
•
Total time (per Soldier): 7 minutes
OTHER INFORMATION: Before the Soldier arrives, the evaluator will measure site to crest
with an aiming circle and will determine a primary sector of fire.
INSTRUCTIONS TO THE CREWMAN: “You are the advanced party man for your howitzer.
This position has been designated for your howitzer and you have been directed to measure
the site to crest. Your primary sector of fire is _________. Do you have any questions? You
may begin.” (Start the time.)
4-50
FM 3-09.8
31 July 2006
Delivery Section Training
Performance Measures
GO
NO-GO
1. Held the compass on edge with both hands at eye level with arms braced
against the body and with the rear sight nearest one’s eyes.
2. Placed the cover at an angle of approximately 45 degrees to the face of the
compass so that the reflection can be seen in the mirror.
3. Read the elevation in mils on the elevation scale.
4. Measured the sight to crest two additional times and recorded average.
EVALUATION CRITERIA: The Soldier achieved a GO on each of the performance
measures and reported a sight to crest within ±20 mils.
31 July 2006
FM 3-09.8
4-51
Chapter 4
HOWITZER TABLES
4-6.
The howitzer tables listed in table 4-1 provide a standardized, tabular format to train and evaluate
howitzer section tasks. These task-based tables include individual and collective tasks from STPs and MTPs
and include equipment-specific tasks from system technical manuals.
Table 4-1. Howitzer tables
Table No.
Description
Remarks
I
Individual / leader tasks (includes
safety certification)
Written exam
II
Crew/section special tasks
Section STX
III
Machine gun training
Training through qualification
IV
Direct fire procedures
LFX
A&B
Deliberate occupation procedures
(day/night)
STX
VI
Preparations to fire under unique
conditions
Hip shoot, occupation of LZ, occupation of
DZ, Paladin degraded operations
VII
Training
Evaluate using FSCATT as available
VIII
Section
LTX
V
HOWITZER TABLE I: INDIVIDUAL/LEADER TASKS
4-7.
Howitzer Table I contains some of the critical individual tasks and knowledge required to safely
operate and fire the howitzer. Table I is a gate for all other tables. The leader’s safety certification exams and
hands-on component in this table and chapter 2 of this manual may be required to be supplemented with local
range safety procedures and requirements to meet the commander’s safety certification program. Individual
leader tasks to support the commander’s safety certification program are available on the Fires Knowledge
Network, Master Gunner Site. Tasks to support the hands-on component are in appendix C of this manual.
Howitzer Table I – Individual/leader tasks
Task Number
Task Title
061-266-5100
Measure site to crest using an M2 compass
061-266-1806
Lay and measure a howitzer for quadrant with the range quadrant (except M119)
061-266-1508
Prepare ammunition for firing
061-266-1501
Load and secure ammunition in preparation for transporting
061-266-1105
Emplace and recover close-in aiming points
061-266-1102
Record and maintain fire mission data on a DA Form 4513 (Record of Missions
Fired)
061-266-1101
Prepare a position to receive/emplace a howitzer (advance party)
061-268-1507
Load and fire a prepared round (M102)
061-281-1543
Load a prepared round (M119)
061-271-1507
Load and fire a prepared round (M198)
061-270-1507
Load and fire a prepared round (M109A2-A5)
4-8.
Soldier tasks in table I are those howitzer-related tasks typically trained during weekly sergeant’s
time training. (Sample questions for written examinations are available on the Fires Knowledge Network,
4-52
FM 3-09.8
31 July 2006
Delivery Section Training
Master Gunner Site.) Units should select questions from master gunner site and supplement with an equal
number of questions on unit TSOP.
4-9.
.Leader training and certification for table I supports the commander’s safety certification program.
Table I includes a hands-on component test for leaders assigned to the following type units:
z
M102, M119 series, 105 mm.
z
M198, M109A1-A5, 155 mm.
4-10.
Sample written examinations for all cannon leaders are also available through the Fires Knowledge
Network, Master Gunner Site. The commander must supplement the written examination to satisfy local range
regulations and safety SOPs.
HOWITZER TABLE II: CREW/SECTION SPECIAL TASKS
4-11.
Howitzer Table II includes basic crew/section-level tasks critical to the unit’s ability to perform the
overall mission but unique to certain types of units. Tasks in Table II include rigging procedures for airmobile
operations. Specific rigging procedures must comply with unit TSOP and FM 10-450-4.
Howitzer Table II – Crew/section special tasks
Task Title
Rig the M119A1 howitzer for air movement
Rig the A-22 container for air movement
Tandem rigging procedures for M119A1 howitzer and a 1097 HMMWV
Rig the M119A1 howitzer with firing platform attached (A-frame rigging)
HOWITZER TABLE III: MACHINE GUN TRAINING
4-12.
Field artillery units are currently equipped with the following types of machine guns:
M249 LMG.
z
M2 caliber .50 machine gun.
z
MK-19 40-mm machine gun.
z
4-13.
The M249 is for dismounted operations and assigned to light artillery units. The M2 caliber .50
machine gun and the MK-19 40-mm machine gun are heavy machine guns assigned to Stryker brigade combat
teams (SBCTs) and M109-equipped units. The M2 and MK-19 are equipped with vehicular mounts or the RWS
for Stryker vehicles to provide a unit defense against both ground and air threats during movement. The M2
and MK-19 machine guns are equipped with tripods and T&E mechanisms to assist in integrating the machine
guns into the unit’s perimeter defenses. Table III (table 4-4) is required for all FA units. The resourced training
strategies for M249, M2, and MK19 training are found in the STRAC manual (DA Pam 350-38), tables 5-20,
5-23, and 5-25. These tables include transition firing for the gunner and assistant gunner or mounted
qualification if a multipurpose range facility is available for both the M2 and MK-19. The commander must
consider a number of factors to determine the optimal machine gun training for his unit. These factors
include—
z
METL.
z
Previous experience and training of crews.
z
Range availability.
z
Training resources.
4-14.
As a minimum, training should include firing from both the tripod with T&E mechanism and from
the vehicle if equipped with a mount per procedures in FM 3-22.68, FM 3-22.27, and FM 3-22.65. Biannual
training should be included for convoy live-fire operations or mounted firing on the multipurpose range. The
following individual tasks are included in Howitzer Table III:
31 July 2006
FM 3-09.8
4-53
Chapter 4
Howitzer Table III – Machine gun training
Task Number
Task Title
071-030-0011
Mount an MK-19 machine gun on an M3 tripod
071-030-0003
Zero an MK-19 machine gun
071-030-0004
Engage targets with an MK-19 machine gun
071-022-0012
Mount a caliber .50 M2 machine gun on a vehicle
071-030-0008
Correct malfunctions of an MK-19 machine gun
071-030-0009
Mount an MK-19 machine gun on a vehicle
071-022-0010
Mount a caliber .50 M2 machine gun on an M3 tripod
071-022-0001
Maintain a caliber .50 M2 machine gun
071-030-0005
Load an MK19 machine gun
071-030-0001
Maintain an MK19 machine gun
071-022-0003
Load a caliber .50 M2 machine gun
071-022-0013
Dismount a caliber .50 M2 machine gun from a vehicle
071-030-0006
Unload an MK19 machine gun
071-030-0012
Dismount an MK19 machine gun from an M3 tripod
071-030-0002
Prepare a range card for an MK-19 machine gun
071-313-3455
Set headspace and timing on a caliber .50 M2 machine gun
071-030-0007
Perform a function check on an MK-19 machine gun
071-022-0011
Dismount a caliber .50 M2 machine gun from an M3 tripod
M249 LMG Training
4-15.
The M249 LMG is common to many sections and crews in FA units. Maintaining a high degree of
proficiency on this weapon has never been more important. The asynchronous battlefield of the COE and the
varied and complex missions assigned to FA organizations require that crews and sections be proficient on all
assigned weapons. The M249 LMG is critical to the overall defense of the unit against both ground and air
threats and integrated with other defenses to provide force protection against all threats. The unit training
program should include preliminary marksmanship training and training on the assembly, disassembly, and
maintenance of the weapon as described in FM 3-22.68. The training and qualification included in table 4-5 is
the strategy recommended by STRAC and FM 3-22.68. This strategy has been expanded to include a convoy
live-fire exercise.
Table 4-2. M249 light machine gun (LMG) training
Task
Conditions
Ammunition
Reference
10-meter zero
practice and
qualification
Integrated CBRN, 80 percent
of assigned gunner and
assistant gunner annually
108 rounds,
ball/person
Table 5-1, FM 3-22.68;
Table 5-26, DA Pam
350-38
Transition firing,
practice, and
qualification
Integrated CBRN
144 rounds,
mix/person
Table 5-1, FM 3-22.68;
Table 5-26, DA Pam
350-38
Night zero and
instructional firing
With mounted AN/PVS-4
90 rounds,
mix/person
Table 5-1, FM 3-22.68;
Table 5-26, DA Pam
350-38
Convoy LFX
4-54
370 rounds,
mixed
FM 3-09.8
31 July 2006
Delivery Section Training
M2 Caliber .50 Machine Gun Qualification
4-16.
The following tables are extracts from FM 3-22.65. Table 4-6 is for tripod-mounted M2 gunner and
assistant gunner transition fire tables for field zero and qualification. These tables require a caliber .50,
transition fire range.
Table 4-3. Practice/qualification table, tripod mounted
Task
No.
Task
Conditions
Target/Situation
1.
Zero the M2
machine gun
Gunner is in the stationary tripod
firing position and engages a 550meter, double E-type silhouette.
Gunner will use 5 to 7 round bursts.
Engage a
single, double
E-type
silhouette
Gunner is in the stationary tripod
firing position and engages an
800-meter, double E-type
silhouette. Gunner will use 5 to 7
round bursts.
Engage a
single, double
E-type
silhouette
Gunner is in the stationary tripod
firing position and engages a 400meter, double E-type silhouette.
Gunner will use 5 to 7 round bursts.
Engage a
single, double
E-type
silhouette
Gunner is in the stationary tripod
firing position and engages a 700meter, double E-type silhouette.
Gunner will use 5-7 round bursts.
Engage a
single, double
E-type
silhouette
Gunner is in the stationary tripod
firing position and engages a
1,000-meter, double E-type
silhouette. Gunner will use 5 to 7
round bursts.
Engage multiple
double E-type
silhouettes
Gunner is in the stationary tripod
firing position and engages 400meter and 700-meter, double Etype silhouettes. Gunner will use 5
to 7 round bursts.
Engage multiple
double E-type
silhouettes
Gunner is in the stationary tripod
firing position and engages 550meter and 800-meter, double Etype silhouettes. Gunner will use 5
to 7 round bursts.
Engage multiple
double E-type
silhouettes
Gunner is in the stationary tripod
firing position and engages 400meter, 550-meter, and 1,000-meter
double E-type silhouettes. Gunner
will use 5 to 7 round bursts.
2.
3.
4.
5.
6.
7.
8.
Ammunition
Standard
28-round
belt
Gunner must
impact one burst
on the 550–meter
target.
14 rounds
Gunner must
impact one burst
on the 800–meter
target in 20
seconds.
14 rounds
Gunner must
impact one burst
on the 400-meter
target in 20
seconds.
14 rounds
Gunner must
impact one burst
on the 700-meter
target in 25
seconds.
14 rounds
Gunner must
impact one burst
on the 1,000meter target in 25
seconds.
28 rounds
28 rounds
42 rounds
Gunner must
impact one burst
on each target
within 35 seconds.
Gunner must
impact one burst
on each target
within 35 seconds.
Gunner must
impact one burst
on each target
within 45 seconds.
4-17.
If multipurpose range facilities are available, and the commander chooses to conduct mounted M2
qualification, the following table (table 4-7) is provided.
31 July 2006
FM 3-09.8
4-55
Chapter 4
Table 4-4. Mounted M2 qualification
Task
No.
Task
Conditions/Target/Situation
1.
Conduct prefire
inspection
Gunner is in a stationary
position given a 450-meter
stationary target, headspace
and timing gauge, section
organic vehicles, and M2
machine gun.
2.
3.
4.
5.
6.
7.
4-56
Engage stationary
target from
stationary firing
position
Gunner is in a mounted
firing position in a stationary
vehicle and engages a
450-meter stationary target.
Gunner must use 5 to 7
round bursts.
Engage stationary
target from
stationary firing
position
Gunner is in a mounted
firing position in a stationary
vehicle and engages an
850-meter stationary target.
Gunner must use 5-7 round
bursts.
Engage moving and
stationary targets
from a stationary
firing position
Gunner is in a mounted
firing position in a stationary
vehicle and engages a
moving vehicle at 800
meters and a stationary
target at 1,000 meters.
Gunner must use 5-7 round
bursts.
Engage stationary
targets while firing
from a moving
vehicle
While the gunner’s vehicle
is moving, the gunner
engages stationary vehicles
at 300 and 500 meters.
Gunner must use 5-7 round
bursts.
Engage moving and
stationary targets
from a stationary
firing position
Gunner is in a mounted
firing position in a stationary
vehicle and engages a
moving vehicle at 800
meters and a stationary
personnel target at 600
meters. Gunner must use
5-7 round bursts.
Engage stationary
target from
stationary firing
position while in an
upgraded CBRN
posture
Gunner in MOPP in a
stationary firing position
engages a 500-meter target.
Gunner will use 5-7 round
bursts.
FM 3-09.8
Ammunition
7-round belt
Standard
Conduct prefire
inspections and fire 7
rounds to confirm
operation of machine
gun.
Gunner must impact
on target.
14 rounds
Gunner must impact
on target.
14 rounds
Gunner must impact
on target.
28-round
belt
Gunner must impact
on target.
28-round
belt
Gunner must impact
on target.
28-round
belt
Gunner must impact
on target.
14 rounds
31 July 2006
Delivery Section Training
Table 4-4. Mounted M2 qualification
Task
No.
Task
Conditions/Target/Situation
8.
Engage moving and
stationary targets
from stationary
firing position while
in an upgraded
CBRN posture
Gunner in MOPP in a
stationary firing position
engages an 800-meter
moving target and
personnel targets at 1,000
meters. Gunner will use 5 to
7 round bursts.
Engage multiple
stationary targets
from stationary
firing position while
in an upgraded
CBRN posture
Gunner in MOPP in a
stationary firing position
engages 300-meter
personnel targets and 500and 700-meter moving
targets. Gunner will use 5 to
7 round bursts.
9.
Ammunition
Standard
Gunner must impact
on target.
28 rounds
Gunner must impact
on target.
42 rounds
MK-19 QUALIFICATION
4-18.
The following tables extracted from FM 3-22.27 (table 4-8; table 4-9, page 4-58; and table 4-10,
page 4-60) are the events resourced for the gunner and assistant gunner on the MK19. The first two tables are
annual requirements for both the gunner and assistant gunner. Night record fire is a biannual requirement.
Table 4-5. Instructional fire exercise (zero/practice)
Task
No.
Task
Condition
Ammunition
Standard
1.
Mount the MK19
on the M3 tripod
Given an MK-19, M3 tripod, T&E
mechanism, MK 64 mount, and a
selected firing position.
None
Crew must
mount the MK19 on its tripod
in 1 minute.
2.
Prepare a range
card
Given an MK-19, M3 tripod, T&E
mechanism, and a selected firing
position with a designated sector of
fire, and targets at ranges of 400,
600, 1,100, and 1,500 meters.
None
Crew must
prepare a
completed MG
range card in
15 minutes.
3.
Zero the MK-19
using a 400-meter
target
Given an MK-19, M3 tripod, T&E
mechanism, and 400-meter target
and 4 rounds of 40-mm TP.
4 rounds
Gunner must
impact on target
with at least
2 rounds.
4.
Engage target at
1,100 meters
using range card
data (point target)
Given a tripod-mounted MK-19,
completed range card, selected
firing position, target at 1,100
meters, and 8 rounds of 40-mm TP.
8 rounds
Gunner must
impact target
with at least 2
rounds.
5.
Engage target at
1,500 meters
using range card
data
Given a tripod-mounted MK-19,
completed range card, selected
firing position, and target at 1500
meters, and 8 rounds of 40-mm TP.
8 rounds
Gunner must
impact within 15
meters of target
with at least
2 rounds.
31 July 2006
FM 3-09.8
4-57
Chapter 4
Table 4-5. Instructional fire exercise (zero/practice)
Task
No.
Task
Condition
Ammunition
Standard
6.
Engage personnel
target at 600
meters using
range card data
(area target)
Given a tripod-mounted MK-19,
completed range card, selected
firing position, area target at 600 m,
and 6 rounds of 40-mm TP.
6 rounds
Gunner must
impact within 5
meters of target
array with at
least 2 rounds.
7.
Dismount the MK19
Given a tripod-mounted MK-19 and
selected firing position.
None
Crew must
dismount the
MK-19 from the
M3 tripod in 1
minute.
4-58
FM 3-09.8
31 July 2006
Delivery Section Training
Table 4-6. MK-19 qualification table
Task
No.
Task
Condition
Ammunition
Standard
1.
Mount the MK 19
on the M3 tripod
Given an MK-19, M3 tripod,
T&E mechanism, MK 64
mount, and a selected firing
position.
None
Crew must mount the
MK-19 on its tripod in
1 minute.
2.
Prepare a range
card
Given an MK-19, M3 tripod,
T&E mechanism, a selected
firing position with a
designated sector of fire, and
targets at ranges of 400, 600,
1,100, and 1,500 meters.
None
Crew must prepare a
completed MG range
card in 15 minutes.
3.
Zero the MK-19
using a 400meter target
Given an MK-19, M3 tripod,
T&E mechanism, 400-meter
target, and 4 rounds of 40mm TP.
4 rounds
Gunner must impact
on target with at least
2 rounds.
4.
Engage target at
600 meters using
range card data
(point target)
Given a tripod-mounted MK19, completed range card,
selected firing position, target
at 600 meters, and 4 rounds
of 40-mm TP.
4 rounds
Gunner must impact
target with at least 2
rounds in 1 minute.
5.
Engage target at
1,100 meters
using range card
data (point
target)
Given a tripod-mounted MK19, completed range card,
selected firing position, target
at 1,100 meters, and 8
rounds of 40-mm TP.
8 rounds
Gunner must impact
target with at least 2
rounds in 2 minutes.
6.
Engage
personnel target
at 600 meters
using range card
data (area
target)
Given a tripod-mounted MK19, completed range card,
selected firing position, area
target at 600 meters, and 6
rounds of 40-mm TP.
6 rounds
Gunner must impact
within 5 meters of
target array with at
least 2 rounds in
1 minute 30 seconds.
7.
Engage target at
1,500 meters
using range card
data
Given a tripod-mounted MK19, completed range card,
selected firing position, target
at 1,500 meters, and 8
rounds of 40-mm TP.
8 rounds
Gunner must impact
within 15 meters of
target with at least 2
rounds in 2 minutes.
8.
Engage point
target at 1,100
meters and area
target at 600
meters using
range card data
Given a tripod-mounted MK19, completed range card,
selected firing position,
targets at 1,100 and 600
meters, and 12 rounds of 40mm TP.
12 rounds
Gunner must impact 2
out of 12 rounds on
target at 1,100 meters
and shift and place 2
rounds in target array
in 3 minutes.
9.
Dismount the
MK-19
Given a tripod-mounted MK19 and selected firing
position.
None
Crew must dismount
the MK-19 from the
M3 tripod in 1 minute.
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Chapter 4
Table 4-7. MK-19 night fire qualification
Task
No.
Task
Condition
Ammunition
Standard
1.
Mount the
AN/TVS-5 to
the MK-19
Given the AN/TVS-5 complete,
MK-19, M3 tripod, and T&E
mechanism.
None
Gunner must mount
the AN/TVS-5 on the
MK-19 in 2 minutes.
2.
Engage a 400meter point
target
Given a zeroed MK-19 mounted
on M3 tripod with AN/TVS-5
properly mounted, during the
hours of darkness, and 6 rounds
of 40-mm TP.
6 rounds
Gunner must impact
2 rounds on target at
400 meters in 1
minute.
3.
Engage point
target at 600
meters
Given a zeroed MK-19 mounted
on M3 tripod with AN/TVS-5
properly mounted, during the
hours of darkness, and 8 rounds
of 40-mm TP.
8 rounds
Gunner must impact
2 rounds on target at
400 meters in 2
minutes.
4.
Engage area
target at 800
meters
Given a zeroed MK-19 mounted
on M3 tripod with AN/TVS-5
properly mounted, during the
hours of darkness, and 8 rounds
of 40-mm TP.
8 rounds
Gunner must impact
2 rounds within 5
meters in 2 minutes.
5.
Dismount the
AN/TVS-5 from
the MK-19
Given an MK-19 with AN/TVS5
mounted.
None
Crew must dismount
the AN/TVS-5 in
2 minutes.
HOWITZER TABLE IV: DIRECT FIRE PROCEDURES
Introduction
4-19.
Howitzer Table IV includes the training and live-fire required to train howitzer sections in providing
direct fire and indirect observed fire (killer junior). The asymmetrical battlefield of the COE has reinforced the
need for focused training on force protection tasks. The cannon battery has historically provided a combat
multiplier in situations requiring direct fires and must train to maintain that capability.
Direct Fire
4-20.
The term “direct fire” always refers to using the maximum charge available. The advantages of direct
fire are—
z
Flat trajectory.
z
Lower time of flight.
z
Higher terminal velocity.
4-21.
The direct fire mission training tasks are—
Direct fire sighting – two man-two sight, two man-one sight, and one man-one sight.
z
Direct fire laying methods – reticle laying, central laying.
z
Direct fire commands.
z
Estimation of range and lead.
z
Note. See FM 3-09.50 for detailed discussion on direct fire.
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FM 3-09.8
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Delivery Section Training
4-22.
The individual supporting tasks for direct fire are included in Howitzer Table IV.
Howitzer Table IV – Individual tasks for direct fire
Task Number
Task
Reference
061-268-1214
Boresight the direct fire telescope (M102)
STP 6-13B14-SM-TG
061-268-1217
Sight on a target with the direct fire telescope (M102)
STP 6-13B14-SM-TG
061-271-1217
Sight on a target with the direct fire telescope (M198)
STP 6-13B14-SM-TG
061-271-1212
Boresight the direct fire telescope by using a distant
aiming point (M198)
STP 6-13B14-SM-TG
061-270-1217
Sight on a target with the direct fire telescope
(M109A2-A5)
STP 6-13B14-SM-TG
061-270-1214
Boresight the direct fire telescope (M109A2-A5)
STP 6-13B14-SM-TG
061-281-2233
Sight on a target during direct fire (M119)
STP 6-13B24-SM-TG
061-266-2235
Sight on a target during direct fire with the panoramic
telescope
STP 6-13B24-SM-TG
061-281-1000
Verify boresight of the M90A2 direct fire telescope by
using a distance aiming point (M119)
STP 6-13B24-SM-TG
061-307-3556
Perform direct fire using the automatic fire control
system (M109A6)
STP 6-13B24-SM-TG
4-23.
The section chief must ensure that his section is proficient at these individual tasks, techniques, and
procedures prior to table IV live fire.
Indirect Observed Fire (Killer Junior)
4-24.
Indirect observed fire is a technique using the lowest authorized charge with a mechanical time fuse
with minimal fuze setting (see appendix I, FM 3-09.50). The advantages of using Killer Junior are—
z
Higher trajectory allows firing over intermediate objects (parapets, front-line bunkers) that
would be destroyed firing maximum charges with beehive ammunition.
z
More effective against prone enemy personnel or enemy in defilade.
z
Killer Junior procedures require quick-fire tables for the howitzer section. Refer to FM 3-09.50
for detailed discussion and safety procedures required to train.
Ammunition
4-25.
The STRAC allocation for training direct fire/indirect fire observed live-fire missions is 36 rounds
for 105-mm batteries and 18 rounds for 155-mm batteries.
HOWITZER TABLE V: DELIBERATE OCCUPATION PROCEDURES
4-26.
Howitzer Table V will include the collective tasks required to perform a deliberate occupation by a
howitzer section during both day and night conditions. The tasks will be trained as an STX as a gate prior to the
abbreviated procedures trained in table VI (table 4-13, page 4-74) and may be included in the LTX for tables
VII and VIII.
Howitzer Table V – Deliberate occupation tasks
Task
Remarks
Prepare position by the gun guide (M102,
M119, M198, M109 A1-5)
Test administrative guide provided to assist in
evaluating task may be supplemented with task
steps including local TSOP requirements.
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Howitzer Table V – Deliberate occupation tasks
Emplace the cannon (TLABSPAP) (M102,
M119, M198, M109 A1-5)
Focus of evaluation should be on accuracy,
precision, and correct procedures. Supporting
MTP tasks (06-4-C012) (06-4-C004).
Conduct a tactical move to a firing position
(Paladin)
Conduct a deliberate occupation (Paladin)
Supporting MTP task (06-3-G004).
Conduct a survivability move (Paladin)
Supporting MTP task (06-4-G000).
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Delivery Section Training
TABLE V STATION 1 (M102, M119, M198, M109 A1-A5)
TEST ADMINISTRATIVE GUIDE
TASK: Prepare Position by the Gun Guide (061-266-1101)
CONDITIONS: The gun guide will be required to prepare a position for a deliberate
occupation. Upon his arrival in position, the gun guide will be given a detailed briefing.
STANDARDS: The gun guide will prepare the position for the arrival of the howitzer section,
be prepared to brief his section chief on the required data to occupy the position and lay the
howitzer, and will assist in securing the battery position area until the battery arrives.
PERSONNEL, EQUIPMENT, AND MATERIAL REQUIRED:
•
Primary evaluator (SSG or above) in charge of giving the test (he may also occupy a test
station).
•
Station evaluator, SGT or above (one per test station).
•
Classroom or training area.
•
Stopwatch (one per evaluator).
•
Criterion-scoring checklist (one per Soldier).
•
Desk and chair or clipboard (one per Soldier).
•
Pencils (one per Soldier).
•
FM 3-09.8 (one per station).
•
M2 compass.
•
Marking stakes.
•
TA-312.
•
DR-8 with RL-39.
•
Hammer.
•
Panoramic telescope marker.
•
Two flashlights with extra batteries.
•
Additional items as required by TSOP.
TEST PLANNING TIME:
•
Administrative time: 5 minutes
•
Test time: 60 minutes
•
Total time: 65 minutes
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OTHER INFORMATION: Before the gun guide arrives in the selected position area, the
evaluator will set up and orient an aiming circle and be prepared to brief the gun guide when
he arrives.
INSTRUCTIONS TO THE GUN GUIDE: “You are currently located at your new battery
position area. This is where your howitzer will be emplaced with an AOF of ______ mils.
The wire head will be located at _____________. After you have prepared your position for
the arrival of your howitzer, you will be shown where the entrance to the position area will be
and track plan or route you are to use during occupation. You will prepare for the arrival of
your howitzer per the TSOP. Do you understand the requirements of this test? Do you have
any questions? You may begin.” (Start the time.)
Performance Measures
GO
NO-GO
1. Was ready to depart with all necessary equipment at the prescribed time.
2. Had all equipment required per TSOP (for example, M2 compass, DR-8, TA312 or AN/GRA-39, flashlights, pen and paper, gun guide stakes, required tools,
and MOPP gear).
3. Performed a security sweep and maintained continuous security throughout
the occupation, with weapon in his possession.
4. Emplaced the pantel marking stakes in the location designated by the GSG.
5. Emplaced the guide stakes on the AOF within 20 mils.
6. Established wire communications with the aiming circle.
7. Determined site to crest using the M2 compass and piece-to-crest range.
8. Recorded and reported site-to-crest to the GSG.
9. Established the track plan as directed by the GSG and walked the route to
rehearse the occupation.
10. Took up defensive position as directed by the GSG.
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Delivery Section Training
TABLE V STATION 2 (M102, M119, M198, M109 A1-A5)
TEST ADMINISTRATIVE GUIDE
TASK: Emplace the Cannon (Trails, Lay, Aiming Point Established, Boresight Verified, Safe,
Prefire Checks Performed, Ammunition Prepared )
CONDITIONS: The section is occupying a new position prepared by the advance party.
STANDARDS: The section will complete the occupation and TLABSPAP procedures; will
establish communication with the FDC; and will render critical elements of the section chief’s
report within 8 minutes.
PERSONNEL, EQUIPMENT, AND MATERIAL REQUIRED:
•
Primary evaluator (SSG or above) in charge of giving the test (he may also occupy a test
station).
•
Station evaluator, SGT or above (one per test station).
•
Classroom or training area.
•
Stopwatch (one per evaluator).
•
Criterion-scoring checklist (one per Soldier).
•
Desk and chair or clipboard (one per Soldier).
•
Pencils (one per Soldier).
•
FM 3-09.8 (one per station).
•
Howitzer section with BILI.
TEST PLANNING TIME:
•
Administrative time: 5 minutes
•
Test time: 20 minutes
•
Total time (per howitzer section): 25 minutes
OTHER INFORMATION: Before the howitzer arrives in the selected position area, the
evaluator will set up and orient an aiming circle and be prepared to lay the howitzer when
the section chief announces “aiming point identified.” A second means of verifying lay must
also be established.
INSTRUCTIONS TO THE HOWITZER SECTION: “You are currently located at your old
battery position area. You have sent your gun guide with the advanced party and have been
given the order-to-march order. You will move along the prescribed route and conduct a
deliberate occupation of a new position area and complete TLABSPAP including the critical
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Chapter 4
elements of the section chief per the TSOP. This is a timed event. Time begins when the
howitzer stops in the position area and ends when you have completed TLABSPAP. Do you
understand the requirements of this test? Do you have any questions? You may begin.”
(Start the time.)
Performance Measures
GO
NO-GO
1. The driver followed the gun guide at a safe speed and distance.
2. After stopping in position, the gun guide reported the AOF and the initial
deflection to the section chief.
3. Following the standards in the appropriate technical manual emplaced the
weapon.
4. The gunner used the initial deflection reported by the gun guide.
5. Proper commands were used during laying.
6. The bubbles were centered and correct settings were made during laying.
7. The section chief verified the sight picture, laid deflection, and bubbles
when the howitzer was laid.
8. The howitzer was laid to an accuracy of 0 mils within the time prescribed
by the appropriate evaluation standards.
9. The collimator and aiming posts were prepared for use while the howitzer
was being laid.
10. The collimator was emplaced and ready for use as the primary aiming
point within 2 minutes after the howitzer was laid for deflection.
11. The aiming posts were properly emplaced within 2 minutes.
12. A DAP was selected if applicable.
13. The howitzer was boresighted by DAP or test target per the technical
manual (or verified by the use of the appropriate alignment device).
14. A second aiming circle verified the lay of the howitzer.
15. Prefire checks were properly performed per the appropriate technical
manual.
16. Ammunition was handled and prepared per the technical manual.
17. Angle of site and PCR were verified by the section chief.
18. The section chief reported when his section was in order.
19. Natural materials, when available, were used to help camouflage the
section position.
20. The range cards were prepared for both the howitzer and the secondary
armament for primary and supplementary positions.
21. The section gear was arranged according to the unit TSOP.
22. Conditions existed which would make the howitzer unsafe during firing.
23. The howitzer or prime mover driver followed the proper shutdown
procedures per the appropriate technical manual.
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Delivery Section Training
Performance Measures
GO
NO-GO
24. The section maintained track discipline and camouflage vehicles, to
include all reflective surfaces.
25. The section was in the proper uniform throughout the occupation.
26. Each section member performed his duty with minimum orders.
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Chapter 4
TABLE V STATION 1A (PALADIN)
TEST ADMINISTRATIVE GUIDE
TASK: Conduct a Tactical Move to a Firing Position (Paladin)
CONDITIONS: The section is conducting combat operations and receives an order that
requires displacement.
STANDARDS: Section must be in position at the prescribed time to conduct fire mission.
PERSONNEL, EQUIPMENT, AND MATERIAL REQUIRED:
•
Primary evaluator (SSG or above) in charge of giving the test (he may also occupy a test
station).
•
Station evaluator, SGT or above (one per test station).
•
Classroom or training area.
•
Stopwatch (one per evaluator).
•
Criterion-scoring checklist (one per Soldier).
•
Desk and chair or clipboard (one per Soldier).
•
Pencils (one per Soldier).
•
FM 3-09.8 (one per station).
•
Howitzer section with BILI.
TEST PLANNING TIME:
•
Administrative time: 5 minutes
•
Test time: 15 minutes
•
Total time (per howitzer section): 20 minutes
OTHER INFORMATION: The howitzer section will begin this task 3 to 5 kilometers from a
position area/firing point. A movement order and briefing from the platoon leader must be
prepared in advance. Communications representing the BOC/POC must be established.
The section chief should be provided adequate time to conduct troop leading procedures
before departure.
INSTRUCTIONS TO THE HOWITZER SECTION: “You are currently located at your old
position area. You have received the following movement order from your platoon leader, for
example, move to grid _____. You will move along the prescribed route and conduct a
deliberate occupation of a new position area including all reports required by your TSOP. Do
you understand the requirements of this test? Do you have any questions? You may begin.”
(Start the time.)
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Delivery Section Training
Performance Measures
GO
NO-GO
1. Received movement briefing from platoon leadership and conducted
troop leading procedures.
2. Received movement order from POC. (Manual movement order and
sectors of fire may be given.)
3. Verified move order and sectors of fire with POC on the voice net.
4. Recorded and plotted destination map and briefed section.
5. Maintained communications with higher (POC/platoon leadership).
6. Ensured that all equipment and ammunition were loaded and secured per
load plans.
7. Conducted move per movement brief.
8. If NAV UPDATE was conducted while en route, recorded SCP data. COS
told driver to record and track mileage after NAV UPDATE.
9. Defended against ambush while moving. (This task is trained live-fire in
table III and may be replaced with IED training task.)
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Chapter 4
TABLE V STATION 2A (Paladin)
TEST ADMINISTRATIVE GUIDE
TASK: Conduct a Deliberate Occupation (Paladin)
CONDITIONS: The section has arrived at a new firing position that has been reconnoitered
and set up by the GSG.
STANDARDS: Establish firing capability within 2 minutes without error per ARTEP 6-03730-MTP and unit TSOP.
PERSONNEL, EQUIPMENT, AND MATERIAL REQUIRED:
•
Primary evaluator (SSG or above) in charge of giving the test (he may also occupy a test
station).
•
Station evaluator, SGT or above (one per test station).
•
Classroom or training area.
•
Stopwatch (one per evaluator).
•
Criterion-scoring checklist (one per Soldier).
•
Desk and chair or clipboard (one per Soldier).
•
Pencils (one per Soldier).
•
FM 3-09.8 (one per station).
•
Howitzer section with BILI.
TEST PLANNING TIME:
•
Administrative time: 5 minutes
•
Test time: 15 minutes
•
Total time (per howitzer section): 20 minutes
OTHER INFORMATION: Howitzer section chief must be informed prior to task 3 (Conduct a
tactical move to a firing position [Paladin]) that he is to continue to conduct a deliberate
occupation upon arrival at his new position. If required to do a NAV UPDATE at the entrance
to his position, it will not be included in his occupation time.
INSTRUCTIONS TO THE HOWITZER SECTION: SEE PREVIOUS TASK. (Start the time
when the howitzer stops in the firing position and stop the time when the COS sends piece
status – step 9.)
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Delivery Section Training
Performance Measures
GO
NO-GO
1. The COS may have to do NAV UPDATE at entrance point as per platoon
leader instruction. SCP data will be recorded on DA Form 4446 (Level,
Transit, and General Survey Record Book) (not part of 2-minute occupation
time). COS told driver to record and track mileage after NAV UPDATE.
2. COS directed driver to orient howitzer on center sector (±50 mils)
(2-minute time starts when howitzer stops) and emplaced spades if needed.
3. Howitzer may need to wait 30 seconds before conducting Step 5. (If NAV
UPDATE has not been conducted within the last 5 miles, wait 30 seconds.)
4. COS pressed the ARRIVED key on AFCS.
5. COS directed driver to release travel lock.
6. COS elevated tube to MAX TUBE ELEVATION and selected USE TUBE
POSITION.
7. COS and gunner conducted SITE DATA.
8. COS updated POWDER TEMP in AFCS.
9. COS sent PIECE STATUS to POC.
10. Number 1 man prepared HE/PD in ready rack while steps 4 through 9
were conducted.
11. COS directed crew to perform prefire checks.
12. Gunner verified boresight with the M140.
13. COS directed section to do position improvement.
14. Established an aiming point. (DAP during daytime operations if one can
be used. Collimator at night or during the day if no DAP is available.)
15. Constructed range cards and established survivability movement plan as
directed by PLT SGT.
16. Conducted verification mission with POC (read back CHARGE, TI if time
is set, DF, and QE) only if there is a significant database change.
17. COS received, recorded, and read back to POC Safety T information.
COS input maximum QE off the Safety T in MAX TUBE ELEVATION, TYPE
NEW VALUE.
18. COS input minimum QE as announced by POC and recorded charge to
be fired as required.
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Chapter 4
TABLE V STATION 3A (PALADIN)
TEST ADMINISTRATIVE GUIDE
TASK: Conduct a Survivability Move (Paladin)
CONDITIONS: The section is conducting tactical operations. The howitzer is required to
displace per the TSOP or tactical guidance to provide fires in support of maneuver forces
and increase survivability.
STANDARDS: Section will load all section equipment, maintain communications with the
control element, and move to alternate firing position.
PERSONNEL, EQUIPMENT, AND MATERIAL REQUIRED:
•
Primary evaluator (SSG or above) in charge of giving the test (he may also occupy a test
station).
•
Station evaluator, SGT or above (one per test station).
•
Classroom or training area.
•
Stopwatch (one per evaluator).
•
Criterion-scoring checklist (one per Soldier).
•
Desk and chair or clipboard (one per Soldier).
•
Pencils (one per Soldier).
•
FM 3-09.8 (one per station).
•
Howitzer section with BILI.
TEST PLANNING TIME:
•
Administrative time: 5 minutes
•
Test time: 15 minutes
•
Total time (per howitzer section): 20 minutes
OTHER INFORMATION: Movement criteria within a position area are generally dictated by
the S3 in the FA support plan. It may also be based on the situation or the battery
commander may direct a survivability move. Movement criteria should be addressed in the
unit TSOP and firing sections should move accordingly. The evaluator must ensure that an
alternate position is available for the section to move to and that the section is aware of the
location.
INSTRUCTIONS TO THE HOWITZER SECTION: “You are currently located at your old
position area. You have received a directive to conduct a survivability move per your unit
TSOP. Do you understand the requirements of this test? Do you have any questions? You
may begin.”
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Delivery Section Training
Performance Measures
GO
NO-GO
1. When it had been determined to move, section ensured that all
equipment and ammunition were loaded and secured.
2. COS told section where they were moving.
3. COS directed driver to put up travel lock, COS stored tube in travel lock,
and driver locked travel lock. Stowed spades if emplaced.
4. Section moved to new position.
5. COS pushed ARRIVED key.
6. COS and gunner did SITE DATA.
7. COS directed section to perform prefire checks.
8. COS updated POWDER TEMP if needed.
9. COS sent PIECE STATUS to POC.
10. COS directed section to establish an aiming reference point.
11. Number 1 man prepared HE/PD in ready rack while steps 5 through 10
were conducted.
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HOWITZER TABLE VI: PREPARATIONS TO FIRE UNDER UNIQUE CONDITIONS
4-27.
Howitzer Table VI includes the tasks and procedures to conduct hasty occupations or “hip-shoots”
for all cannon units except M109A6, Paladin. All missions received by Paladin units that are moving are
essentially emergency missions and are conducted in a similar manner to all other missions. All other cannon
units require TTP and unit TSOP for hasty occupations and must be trained on the tasks that are unique to the
hasty occupation. Paladin units, however, do require training on TTP and battle drills to conduct degraded
operations in both the platoon operations center and on the howitzer should any of the automated systems fail.
Airborne and airmobile units have unique requirements for drop zone operations and artillery raids that require
special procedures and SOPs. This table includes various types of occupations under unique conditions. These
occupations and operations depend on TSOPs and battle drills. The commander may elect to include more than
one type of occupation based on his METL assessment.
Howitzer Table VI – Hasty occupations under unique conditions
Task Number
Task Title
06-3-C002
Conduct emergency missions
06-2-E001
Conduct airborne operations
06-2-E002
Conduct air assault operations
06-2-E003
Conduct an air assault raid
06-4-G005
Perform fire missions in degraded mode on the M109A6Paladin
howitzer
Emergency Occupation
4-28.
The emergency occupation mission for cannon batteries is task 06-3-C002, ARTEP 6-037-30-MTP.
The time standards for the mission are included in task step 1. The time begins when the first howitzer stops in
position and ends when the unit fires for effect. The unit must have effects on target for a successful mission.
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Delivery Section Training
TASK: Conduct Emergency Missions (06-3-C002) (FM 6-50) (FM 6-70)
CONDITIONS: The battery/platoon is en route to a new position area and has received a
call for fire. Some iterations of this task should be performed in MOPP4.
STANDARDS: The battery/platoon selects and occupies a firing position and fires the
mission in accordance with unit TSOP and FM 6-50.
Task Steps and Performance Measures
GO
NO-GO
1. XO/platoon leader directed the occupation and met the time standards set
below:
M102/M119 series – 11 minutes
M198 – 12 minutes
M109 – 11 minutes
a. Selected a position area that facilitates timely completion of the
mission.
b. Notified all elements in the column in accordance with TSOP.
c.
Selected most expeditious method of lay for the mission and laid the
howitzers.
d. Notified the FDC as soon as one howitzer was laid and used first
howitzer laid as the adjusting piece.
2. The FDC/POC did the following:
a. Verified tactical data.
b. Determined AOF.
c.
Computed the firing data for the fire mission.
d. Transmitted message to observer.
3. The howitzer section chief did the following:
a. The COS acknowledged receipt of the fire mission.
b. Found suitable firing location (verified location if not GPS aided).
c.
Gunner verified direction (if required by SOP).
d. COS and gunner verified that mission was clear of crest when the
tube was at the lay deflection sent for the fire mission.
e. COS ensured that proper crew drill was performed.
4. The elements not required for fire mission established position security.
SUPPORTING INDIVIDUAL TASKS
Task Number
Task Title
References
061-266-2002
Lay a howitzer for initial direction of fire by reciprocal
lay by using the panoramic telescope
STP 6-13B14-SM-TG
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061-266-2004
Lay a howitzer for initial direction of fire by using the
panoramic telescope
STP 6-13B14-SM-TG
061-266-2006
Lay a howitzer for deflection using the panoramic
telescope
STP 6-13B14-SM-TG
061-266-2237
Supervise the preparation of ammunition for firing
STP 6-13B14-SM-TG
061-266-3305
Determine site and range to crest
STP 6-13B24-SM-TG
061-266-3315
Determine that howitzer data is safe to fire
STP 6-13B24-SM-TG
061-266-4007
Lay the battery/platoon using alternate methods of lay
STP 6-13B24-SM-TG
061-266-5302
Orient the M2 or M2A2 aiming circle
STP 6-13B24-SM-TG
061-268-1507
Load and fire a prepared round (M102)
STP 6-13B14-SM-TG
061-270-1507
Load and fire a prepared round (M109A2-A5)
STP 6-13B14-SM-TG
061-271-1507
Load and fire a prepared round (M198)
STP 6-13B14-SM-TG
061-281-1543
Load a prepared round (M119)
STP 6-13B14-SM-TG
061-281-2006
Fire a prepared round (M119)
STP 6-13B14-SM-TG
SUPPORTING COLLECTIVE TASKS
Task Number
Task Title
References
06-3-A004
Command and control battery/platoon/section
movement operations
ARTEP 6-037-30-MTP
06-3-B003
Conduct occupation of position area (non-Paladin units)
ARTEP 6-037-30-MTP
06-3-C001
Direct and control firing battery/platoon operations
(cannon)
ARTEP 6-037-30-MTP
ATREP 6-387-30-MTP
06-3-C011
Perform hasty survey
ARTEP 6-037-30-MTP
ATREP 6-387-30-MTP
Conduct Airborne Operations
4-29.
MTP.
4-76
The conduct airborne operations task for cannon batteries is task 06-2-E001, ARTEP 6-037-30-
FM 3-09.8
31 July 2006
Delivery Section Training
TASK: Conduct Airborne Operations (06-2-E001) (FM 90-26) (FM 6-50) (FM 90-4) (TM 91015-234-10) (TM 9-1015-252-10)
CONDITIONS: The battery has been ordered to conduct an airborne operation. Air Force
aircraft are available. Date, time, and departure and arrival airfields are specified. The
ground tactical, marshaling, loading, and landing plans are available. The battalion staff has
planned the operation. Some iterations of this task should be performed in MOPP4.
STANDARDS: The battery conducts airborne operations to support the maneuver force
OPORD in accordance with commander’s guidance, TSOP, movement plan, load plan, and
applicable field manuals and technical manuals.
Performance Measures
GO
NO-GO
1. The BC/1SG assembled and briefed personnel in accordance with TSOP.
2. The BC/1SG maintained contact with the battalion staff to ensure
complete coordination of the battery requirements in the following:
a. Ground tactical plan.
b. Fire support plans.
c.
Field artillery support plans.
d. Loading priorities and cross loading with maneuver elements.
e. Times for movement to HDRS, J/I, and loading into aircraft.
f.
Information concerning the DZ, such as enemy situation, hazards and
obstacles, assembly areas, signals, and survey control.
3. The battery conducted marshaling area activities. The BC/1SG ensured
the following:
a. Soldiers were assembled, organized, and marked.
b. Soldiers were cross loaded.
c.
Sustained airborne training was conducted.
d. Equipment to be heavy dropped was moved to the HDRS at the
correct time.
e. All equipment and correct ammunition were loaded on the platforms.
f.
Vehicles were sequenced in accordance with the movement plan and
loaded in accordance with load plans.
g. All equipment for combat was rigged correctly and loads were
properly marked for ease of identification on the DZ.
h. Personnel were briefed on tactical operations.
i.
Rehearsals were conducted.
j.
Final inspections of personnel and equipment were conducted.
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Performance Measures
GO
NO-GO
4. Battery conducted the operation. Leaders did the following:
a. Ensured that beanbag lights and chemical lights were activated in the
aircraft. Ensured that battery had backup signal(s) for heavy drop
platforms.
b. Ensured that jumpers exited on or near the HEPI.
c.
Ensured that battery immediately derigged equipment and personnel,
conducted unit assembly procedures in accordance with TSOP, and
moved off the DZ if required.
Note. The tactical situation may require the unit to attain a firing capability on the DZ.
5. The battery conducted drop zone mission.
a. 105 mm: 15 minutes during the day and 25 minutes at night.
b. 155 mm: 36 minutes during the day and 50 minutes at night.
Note. Time starts when the last jumper, first pass, exits the aircraft. Time stops when the FDC
receives call for fire, constructs and checks charts, plots targets, computes data, and sends to
howitzer. The howitzer(s) is laid, prefire checks are complete, firing data is applied, and the round
is prepared and positioned for the first howitzer and the howitzer reports “Ready.”
6. BC/1SG assembled all personnel and reported strength accountability to
the battalion staff immediately upon occupation of position.
7. Battery maintained noise and light discipline and security.
SUPPORTING INDIVIDUAL TASKS
Task Number
Task Title
References
071-326-5705
Establish an observation post
STP 21-24-SMCT
071-328-5301
Inspect personnel/equipment
STP 21-24-SMCT
Conduct Air Assault Operations
4-30.
The conduct air assault operations for cannon batteries includes two collective tasks from ARTEP
6-037-30-MTP, tasks 06-2-E003 and 06-2-E002.
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Delivery Section Training
TASK:
Conduct Air Assault Operations (06-2-E002)(FM 90-4).(FM 10-450-3).(FM 650)(TM 9-1015-234-10).(TM 9-1015-252-10)
CONDITIONS: The battery is conducting combat operations and has been ordered to
conduct a planned air assault movement. The battery has been given guidance to include
the location of the new position area, PZ/LZ, times, and coordinating instructions. The LZ is
secure and the advance party has prepared the position. Some iterations of this task should
be performed in MOPP4.
STANDARDS: The battery secures and rigs all equipment in accordance with field manuals,
technical manuals, and pilot/crew chief directions. The battery occupies the LZ and
establishes a firing capability per commander’s guidance, OPORD, and TSOP.
Task Steps and Performance Measures
GO
NO-GO
1. The BC/XO conducted AMB with the air mission commander.
2. The BC/platoon leader/platoon sergeant assembled and briefed personnel
on the mission in accordance with TSOP.
a. Briefed all personnel on the following:
(1) Mission.
(2) Method of movement.
(3) General enemy situation.
(4) Use of communications.
(5) PZ and LZ operations and safety.
b. Briefed key personnel on the following:
(1) Route of movement to the LZ.
(2) Location of PZ and LZ.
(3) Time of displacement.
(4) Azimuth of fire.
(5) Tentative location of battery center.
(6) Rehearsal times and location.
3. The battery established communications with the lift unit. Primary and
alternate frequencies were identified.
4. The battery ensured that the PZ was marked and identified.
5. The BC/1SG organized troops and equipment into chalks and assigned
chalk leaders.
6. The chalk leaders ensured the following:
a. All personnel knew which aircraft and which position to load.
b. All personnel wore or carried rucksack on the aircraft.
c.
Notified the crew chief when all personnel were on board.
7. All sections prepared for airlift at PZ as follows:
Note. When rigging the equipment, ensured that the proper steps were followed as outlined in
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Task Steps and Performance Measures
GO
NO-GO
FM 10-450-3 and/or the appropriate equipment manual.
a. Howitzers, vehicles, A-22 bags, and cargo nets were rigged for internal
or external loading.
b. Loads were properly identified and marked.
8. The battery ensured that hookup teams were properly equipped. Static
probes and goggles or protective masks were required as a minimum.
9. The battery maintained noise and light discipline in rear and forward areas
and PZ and LZ.
Note. For night air assaults, unit must use flashlights, beanbag and marking lights, IR strobes, or chemical lights (bright
lights are not a viable operation when pilots are flying with the assistance of NODs). The decision of what light to use should
be made by the pilots.
10. The battery maintained security in rear and forward areas and PZ and LZ.
11. The advance party secured LZ and position area and ensured that LZ was
properly organized. Minimum personnel were used for the advance party.
12. The battery conducted LZ operations as follows:
a. The crews unloaded on order of aircraft crew chief.
b. The individuals moved 15 to 20 meters out from the side of the aircraft
and assumed the prone position facing away from the aircraft, weapons
at the ready, until the aircraft departed the LZ.
c.
After aircraft depart, the LZ crews immediately derigged equipment.
13. The battery attained firing capability.
Note. Add 5 minutes for night occupation.
a. 102/M119 series – battery 12 minutes
b. M198 – battery 13 minutes, platoon 10 minutes
14. The battery defended against ground attack during insertion as follows:
a. Fired and maneuvered off the LZ to the closest side offering cover and
concealment.
b. Coordinated employment of all available fire support on enemy forces.
c.
Accounted for personnel and equipment once disengaged from the
enemy.
SUPPORTING COLLECTIVE TASKS
Task Number
Task Title
References
06-1-E031
Support an air assault operation
ARTEP 6-115-MTP
06-2-E003
Conduct an air assault artillery raid
ARTEP 6-037-30-MTP
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Delivery Section Training
TASK:
Conduct an Air Assault Artillery Raid (06-2-E003) (FM 90-4).(FM 6-50).
(TM 9-1015-234-10)(TM 9-1015-252-10)
CONDITIONS: The battery is in position providing fires and has been ordered to conduct an
air assault artillery raid. Required air assault equipment is on hand. The FA forward
observers are available. The Army aviation assets are available. The advance party arrives
at the LZ, 15 to 20 minutes before the main body. Some iterations of this task should be
performed in MOPP4.
STANDARDS: The selected elements move to PZ at the prescribed time, rig equipment,
and conduct the raid in accordance with commander’s guidance, TSOP, and applicable field
manuals and technical manuals.
Task Steps and Performance Measures
GO
NO-GO
1. The BC/XO planned air assault raid as follows:
a. Planned mission using METT-TC.
b. Used established TSOP.
c.
Ensured that minimum equipment was taken on raid.
d. Specified correct ammunition for desired effect on target.
e. Identified PZ and LZ locations.
f.
Coordinated with higher HQ for security element.
g. Coordinated with higher HQ for attack helicopter support.
h. Requested intelligence update from higher HQ.
2. The BC/XO did the following:
a. Coordinated with S3 air.
b. Conducted an AMB with air mission commander.
c.
Designated raid personnel.
d. Inspected raid personnel.
e. Conducted troop safety briefing.
3. The battery prepared to conduct air assault artillery raid to include the
following:
a. Raid participants conducted a rehearsal.
b. Firing data was precomputed and distributed.
c.
PZ and security was established.
Note. PZ is a minimum of 500 meters from the battery area.
d. Howitzers and personnel were moved to PZ at appropriate time.
e. Equipment was rigged and inspected.
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Chapter 4
Task Steps and Performance Measures
f.
GO
NO-GO
Prearranged signals or code words for extraction were distributed.
4. Battery executed air assault artillery raid to include the following:
a. Advance party and security elements secured the LZ.
b. Advance party established communications with aircraft and
observers.
c.
Loads were delivered to the correct LZ.
d. Firing capability was established.
e. Weapons were prepared for sling load extraction.
f.
Lift helicopters were recalled to LZ by BC/XO.
g. Howitzers and personnel were extracted from LZ.
h. Safety procedures were strictly adhered to.
SUPPORTING INDIVIDUAL TASKS
Task Number
Task Title
References
04-3302.01-0003
Conduct a reconnaissance
MOS O COM 0
04-3306.01-0008
Analyze terrain
MOS O COM 0
071-326-5626
Prepare an oral operation order
STP 21-24-SMCT
071-332-5000
Prepare an operation overlay
STP 21-24-SMCT
SUPPORTING COLLECTIVE TASKS
Task Number
Task Title
References
06-1-E031
Support an air assault operation
ARTEP 6-115-MTP
06-2-E006
Prepare for air movement
ARTEP 6-037-30-MTP
Conduct Paladin Degraded Operations
4-31.
The tasks to conduct degraded operations in a Paladin battery include actions at both the POC and on
the howitzer. If the degradation should be on the howitzer, the following fire mission task from ARTEP 6-03730-MTP is required. (Each howitzer section will be required to demonstrate their capability to operate at all
levels of degradation.)
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Delivery Section Training
TASK: Perform Fire Missions in Degraded Mode on the M109A6 Paladin Howitzer
(06-4-G005) (FM 3-09.70)
CONDITIONS: Given an M109A6 Paladin howitzer with a complete section and an
inoperative subsystem. The subsystem could be the loss of communications, vehicle or
AFCS power, some AFCS components, or anything that makes the vehicle less than 100
percent operational. Some iterations of this task should be performed in MOPP4.
STANDARDS: The section will complete all fire missions in degraded mode using alternate
methods that are listed in TM 9-2350-314-10.
Task Steps and Performance Measures
GO
NO-GO
1. Section chief procedures for degraded fire missions, due to loss of
electrical power:
a. Immediately notified POC.
b. Used limited electrical power available from the M992 FAASV APU.
c.
Manually rammed projectile.
d. Manually laid using gunner’s handwheels.
Note. The APU provides enough power for AFCS operations only. APU output is not sufficient for
operating the hydraulic system.
2. Procedures for degraded fire missions, if the M992 FAASV is not
available.
a. Used reciprocal lay, aiming circle, or compass laying techniques.
b. Ensured that spades were used.
c.
Manually elevated and traversed.
d. Received firing data from adjacent howitzer.
e. Operated travel lock manually.
f.
Used DAP or collimator.
g. Hand-rammed projectile.
3. Degraded fire missions procedures due to the loss of digital
communications:
a. Immediately notified POC.
b. Collocated within 30 to 50 meters of operational gun and used data
from operational gun.
c.
Used voice net for POC.
d. Manually input data into AFCS.
e. Section chief verified AFCS firing data with data received from POC,
before firing round.
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FM 3-09.8
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Chapter 4
Task Steps and Performance Measures
f.
GO
NO-GO
If data matched, fired round upon voice command to fire from POC,
then reported rounds complete back to the POC.
SUPPORTING INDIVIDUAL TASKS
Task Number
Task Title
References
061-266-1102
Record and maintain fire mission data on a DA Form
4513-R
STP 6-13B14-SM-TG
061-266-1105
Emplace and recover close-in aiming points
STP 6-13B14-SM-TG
061-266-1508
Prepare ammunition for firing
STP 6-13B14-SM-TG
061-266-1806
Lay and measure a howitzer for quadrant with the
range quadrant (except M119)
STP 6-13B14-SM-TG
061-266-2001
Align close-in aiming points using the M100-series
panoramic telescope
STP 6-13B14-SM-TG
061-266-2004
Lay a howitzer for initial direction of fire by using the
panoramic telescope
STP 6-13B14-SM-TG
061-266-2231
Refer the piece
STP 6-13B14-SM-TG
061-266-2238
Establish a distant aiming point
STP 6-13B14-SM-TG
061-266-3305
Determine site and range to crest
STP 6-13B24-SM-TG
061-266-3315
Determine that howitzer data is safe to fire
STP 6-13B24-SM-TG
061-266-3323
Maintain DA Form 2408-4 (Weapon Record Data)
STP 6-13B24-SM-TG
061-266-4020
Determine and report the correct deflection
STP 6-13B24-SM-TG
061-266-4024
Monitor howitzer sections during firing
STP 6-13B24-SM-TG
061-307-3560
Conduct indirect fire missions using the automatic fire
control system (M109A6)
STP 6-13B24-SM-TG
061-307-4557
Verify initialization data (M109A6)
STP 6-13B24-SM-TG
HOWITZER TABLE VII: TRAINING
4-32.
Howitzer Table VII (table 4-14) will be conducted as an annual LTX and may include tables I
through VII or selected tables as determined by the commander. This table will include all tasks to be
performed during table VIII, qualification, and will be performed using the FSCATT simulator where available
or using primers to simulate full-service ammunition. Howitzer Tables VII and VIII will include the following
fire missions or substitute missions to satisfy the commander’s METL assessment:
Howitzer Tables VII/VIII – fire missions
4-84
Fire Mission
Table
Ammunition
High angle, AF
VII, VIII
HE, 8 rounds
High angle, FFE
VII, VIII
HE, 1 round
Low angle, AF
VII, VIII
HE, 8 rounds
Priority target
VII, VIII
HE, 1 round
Out of sector mission
VII
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FM 3-09.8
31 July 2006
Delivery Section Training
TABLE VII/VIII STATION 1 (M102, M119, M198, M109 A1-A5)
TEST ADMINISTRATIVE GUIDE
TASK: Conduct Fire Missions
CONDITIONS: You have completed the occupation of a new firing position and reported to
the POC/BOC/FDC that you are ready to fire. You will conduct indirect fire missions as sent
from the POC/BOC/FDC.
STANDARDS: The howitzer section is ready to fire within 30 seconds (45 seconds for high
angle) after receiving and acknowledging the fire mission.
PERSONNEL, EQUIPMENT, AND MATERIAL REQUIRED:
•
Primary evaluator (SSG or above) in charge of giving the test (he may also occupy a test
station).
•
Station evaluator, SGT or above (one per test station).
•
Classroom or training area.
•
Stopwatch (one per evaluator).
•
Criterion-scoring checklist (one per Soldier).
•
Desk and chair or clipboard (one per Soldier).
•
Pencils (one per Soldier).
•
FM 3-09.8 (one per station).
•
Howitzer section with all assigned equipment.
TEST PLANNING TIME:
•
Administrative time: 5 minutes
•
Test time: 60 minutes
•
Total time: 65 minutes
INSTRUCTIONS TO THE HOWITZER SECTION: “You are conducting combat operations.
You have arrived at your new position area and reported that you are laid and ready to fire.
Do you understand the requirements of this test? Do you have any questions? You may
begin.” (Start the time when the last digit in quadrant elevation is received.)
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Chapter 4
Performance Measures
GO
NO-GO
1. The section chief verified that fire mission data was safe.
2. The crew selected announced projectile and fuze.
3. The crew selected announced or standard ammunition lot.
4. The crew cut and prepared announced charge.
5. The crew assembled fuze and projectile.
6. The crew placed announced fuze setting on fuze (if applicable).
7. The crew prepared projectile for loading and ramming.
8. The section chief checked ammunition lot, shell/fuse combination, and charge
before loading.
9. The crew laid howitzer for deflection and quadrant.
10. The section chief verified lay.
11. The crew loaded projectile when directed.
12. The crew fired when directed in accordance with fire commands.
13. The crew complied with any additional command (for example, cease fire).
14. The crew made required entries on record of missions fired (DA Form
4513-R).
15. The section chief ensured that the howitzer’s ammunition status was updated
in accordance with TSOP.
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Delivery Section Training
TABLE VII/VIII STATION 2 (M102, M119)
TEST ADMINISTRATIVE GUIDE
TASK: Conduct out of Traverse Mission
CONDITIONS: The section is in position and fire missions are being conducted. The FDC
sends a fire mission for a target about 1,600 mils off the AOL.
STANDARDS: The section traverses to the new AOF and conducts a fire mission in less
than 3 minutes while maintaining standards of precision.
PERSONNEL, EQUIPMENT, AND MATERIAL REQUIRED:
•
Primary evaluator (SSG or above) in charge of administering the test (he may also occupy a
test station).
•
Station evaluator, SGT or above (one per test station).
•
Classroom or training area.
•
Stopwatch (one per evaluator).
•
Criterion-scoring checklist (one per Soldier).
•
Desk and chair or clipboard (one per Soldier).
•
Pencils (one per Soldier).
•
FM 3-09.8 (one per station).
•
Howitzer section with all assigned equipment.
TEST PLANNING TIME:
•
Administrative time: 5 minutes
•
Test time: 5 minutes
•
Total time: 10 minutes
OTHER INFORMATION: Time will begin when the last digit of quadrant is announced.
INSTRUCTIONS TO THE HOWITZER SECTION: “You are conducting combat operations.
You have arrived at your new position area and reported that you are laid and ready to fire.
Do you understand the requirements of this test? Do you have any questions? You may
begin.”
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Chapter 4
Performance Measures
GO
NO-GO
1. Section traversed to the announced azimuth using the azimuth markers.
2. COS verified that the howitzer was on the new azimuth using the compass
or azimuth markers.
3. Gunner disengaged deflection knob and set azimuth to the proper aiming
reference on the azimuth scale.
4. Section traversed howitzer onto the new AOF as the gunner sights
through the pantel and told the section when to drop the trails.
5. Gunner engaged the deflection knob and set the announced deflection for
the fire mission.
6. Section took all necessary action to place the howitzer in order and
prepared for the fire mission.
7. Section conducted fire mission and met all standards of precision.
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Delivery Section Training
TABLE VII/VIII STATION 1 (PALADIN)
TEST ADMINISTRATIVE GUIDE
TASK: Conduct Fire Missions
CONDITIONS: You have completed the occupation of a new firing position and reported to
the POC/BOC/FDC that you are ready to fire. You will conduct indirect fire missions as sent
from the POC/BOC/FDC.
STANDARDS: The howitzer section is ready to fire within 30 seconds (45 seconds for high
angle) after receiving and acknowledging the fire mission.
PERSONNEL, EQUIPMENT, AND MATERIAL REQUIRED:
•
Primary evaluator (SSG or above) in charge of administering the test (he may also occupy a
test station).
•
Station evaluator, SGT or above (one per test station).
•
Classroom or training area.
•
Stopwatch (one per evaluator).
•
Criterion-scoring checklist (one per Soldier).
•
Desk and chair or clipboard (one per Soldier).
•
Pencils (one per Soldier).
•
FM 3-09.8 (one per station).
•
Howitzer section with all assigned equipment.
TEST PLANNING TIME:
•
Administrative time: 5 minutes
•
Test time: 60 minutes
•
Total time: 65 minutes
INSTRUCTIONS TO THE HOWITZER SECTION: “You are conducting combat operations.
You have arrived at your new position area and reported that you are laid and ready to fire.
Do you understand the requirements of this test? Do you have any questions? You may
begin.” (Start the time when the AFCS displays quadrant elevation.)
Performance Measures
GO
NO-GO
1. The COS operated the AFCS and processed the fire mission.
2. The COS responded and issued the fire commands.
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Performance Measures
GO
NO-GO
3. The driver raised the RPM of the howitzer from 1,000 to 1,200 RPM and
recorded the fire mission on DA Form 4513-R.
4. The COS activated servos and pushed LOAD KEY.
5. The number 1 man prepared ammunition by lot and shell/fuse combination
(set time if time fuze was used).
6. The gunner prepared announced propellant.
7. The COS checked setting, if time fuze was used, for proper time setting.
8. The number 1 man rammed projectile (pushed manual control lever forward,
holding lever for 4 seconds to allow full extension of rammer).
9. The COS verified charge before gunner loaded it in the tube.
a. The gunner placed the charge in the red ignitor pad facing the rear,
announced “CLOSE,” and lifted the breech-operating handle, causing the
breech to close.
b. The gunner ensured that witness marks were aligned and announced
“WITNESS MARKS ALIGNED.”
10. The COS pressed the lay key and announced “LAY LIGHT IS BACK LIT.”
a. The actual and command deflection and quadrant matched within 1 mil of
each other and no warning message was present.
b. The gunner checked all three settings and announced, “VERIFIED.” (If it
was a high angle-fire mission, the command to prime was done before
the lay key.)
c.
The gunner announced “CHECK FIRING” if a violation of the above steps
occurred or if the data did not match.
11. The COS commanded “PRIME” and the number 1 man emplaced the primer.
12. The COS commanded “HOOK UP” and the number 1 man hooked up the
lanyard.
Note. If the method of fire control was “At My Command,” the section chief waited until the command
was given to fire over the AFCS.
13. The COS commanded “FIRE” and the number 1 man fired.
HOWITZER TABLE VIII: QUALIFICATION
4-33.
Howitzer table VIII will be conducted as an annual live-fire LTX using full-service ammunition.
Each howitzer section will have successfully completed table VII within the previous six months. It is
recommended that Tables VII and VIII be incorporated into a single LTX. Howitzer Table VIII is a gate for all
live-fire training conducted by battery or battalion.
SECTION II. MLRS SECTION TABLES
ARTILLERY SKILLS PROFICIENCY TEST FOR MLRS SECTION
4-34.
The ASPT evaluates the MLRS section member’s ability to execute selected crew skills. The tasks
listed in this chapter provide the unit commander a means to evaluate the MLRS section member’s basic
proficiency prior to live-fire exercises. The ASPT can also be used as a guide for identifying section strengths
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Delivery Section Training
and weaknesses. When structuring the unit’s annual gunnery training program, the commander, master gunner,
and battery leaders should use ASPT results.
REQUIREMENTS
4-35.
All MOS 13M personnel and any personnel assigned to an MLRS section (regardless of MOS) will
be given the ASPT. (MLRS section members are required to pass the ASPT before MLRS section
qualification.) To pass the ASPT, a Soldier must receive a GO on all stations. If a Soldier fails a task, he must
be retrained and retested on that station until he receives a GO. Appropriate manuals and other references listed
for each station must be used to prepare, administer, and evaluate the ASPT.
Note. Evaluators must pass the ASPT within six months prior to testing.
EVALUATION PROCEDURES
4-36.
Detailed procedures for setting up and conducting the evaluation and for conducting the AAR are in
paragraph 3-2 of this manual.
TEST STATIONS
4-37.
Each test station consists of a test administrative guide or criterion scoring checklist.
TEST STATIONS
1. Determine masking data test station
2. Perform hangfire procedures test station
3. Conduct launcher calibration test station (M270)
4A. Update weapon files test station (M270)
4B. Perform program load unit functions with the soldier’s portable on-system repair tool test
station
5. Perform fire control system startup test station
5A. Perform initialization/shutdown of the fire control system test station
6. Launcher reload procedures test station
7. Launcher reload operations test station
8. High mobility artillery rocket system test station
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Chapter 4
DETERMINE MASKING DATA TEST STATION
TEST ADMINISTRATIVE GUIDE
STATION 1 (ALL)
TASK: Determine Masking Data
CONDITIONS: Given a launcher, an M2 compass, a map of the area, a coordinate scale,
and a briefing on the tactical situation and azimuth of fire (AOF).
STANDARDS: Measured masking data within 20 mils in elevation, 20 mils in azimuth, and
100 meters in distance. Entered masking data into the database for that firing point and sent
the updated data to the BOC/POC.
PERSONNEL, EQUIPMENT, AND MATERIAL REQUIRED:
•
Primary evaluator (SSG or above) in charge of administering the test (he may also occupy a
test station).
•
Station evaluator, SGT or above (one per test station).
•
Training area.
•
Stopwatch (one per evaluator).
•
Criterion-scoring checklist (one per Soldier).
•
Operational M270/M270A1/HIMARS launcher.
•
Pencils (one per Soldier).
•
FM 3-09.8 (one per station).
•
Coordinate scale.
•
Declinated M2 compass.
•
Map.
•
TM 9-1325-646-13&P, IETM 9-1055-647-13&P or IETM 9-2300-310-14&P.
TEST PLANNING TIME:
•
Administrative time: 5 minutes
•
Test time: 10 minutes
•
Total time (per Soldier): 15 minutes
OTHER INFORMATION: Before the Soldier arrives, the evaluator will select an area with a
panoramic view of surrounding terrain simulating a firing point and prepare a briefing on the
tactical situation and the AOF.
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Delivery Section Training
INSTRUCTIONS TO THE SOLDIER: “You are currently located at a firing point. Your AOF
is as follows: ___________________. You must successfully determine the azimuth to and
measure the maximum immediate crest and determine the distance to the crest. You must
also measure and report the azimuth to your left and right limits. Do you understand the
requirements of this test? Do you have any questions? You may begin.”
Performance Measures
GO
NO-GO
1. Did NOT use the compass within 30 meters of the launcher.
2. Measured the mask clearance.
3. Inspected terrain and identified highest mask in his AOF.
4. Measured and recorded mask to the closest 10 mils, within 20 mils of
actual highest point.
5. Measured mask azimuth.
6. Used M2 compass to measure and record left azimuth to within 20 mils.
7. Used M2 compass to measure and record right azimuth to within 20 mils.
8. Measured distance to mask using a map, or had the driver pace the
distance, or estimated the distance.
9. Recorded the distance to within 100 meters distance.
10. Section chief gave information to gunner; gunner correctly entered data into
the FCS for the appropriate firing point and updated database.
11. Gunner sent updated database to the BOC/POC.
31 July 2006
FM 3-09.8
4-93
Chapter 4
PERFORM HANGFIRE PROCEDURES TEST STATION
TEST ADMINISTRATIVE GUIDE
STATION 2 (ALL)
TASK: Perform Hangfire Procedures (061-310-8009)
CONDITIONS: Given a launcher with a simulated hangfire, crew, and appropriate technical
manuals.
STANDARDS: The firing section performed all hangfire procedures without injury to
personnel or damage to equipment.
PERSONNEL, EQUIPMENT, AND MATERIAL REQUIRED:
•
Primary evaluator (SSG or above) in charge of administering the test (he may also occupy a
test station).
•
Station evaluator, SGT or above (one per test station).
•
Classroom or training area.
•
Stopwatch (one per evaluator).
•
Criterion-scoring checklist (one per Soldier).
•
Desk and chair or clipboard (one per Soldier).
•
Pencils (one per Soldier).
•
FM 3-09.8 (one per station).
•
M270/M270A1/HIMARS.
•
TM 9-1325-646-13&P, IETM 9-1055-647-13&P or IETM 9-2300-310-14&P.
TEST PLANNING TIME:
•
Administrative time: 5 minutes
•
Test time: 10 minutes
•
Total time (per Soldier): 15 minutes
OTHER INFORMATION: This task may be simulated at a firing point or in the local training
area.
INSTRUCTIONS TO THE CREWMAN: “You are currently located at a firing point. In the
process of executing a fire mission, one or more rockets failed to fire. The hangfire indicator
on the fire control panel is flashing. (Note. The continue option was selected during startup.)
4-94
FM 3-09.8
31 July 2006
Delivery Section Training
Do you understand the requirements of this test? Do you have any questions? You may
begin.”
Performance Measures
GO
NO-GO
Note. Crew stayed in position and double-checked the launcher cab.
1. Made sure that vent fan was set to MED.
2. Crew checked that differential pressure gauge read a minimum of 0.25. If
the differential pressure gauge read less than 0.25, crew donned masks.
3. Crew checked that vent fan control override was OFF.
4. Crew checked that ventilation damper was in the firing position.
5. Checked all doors, windows, hatches, and louvers to ensure that they
were secured.
6. Gunner set arm switch to SAFE after firing stopped.
7. Ensured that mission fired message was sent to battery and platoon
headquarters.
8. Crew notified BOC/POC on voice radio of the hangfire condition.
9. Waited 30 minutes. After 10 minutes, if cab became uncomfortably hot,
directed driver to move the ventilation damper to normal and had all
crewmembers don masks.
10. After 30 minutes or when ordered, stowed the LLM and waited for further
orders.
Note. BOC will notify crew that they will download the pod with the hangfire at the nearest tree line.
The crew will explain the following when questioned:
11. Moved to tree line to download the LPC with the hangfire.
a. Released SLO and drove the launcher with only the louvers open;
needed to be able to see to drive the launcher.
b. Drove the launcher slowly, avoiding rough ground and quick turns.
c.
Kept the LLM pointed in the AOF.
d. Downloaded LPC and stowed LLM; ensured that the LPC shorting
plug was connected.
12. After unloading LPC, realigned SRP and updated PDS before continuing
normal operations.
31 July 2006
FM 3-09.8
4-95
Chapter 4
CONDUCT LAUNCHER CALIBRATION TEST STATION (M270)
TEST ADMINISTRATIVE GUIDE
STATION 3
TASK: Conduct Launcher Calibration
CONDITIONS: Given an M270 launcher, a crew, calibration course data, FM 6-60, and TM
9-1325-646-13&P.
STANDARDS: Calibrated the M270 launcher within the PDS calibration limits listed in
TM 9-1325-646-13&P.
PERSONNEL, EQUIPMENT, AND MATERIAL REQUIRED:
•
Primary evaluator (SSG or above) in charge of administering the test (he may also occupy a
test station).
•
Station evaluator, SGT or above (one per test station).
•
Training area.
•
Stopwatch (one per evaluator).
•
Criterion-scoring checklist (one per Soldier).
•
Desk and chair or clipboard (one per Soldier).
•
Pencils (one per Soldier).
•
FM 3-09.8 (one per station).
•
Operational M270 launcher.
•
Two survey control points.
•
TM 9-1325-646-13&P.
TEST PLANNING TIME:
•
Administrative time: 5 minutes
•
Test time: 15 minutes
•
Total time (per Soldier): 20 minutes
OTHER INFORMATION: Prior to this task being evaluated, two SCPs—an appropriate
distance apart—must be surveyed and marked.
INSTRUCTIONS TO THE CREWMAN: “You have initiated startup procedures and
determined that the PDS requires calibration. Your POC/BOC has provided two survey
control points. You must calibrate the PDS on your launcher per the procedures in the
4-96
FM 3-09.8
31 July 2006
Delivery Section Training
technical manual. Do you understand the requirements of this test? Do you have any
questions? You may begin.”
Performance Measures
GO
NO-GO
1. The section chief directed the driver to park the SPLL with the rear edge of
the left drive sprocket in line with and about 0.5 meters away from the SCP.
2. When the vehicle was properly parked, the section chief directed the
gunner to enter the calibration data into the CALIBRATE PDS MENU.
3. The crew proceeded on calibration run 1 at a constant speed of
40 kilometers per hour.
4. Upon arrival at the second SCP, the gunner entered the calibration data
into the FCS in the CALIBRATE PDS MENU.
5. Upon arrival back at the first SCP, the gunner entered the survey data into
the FCS in the CALIBRATE PDS MENU.
6. Upon completion of the calibration, the gunner entered the startup menu
and recorded the odometer scale factor, azimuth crab angle, and the elevation
crab angle. The gunner checked to ensure that the data are within the
calibration parameters in TM 9-1325-646-13&P.
31 July 2006
FM 3-09.8
4-97
Chapter 4
UPDATE WEAPON FILES TEST STATION (M270)
TEST ADMINISTRATIVE GUIDE
STATION 4A
TASK: Update Weapon Files (061-310-8007)
CONDITIONS: Given an M270 launcher with startup completed, PLU with cassette, and
TM 9-1325-646-13&P.
STANDARDS: Updated weapons files to receive the PIM EPROM PROGRAMMING
COMPLETE prompt on the fire control panel.
PERSONNEL, EQUIPMENT, AND MATERIAL REQUIRED:
•
Primary evaluator (SSG or above) in charge of administering the test (he may also occupy a
test station).
•
Station evaluator, SGT or above (one per test station).
•
Training area.
•
Stopwatch (one per evaluator).
•
Criterion-scoring checklist (one per Soldier).
•
Desk and chair or clipboard (one per Soldier).
•
Pencils (one per Soldier).
•
FM 3-09.8 (one per station).
•
Operational M270 launcher with startup completed.
•
PLU with cassette.
•
TM 9-1325-646-13&P.
TEST PLANNING TIME:
Administrative time: 5 minutes
Test time: 12 minutes
Total time (per Soldier): 17 minutes
INSTRUCTIONS TO THE CREWMAN: “You have determined after startup that you must
reprogram and update your weapon files. Do you understand the requirements of this test?
Do you have any questions? You may begin.”
4-98
FM 3-09.8
31 July 2006
Delivery Section Training
Performance Measures
GO
NO-GO
1. Entered PLU READ MENU.
2. Pressed INIT key to begin deletion.
3. Connected PLU.
4. Pressed the INIT key.
5. Received PIM EPROM PROGRAMMING COMPLETE prompt on the fire
control panel.
6. Disconnected PLU upon completion of weapons update.
31 July 2006
FM 3-09.8
4-99
Chapter 4
PERFORM PLU FUNCTIONS WITH THE SOLDIER’S
PORTABLE ON-SYSTEM REPAIR TOOL (SPORT) TEST STATION
TEST ADMINISTRATIVE GUIDE
STATION 4B (M270A1, HIMARS)
TASK: Perform PLU Functions with the Soldier’s Portable On-System Repair Tool (061-3125107)
CONDITIONS: Given an M270A1 launcher, a SPORT, MSD, PLU (CD-ROM), W10P2 cable,
BNC to MICRO adapter, “T” adapter, and BNC terminator.
STANDARDS: Performed successful transfer of files.
PERSONNEL, EQUIPMENT, AND MATERIAL REQUIRED:
•
Primary evaluator (SSG or above) in charge of administering the test (he may also occupy a
test station).
•
Station evaluator, SGT or above (one per test station).
•
Classroom or training area.
•
Stopwatch (one per evaluator).
•
Criterion-scoring checklist (one per Soldier).
•
Desk and chair or clipboard (one per Soldier).
•
Pencils (one per Soldier).
•
FM 3-09.8 (one per station).
•
Operational M270A1/HIMARS launcher.
•
SPORT with fully charged batteries.
•
MSD.
•
PLU (CD-ROM).
•
W10P2 cable.
•
BNC to MICRO adapter.
•
“T” adapter and BNC terminator.
•
IETM 9-1055-647-13&P or IETM 9-2300-310-14&P.
TEST PLANNING TIME:
•
Administrative time: 5 minutes
•
Test time: 30 minutes
•
Total time (per Soldier): 35 minutes
4-100
FM 3-09.8
31 July 2006
Delivery Section Training
OTHER INFORMATION:
1. Do not power down the system during initialization or the PLU will be damaged.
2. Reload the same version of software to avoid follow-on procedures wait time.
INSTRUCTIONS TO THE CREWMAN: “You have determined after startup that you must
reprogram and update your weapon files. Do you understand the requirements of this test?
Do you have any questions? You may begin.”
Performance Measures
GO
NO-GO
1. Performed PLU functions using the SPORT.
a. Connected the SPORT to FCS using the W10P2 cable, BNC to MICRO
adapter, “T” adapter, or BNC terminator.
b. Applied power to the SPORT using one of the four methods.
c.
Turned the SPORT on by pressing the OFF/ON key and allowed
Microsoft Windows to completely boot up.
d. Powered up the FCS by placing the FCP PWR SWITCH in the ON
position.
e. Activated the PLU software.
f.
Transferred files from the SPORT to the FCS.
2. Performed PLU functions using the MSD.
a. Connected power (W11) or NATO slave cable, and Ethernet (W10)
between the MSD and launcher.
b. Ensured that MSD batteries were installed.
c.
Turned on MSD and allowed to fully initialize.
d. Double-clicked the PLU icon on the Windows 95 desktop screen on the
MSD.
e. Started the carrier engine and engaged the launcher interconnect switch
and verified that both generators were working before continuing.
f.
Turned on FCS power switch.
g. Pressed CONNECT on the PLU program.
h. Transferred files from the MSD to the FCS by selecting one of the
following options on the main PLU screen:
(1) CONNECT/DISCONNECT: Used to establish or terminate a
connection between the PLU and the FCS.
(2) RELOAD MSD: Used to perform an entire rewrite of the mass
storage device (MSD).
(3) SELECTIVE FILE CONTROL: Used to send files back and forth
between the PLU and MSD.
(4) CLEAR STATUS: Clears the contents of the status window.
(5) EXIT: Quits and exits the PLU program.
31 July 2006
FM 3-09.8
4-101
Chapter 4
PERFORM FIRE CONTROL SYSTEM STARTUP TEST STATION (M270)
TEST ADMINISTRATIVE GUIDE
STATION 5
TASK: Perform Fire Control System Startup
CONDITIONS: Given an M270 launcher, startup data, startup data card, TM 9-1325-64613&P, and a program load unit (when required).
STANDARDS: Performed FCS startup to achieve hot status.
PERSONNEL, EQUIPMENT, AND MATERIAL REQUIRED:
•
Primary evaluator (SSG or above) in charge of administering the test (he may also occupy a
test station).
•
Station evaluator, SGT or above (one per test station).
•
Classroom or training area.
•
Stopwatch (one per evaluator).
•
Criterion-scoring checklist (one per Soldier).
•
Desk and chair or clipboard (one per Soldier).
•
Pencils (one per Soldier).
•
FM 3-09.8 (one per station).
•
An operational M270 launcher.
•
ANCD.
•
PLGR.
•
OPORD, tactical situation.
•
TM 9-1325-646-13&P, IETM 9-1055-647-13&P or IETM 9-2300-310-14&P, Startup Data
Card, and PLU (when required).
TEST PLANNING TIME:
•
Administrative time: 5 minutes
•
Test time: 13 minutes
•
Total time (per Soldier): 18 minutes
OTHER INFORMATION: Before the Soldier arrives, the evaluator will prepare a form with all
required startup data.
4-102
FM 3-09.8
31 July 2006
Delivery Section Training
INSTRUCTIONS TO THE CREWMAN: “Your section is conducting combat operations. You
have been provided the tactical situation. You and your section are required to conduct
launcher startup procedures to include establishing voice and digital communications with
the POC/BOC. You will also be required to update the PDS and an SCP and be prepared to
move to a hide area. You should complete all tasks in 8 minutes. Do you understand the
requirements of the test? Do you have any questions? You may begin.” (Start the time when
the crew is in the launcher.)
WARNING
Personnel working on and around equipment must wear ear
protection. Noise levels could cause permanent hearing damage.
Performance Measures
GO
NO-GO
Note. Ensure that the MASTER POWER and LAUNCHER INTERCONNECT are in the ON position
and the FCP SWITCHES are in the OFF and/or safe position before startup procedures begin. LLM
must be stowed to perform startup.
1. Checked to see if the launcher interconnect switch on the driver's console
was on. (It connects the vehicle's alternators to the LLM batteries. The
generators will not charge the batteries for the FCS if the switch is not on.)
Checked to see that all switches on the FCP were in the down or safe position
and all adjustment knobs were set to maximum.
2. Turned on the radio equipment.
3. Ran vehicle engine at fast idle (1,200 to 1,500 RPM). Checked the carrier
volts gauge during normal operation. (The volts gauge should indicate in the
upper 50 to 75 percent of the green zone.)
4. Set the SYSTEM POWER SWITCH to ON and lowered cover.
5. The first prompt that will appear on the screen will be BUBBLE MEMORY
DOWNLOAD IN PROGRESS. The EU downloads the files required for
operations from the storage memory of the EU to the operating memory of the
EU. Once this action is complete, the FCP displays the LANGUAGE
SELECTION field. Performed lamp tests at this time and adjusted the control
knobs to the desired levels.
6. Entered option 3 and pressed EXEC key (U.S. English).
7. Entered BOOM CONTROL OPTION. Will show YES or NO. Selected NO.
8. Selected the language-prompting mode and the TIME OF DAY field
appeared. Enter time in the sequence of hours, minutes, and seconds. After the
correct time of day was entered,, pressed the STORE key and the clock began
keeping time.
9. Performed system startup by purging the database. Selected option one to
purge the database. (When purging the database, operational data will be
removed from the memory that was saved when the fire control system was
last shut down.)
a. Pressed the index key, and the INDEX MENU displayed, showing a list
of options which is the starting point for all menus and routines.
31 July 2006
FM 3-09.8
4-103
Chapter 4
Performance Measures
GO
NO-GO
b. Entered SYSTEM STARTUP using the information in the order it
appeared on the startup data card.
c.
Selected option 0 in the startup menu.
(1) Entered the easting information (that is, 000000) recorded on the
startup data card.
(2) Entered the northing information (that is, 00000000) recorded on
the startup data card.
(3) Entered the altitude information (that is, +0000) recorded on the
startup data card.
Note. Valid entries can be either + positive or - negative. Positive entries represent
altitudes above sea level and negative entries represent altitudes below sea level.
(4) Pressed the STORE key to turn on the SRP/PDS.
(5) Entered the grid zone information recorded on the startup data
card. A grid zone is a large section of the earth’s surface. Valid
entries in this field can be either a + (positive) or - (negative) entry.
A negative number would put your launcher below the equator, and
a positive number puts your launcher above the equator.
(6) Selected a valid entry for high QE. The high QE defaults to option
zero or no entry.
Note. A “YES” entry (option 1) tells the EU to use a high angle to engage the target. A
“NO” entry (option 0) tells the EU to find the lowest possible angle to engage the target
during a fire mission. The only time the operator would enter 1 here is if a masking
problem existed.
(7) Selected a valid entry for LPC Malfunction. This field is used if
there is some type of malfunction in LPC 1.
(a) If a “YES” (option 1, default) is entered, and there are not
enough rockets in LPC 1 to complete a mission due to a
misfire, hangfire, or other malfunction, replacement rocket(s)
will be automatically selected from LPC 2 and the assigned
number of rockets will be fired.
(b) If a “NO” (option 0) is entered, LPC 2 rockets will not be used
to replace failed rockets.
(8) Selected a valid entry for hangfire option. (This option allows the
crewman to continue or stop if a hangfire occurs in any rocket
during a fire mission.)
(a) If “STOP” (option 0, default) is entered, and a rocket hangfires,
the firing sequence will stop.
(b) If “CONTINUE” (option 1) is selected and a hangfire occurs,
the FCS will automatically select another weapon for firing.
Note. The FCP displays the SRP aligning time to go after the last entry for system startup
is made. Initial alignment of the SRP takes approximately 8 minutes. Do not wait for the
SRP to complete alignment.
d. Performed communication start up at this time. Pressed the index key;
then selected option 5, Comms Startup menu.
(1) Entered the numbers from the corresponding lines into the FCS. If
there was no number in the first box next to the entry, looked to the
right at the other boxes for the entry.
(2) Pressed the EXEC key after making the final entry on line 25.
4-104
FM 3-09.8
31 July 2006
Delivery Section Training
Performance Measures
GO
e.
Pressed the index key to proceed with startup.
f.
Entered the PDS data in section 4 of the SPLL startup data card.
Selected option 3, MENUS MENU; then selected option 0, startup
menu.
NO-GO
(1) Selected option 1, PDS startup.
(2) Entered the odometer scale factor information.
Note. The odometer scale factor represents the distance traveled for each pulse sent
from the encoder to the PDS.
(3) Entered the azimuth crab angle information.
Note. The azimuth crab angle represents the difference in horizontal direction between
the vehicle and the orientation of the SRP/PDS to the vehicle.
(4) Entered the elevation crab angle information.
Note. The elevation crab angle represents the difference in vertical direction between the
vehicle and the orientation of the SRP/PDS to the vehicle.
31 July 2006
FM 3-09.8
4-105
Chapter 4
PERFORM INITIALIZATION/SHUTDOWN OF THE
FIRE CONTROL SYSTEM TEST STATION (M270A1/HIMARS)
TEST ADMINISTRATIVE GUIDE
STATION 5A
TASK: Perform Initialization/Shutdown of the Fire Control System (M270A1)
CONDITIONS: Given a launcher (M270A1) with FCP and MSD, DTD, AN/CYZ-10, all
communications equipment, startup data, SPORT, and IETM 9-1055-647-13&P for system
initialization.
STANDARDS: Initialized FCS by powering up and downloading operational software to the
FCS. Provided operational parameters to the FCS, which are used to initialize the PNU,
GPS, and communications systems. Shut down FCS in a reverse logical order.
PERSONNEL, EQUIPMENT, AND MATERIAL REQUIRED:
•
Primary evaluator (SSG or above) in charge of administering the test (he may also occupy a
test station).
•
Station evaluator, SGT or above (one per test station).
•
Training area.
•
Stopwatch (one per evaluator).
•
Criterion-scoring checklist (one per Soldier).
•
Pencils (one per Soldier).
•
FM 3-09.8 (one per station).
•
An operational M270A1 launcher.
•
MSD.
•
Data transfer device, AN/CYZ-10.
•
Startup data card.
•
SPORT with fully charged batteries.
•
TM 9-1325-646-13&P, IETM 9-1055-647-13&P or IETM 9-2300-310-14&P.
TEST PLANNING TIME:
•
Administrative time: 5 minutes
•
Test time: 13 minutes
•
Total time (per Soldier): 18 minutes
4-106
FM 3-09.8
31 July 2006
Delivery Section Training
OTHER INFORMATION: Before the Soldier arrives, the evaluator will prepare a form with all
required startup data.
INSTRUCTIONS TO THE CREWMAN: “Your section is conducting combat operations. You
have been provided the tactical situation. You and your section are required to conduct
launcher initialization procedures to include establishing voice and digital communications
with the POC/BOC. You should complete all tasks in 8 minutes. Do you understand the
requirements of the test? Do you have any questions? You may begin.” (Start the time.)
Performance Measures
GO
NO-GO
1. Performed system initialization.
a. Initiated process by placing FCS SYSTEM PWR switch in ON position.
b. Reviewed/entered data in system submode (time of day, launcher
location data, communications initialization).
c.
Performed communications startup.
d. Selected weapon data.
e. Reviewed/selected operator options.
f.
Performed LDST.
g. Loaded GPS keys.
2. Performed FCS shutdown.
a. Pressed menu bar.
b. Selected SYSTEM option.
c.
Selected CONFIRM option.
d. Monitored all CSCIs as they shut down on FCP display.
e. Placed FCS POWER SWITCH in OFF position after the prompt
POWER DOWN THE SYSTEM was displayed.
MLRS TABLES
4-38.
The MLRS tables for the SPLL are as outlined in table 4-15.
Table 4-8. MLRS launcher section tables
Table No.
Description
Remarks
I
Individual Soldier and leader tasks (includes
safety certification)
Unit exam samples, FM 6-60
III
Machine gun training
IV
Conduct MLRS firing section OPAREA
occupation
V
Reload procedures
VI
Prepare HIMARS for air movement
31 July 2006
FM 3-09.8
06-4-M022 ARTEP 6-397-30-MTP
4-107
Chapter 4
Table 4-8. MLRS launcher section tables
Table No.
Description
Remarks
VII
Crew training (fire missions)
Evaluate using FCP trainer
VIII
Section live-fire qualification
Multiechelon
MLRS TABLE I: INDIVIDUAL SOLDIER AND LEADER TASKS
4-39.
The tasks for Table I include all individual and leader tasks required to accurately and safely fire
MLRS/HIMARS munitions. Individual tasks are all tasks in STP 6-13M14-SM-TG. Leader task steps are
included in the collective tasks in ARTEP 6-397-30-MTP. The training of these tasks is conducted during
sergeant’s time training and the results of this table will assist in planning and conducting that training. The
leader’s safety certification exams addressed in chapter 2 of this manual may require supplementation with
local range safety procedures and requirements to meet the commander’s safety certification program. Example
examination questions may be found in appendix C and appendix D and should be supplemented with questions
on unit TSOP and local regulations.
MLRS TABLE III: M249 LIGHT MACHINE GUN TRAINING
4-40.
The M249 LMG is common to many sections and crews in FA units. Maintaining a high degree of
proficiency on this weapon has never been more important. The asynchronous battlefield of the COE and the
varied and complex missions assigned to FA organizations require that crews and sections be proficient on all
assigned weapons. The M249 LMG is critical to the overall defense of the unit against both ground and air
threats and integrated with other defenses to provide force protection against all threats. The unit training
program should include preliminary marksmanship training and training on the assembly, disassembly, and
maintenance of the weapon as described in FM 3-22.68. The training and qualification included in MLRS Table
III is the strategy recommended by STRAC and FM 3-22.68. This strategy has been expanded to include a
convoy live-fire exercise.
MLRS Table III – M249 LMG training
Task
Conditions
Ammunition
Reference
10-meter zero practice
and qualification
Integrated CBRN, 80
percent of assigned
gunner and assistant
gunner annually
108 rounds,
ball/person
Table 5-1, FM 322.68; Table 5-26, DA
Pam 350-38
Transition firing,
practice, and
qualification
Integrated CBRN
144 rounds,
mix/person
Table 5-1, FM 322.68; Table 5-26, DA
Pam 350-38
Night zero and
instructional firing
With mounted AN/PVS-4
90 rounds,
mix/person
Table 5-1, FM 322.68; Table 5-26, DA
Pam 350-38
Convoy live fire
exercise
370 rounds, mixed
MLRS TABLE IV: CONDUCT MLRS FIRING SECTION OPAREA OCCUPATION
4-41.
Table IV is a critical task for MLRS/HIMARS sections that should be trained live, as an STX, on
varying terrain.
4-108
FM 3-09.8
31 July 2006
Delivery Section Training
TASK: Conduct MLRS Firing Section Operational Area Occupation (06-4-M022) (FM 6-60)
(TM 9-1425-646-10-2)
CONDITIONS: The firing section is conducting combat operations. The section is in a
platoon operations area and has received occupation and mission instructions from the
platoon leader. Launcher is operational and calibrated, and all startup/PDS/FCS data is
current and complete. Some iterations of this task should be performed in MOPP4.
STANDARDS: The section must move to the section’s firing area, select hide and firing
positions in accordance with FM 6-60, occupy an initial hide area, update the FCS data,
transmit the updated database as required, and assume the designated launcher posture.
Task Steps and Performance Measures
GO
NO-GO
1. Section chief conducted a map reconnaissance of area to become familiar
with the area and to spot potential hide/firing locations.
2. Driver drove the launcher to the section firing area in accordance with FM 660, platoon instructions, terrain/weather conditions, and section chief’s
instructions.
3. Section chief selected initial hide/firing locations and at least two additional
hide/firing locations in accordance with FM 6-60. Unless special considerations
apply, the locations should meet the following criteria:
a. HAs are within 100 meters of FPs and offer good cover and concealment;
however, longer distances are acceptable if response times can be kept
short.
b. FPs are at least 500 meters from other FPs (800 meters is preferred) and
800 meters from any other position or element except HAs.
c.
Slope of FPs is not greater than 89 mils.
d. If a FP is located on a road, the road is perpendicular to the AOF for
rocket missions or parallel to the AOF for missile missions.
e. FPs do not have an immediate mask in the probable direction of fire that
will interfere with firing.
f.
All locations afford good communications with POC and BOC.
4. Section moved to and occupied initial HA in accordance with FM 6-60.
a. Section conducted proper tactical movement to the HA. Section chief
directed the driver using proper hand signals.
b. Section chief directed camouflage and position preparation as appropriate.
c.
Section chief finalized position selections and verified all position data.
5. Gunner updated all data in FCS as appropriate. Section chief verified correct
data entry.
31 July 2006
FM 3-09.8
4-109
Chapter 4
Task Steps and Performance Measures
GO
NO-GO
6. Gunner transmitted updated FCS position data to the POC/BOC and verified
receipt.
7. Section assumed directed launcher response posture.
SUPPORTING INDIVIDUAL TASKS
Task Number
Task Title
References
061-310-2001
Perform stablization reference package//PDS
operations
STP 6-13M14-SM-TG
061-310-2022
Edit/input fire control system data
STP 6-13M14-SM-TG
061-310-3011
Select a launcher firing position
STP 6-13M14-SM-TG
061-310-8004
Operate the M993
STP 6-13M14-SM-TG
061-310-8005
Perform fire control system startup
STP 6-13M14-SM-TG
061-310-8008
Enter operational area data into the fire
control system
STP 6-13M14-SM-TG
SUPPORTING COLLECTIVE TASKS
Task Number
Task Title
References
06-2-M017
Move an multiple launch rocket system firing
platoon or battery
ARTEP 6-397-30-MTP
06-3-M001
Conduct occupation of position area (multiple
launch rocket system battery/platoon)
ARTEP 6-397-30-MTP
06-3-M017
Conduct multiple launch rocket system firing
platoon reconnaissance, selection, and
occupation of position
ARTEP 6-397-30-MTP
MLRS TABLE V: RELOAD PROCEDURES
4-42.
The reload task in MLRS Table V may be trained as an STX or during the LTX for MLRS Tables
VII/VIII. Table V is a gate for Table VIII.
4-110
FM 3-09.8
31 July 2006
Delivery Section Training
LAUNCHER RELOAD PROCEDURES TEST STATION (M270)
TEST ADMINISTRATIVE GUIDE
STATION 6
TASK: Launcher Reload Procedures (M270)
CONDITIONS: The firing section is conducting combat operations and has completed a fire
mission. The launcher requires resupply of rockets. The POC/BOC has directed that the
launcher proceed to the reload point, re-arm, and move to an HA near the next firing point.
STANDARDS: The firing section must perform reload operations within 12 minutes and then
prepare to assume a firing capability.
PERSONNEL, EQUIPMENT, AND MATERIAL REQUIRED:
•
Primary evaluator (SSG or above) in charge of administering the test (he may also occupy a
test station).
•
Station evaluator, SGT or above (one per test station).
•
Training area.
•
Stopwatch (one per evaluator).
•
Criterion-scoring checklist (one per Soldier).
•
Pencils (one per Soldier).
•
FM 3-09.8 (one per station).
•
An operational launcher.
•
Two M68/M68A2 launch pod assembly trainers.
TEST PLANNING TIME:
•
Administrative time: 5 minutes
•
Test time: 12 minutes
•
Total time (per Soldier): 17 minutes
OTHER INFORMATION:
1. Time starts when the launcher starts to move towards the LPCs and ends when the
LLM is stowed.
2. Crew will download two training LPCs at the same time, move the hooks over to the
expended pods representing the new live LPCs, and then pick up both LPCs (new
LPCs would be loaded from the L/R rear corner of the SPLL).
31 July 2006
FM 3-09.8
4-111
Chapter 4
3. Crew must pause briefly with hooks over the expended pods for the evaluator to verify
that the hooks are over the bulkhead and the pods may be safely loaded without
dragging the LPC more than one-half the width of the LPC.
INSTRUCTIONS TO THE CREWMAN: “Your section is conducting combat operations. You
have been given the tactical situation. You and your section have completed a mission and
have been directed to move to a reload point, re-arm, and move to your next HA. The
location of the LPCs is the reload point. Your time begins when you move to the LPCs and
ends when the LLM is stowed. You should complete all tasks in 12 minutes. Do you
understand the requirements of this test? Do you have any questions? You may begin.”
(Start the time.)
Performance Measures
GO
NO-GO
1. Section chief directed driver to reload point.
2. As the LPCs to be loaded are approached, stopped SPLL and the section
chief dismounted. Section chief checked for security and inspected pods for
serviceability and correct weapon type.
a. Checked type of LPCs to make sure they are the same type as specified
in resupply order.
b. Made sure an electrical shorting plug was connected to the wiring
adapter for the LPCs.
c.
Checked LPC wiring for crimped, frayed, loose, or broken wiring.
d. Checked for cracked, gouged, or shattered launch tubes.
e. Checked launch tube end covers for cracks, dents, gouges, or
looseness, indicating a break in the seal.
f.
Checked LPC rails, braces, and bulkheads for bends, breaks, gouges,
and missing parts.
g. Checked lifting bar for bends, breaks, and looseness.
h. Checked condition of D-rings and their mountings; D-rings will lay flat
against the top of the container.
i.
Checked missing components for other obvious damage.
j.
Checked bottom of LPC for damage or dirt that would prevent proper
loading and firing.
3. Section chief moved into position and directed launcher to proper position
for loading using proper hand and arm signals.
4. Driver parked SPLL with the rear edge of the launcher approximately 1/3
meter away at a 35-degree angle.
5. Driver placed range selector in neutral, set hand brake, and engaged the
SLO. Driver set throttle control to high idle (approximately 1,200 RPM). Driver
observed voltmeter to ensure that it was reading in the high yellow or middle
green.
6. Driver exited the cab and moved to the rear left of the LLM.
7. Gunner selected LLM LEFT/RIGHT from BOOM CONTROL menu;
remained in cab until the BOOM CONTROL light was on.
4-112
FM 3-09.8
31 July 2006
Delivery Section Training
Performance Measures
GO
NO-GO
8. Gunner removed BC from storage and closed door. He moved to a position
to unload LPCs.
9. Section chief moved to rear of LLM and released both LPC hold-down latch
handles.
10. Section chief disconnected right umbilical cables; driver disconnected left
umbilical cables and closed access door to cables.
11. Driver moved to LPC to be loaded and disconnected quick release pins on
skids.
12. Section chief performed SNVT test, pressed button and adjusted lamp
brightness so all lamps were visible, and waited for go lights on self-test and left
and right cable.
13. Section chief closed SNVT access door and moved into position for
reloading operations.
14. Gunner removed boom controller from storage door, closed the door, and
moved into position for reloading.
15. Gunner checked to ensure that boom enable light was functional; then
moved toggle switch to select both LPCs and awaited further instructions.
16. Section chief directed unloading procedure with hand and arm signals to
ensure a safe unloading operation.
17. Section chief moved to right LPC and driver to left LPC to disconnect hoist
hooks from LPC.
18. Section chief signaled gunner to raise hooks and moved LLM so it was
positioned directly over LPC to be loaded.
Note. At this point the evaluator will check to ensure that hoist hooks are over the lifting bar (within
one-half the width of the LPC) and then the crew will move the hooks back over to their training pods
and pick them up.
19. Section chief ensured that hoist assembly was in the correct position to pick
up the LPC to be loaded.
20. Section chief signaled gunner with correct hand and arm signals to load
launch pods in bay.
21. Section chief inspected underside of LPC before giving the boom-in arm
signal to gunner.
22. Gunner moved booms in to limit switch stop and waited for the section chief
to signal hoist down.
23. Section chief checked position of pods to ensure that they were seated on
positioning guide pins.
24. Gunner moved the LLM to the right until section chief and driver could reach
the LPC hold-down latches and umbilical cables if necessary.
25. Section chief performed SNVT test.
26. With section chief on right LPC and driver on left LPC, reconnected the
umbilical cables to the LPC; moved hold-down latch handles to a position where
the safety chain could be connected; then latched LPC hold-down handles.
27. Gunner stowed LLM after LPCs were latched and watched panel for the
weapon processing and fuze test. Entered proper JED pod identification.
31 July 2006
FM 3-09.8
4-113
Chapter 4
Performance Measures
GO
NO-GO
28. Section chief verified LLM stow by observing travel lock hooks.
Note. TIME STOPS NOW.
29. When LLM was stowed, driver released SLO toggle switch and observed
that SLO light had gone out. He released the parking brake and put the selector
in DRIVE to move the launcher.
4-114
FM 3-09.8
31 July 2006
Delivery Section Training
LAUNCHER RELOAD OPERATIONS TEST STATION (M270A1)
TEST ADMINISTRATIVE GUIDE
STATION 7
TASK: Conduct Launcher Reload Operations (M270A1) (06-4-M010.06-00A1)
CONDITIONS: The firing section is conducting combat operations and has completed a fire
mission. The launcher requires resupply of weapons. The FDC has directed that the
launcher proceed to the reload point, reload, and move to a hide area near the next firing
point. Some iterations of this task should be performed in MOPP4.
STANDARDS: The firing section must perform reload operations within 10 minutes and then
prepare to assume a firing capability. All safety procedures will be observed throughout the
reload operation. Time standards do not apply to MOPP training. The crew will follow all
safety guidelines in accordance with IETM. The time standard of 10 minutes assumes no
damage to the LPC or that no unsafe conditions exist.
PERSONNEL, EQUIPMENT, AND MATERIAL REQUIRED:
•
Primary evaluator (SSG or above) in charge of administering the test (he may also occupy a
test station).
•
Station evaluator, SGT or above (one per test station).
•
Training area.
•
Stopwatch (one per evaluator).
•
Criterion-scoring checklist (one per Soldier).
•
Pencils (one per Soldier).
•
FM 3-09.8 (one per station).
•
An operational launcher.
•
Two M68/M68A2 launch pod assembly trainers.
TEST PLANNING TIME:
•
Administrative time: 5 minutes
•
Test time: 10 minutes
•
Total time (per Soldier): 15 minutes
OTHER INFORMATION: Time starts when the launcher is correctly positioned next to the
LPCs per IETM and ends when the launcher begins to move off of the reload point.
31 July 2006
FM 3-09.8
4-115
Chapter 4
INSTRUCTIONS TO THE CREWMAN: “Your section is conducting combat operations. You
have been given the tactical situation. You and your section have completed a mission and
been directed to move to a reload point, re-arm, and move to your next HA. The location of
the LPCs is the reload point. Time starts when the launcher is correctly positioned next to
the LPCs in accordance with IETM and ends when the launcher begins to move off of the
reload point. You should complete all tasks in 10 minutes. Do you understand the
requirements of this test? Do you have any questions? You may begin.” (Start the time.)
Task Steps and Performance Measures
GO
NO-GO
1. When directed to move to a reload point, the firing section did the following:
Note. Time starts when the launcher is correctly positioned next to the LPCs in accordance with
IETM and ends when the launcher begins to move off of the reload point.
a. Moved to the reload point when directed.
b. Established or augmented security of reload point and reported status
to FDC.
c.
Ensured that safety procedures were observed throughout the reload
operation.
Note. While the LM is moving, no one can be within the 3-meter safety zone around the LM,
regardless of whether the LM is moving under BC control or from a selected reload position from the
reload routine or if it is returning to STOW. This rule applies in both tactical and maintenance
speeds.
Note. The gunner must remove the BC from its storage bracket and hold it in his hand before
anyone else steps into the 3-meter safety zone. The gunner must hold the BC in his hand during the
entire reload operation even when there is no LM movement.
2. The section chief guided the driver in positioning the launcher for reload as
follows:
a. Checked the LPCs to be loaded for damage or unsafe conditions that
could prevent a safe resupply operation and recorded serial and lot
numbers.
b. Parked the launcher approximately 1 meter away from and at an
approximate 35-degree angle to the side of the LPCs.
c.
Section chief verified that driver placed range selector in neutral,
engaged hand brake and suspension lockout, suspension lockout
indicator light came on, and the launcher interconnect switch was set to
on.
d. Driver checked that the carrier volts gauge was indicating in the upper
50 to 75 percent of the green zone.
e. Gunner selected appropriate LM position when directed by section
chief.
3. The firing section unloaded LPCs as follows:
a. Unlatched LPCs.
b. Disconnected umbilical cables from LPCs and reconnected to launcher
connectors.
c.
Tested umbilical cables (SNVT test).
d. Unloaded expended LPCs.
e. Disconnected hoist cables from expended LPCs.
4-116
FM 3-09.8
31 July 2006
Delivery Section Training
Task Steps and Performance Measures
f.
GO
NO-GO
Positioned LM for reload.
4. The firing section loaded LPCs as follows:
a. Positioned LM boom over LPCs.
b. Properly connected hoist locks to LPCs.
c.
Raised LPCs to the fully seated position against the hoist cradles.
d. Section chief visually checked the bottom of the LPCs for damage or
unsafe conditions that could prevent a safe resupply operation.
e. Removed skids from LPCs.
f.
Loaded LPCs.
g. Ensured that LPCs were seated properly.
h. Positioned LM for safe crew access to umbilical cables.
i.
Tested umbilical cables (SNVT test).
Note: If test results are NO-GO in any umbilical cables, stop operations and inform FDC. If test
results are GO in all cables, continue sequence.
j.
Disconnected umbilical cables from launcher stowage connectors.
k.
Connected umbilical cables to LPCs.
l.
Latched LPs in position.
m. Replaced and secured boom control.
n. Stowed LM.
o. Section chief visually verified the LM STOWED message, ensured that
travel locks engaged, and listened for the LDS to power down.
p. Driver released suspension lockout.
q. Moved per instructions.
MLRS TABLE VI: PREPARE HIMARS FOR AIR MOVEMENT
4-43.
The strategic mobility of HIMARS and the resulting high probability of supporting the modular
concept of force packaging require crew proficiency in the tasks of preparing the HIMARS for air transport.
The actual air loading of HIMARS must be in accordance with the guidance and control of the USAF
loadmaster supported by the HIMARS crew. This task should be trained as a crew-level STX using a simulated
C-130 air load trainer before training on actual aircraft.
31 July 2006
FM 3-09.8
4-117
Chapter 4
PREPARE HIMARS FOR AIR MOVEMENT TEST STATION
TEST ADMINISTRATIVE GUIDE
STATION 8
TASK: Prepare M142 High-Mobility Artillery Rocket Sustem for Internal Air Transport by C130
CONDITIONS: Given a HIMARS crew, M142 HIMARS launcher, and C-130.
STANDARDS: The crew prepared the M142 HIMARS launcher for internal air transport.
PERSONNEL, EQUIPMENT, AND MATERIAL REQUIRED:
•
Primary evaluator (SSG or above) in charge of administering the test (he may also occupy a
test station).
•
Station evaluator, SGT or above (one per test station).
•
Classroom or training area.
•
Stopwatch (one per evaluator).
•
Criterion-scoring checklist (one per Soldier).
•
Desk and chair or clipboard (one per Soldier).
•
Pencils (one per Soldier).
•
FM 3-09.8 (one per station).
•
An operational M142 HIMARS launcher.
•
C-130 air load trainer or C-130 aircraft.
•
IETM 9-2300-310-14&P.
TEST PLANNING TIME:
•
Administrative time: 5 minutes
•
Test time: 20 minutes
•
Total time (per crew): 25 minutes
INSTRUCTIONS TO THE CREWMAN: “Your section has been alerted for deployment using
a C-130 aircraft. You must prepare your launcher for internal air transport. Do you
understand the requirements of this test? Do you have any questions? You may begin.”
(Start the time.)
4-118
FM 3-09.8
31 July 2006
Delivery Section Training
Preparation for Internal Air Transport
Preparing the M142 for Air Movement on C-130 Aircraft
Section Chief
1.
Gunner
Driver
POSITION VEHICLE FOR LOADING
Guide driver to position vehicle as
directed by aircraft loadmaster.
Follow signals from section chief and
position vehicle.
When in position, set the transmission
selector to neutral and set the parking
brake.
Press the MENU BAR PF
key.
Using the PREVIOUS/NEXT
PF keys, highlight the
SYSTEM heading.
Press the SELECT PF key to
display the SYSTEM drop
down menu.
Using the PREVIOUS/NEXT
PF keys, highlight the
PURGE heading.
Using the PREVIOUS/NEXT
PF keys, highlight the
CRYPTO heading.
Press the SELECT PF key.
Press the CONFIRM PF key.
When the crypto purge is
complete, use the
PREVIOUS/NEXT PF keys
and highlight the SET
SYSTEM PARAMETERS
heading.
Press the SELECT PF key.
With the COORDINATE
DISPLAY heading
highlighted, press the
SELECT PF key.
Enter the coordinates of the
anticipated location at the
FLS.
Press the RETURN PF key
and the STORE PF key.
Press the MENU BAR key.
Using the PREVIOUS/NEXT
PF keys, highlight the
SHUTDOWN heading.
Press the SELECT PF key.
Press the CONFIRM PF key.
When prompted by the FCS,
set the SYS PWR switch to
OFF.
31 July 2006
FM 3-09.8
4-119
Chapter 4
Preparation for Internal Air Transport
Preparing the M142 for Air Movement on C-130 Aircraft
Section Chief
Gunner
Driver
2. DEFLATE REAR TIRES
Press the SAND Mode indicator (4) to
set the CTIS in the soft terrain mode.
The indicator illuminates steady when
tire pressure is 22 PSI.
Maximum speed at this setting is 12
MPH.
Figure 4-1
4-120
FM 3-09.8
31 July 2006
Delivery Section Training
Preparation for Internal Air Transport
Preparing the M142 for Air Movement on C-130 Aircraft
Section Chief
Gunner
Driver
3. DEFLATE FRONT TIRES
Note. These steps are to be performed at the same time on both sides of the
vehicle.
Turn the kneeling valve (1)
on right front tire ½ turn
counterclockwise to release
air from the front tire (2).
Turn the kneeling valve (1) on left
front tire ½ turn counterclockwise to
release air from the front tire (2).
The tire deflates to 10 PSI.
The tire deflates to 10 PSI.
Keep kneeling valves in
open position.
Keep kneeling valves in open position.
Figure 4-2
31 July 2006
FM 3-09.8
4-121
Chapter 4
Preparation for Internal Air Transport
Preparing the M142 for Air Movement on C-130 Aircraft
Section Chief
Gunner
Driver
4. DEFLATE CAB AIR SPRINGS
Open the cover of the vehicle
hydraulic manifold.
Turn the cab knob (1) to the left
and pull out.
Position cab tilt to RAISE.
Press and hold pump knob to raise
cab.
Note These steps are to be performed at the same time on both sides
of the vehicle.
Remove the quick release pin (2) from
Remove the quick release
the cab air spring stowage bracket (3).
pin (2) from the cab air
spring stowage bracket (3).
Push down on the rear cab
support and install the quick
release pin (2) into the cab
air spring bracket (4).
Figure 4-3
4-122
Push down on the rear cab support
and install the quick release pin (2)
into the cab air spring bracket (4).
Figure 4-4
FM 3-09.8
31 July 2006
Delivery Section Training
Preparation for Internal Air Transport
Preparing the M142 for Air Movement on C-130 Aircraft
Section Chief
5.
Gunner
Driver
COMPRESS SUSPENSION
Note. These steps are to be performed at the same time on both sides of the
vehicle.
Remove the retaining pin (1)
from the stud (2).
Remove the retaining pin (1) from the
stud (2).
Remove the suspension
compression plate (3) from
the stud (2).
Remove the suspension compression
plate (3) from the stud (2).
Remove the two safety pins
(4) from the compression
cylinder (5).
Remove the two safety pins (4) from
the compression cylinder (5).
Figure 4-5
Note To install the left (driver side) suspension compression plate on the axle
stud, it may be necessary to turn the front wheels slightly to the left to allow
adequate space between the vehicle frame and steering drag link
Position the suspension knob (1) to
RAISE.
Note. These steps are to be performed at the same time on both sides of the
vehicle.
Position the function select knob
(2) to TRUCK SUSPENSION.
Install the suspension
compression plate (4) on the
axle stud (5).
31 July 2006
FM 3-09.8
Install the suspension compression
plate (4) on the axle stud (5).
4-123
Chapter 4
Preparation for Internal Air Transport
Preparing the M142 for Air Movement on C-130 Aircraft
Section Chief
Press and hold the pump knob (3)
until the suspension compression
plate (4) can be installed on the
axle stud (5).
Gunner
Install the pin (6) in the axle
stud (5).
Driver
Install the pin (6) in the axle stud (5).
Figure 4-6
Position the suspension knob (1) to
LOWER.
4-124
Figure 4-7
FM 3-09.8
31 July 2006
Delivery Section Training
Preparation for Internal Air Transport
Preparing the M142 for Air Movement on C-130 Aircraft
Section Chief
Gunner
Press and hold the pump knob (2)
until the suspension is fully
compressed.
Install two safety pins (3) in
the compression cylinder (4).
Driver
Install two safety pins (3) in the
compression cylinder (4).
Figure 4-9
Figure 4-8
Close the cover of the vehicle
hydraulic manifold.
31 July 2006
Straighten front wheels.
FM 3-09.8
4-125
Chapter 4
Preparation for Internal Air Transport
Preparing the M142 for Air Movement on C-130 Aircraft
Section Chief
Gunner
Driver
6. STOW MIRRORS AND REMOVE ANTENNAS
Note. These steps are to be performed at the same time on both sides of the
vehicle.
Stow gunner side mirror.
Stow driver side mirror.
Raise the windows (1)
completely.
Raise the windows (1) completely.
Raise the ballistic covers (2)
completely.
Raise the ballistic covers (2)
completely.
Fold the mirror assemblies
(3) in toward/against the
vehicle doors (4).
Fold the mirror assemblies (3) in
toward/against the vehicle doors (4).
Figure 4-10
7.
LOAD AND UNLOAD
Note. Refer to MTMCTEA 99055024 for loading and unloading procedures.
4-126
FM 3-09.8
31 July 2006
Delivery Section Training
Recovery from Air Transport
Section Chief
1.
Gunner
Driver
EXIT AIRCRAFT AND INFLATE TIRE
Start vehicle engine.
Designate location to prepare the
launcher for operations and tell
the driver.
Note. The vehicle may be driven while tires
are inflating; however, it is restricted to first
gear and on smooth surfaces until after 1
minute of tire inflation has occurred.
Exit aircraft.
When clear of the aircraft, stop and pick
up section chief and gunner.
Figure 4-11. Close kneeling valves
Ensure that air pressure is 120 PSI (827
kPa).
Initialize communications
accordance with local SOP.
Set the SYS PWR switch to ON
and adjust curbside mirror.
Adjust roadside mirror for driving.
Open commander’s hatch and
direct driver to proceed a safe
distance from the aircraft to the
survey control point or other point
at which the FCS is to be
initialized (at least 35 feet from
aircraft).
Remain at the FCS until
responding to the language prompt,
and then exit the cab to begin cab
recovery along with the driver.
Drive to location designated by section
chief.
When the vehicle hasstopped,
loosen the lock nut (1) on both
antenna mount springs (2).
Park vehicle at designated location.
Position the antennas (1) in the
antenna mount springs (2).
Turn wheel slightly to the left to allow
removal of the suspension compression
plate.
31 July 2006
FM 3-09.8
4-127
Chapter 4
Recovery from Air Transport
Section Chief
Gunner
Tighten the lock nuts (1) on the
antenna mount springs (2).
Driver
Press LO IDLE/HI IDLE switch (1) to
engage HI IDLE.
Figure 4-12
Verify the radio setup and
establish voice communications
with the FDC if appropriate.
Note. The SNVT result is only
displayed for a few seconds and
the chief must constantly observe
the WIU until the result is
displayed.
Exit cab and open the WIU
compartment door to observe the
results of the automatic SNVT.
4-128
FM 3-09.8
31 July 2006
Delivery Section Training
Recovery from Air Transport
Section Chief
2.
Gunner
Driver
DEPLOY MIRRORS
Note. These steps are to be performed at the same time on both sides of the vehicle.
Lower the windows (1) completely.
Lower the windows (1) completely.
Lower the ballistic covers (2)
completely.
Lower the ballistic covers (2) completely.
Deploy the mirror assemblies (3)
and make adjustments.
Deploy the mirror assemblies (3) and
make adjustments.
Figure 4-13
31 July 2006
FM 3-09.8
4-129
Chapter 4
Recovery from Air Transport
Section Chief
3.
Gunner
Driver
DECOMPRESS SUSPENSION
Press and hold pump knob (3)
until two safety pins (4) can be
removed from compression
cylinder (5).
Remove the two safety pins (4)
from the compression cylinder (5).
Remove the two safety pins (4) from the
compression cylinder (5).
Figure 4-14
Figure 4-15
Note. To remove the left (driver side)
suspension compression plate from the axle
stud, it may be necessary to turn the front
wheels slightly to the left to allow adequate
space between the frame and steering drag
link.
Position the suspension knob (1)
to RAISE.
Position the function select knob
(2) to TRUCK SUSPENSION.
4-130
FM 3-09.8
31 July 2006
Delivery Section Training
Recovery from Air Transport
Section Chief
Gunner
Driver
Remove the pin (5) from the axle
stud (6).
Remove the pin (5) from the axle stud
(6).
Remove the suspension
compression plate (4) from the axle
stud (6).
Remove the suspension compression
plate (4) from the axle stud (6).
Press and hold the pump knob (3)
until the vehicle returns to normal
height and the suspension
compression plate (4) is loose.
Figure 4-17
Figure 4-16
Position suspension knob (1) to
LOWER.
Install two safety pins (4) in the
compression cylinder (5).
Install two safety pins (4) in the
compression cylinder (5).
Press and hold pump knob (2)
until compression cylinder (5) is
fully retracted and two safety pins
(4) can be inserted in the
compression cylinder (5).
Install suspension compression
plate (3) on the stud (7).
Install suspension compression plate (3)
on the stud (7).
Install pin (6) in stud (7) and lower
the cab.
Install pin (6) in stud (7) and lower the
cab.
31 July 2006
FM 3-09.8
4-131
Chapter 4
Recovery from Air Transport
Section Chief
Gunner
Driver
Figure 4-19
Figure 4-18
4-132
FM 3-09.8
31 July 2006
Delivery Section Training
Recovery from Air Transport
Section Chief
4.
Gunner
Driver
INFLATE CAB AIR SPRINGS
Open the cover of the vehicle
hydraulic manifold.
Turn the cab knob (4) to the left
and pull out.
Position cab tilt to RAISE.
Press and hold pump knob to
raise cab.
Press and turn the cab knob (4) to
the right.
Remove the quick release pin (1)
from the air spring (2).
Remove the quick release pin (1) from
the air spring (2).
Install the quick release pin (1) in
the air spring stowage bracket (3).
Install the quick release pin (1) in the air
spring stowage bracket (3).
Figure 4-20
Close the cover of the vehicle
hydraulic manifold.
Figure 4-21
31 July 2006
FM 3-09.8
4-133
Chapter 4
Recovery from Air Transport
Section Chief
5.
Gunner
Driver
CONTINUE INITIALIZATION
Continue operations.
Complete FCS initialization using
the SCP location. Press the
OPERATIONAL PFK to command
the FCS into the operational state.
Continue operations.
Load GPS keys.
Transmit launcher status (LST) to
verify digital communications and
notify the FDC that the launcher is
operational.
Note. If initialization was not at an SCP,
the accuracy of the location must be
determined to be within the accuracy
requirements of the weapon to be fired.
Otherwise, the GPS-aided mode must
be achieved before firing.
Note. The keys cannot be verified until
at least one satellite track is shown on
the FCP.
Verify keys loaded into PNU and
keys verified.
Note. If the location stored on the MSD prior to air movement varies by more than 5 km from the location deter-mined by the PNU
when it becomes GPS aided, the gunner will receive the following prompt on the FCP: “POSITIONING VIOLATION RECYCLE AND
UPDATE SYSTEM PARAMETERS.” To respond to this prompt, the gunner must shut the FCS completely down and reinitialize
beginning with power on. This eliminates the possibility of heading errors that might be introduced by the first alignment that used
the location stored on the MSD as its start point. This condition only exists when the stored location varies by more than 5 km from
the GPS-corrected location.
Note. If the variance between stored and actual location is more than 50 meters but less than 5 km, the prompt: “POSITIONING
ERROR’ is posted to the FCP. No action is required in response to this prompt.
Note. If the weapon to be fired requires GPS keys, it must not be fired until the GPS keys have been verified.
MLRS TABLE VII/VIII: CREW TRAINING (FIRE MISSIONS)/SECTION LIVE-FIRE
QUALIFICATION
4-44.
Tables VII and VIII are the tasks to train and qualify an MLRS section on their METL tasks to
provide surface-to-surface fire support. Table VII is identical to Table VIII but is conducted in a dry-fire status.
Table VII should be conducted as an evaluated lane training exercise using the PC-based fire control panel
trainer. Table VIII is a live-fire exercise conducted as multiechelon training to maximize the training benefit of
the limited ammunition available for training.
4-134
FM 3-09.8
31 July 2006
Delivery Section Training
TASK: Execute a Multiple Launch Rocket System Fire Mission (06-4-M007) (TM 9-1425646-10-2).(FM 6-60)
CONDITIONS: The platoon is conducting combat operations and launchers are occupying
Hide areas with at least one launcher in a hot status. A fire mission has been sent to the hot
launcher, which is located near a firing point. Terrain permitting, hot launchers should hide
within 100 meters of their firing points. Some iterations of this task should be performed in
MOPP4.
STANDARDS: The firing section fires the mission in accordance with FM 6-60 and the unit
TSOP.
Performance Measures
GO
NO- GO
1. The firing section prepared to execute the fire mission. Moved to the firing
position. Parked the SPLL within 150 meters of the firing point grid location in
both northing and easting. (The SPLL may be parked at a heading within 240
mils of the parking heading shown on the display; however, a parking heading
within 100 mils of the displayed heading is recommended.) Checked mask.
2. The firing section fired the mission as follows:
Note. The MLRS launcher receives the fire mission from the battery FDC. The POC monitors the
fire mission. The method of fire control tells what method will be used to give the orders to fire. For
AMC and when-ready missions, launcher time standard is 4 minutes. Time starts when the section
acknowledges the mission and stops when the first rocket is fired or, for AMC, when the ready-tofire message is sent. The time for the launcher to move to the firing point is included in the
4 minutes. The methods are—
•
At my command (AMC)
•
Fire when ready (FWR)
•
Time on target (TOT)
•
Time to fire (TTF)
•
Timed when ready (TWR)
•
Timed time on target (TTT)
•
On Call.
a. Prepared carrier for firing:
(1) Raised selector to neutral and set hand brake.
(2) Ensured that the carrier launcher interconnect switch was set to
ON.
(3) Checked that the carrier volts gauge was indicating in the upper
50 to 75 percent of the green zone.
(4) Set suspension lockout switch.
(5) Engaged SLO, observed light.
(6) Set the vent fan control override switch to OFF.
(7) Ensured that all doors, hatches, windows, and louvers were closed.
(8) Set the carrier vehicle damper to firing.
31 July 2006
FM 3-09.8
4-135
Chapter 4
Performance Measures
GO
NO- GO
(9) Set the carrier’s vehicle vent fan switch to medium and checked
differential pressure gauge for a positive pressure. If gauge did not
indicate a minimum of 0.25, set the vent switch to HIGH. If gauge
still did not indicate a minimum of 0.25, crew wore CBRN protective
mask when firing.
b. Pressed LCHR LAY key when directed.
c.
Section chief visually verified the launcher lay.
d. For AMC, FWR, and On Call methods of fire, did the following:
(1) When the LLM was moved to the first aiming point, set the
ARM/SAFE switch to ARM. Checked to see if the ARM indicator
light came on and the SAFE indicator light went out.
(2) When the prompt FIRE ROCKETS was displayed, set the FIRE
switch up. Held for 2 to 3 seconds. The rockets began to fire.
Observed the FIRE light indicator; light went off after last rocket
was fired on that mission. If the mission had more than one aiming
point, LLM moved to the next aiming point and fired those rockets.
e. For TOT and TTF fire missions, did the following:
(1) Acknowledged call for fire (CFF) message.
(2) Parked SPLL and pressed LCHR LAY key before countdown time
reached zero.
(3) Section chief visually verified the launcher lay.
(4) Observed CNTDN = NET FOR FIRING message.
(5) Set ARM/SAFE switch to ARM before countdown reached zero.
f.
(6) Fired rockets same as above when FIRE ROCKETS prompt was
displayed.
For TWR and TTT fire missions, did the following:
(1) Acknowledged CFF message.
(2) Observed CNTDN = NET FOR LCHR LAY message.
(3) Parked the SPLL and pressed LCHR LAY key at appropriate time.
(4) Section chief visually verified the launcher lay.
(5) Observed CNTDN = NET FOR FIRING message.
(6) When NET countdown reached 20 seconds, observed ARM
ROCKET prompt.
(7) Set ARM/SAFE switch to ARM before countdown reached zero.
(8) Fired rockets same as above when FIRE prompt was displayed.
g. After mission had been fired, set ARM/SAFE switch to SAFE.
Note: Checked LPC tubes after firing for fire, whether LLM is stowed or unstowed.
h. If remained at the site to conduct other operations, pressed INDEX key
and selected the next operating routine.
i.
4-136
If left the site, pressed LLM STOW key and observed the LLM
STOWED message on the display.
FM 3-09.8
31 July 2006
Delivery Section Training
Performance Measures
GO
j.
Set carrier vehicle damper to normal.
k.
Disengaged suspension lockout.
l.
Moved per unit EOM instructions and continued the mission.
NO- GO
SUPPORTING INDIVIDUAL TASKS
Task Number
Task Title
References
061-275-8004
Operate single-channel ground and airborne radio
system intercommunications with VIC-1
Perform stablization reference package/PDS
operations
Perform a fire mission
Edit/Input fire control system data
Select a launcher firing position
Direct a fire mission
Perform launcher M270 reload
Perform fire control system startup
Update weapon files
Enter operational area data into the fire control
system
Operate boom controls during launcher reload
Direct hangfire procedures on the M270
Operate the M993 during a fire mission
Perform maintenance on the fire control
system/launcher loader module
Perform launcher reload (M270A1)
STP 6-13M14-SM-TG
061-310-2001
061-310-2021
061-310-2022
061-310-3011
061-310-3024
061-310-8001
061-310-8005
061-310-8007
061-310-8008
061-310-8010
061-310-8015
061-310-8021
061-310-8024
061-312-5104
STP 6-13M14-SM-TG
STP 6-13M14-SM-TG
STP 6-13M14-SM-TG
STP 6-13M14-SM-TG
STP 6-13M14-SM-TG
STP 6-13M14-SM-TG
STP 6-13M14-SM-TG
STP 6-13M14-SM-TG
STP 6-13M14-SM-TG
STP 6-13M14-SM-TG
STP 6-13M14-SM-TG
STP 6-13M14-SM-TG
STP 6-13M14-SM-TG
STP 6-13M14-SM-TG
SUPPORTING COLLECTIVE TASKS
Task Number
Task Title
References
06-3-M001
Conduct occupation of position area (multiple
launch rocket system fbattery/platoon)
Perform hangfire procedures
Perform hangfire procedures (M270A1)
Conduct launcher reload operations
Conduct launcher reload operations (M270A1)
ARTEP 6-397-30-MTP
06-4-M009
06-4-M009.06-00A1
06-4-M010
06-4-M010.06-00A1
31 July 2006
FM 3-09.8
ARTEP 6-397-30-MTP
ARTEP 6-397-30-MTP
ARTEP 6-397-30-MTP
ARTEP 6-397-30-MTP
4-137
Chapter 4
TASK: Execute an M270A1 Multiple Launch Rocket System Fire Mission (06-4-M007.0600A1)(FM 6-60).(IETM 9-1055-647-13&P)
CONDITIONS: The firing section is conducting combat operations and the launcher is in a
hot status. A fire mission has been sent to the launcher, which is located within 100 meters
of a firing point. Some iterations of this task should be performed in MOPP4.
STANDARDS: The firing section fires the mission in accordance with FM 6-60, IETM, and
the unit TSOP. The time standard of 3 minutes starts when the launcher receives the
mission and stops when the first rocket is fired for an FWR mission, or when the ready-tofire message is sent for an AMC mission. Time standard applies to JED and JEH rockets
only. The time standard will not apply to iterations of this task performed in MOPP. The time
standard of 3 minutes assumes that only one mission is being processed at a time. The
MLRS time standards elaborate the actual standard as listed here.
Performance Measures
GO
NO-GO
1. The firing section prepared to execute the fire mission. Moved to the firing
position and parked the launcher within 150 meters of the firing point.
Note. The launcher heading will be per the technical manual; however, some units have parking
standards more rigorous than the IETM. Evaluation of this task will be per the technical manual if
the unit TSOP does not address this issue.
2. The firing section fired the mission as follows:
Note. The method of fire control tells what method will be used to give the orders to fire. For AMC
and FWR missions, the launcher time standard is 3 minutes, JED and JEH rockets only. Time starts
when the section receives the mission and stops when the first rocket is fired for FWR mission or
when the ready-to-fire message is sent for AMC mission. The time for the launcher to move to the
firing point is included in the 3 minutes. The methods are—
•
At my command (AMC)
•
Fire when ready (FWR)
•
Time on target (TOT)
•
Time to fire (TTF)
•
Timed when ready (TWR)
•
Timed time on target (TTT)
•
On call.
Note. On call is a method of fire control stored in the database; however, amended data from FDC
is required to perform fire mission.
The driver, gunner, and section chief performed the following tasks
simultaneously.
a. Driver.
(1) Raised selector to neutral and set hand brake.
(2) Ensured that the carrier launcher interconnect switch was set to
ON.
(3) Checked that the carrier volts gauge was indicating in the upper 50
to 75 percent of the green zone.
(4) Set suspension lockout switch.
4-138
FM 3-09.8
31 July 2006
Delivery Section Training
Performance Measures
GO
NO-GO
(5) Engaged SLO, observed light.
(6) Set the vent fan control override switch to OFF.
(7) Ensured that all doors, hatches, windows, and louvers were closed.
(8) Set the carrier vehicle damper to firing.
(9) Set the carrier’s vehicle vent fan switch to medium and checked
differential pressure gauge for a positive pressure of 0.25.
(10) Set the carrier vehicle damper to normal after mission was fired
and LM was stowed.
b. Gunner.
(1) Pressed launcher lay PF key when directed.
(2) For AMC method of fire, did the following:
(a) When the LM was moved to the first aiming point, and the
ready to fire message had been sent to FDC, awaited CFF
message from FDC containing fire command.
(b) Upon receipt of fire command, armed and fired weapon when
prompted.
(3) For FWR method of fire, did the following:
(a) When the LM was moved to the first aiming point, set the
ARM/SAFE switch to ARM.
(b) When the prompt FIRE WEAPONS was displayed, fired
weapons.
(4) For TOT and TTF methods of fire, did the following:
(a) Pressed LCHR LAY PFK before countdown time reached zero
on the NLT for launcher lay clock.
(b) Observed CNTDN = NET FOR FIRING message.
(c) Set ARM/SAFE switch to ARM when prompted.
(d) Fired weapons when FIRE WEAPON prompt was displayed.
(e) When NET countdown reached 20 seconds, observed ARM
ROCKET prompt.
(f) Set ARM/SAFE switch to ARM before countdown reached
zero.
(g) Fired rockets same as above when FIRE prompt was
displayed.
(5) For TWR and TTT methods of fire, did the following:
(a) Observed CNTDN=NET FOR LCHR LAY and CNTDN=NLT
FOR LCHR LAY clocks.
(b) Pressed LCHR LAY PFK at appropriate time.
(c) Observed CNTDN=NET FOR FIRING and CNTDN=NLT
FIRING clocks.
(d) When prompted, armed weapons.
31 July 2006
FM 3-09.8
4-139
Chapter 4
Performance Measures
GO
NO-GO
(e) Fired weapons when prompted.
c.
(6) After the mission had been fired, and END OF MISSION SAFE
WEAPONS prompt had been displayed, set ARM/SAFE switch to
SAFE.
(7) Pressed STOW PFK and observed the LM STOWED message on
the display screen.
Section chief.
(1) Section chief visually checked that LM lay in the direction of fire
during launcher aiming process.
(2) Checked for tube fires after weapons were safed and before
stowing LM.
(3) Verified that travel locks had engaged and listened to ensure that
LDS powered down after LM was stowed.
(4) Directed driver to move launcher off point per unit EOM
instructions.
SUPPORTING INDIVIDUAL TASKS
Task Number
Task Title
References
061-310-3011
Select a launcher firing position
STP 6-13M14-SM-TG
061-310-3024
Direct a fire mission
STP 6-13M14-SM-TG
061-310-8010
Operate boom controls during launcher reload
STP 6-13M14-SM-TG
061-310-8015
Direct hangfire procedures on the M270
STP 6-13M14-SM-TG
061-310-8021
Operate the M993 during a fire mission
STP 6-13M14-SM-TG
061-312-5100
Operate the interactive electronic technical manual
(M270A1)
STP 6-13M14-SM-TG
061-312-5101
Perform initialization/ menu navigation/ shutdown of the
fire control system (M270A1)
STP 6-13M14-SM-TG
061-312-5103
Perform fire control system/LDS maintenance (M270A1)
STP 6-13M14-SM-TG
061-312-5104
Perform launcher reload (M270A1)
STP 6-13M14-SM-TG
061-312-5106
Perform a fire mission gunner’s duties (M270A1)
STP 6-13M14-SM-TG
SUPPORTING COLLECTIVE TASKS
Task Number
Task Title
References
06-3-M001
Conduct occupation of position area (multiple launch
rocket system battery/platoon)
ARTEP 6-397-30-MTP
06-4-M009
Perform hangfire procedures
ARTEP 6-397-30-MTP
06-4-M009.06-00A1
Perform hangfire procedures (M270A1)
ARTEP 6-397-30-MTP
4-140
FM 3-09.8
31 July 2006
Delivery Section Training
TASK: Execute a Launcher Fire When Ready Fire Mission – Manual Entry
CONDITIONS: The MLRS section is conducting combat operations and the launcher is
occupying a hide area and is in hot status. The launcher is within 100 meters of the firing
point. (This section is given a fire mission data card.)
STANDARDS: The firing section manually enters and executes the fire mission. The firing
section will also acknowledge requests for status, and compute and confirm the fire mission
on the FCP. The firing section fires the mission per the method of control of the fire mission.
The firing section reports problems to the POC/BOC that prevent firing of missions or that
require modification of data.
Note. Time starts when the section chief is given the fire mission data card and stops when the
first rocket is fired or, for AMC, when the ready-to-fire message is sent. The time for the
launcher to move to the firing point is included in the time.
Evaluation Checklist
GO
NO-GO
1. Gunner manually entered fire mission.
2. A WILL COMPLY or CANNOT COMPLY was displayed automatically;
gunner pressed XMIT key.
3. The firing section prepared to execute the fire mission. Section chief
directed crew to the firing position. Parked the SPLL within 150 meters of the
firing point grid location in both northing and easting.
4. SPLL was parked at a heading within 240 mils of the parking heading
shown on the display. (A parking heading within 100 mils of the displayed
heading is recommended.)
5. The section chief checked mask.
6. The firing section prepared the cab for firing by doing the following:
a. Driver raised selector to neutral and set hand brake.
b. Driver ensured that the carrier launcher interconnect switch was set to
ON.
c.
Driver checked that the carrier volts gauge was indicating in the upper
50 to 75 percent of the green zone.
d. Driver set suspension lockout switch.
e. Driver engaged SLO, observed light.
f.
Driver set the vent fan control override switch to OFF.
g. Crew ensured that all doors, hatches, windows, and louvers were
closed.
h. Driver set the carrier vehicle damper to firing.
i.
Driver set the carrier’s vehicle vent fan switch to medium and checked
differential pressure gauge for a positive pressure. If gauge did not
indicate a minimum of 0.25, set the vent switch to HIGH. If gauge still
31 July 2006
FM 3-09.8
4-141
Chapter 4
Evaluation Checklist
GO
NO-GO
did not indicate a minimum of 0.25, crew wore CBRN protective mask
when firing.
7. Gunner pressed LCHR LAY key when directed.
8. Section chief visually verified the launcher lay.
9. When the LLM had moved to the first aiming point, gunner set the
ARM/SAFE switch to ARM. Checked to see if the ARM indicator light came on
and the SAFE indicator light went out.
10. When the prompt FIRE ROCKETS was displayed, gunner set the FIRE
switch up, and held for 2 to 3 seconds. The rockets began to fire. Observed the
FIRE light indicator—the light went off after the last rocket was fired on that
mission.
11. After mission had been fired, gunner set ARM/SAFE switch to SAFE.
12. Section chief and driver opened ballistic window covers on doors and
checked launch tube containers for fires.
13. Gunner pressed LLM stow key.
14. Gunner checked for LLM stow prompt to appear on FCP and section chief
visually checked travel lock hooks to ensure that LLM was stowed.
15. Driver set ventilation damper to normal and disengaged SLO.
16. Section chief immediately directed driver to exit firing point.
17. Firing section met time standard of 4 minutes.
Note. Time starts when the section chief is given the fire mission data card and stops when the
first rocket is fired or, for AMC, when the ready-to-fire message is sent. The time for the
launcher to move to the firing point is included in the time.
START TIME: ____________ STOP TIME: ____________
4-142
FM 3-09.8
31 July 2006
Delivery Section Training
TASK: Execute a Launcher At My Command Fire Mission
CONDITIONS: The MLRS section is conducting combat operations and the launcher is
occupying a hide area and is in hot status. A fire mission has been sent to the launcher,
which is located within 100 meters of the firing point.
STANDARDS: The section acknowledges the fire mission on the FCP. The section will also
acknowledge requests for status, and compute and confirm the fire mission on the FCP. The
section fires the mission per the method of control of the fire mission. The firing section
reports problems to the POC/BOC that prevent firing of missions or that require modification
of data.
Note. For AMC and fire-when-ready missions, the launcher time standard is 4 minutes. Time
starts when the section acknowledges the mission and stops when the first rocket is fired or, for
AMC, when the ready-to-fire message is sent. The time for the launcher to move to the firing
point is included in the 4 minutes.
Evaluation Checklist
GO
NO-GO
1. CFF was received, an alarm sounded, gunner pushed ALM ACK.
2. A WILL COMPLY or CANNOT COMPLY was displayed automatically;
gunner pressed XMIT key.
3. The firing section prepared to execute the fire mission. Section chief
directed crew to the firing position. Parked the SPLL within 150 meters of the
firing point grid location in both northing and easting.
4. SPLL was parked at a heading within 240 mils of the parking heading
shown on the display. (A parking heading within 100 mils of the displayed
heading is recommended.)
5. Section chief checked mask.
6. The firing section prepared the cab for firing by doing the following:
a. Driver raised selector to neutral and set hand brake.
b. Driver ensured that the carrier launcher interconnect switch was set to
ON.
c.
Driver checked that the carrier volt gauge was indicating in the upper
50 to 75 percent of the green zone.
d. Driver set suspension lockout switch.
e. Driver engaged SLO, observed light.
f.
Driver set the vent fan control override switch to OFF.
g. Crew ensured that all doors, hatches, windows, and louvers were
closed.
h. Driver set the carrier vehicle damper to firing.
i.
Driver set the carrier’s vehicle vent fan switch to medium and checked
differential pressure gauge for a positive pressure. If gauge did not
31 July 2006
FM 3-09.8
4-143
Chapter 4
Evaluation Checklist
GO
NO-GO
indicate a minimum of 0.25, set the vent switch to HIGH. If gauge still
did not indicate a minimum of 0.25, crew wore CBRN protective mask
when firing.
7. Gunner pressed LCHR LAY key when directed.
8. Section chief visually verified the launcher lay.
9. When the LLM had moved to the first aiming point, the READY TO FIRE
message was automatically transmitted. When the CFF message containing
the fire code was received and ALM ACK was pressed, gunner set the
ARM/SAFE switch to ARM. Checked to see if the ARM indicator light came on
and the SAFE indicator light went out.
10. When the prompt FIRE ROCKETS was displayed, gunner set the FIRE
switch up, and held for 2 to 3 seconds. The rockets began to fire. Observed the
FIRE light indicator—the light went off after the last rocket was fired on that
mission.
11. After mission had been fired, gunner set ARM/SAFE switch to SAFE.
12. Section chief and driver opened ballistic window covers on doors and
checked launch tube containers for fires.
13. Gunner pressed LLM stow key.
14. Gunner checked for LLM stow prompt to appear on FCP and section chief
visually checked travel lock hooks to ensure that LLM was stowed.
15. Driver set ventilation damper to normal, disengaged SLO.
16. Section chief immediately directed driver to exit firing point.
17. Firing section met time standard of 4 minutes.
Note. For AMC and FWR missions, the launcher time standard is 4 minutes. The time starts
when the section acknowledges the mission and stops when the first rocket is fired or, for AMC,
when the ready-to-fire message is sent. The time for the launcher to move to the firing point is
included in the 4 minutes.
START TIME: ____________.STOP TIME: ____________
4-144
FM 3-09.8
31 July 2006
Chapter 5
Radar Section Tables
This chapter provides commanders and radar sections a standardized method of
training and qualifying the Fire Finder Radar Sections assigned to their organizations.
It includes training and qualification standards for all Weapon Location Radar
Sections (WLRSs) (TPQ-36/TPQ-37).
INTRODUCTION
5-1. The methodology and format of the radar section tables (table 5-1) are identical to that presented in
previous chapters. The tables provide a progressive, gated approach to training to assist commanders in the
assessment of training and the horizontal integration of training across the combined arms team. The tables
also provide the means and tasks for C, W, R training for the section chief to use during Sergeant’s Time
training, as refresher training, or as a prelude to the evaluation of training. The content of the ASPT and
Radar Table I provide the individual and collective tasks to support the routine training of the radar section
during Sergeant’s Time training. Radar Table III is the required machine gun training on the M249 LMG
for those sections with the M249 as an assigned weapon. Radar Tables IV-VI provide progressive training
on tasks grouped as they are performed. Radar Tables VII/VIII are the training and qualification tables for
the radar section.
Table 5-1. Contents of radar tables.
TABLE
TABLE CONTENTS
REMARKS
Written test
All sections equipped with M249 LMG
VII
Individual tasks
Machine gun training
Reconnaissance, selection, and
occupation of position
March order
Perform surveillance and locate
targets
Training
VIII
Qualification
I
III
IV
V
VI
Focus on primary combat task
Use field exercise mode (FEM)
embedded trainer to evaluate, a gate
for Table VIII
Live-fire observation in both friendly
and hostile fire mode
SECTION I. ARTILLERY SKILLS PROFICIENCY TEST FOR RADAR SECTIONS
5-2. The ASPT evaluates the radar section member’s ability to execute selected crew skills. The tasks
listed in this chapter provide the unit commander a means to evaluate the radar section member’s basic
proficiency prior to live-fire exercises. The ASPT can also be used as a guide for identifying section
strengths and weaknesses. ASPT results should be used by the commander, master gunner, and radar
section leaders when structuring the unit’s annual gunnery training program.
31 July 2006
FM 3-09.8
5-1
Chapter 5
REQUIREMENTS
5-3. All MOS 13R personnel and any personnel assigned to a radar section (regardless of MOS) will be
administered the ASPT. Radar section members are required to pass the ASPT prior to radar section
qualification. To pass the ASPT, a Soldier must receive a GO on all stations. If a Soldier fails a task, he
must be retrained and retested on that station until he receives a GO. Appropriate manuals and other
references listed for each station must be used to prepare, administer, and evaluate the ASPT.
Note. Evaluators must pass the ASPT within 6 months prior to testing.
5-4. Evaluation Procedures. Detailed procedures for the setup and conduct of the evaluation and AAR are
found in paragraph 3-2 of this manual.
5-5. Test Stations. Each station consists of a Test Administrative Guide and a criteria-scoring checklist.
TEST STATIONS
5-2
•
Initialize the radar test station
•
Establish communications test station
•
Determine manual terrain-following data test station
FM 3-09.8
31 July 2006
Radar Section Tables
STATION 1 – INITIALIZE THE RADAR
Task
Order
Task
Task No.
1
2
Determine Initialization Data
Initialize the Fire Finder Radar
061-294-5300
061-294-1001
2
Initialize the AN/TPQ-36 (V)8
Radar
Initialize the AN/TPQ-37 (Digital
Upgrade) Fire Finder Radar
Evaluate the Initialization of the
Fire Finder Radar
061-294-5200
3
4
31 July 2006
061-294-1012
061-294-5200
FM 3-09.8
Remarks
If Assigned to a Legacy Fire
Finder Radar
If Assigned to a Version 8
AN/TPQ-36 Radar
If Assigned to a Q-37 (Digital
Upgrade) Radar
This task will be performed by a
supervisor for all initializations.
5-3
Chapter 5
DETERMINE INITIALIZATION DATA TEST STATION
TEST ADMINISTRATIVE GUIDE
STATION 1A (ALL)
TASK: Determine Initialization Data (061-294-5300)
CONDITIONS: Given a fire finder radar position, a map, M2A2 aiming circle, a range pole,
an initialization worksheet, and coordinates scale/protractor (Military GTA 5-2-12).
STANDARDS: Determine radar initialization data in accordance with FM 6-50 and
applicable TMs.
PERSONNEL, EQUIPMENT, AND MATERIAL REQUIRED:
•
Primary evaluator (SSG or above) in charge of administering the test (the primary evaluator
may also occupy a test station).
•
Station evaluator (SGT or above; one per test station).
•
Training area.
•
Stopwatch (one per evaluator).
•
Criterion-scoring checklist (one per Soldier).
•
Pencils (one per Soldier).
•
FM 3-09.8 (one per station).
•
M2A2 aiming circle.
•
Range pole.
•
Initialization worksheet.
•
Coordinate scale/protractor (GTA 5-2-12).
•
TMs 11-5840-355-10, 11-5840-378-10, and 11-5840-380-10.
TEST PLANNING TIME:
5-4
•
Administrative time: 5 minutes
•
Test time: 20 minutes
•
Total time: 25 minutes
FM 3-09.8
31 July 2006
Radar Section Tables
OTHER INFORMATION:
INSTRUCTIONS TO THE CREWMAN: “You are currently located at your new radar position
area. You must determine the radar initialization data and complete the initialization data
worksheet. Do you understand the requirements of this test? Do you have any questions?
You may begin.” (Start the time.)
Performance Measures
1.
2.
3.
4.
31 July 2006
GO
NOGO
Determined radar site coordinates.
Determined far stake data.
Measured and recorded manual terrain-following data.
Completed initialization worksheet.
FM 3-09.8
5-5
Chapter 5
INITIALIZE THE FIRE FINDER RADAR TEST STATION
TEST ADMINISTRATIVE GUIDE
STATION 1B (ALL LEGACY FIRE FINDER RADAR SECTIONS)
TASK: Initialize the Fire Finder Radar (061-294-1001)
CONDITIONS: Given an emplaced fire finder radar legacy system with shelter prepared for
operation and power applied.
STANDARDS: Initialize the radar so that all mission-essential data is correctly entered.
PERSONNEL, EQUIPMENT, AND MATERIAL REQUIRED:
•
Primary evaluator (SSG or above) in charge of administering the test (the primary evaluator
may also occupy a test station).
•
Station evaluator (SGT or above; one per test station).
•
Classroom or training area.
•
Stopwatch (one per evaluator).
•
Criterion-scoring checklist (one per Soldier).
•
Desk and chair or clipboard (one per Soldier).
•
Pencils (one per Soldier).
•
FM 3-09.8 (one per station).
•
Operational radar with power generator.
•
TMs 11-5840-355-10, 11-5840-378-10, and 11-5840-380-10.
TEST PLANNING TIME:
•
Administrative time: 5 minutes
•
Test time: 15 minutes
•
Total time: 20 minutes
OTHER INFORMATION:
INSTRUCTIONS TO THE CREWMAN: “You are currently located at your new radar position
area. You must correctly initialize the radar by entering all essential data. Do you
understand the requirements of this test? Do you have any questions? You may begin.”
(Start the time.)
Performance Measures
1.
2.
5-6
GO
NOGO
Performed antenna boresighting.
Loaded initialization program.
FM 3-09.8
31 July 2006
Radar Section Tables
Performance Measures
3.
4.
5.
6.
7.
8.
9.
10.
11.
12.
13.
14.
31 July 2006
GO
NOGO
Entered date and time correctly.
Entered the adaptation constants (or read the constants from the
tape) correctly.
Selected output device correctly.
Entered site data correctly.
Performed stabilization.
Entered the terrain-following data or loaded the digital map
correctly.
Entered MET data correctly.
Entered site map data correctly.
Entered height correction data correctly.
Entered search data correctly.
Entered communications data correctly.
Checked and corrected initialization data.
FM 3-09.8
5-7
Chapter 5
INITIALIZE THE AN/TPQ-36 RADAR TEST STATION
TEST ADMINISTRATIVE GUIDE
STATION 1C (ALL AN/TPQ-36 RADAR SECTIONS)
TASK: Initialize the AN/TPQ-36 Radar (061-294-5004)
CONDITIONS: Given an emplaced AN/TPQ-36 radar system with shelter prepared for
operation and power applied.
STANDARDS: Initialize the radar so that all mission-essential data is correctly entered.
PERSONNEL, EQUIPMENT, AND MATERIAL REQUIRED:
•
Primary evaluator (SSG or above) in charge of administering the test (the primary evaluator
may also occupy a test station).
•
Station evaluator (SGT or above; one per test station).
•
Training area.
•
Stopwatch (one per evaluator).
•
Criterion-scoring checklist (one per Soldier).
•
Pencils (one per Soldier).
•
FM 3-09.8 (one per station).
•
Operational radar with power generator.
•
TMs 11-5840-355-10, 11-5840-378-10, and 11-5840-380-10.
TEST PLANNING TIME:
•
Administrative time: 5 minutes
•
Test time: 15 minutes
•
Total time: 20 minutes
OTHER INFORMATION:
INSTRUCTIONS TO THE CREWMAN: “You are currently located at your new radar position
area. You must correctly initialize the radar by entering all essential data. Do you
understand the requirements of this test? Do you have any questions? You may begin.”
(Start the time.)
5-8
FM 3-09.8
31 July 2006
Radar Section Tables
Performance Measures
1.
2.
3.
4.
5.
6.
7.
8.
9.
10.
11.
GO
NOGO
Loaded initialization data.
a. Correctly loaded existing initialization data.
b. Correctly input new initialization data.
Entered the correct date and time.
Entered the correct adaptation constants or loaded adaptation constants from
the hard drive.
a. Enter the corrected constants.
b. Correctly loaded the constants from the hard drive.
Entered the correct site data.
Entered the correct terrain-following data.
Entered the correct MET data.
Entered the correct site map data.
Entered the correct search data.
Entered the correct communications net data.
Verified that boresighting and stabilization were successfully completed.
Verified the initialization printout.
31 July 2006
FM 3-09.8
5-9
Chapter 5
INITIALIZE THE AN/TPQ-37 FIRE FINDER RADAR TEST STATION
TEST ADMINISTRATIVE GUIDE
STATION 1C (ALL AN/TPQ-37 RADAR SECTIONS)
TASK: Initialize the AN/TPQ-37 Fire Finder Radar (061-294-1012)
CONDITIONS: Given an operational AN/TPQ-37 (digital upgrade) fire finder radar with
operator PMCS completed and accurate site, weather, and mission data included.
STANDARDS: Initialize the radar so that all mission-essential data is correctly entered.
PERSONNEL, EQUIPMENT, AND MATERIAL REQUIRED:
•
Primary evaluator (SSG or above) in charge of administering the test (the primary evaluator
may also occupy a test station).
•
Station evaluator (SGT or above; one per test station).
•
Training area.
•
Stopwatch (one per evaluator).
•
Criterion-scoring checklist (one per Soldier).
•
Pencils (one per Soldier).
•
FM 3-09.8 (one per station).
•
Operational radar with power generator.
•
TMs 11-5840-355-10, 11-5840-378-10, and 11-5840-380-10.
TEST PLANNING TIME:
•
Administrative time: 5 minutes
•
Test time: 5 minutes
•
Total time: 10 minutes
OTHER INFORMATION:
INSTRUCTIONS TO THE SOLDIER: “You are currently located at your new radar position
area. The Radar has been emplaced and is operational. You must ensure that all essential
data is correctly entered and that the radar has been initialized in accordance with the
applicable TM. Do you understand the requirements of this test? Do you have any
questions? You may begin.” (Start the time.)
Performance Measures
1.
2.
5-10
GO
NOGO
Checked antenna boresighting.
Specified new data or loaded an existing file.
FM 3-09.8
31 July 2006
Radar Section Tables
Performance Measures
GO
3.
4.
5.
6.
7.
8.
Entered or edited date and time correctly.
Entered the adaptation constants correctly.
Selected output device correctly.
Entered or edited site data correctly.
Performed stabilization.
Entered the terrain-following data or loaded the digital map.
9.
10.
11.
12.
13.
14.
Entered MET data correctly.
Entered site map data correctly.
Entered height correction data correctly.
Entered search data correctly.
Entered communications data correctly.
Checked and corrected initialization data.
31 July 2006
FM 3-09.8
NOGO
5-11
Chapter 5
EVALUATE INITIALIZATION OF THE FIRE FINDER RADARS TEST STATION
TEST ADMINISTRATIVE GUIDE
STATION 1D (ALL AN/TPQ-36 RADAR SECTIONS)
TASK: Evaluate Initialization of the Fire Finder Radars (061-294-5200)
CONDITIONS: Given an initialized fire finder radar system, a radar operator, and
initialization data worksheet.
STANDARDS: Ensure that all mission-required initialization data is displayed and correctly
entered on the initialization printout in accordance with applicable TM without error.
PERSONNEL, EQUIPMENT, AND MATERIAL REQUIRED:
•
Primary evaluator (SSG or above) in charge of administering the test (the primary evaluator
may also occupy a test station).
•
Station evaluator (SGT or above; one per test station).
•
Classroom or training area.
•
Stopwatch (one per evaluator).
•
Criterion-scoring checklist (one per Soldier).
•
Desk and chair or clipboard (one per Soldier).
•
Pencils (one per Soldier).
•
FM 3-09.8 (one per station).
•
Operational radar with power generator.
•
TM 11-5840-355-10, TM 11-5840-378-10, and TM 11-5840-380-10.
TEST PLANNING TIME:
•
Administrative time: 5 minutes
•
Test time: 5 minutes
•
Total time: 10 minutes
OTHER INFORMATION:
INSTRUCTIONS TO THE SOLDIER: “You are currently located at your new radar position
area. The Radar has been emplaced and initialized. You must ensure that all essential data
is correctly entered and that the radar has been initialized in accordance with the applicable
5-12
FM 3-09.8
31 July 2006
Radar Section Tables
TM. Do you understand the requirements of this test? Do you have any questions? You may
begin.” (Start the time.)
Performance Measures
1.
2.
3.
GO
NOGO
Obtained and inspected the initialization data printout.
Ensured that all mission-required initialization data were displayed and
correctly entered.
Directed corrections to any errors or deficiencies found during evaluation and
informed section chief of initialization status.
31 July 2006
FM 3-09.8
5-13
Chapter 5
STATION 2 – ESTABLISH COMMUNICATIONS
Task
Order
1
2
Task
Reference
Install/Operate/Maintain a
Single Channel Ground and
Airborne Radio System
(SINCGARS) FH Net (11-51102.06-A001)
Install Antenna Group OE254/GRC (061-276-1012)
ARTEP 6-30330-MTP
Remarks
STP 6-13R14SM-TG
INSTALL/OPERATE/MAINTAIN A SINCGARS FH NET TEST STATION TEST
ADMINISTRATIVE GUIDE
STATION 2 (ALL RADAR SECTIONS)
TASK: Install/Operate/Maintain a Single-Channel Ground and Airborne Radio System FH
Net (11-5-1102.06-A001)
CONDITIONS: The radar section has been briefed and has SOI/signal supplemental
instructions (SSI) extracts, appropriate loading devices with keys, radio net diagram, maps,
and grid coordinates.
STANDARDS: The SINCGARS radio sets are operational in accordance with the TSOP,
applicable supporting products, and the operation plan/operation order.
PERSONNEL, EQUIPMENT, AND MATERIAL REQUIRED:
•
Primary evaluator (SSG or above) in charge of administering the test (the primary evaluator
may also occupy a test station).
•
Station evaluator (SGT or above; one per test station).
•
Training area.
•
Stopwatch (one per evaluator).
•
Criterion-scoring checklist (one per Soldier).
•
Pencils (one per Soldier).
•
FM 3-09.8 (one per station).
•
Operational SINCGARS radio.
•
SOI/SSI.
•
Loading device w/keys.
TEST PLANNING TIME:
5-14
FM 3-09.8
31 July 2006
Radar Section Tables
•
Administrative time: 5 minutes
•
Test time: 10 minutes
•
Total time: 15 minutes
OTHER INFORMATION: Evaluator must ensure that a distant station is operational.
INSTRUCTIONS TO THE SOLDIER: “You are currently located at your new radar position
area. You must correctly initialize the radar by entering all essential data. Do you
understand the requirements of this test? Do you have any questions? You may begin.”
(Start the time.)
Performance Measures
1.
GO
NOGO
Supervisor checked radios for completeness and operability.
a. Checked that vehicular and/or manpack systems were assembled
correctly.
WARNING: High voltages exist at connector J1 on the mounting adapter. Be
sure J1 is covered or capped when not in use.
b. Checked to ensure that preoperational PMCS are completed.
2.
3.
4.
CAUTION: RF energy is present near the antenna during transmissions.
Maintain at least 30 inches between vehicular antenna and personnel during
transmission. An antenna tip cap must be in place on the antenna. Tie down
the antenna so the distance from the ground to the tip cap is 7 feet or more.
The supervisor selected the site.
a. Selected primary and alternate locations within the general site.
b. Established/maintained camouflage discipline.
c. Checked that location provides effective use of terrain in an electronic
warfare environment.
d. Checked that location avoids interference from power lines and other
friendly sources of frequency interference.
Network Members performed permission checks for SINCGARS frequency
hopping (FH) cold start network opening.
a. Performed before-operation PMCS.
b. Loaded transmission security key (TSK) using MX-10579 or MX-18290
(non-ICOM) only.
c. Loaded hopset using MX-18290 (ICOM only).
d. Loaded traffic encryption key (TEK) using KYK-13.
NCS opened net.
a. Issued net call in the secure mode on the MAN channel.
b. Issued electronic remote fill (ERF) counter-countermeasures instructions
and sent ERF.
c. Set channel switch to hopset channel and issued network call.
d. Opened network.
e. Reset channel switch to MAN and called missing network members.
f.
g.
31 July 2006
Repeated cold start.
Set FCTN switch to SQ ON.
FM 3-09.8
5-15
Chapter 5
Performance Measures
GO
NOGO
5. Network members entered the network.
6.
5-16
a. Responded in correct sequence to network call.
b. Stored ERF and set channel switch to hopset channel and FCTN switch
to SQ ON.
c. Responded in correct sequence to network call.
d. If missed ERF, or heard no communications on hopset channel, reset
channel switch to MAN and FCTN switch to LO.
e. Responded in sequence to NCS call.
The team members extended the range of the radio station.
a. Inspected OE-254 antenna for serviceability.
b. Installed OE-254 antenna (team method).
c. Accomplished the transaction from the whip to OE-254 antenna without
unnecessary interruption of service.
FM 3-09.8
31 July 2006
Radar Section Tables
DETERMINE MANUAL TERRAIN-FOLLOWING DATA TEST STATION
TEST ADMINISTRATIVE GUIDE
STATION 3 (ALL)
TASK: Determine Manual Terrain-Following Data (061-294-1014)
CONDITIONS: Given a declinated aiming circle, you have been directed to determine
manual terrain-following data.
STANDARDS: Azimuths and vertical mask angles measured to within 0.5 mils. Accurate to
within 2.0 mils.
PERSONNEL, EQUIPMENT, AND MATERIAL REQUIRED:
•
Primary evaluator (SSG or above) in charge of administering the test (the primary evaluator
may also occupy a test station).
•
Station evaluator (SGT or above; one per test station).
•
Training area.
•
Stopwatch (one per evaluator).
•
Criterion-scoring checklist (one per Soldier).
•
Pencils (one per Soldier).
•
FM 3-09.8 (one per station).
•
M2A2 aiming circle.
•
TM 11-5840-355-10, TM 11-5840-378-10, and TM 11-5840-380-10.
TEST PLANNING TIME:
•
Administrative time: 5 minutes
•
Test time: 10 minutes
•
Total time: 15 minutes
OTHER INFORMATION: Prior to the Soldier arriving, the evaluator must measure and
record the azimuths and vertical mask angles and confirm that the measurements are
correct.
INSTRUCTIONS TO THE SOLDIER: “You are currently located at your new radar position
area. You have been directed to set up the aiming circle and determine manual terrainfollowing data. Do you understand the requirements of this test? Do you have any
questions? You may begin.” (Start the time.)
31 July 2006
FM 3-09.8
5-17
Chapter 5
Performance Measures
1.
2.
GO
NOGO
Leveled aiming circle over near stake.
Measured horizontal angles and elevations of screening crest to the nearest 0.5
mils, accurate to within 2.0 mils.
Recorded data without error.
Provided manual terrain-following data to section chief.
3.
4.
SECTION II. RADAR TABLES
5-6. The radar tables provide a standardized, tabular format for training and evaluating radar section
tasks. These task-based tables include individual and collective tasks from STPs and MTPs and equipmentspecific tasks from system TMs. Table 5-2 includes all critical collective and individual tasks and the table
or event in which they are trained. The ASPT and Radar Tables I-VIII may be integrated into an LTX or
conducted as standalone evaluated STXs.
Table 5-2. Collective/individual radar task matrix.
Task Number
Task
Where Trained
061-294-5300
Determine Initialization Data
061-294-1024
061-276-1012
Direct Operator Maintenance of FA Target Acquisition
Radar Systems and Associated Equipment
Direct Displacement of FA Radars
Direct the Emplacement of FA Target Acquisition Radars
Select a Site for the FA Target Acquisition Radars
Evaluate Mission Operations Data for FA Target
Acquisition Radars
Evaluate Initialization of the FA Target Acquisition
Radars
Recognize Electronic Countermeasures (ECM) and
Implement Electronic Counter-Countermeasures(ECCM)
Install Antenna Group OE-254/GRC
ASPT, Table IV, VI,
VII, VIII
Table I, Sgt’s Time
061-276-1011
Use SOI Extract
061-275-8003
Operate SINCGARS ICOM
071-329-1004
Determine the Elevation of a Point on the Ground Using
a Map
Determine the Grid Coordinates of a Point on a Military
Map
Determine Manual Terrain-Following Data
March Order the MEP-115A/816A 60-kW Generator
March Order the Fire Finder Radar Shelter
March Order the Generator Set (MEP-112A/813A 10 kW)
March Order the AN/TPQ-37 Radar Trailer
March Order the AN/TPQ-36 Radar Trailer
Operate the AN/TPQ-36 (V)8 Radar Using the Remote
061-294-1023
061-294-1022
061-294-1021
061-294-1020
061-294-1019
113-573-6001
071-329-1002
061-294-1014
061-294-5112
061-294-1011
061-294-1007
061-294-1003
061-294-1002
061-294-5120
5-18
FM 3-09.8
Table V
Table IV
Table IV
Table IV
ASPT, Table IV, VI,
VII, VIII
Table I, Sgt’s Time
ASPT, Table I, Sgt’s
Time
ASPT, Table I, Sgt’s
Time
ASPT, Table I, Sgt’s
Time
Table I, Sgt’s Time
Table I, Sgt’s Time
ASPT
Table V
Table V
Table V
Table V
Table V
Table VI
31 July 2006
Radar Section Tables
Table 5-2. Collective/individual radar task matrix.
Task Number
061-294-1012
061-294-1009
061-294-1005
061-294-1004
061-294-1000
061-294-5123
061-294-5122
061-294-5116
061-294-5108
061-294-5106
061-294-5105
061-294-5100
061-294-5004
061-294-5001
061-294-1013
Task
Where Trained
Control Display Terminal (CDT)
Initialize the AN/TPQ-37 (Digital Upgrade) Fire Finder
Radar
Operate the Fire Finder Radar Set in the Hostile Mode
(AN/TPQ-36 (V)8 or AN/TPQ-37 Digital Upgrade)
Operate the Fire Finder Radar in the Hostile Mode
(Legacy Systems)
Operate the Fire Finder Radar Set in the Friendly Mode
(Legacy System)
Operate the Fire Finder Radar Set in the Friendly Mode
(AN/TPQ-36 (V)8 or AN/TPQ-37 Digital Upgrade)
Start the Main Power Source (MEP-115A/816A 60 kW)
Start the Main Power Source (MEP-112A/813A 10 kW)
Operate Modular Azimuth Positioning System (MAPS)
Perform Operator PMCS on the AN/TPQ-37 Radar
System
Emplace the MEP-115A/816A 60-kW Generator
Emplace the AN/TPQ-37 Radar Trailer
Emplace the AN/TPQ-36 Radar Trailer
Initialize the AN/TPQ-36 (V)8 Radar Set
061-294-1010
061-294-1008
061-294-1001
Prepare the AN/TPQ-36 (V)8 Shelter for Operation
Prepare the Fire Finder Radar Shelter (Digital Upgrade)
for Operation
Emplace the Fire Finder Radar Shelter
Emplace the Generator Set (MEP-112A/813A 10 kW)
Initialize the Fire Finder Radars (Legacy Systems)
06-4-Q002
06-4-Q003
06-4-Q009
06-4-Q010
06-4-Q011
06-4-Q035
06-4-Q045
March Order Radar Equipment
Emplace and Prepare Radar Equipment for Operations
Occupy a Radar Site
Reconnoiter a Radar Position
Perform Unit Maintenance on Radar Equipment
Observe Friendly Indirect Fires (Radar)
Perform Surveillance and Locate Targets
31 July 2006
FM 3-09.8
ASPT, Table IV, VI,
VII, VIII
Table VI
Table VI
Table VII/VIII
Table VII/VIII
Table IV, VI, VII, VIII
Table IV, VI, VII, VIII
Table IV/V
Table I
Table IV
Table IV
Table IV
ASPT, Table IV, VI,
VII, VIII
Table IV, VI, VII, VIII
Table IV, VI, VII, VIII
Table IV, VI, VII, VIII
Table IV, VI, VII, VIII
ASPT, Table IV, VI,
VII, VIII
Table V
Table IV
Table IV
Table IV
Table I
Table I, VII, VIII
Table VI, VII, VIII
5-19
Chapter 5
RADAR TABLE I: INDIVIDUAL TASKS
5-7. Radar Table I includes the individual tasks and skills and common tasks that all Soldiers must master
to survive on the battlefield. These tasks are trained during Sergeant’s Time training and are the basic
building blocks for all collective training. The evaluation of the Soldier on Radar Table I tasks is a routine
part of Sergeant’s Time training and should also be evaluated using a written examination as a gate prior to
all other tables. A list of test questions is provided on the Fires Knowledge Network, Master Gunner Site.
The unit should select questions from the Master Gunner Site and add an equal number of questions,
including questions concerning unit TSOP, local regulations, and items of command interest.
RADAR TABLE III: M249 LMG TRAINING
5-8. The M249 LMG is common to many sections and crews in FA units. The requirement to maintain a
high degree of proficiency on this weapon has never been more important. The asynchronous battlefield of
the COE and the varied and complex missions assigned to FA organizations require that crews and sections
be proficient on all assigned weapons. The M249 LMG is critical to the overall defense of the unit against
both ground and air threats and is integrated with other defenses to provide force protection against all
threats. The unit-training program should include preliminary marksmanship training and training on the
assembly, disassembly, and maintenance of the weapon as described in FM 3-22.68. The training and
qualification included in Radar Table III is the strategy recommended by STRAC and FM 3-22.68. This
strategy has been expanded to include a convoy live-fire exercise.
Radar Table III – M249 LMG
Task
10-m Zero Practice
and Qualification
Transition Firing,
Practice, and
Qualification
Night Zero and
Instructional Firing
Conditions
Integrated CBRN, 80
percent of Assigned
Gunner and Assistant
Gunner Annually
Integrated CBRN
Ammunition
108 rounds
Ball/Person
Reference
Table 5-1, FM 3-22.68;
Table 5-26, DA Pam
350-38
144 rounds,
Mix/Person
With Mounted
AN/PVS-4
90 rounds, Mix/Person
Table 5-1, FM 3-22.68
Table 5-26,
DA Pam 350-38
Table 5-1, FM 3-22.68
Table 5-26,
DA Pam 350-38
Convoy LFX
370 rounds Mixed
RADAR TABLE IV: RSOP
5-9. Table IV includes the collective and supporting individual tasks as shown in Table 5-4. This table
should include tasks based on unit TSOP such as precombat checks and inspections, load plans, PMCS
checks, and driver certification.
5-20
FM 3-09.8
31 July 2006
Radar Section Tables
Radar Table IV – RSOP tasks
Task Number
06-4-Q003
06-4-Q009
06-4-Q010
061-294-1022
061-294-1021
061-294-1020
061-294-1010
061-294-1008
06-4-Q003
Task
Emplace and Prepare Radar Equipment for Operations
Occupy a Radar Site
Reconnoiter a Radar Position
Direct the Emplacement of FA Target Acquisition Radars
Select a Site for the FA Target Acquisition Radars
Evaluate Mission Operations Data for FA Target
Acquisition Radars
Start the Main Power Source (MEP-115A/816A 60 kW)
Start the Main Power Source (MEP-112A/813A 10 kW)
Operate MAPS
Emplace the MEP-115A/816A 60-kW Generator
Emplace the AN/TPQ-37 Radar Trailer
Emplace the AN/TPQ-36 Radar Trailer
Prepare the AN/TPQ-36 (V)8 Shelter for Operation
Prepare the Fire Finder Radar Shelter (Digital Upgrade)
for Operation
Emplace the Fire Finder Radar Shelter
Emplace the Generator Set (MEP-112A/813A 10 kW)
Emplace And Prepare Radar Equipment For Operations
06-4-Q009
Occupy a Radar Site
06-4-Q010
Reconnoiter a Radar Position
061-294-5123
061-294-5122
061-294-5116
061-294-5106
061-294-5105
061-294-5100
061-294-5001
061-294-1013
Where Trained
Table IV
Table IV
Table IV
Table IV
Table IV
Table IV
Table IV, VI, VII, VIII
Table IV, VI, VII, VIII
Table IV/V
Table IV
Table IV
Table IV
Table IV, VI, VII, VIII
Table IV, VI, VII, VIII
Table IV, VI, VII, VIII
Table IV, VI, VII, VIII
Table IV, Table
VII/VIII
Table IV, Table
VII/VIII
Table IV, Table
VII/VIII
RADAR TABLE V: MARCH ORDER
5-10. Radar Table V includes the collective task and supporting individual tasks shown in table 5-5.
Radar Table V – March order tasks.
Task Number
06-4-Q002
061-294-1023
061-294-5112
061-294-1011
061-294-1007
061-294-1003
061-294-1002
06-4-Q002
Task
March Order Radar Equipment
Direct Displacement of FA Radars
March Order the MEP-115A/816A 60-kW Generator
March Order the Fire Finder Radar Shelter
March Order the Generator Set (MEP-112A/813A 10 kW)
March Order the AN/TPQ-37 Radar Trailer
March Order the AN/TPQ-36 Radar Trailer
March-Order Radar Equipment
Where Trained
Table V
Table V
Table V
Table V
Table V
Table V
Table V
Table V, Table
VII/VIII
RADAR TABLE VI: PERFORM SURVEILLANCE AND LOCATE
TARGETS
5-11. Radar Table VI contains the core combat task of radar sections for locating targets in the hostile fire
mode.
31 July 2006
FM 3-09.8
5-21
Chapter 5
Radar Table VI – Perform surveillance and locate targets.
Task Number
06-4-Q045
061-294-5120
061-294-1012
061-294-1009
061-294-1005
061-294-5001
061-294-1013
061-294-1010
061-294-1008
061-294-1001
06-4-Q035
06-4-Q045
Task
Perform Surveillance and Locate Targets
Operate the AN/TPQ-36 (V)8 Radar Using the Remote
Control Display Terminal
Initialize the AN/TPQ-37 (Digital Upgrade) Fire Finder
Radar
Operate the Fire Finder Radar Set in the Hostile Mode
(AN/TPQ-36 (V)8 or AN/TPQ-37 Digital Upgrade)
Operate the Fire Finder Radar in the Hostile Mode
(Legacy Systems)
Prepare the AN/TPQ-36 (V)8 Shelter for Operation
Prepare the Fire Finder Radar Shelter (Digital Upgrade)
for Operation
Emplace the Fire Finder Radar Shelter
Emplace the Generator Set (MEP-112A/813A 10 kW)
Initialize the Fire Finder Radars (Legacy Systems)
Observe Friendly Indirect Fires (Radar)
Perform Surveillance and Locate Targets
RADAR TABLES VII/VIII: TRAINING AND QUALIFICATION
5-12. Radar Tables VII and VIII, Section Training and Qualification Tables , are semiannual requirements
for radar sections. Table VII is identical to Table VIII but will be evaluated using the embedded training
capability FEM on the radar and is a gate preceding live-fire evaluation during Table VIII. Radar Table
VIII, Qualification, should evaluate the radar section in both the friendly fire and hostile fire modes during
artillery and/or mortar live-fire. Radar Table VIII must be integrated with LFX training conducted by the
Mortar Platoon of the supported unit for AN/TPQ-36 sections or by Field Artillery Live Fire Training for
the AN/TPQ-37 section.
5-22
FM 3-09.8
31 July 2006
Radar Section Tables
Radar Tables VII/VIII – Training and qualification tasks.
Task Number
06-4-Q035
06-4-Q045
061-294-5001
061-294-1013
061-294-1010
061-294-1008
061-294-1001
Task
Observe Friendly Indirect Fires (Radar)
Perform Surveillance and Locate Targets
Prepare the AN/TPQ-36 (V)8 Shelter for Operation
Prepare the Fire Finder Radar Shelter (Digital Upgrade)
for Operation
Emplace the Fire Finder Radar Shelter
Emplace the Generator Set (MEP-112A/813A 10 kW)
Initialize the Fire Finder Radars (Legacy Systems)
061-294-5004
Initialize the AN/TPQ-36 (V)8 Radar Set
061-294-1004
061-294-5300
Operate the Fire Finder Radar Set in the Friendly Mode
(Legacy System)
Operate the Fire Finder Radar Set in the Friendly Mode
(AN/TPQ-36 (V)8 or AN/TPQ-37 Digital Upgrade)
Start the Main Power Source (MEP-115A/816A 60 kW)
Start the Main Power Source (MEP-112A/813A 10 kW)
Evaluate Initialization of the FA Target Acquisition
Radars
Determine Initialization Data
06-4-Q003
Emplace and Prepare Radar Equipment for Operations
06-4-Q002
March-Order Radar Equipment
06-4-Q009
Occupy Radar Site
06-4-Q010
Reconnoiter Radar Position
06-4-Q035
06-4-Q045
Observe Friendly Indirect Fires (Radar)
Perform Surveillance and Locate Targets
061-294-1000
061-294-5123
061-294-5122
061-294-1019
31 July 2006
FM 3-09.8
Where Trained
Table I, VII, VIII
Table VI, VII, VIII
Table IV, VI, VII, VIII
Table IV, VI, VII, VIII
Table IV, VI, VII, VIII
Table IV, VI, VII, VIII
ASPT, Table IV, VI,
VII, VIII
ASPT, Table IV, VI,
VII, VIII
Table VII/VIII
Table VII/VIII
Table IV, VI, VII, VIII
Table IV, VI, VII, VIII
ASPT, Table IV, VI,
VII, VIII
ASPT, Table IV, VI,
VII, VIII
Table IV, Table
VII/VIII
Table V, Table
VII/VIII
Table IV, Table
VII/VIII
Table IV, Table
VII/VIII
Table VII/VIII
Table VII/VIII
5-23
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Chapter 6
FDC/BOC/POC Section Tables
The artillery tables for FDCs, BOCs, and POCs provide a methodology for training
and evaluating individual and crew/section core tasks required to establish and
operate the battery/platoon operations and fire direction center and to ensure the safe,
timely, and accurate delivery of fires.
INTRODUCTION
6-1. The methodology and format of the FDC section tables are identical to those of tables presented in
previous chapters. The tables provide a progressive, gated approach to training to assist commanders in the
assessment of training and the horizontal integration of training across the combined arms team. The tables
also provide the means and tasks for C, W, and R training for the section chief to use during sergeant’s
time training, as refresher training, or as a prelude to training evaluation. The evaluation of
FDC/BOC/POC personnel on selected critical tasks of the mission precedes the actual tables. These tasks
include both individual and collective tasks that all Soldiers in the section must master. The content of the
ASPT and Table I provides individual and collective tasks to support the routine training of sections and
crews. This chapter includes the section/crew tasks from FM 6-40/MCWP 3-16.4, FM 6-60, and FM 309.70, organized by cannon FDCs and rocket/missile BOC/POC.
FDC CRITICAL FUNCTIONS
6-2. The FDC/BOC/POC in all units perform three very critical functions:
z
The first critical function is to ensure that the solution to the gunnery problem is accurate,
timely, and satisfies the requirements of the supported force. The technical solution of the
gunnery problem may be embedded in the delivery platform (as in Paladin and MLRS
launchers) or produced by automated—or in some cases manual—systems in the
FDC/BOC/POC. The FDC is responsible for ensuring that all data used in the solution is the
most accurate available.
z
The second critical function of equal importance is to ensure the safety of the data fired by
eliminating human error from the gunnery problem. Establishing procedures that provide an
independent check of each element of data used in the firing solution can accomplish this.
z
The third critical function is to act as the Tactical Operations Center for the battery or platoon.
This requires situational awareness of the common operating picture of the battlefield (including
all FSCMs) and the ability to anticipate and react quickly to the tactical situation in accordance
with the field artillery support plan, ensuring that firing elements are always in support position.
SECTION I. ARTILLERY SKILLS PROFICIENCY TEST
FOR FDC SECTIONS
6-3. The ASPT evaluates the FDC section member’s ability to execute selected crew skills. The tasks
listed in this section provide the unit commander a means to evaluate the FDC section member’s basic
proficiency prior to live-fire exercises. The ASPT can also be used as a guide for identifying section
strengths and weaknesses. ASPT results should be used by the commander, master gunner, and battery
leaders when structuring the unit’s annual gunnery training program.
31 July 2006
FM 3-09.8
6-1
Chapter 6
REQUIREMENTS
6-4. All MOS 13D (13C and 13E until converted), 13P personnel, and any personnel assigned to an
FDC/BOC/POC (regardless of MOS) will be administered the ASPT. Soldiers must pass the ASPT prior to
FDC/BOC/POC qualification. To pass the ASPT, a Soldier must receive a GO on all stations. If a Soldier
fails a task, he must be retrained and retested on that station until he receives a GO. Appropriate manuals
and other references listed for each station must be used to prepare, administer, and evaluate the ASPT.
Note. Evaluators must have passed the ASPT within 6 the months prior to testing.
6-5. a. Evaluation Procedures. Detailed procedures for the setup and conduct of the evaluation and AAR
are in paragraph 3-2 of this manual.
b. Test Stations. Each station consists of a test administrative guide and criterion-scoring checklist.
TEST STATIONS
TEST STATIONS
1.
2.
3A.
3B.
4.
5.
station
6-2
Initialize the AFATDS test station
Establish and maintain communications test station
Compute MLRS safety test station
Perform manual safety procedures test station
MET message checking procedures test station
Compute muzzle velocity information (manual) test
FM 3-09.8
31 July 2006
FDC/BOC/POC Section Tables
INITIALIZE THE AFATDS TEST STATION
TEST ADMINISTRATIVE GUIDE
STATION 1
TASK: Initialize the Advanced Artillery Tactical Data System (061-300-5033)
CONDITIONS: In a field environment given an AFATDS, login information, and TM 11-7025297-10.
STANDARDS: Initialize the AFATDS following the sequence outlined in TM 11-7025-29710, entering the correct unit role and identification in accordance with current situation.
PERSONNEL, EQUIPMENT, AND MATERIAL REQUIRED:
•
Primary evaluator (SSG or above) in charge of administering the test (the evaluator may also
occupy a test station).
•
Station evaluator (SGT or above; one per test station).
•
Classroom or training area.
•
Stopwatch (one per evaluator).
•
Criterion-scoring checklist (one per Soldier).
•
Desk and chair or clipboard (one per Soldier).
•
Pencils (one per Soldier).
•
FM 3-09.8 (one per station).
•
Operational AFATDS.
•
SOI.
•
Unit TACSOP.
•
Operation order/field artillery support plan.
•
Operational distant station representing battalion FDC with digital and voice communications.
•
TM 11-7025-297-10.
TEST PLANNING TIME:
•
Administrative time: 5 minutes
•
Test time: 30 minutes
•
Total time: 35 minutes
OTHER INFORMATION:
INSTRUCTIONS TO THE SOLDIER: “You are currently located at your new battery position
area. You have been directed to initialize the AFATDS, establish digital communications
with your headquarters, and be prepared to fire. Do you understand the requirements of this
test? Do you have any questions? You may begin.”
31 July 2006
FM 3-09.8
6-3
Chapter 6
Performance Measures
1.
2.
3.
4.
5.
6.
7.
6-4
GO
NO- GO
Applied power to all devices in sequence.
Successfully logged into the system.
Started the AFATDS.
Restored the database, if required.
Set the unit ID and unit role.
Set the system time.
Activated the system.
FM 3-09.8
31 July 2006
FDC/BOC/POC Section Tables
ESTABLISH AND MAINTAIN COMMUNICATIONS TEST STATION
TEST ADMINISTRATIVE GUIDE
STATION 2 (ALL)
TASK: Establish and Maintain Communications (06-2-A000.06-C000, 06-2-A000.06-M000)
CONDITIONS: The FDC/BOC/POC has radios, extracts of the SOI, and COMSEC materiel.
All systems are operational.
STANDARDS: The section establishes voice and digital communications with its controlling
HQ in accordance with TSOP, SOI, and applicable FMs.
PERSONNEL, EQUIPMENT, AND MATERIAL REQUIRED:
•
Primary evaluator (SSG or above) in charge of administering the test (evaluator may also
occupy a test station).
•
Station evaluator (SGT or above; one per test station).
•
Classroom or training area.
•
Stopwatch (one per evaluator).
•
Criterion-scoring checklist (one per Soldier).
•
Desk and chair or clipboard (one per Soldier).
•
Pencils (one per Soldier).
•
FM 3-09.8 (one per station).
•
Operational SINCGARS radio.
•
SOI/SSI.
•
Loading device with keys.
•
Initialized AFC/DS, FDS, and LCU.
•
Simulated jamming station.
TEST PLANNING TIME:
•
Administrative time: 5 minutes
•
Test time: 10 minutes
•
Total time: 15 minutes
OTHER INFORMATION: Evaluator must ensure that a distant station is operational and
prepared to send and receive voice and digital traffic.
INSTRUCTIONS TO THE SOLDIER: “You are currently located at your new battery/platoon
position area. You must correctly install the SINCGARS radio and establish communications
with your controlling headquarters. Do you understand the requirements of this test? Do you
have any questions? You may begin.”
31 July 2006
FM 3-09.8
6-5
Chapter 6
Performance Measures
1.
2.
3.
4.
GO
NO- GO
Radio operators prepared radios for operation as follows:
a. Secured radio in mount.
b. Connected audio accessories.
c. Installed antenna.
d. Performed operational checks of radio.
Radio operators made initial entry into net as follows:
a. Obtained appropriate call signs, suffixes, and frequency from SOI.
b. Entered radio net.
c. Authenticated when challenged by net control station (NCS).
Radio operators recognized frequency interference.
a. Determined if electronic countermeasures were being employed.
b. Checked for accidental or unintentional interference.
c. Checked for intentional interference.
Radio operators initiated prescribed electronic protection (EP) procedures.
a. Disconnected the antenna.
b. Identified the type of noise.
Note. SINCGARS cannot be tuned above or below the normal frequency, if properly used.
5.
6.
6-6
c. Tuned the receiver above or below the normal frequency.
d. Identified jamming signals.
e. Reported interference received to the leader.
f.
Employed anti-jamming measures.
Radio operators recognized and prevented imitative electronic deception.
a. Identified intentional insertion of electromagnetic energy into
transmission paths with objective of deceiving operators.
b. Used properly authenticated aids to ensure that the enemy could not
enter their net.
c. Challenged reception when suspected enemy were in the net.
Radio operators employed EP.
a. Used COMSEC secure equipment, if available.
b. Set COMSEC equipment for proper code.
c. Safeguarded COMSEC equipment and materiel when COMSEC was
used.
d. Used only approved radiotelephone procedures.
e. Used challenge and reply authentication, as required by SOI.
f.
Used approved codes and brevity list. Encrypted and decrypted grid
coordinates using SOI (optional if on a secure net).
g. Kept length and number of transmissions to a minimum with an
objective of no more than 20 seconds per transmission.
h. Used the lowest power setting required to communicate with desired
stations.
i.
Used correct call signs and procedures.
j.
Observed periods of radio listening silence.
k. Adhered to net discipline.
FM 3-09.8
31 July 2006
FDC/BOC/POC Section Tables
Performance Measures
7.
8.
9.
10.
GO
NO- GO
l.
Used terrain to mask signal when possible.
The operations center made initial entry into the internal/external nets and
did the following:
a. Established communications in low power with higher HQ and
subordinate elements. Went to medium/high power, only if necessary.
b. Acted as NCS on internal nets.
c. Entered external nets (replied to authentication challenge from NCS).
d. Used challenge and reply authentication to ensure valid response
before acting on orders or information (optional if on a secure net).
e. Requested permission from NCS to leave the net, as required.
f.
Used RETRANS frequency, if necessary, to communicate with
controlling HQ. (The RETRANS must be operational and established by
controlling HQ.)
g. Conducted mobile subscriber equipment (MSE) voice and digital
communications check with higher HQ.
The unit made initial entry into the appropriate nets in accordance with
TSOP.
The unit improved electronic line of sight by installing range-enhancing
antennas and/or directional antennas, if necessary, and did the following:
a. Selected antenna site away from power lines and power-generating
equipment; used terrain masking.
b. Installed range-enhancing antennas.
c. Ensured that antennas did not touch tree limbs or other surrounding
objects.
d. Accomplished the transition from whip antenna to range-enhancing
antennas without communication interruptions.
e. Conducted frequency and COMSEC variable change in accordance
with SOI or as higher HQ directed.
The FDC/BOC/POC conducted a digital communications check to confirm
digital communications with the distant station.
SUPPORTING INDIVIDUAL TASKS
Task Number
Task Title
061-275-8004
Operate SINCGARS ICOM with VIC-1
061-275-8006
Operate as a Net Control Station (NCS)
061-275-8008
Operate Improved High Frequency Radio (IHFR) Sets
061-275-8009
Operate Mobile Subscriber Radio Telephone Terminals
061-275-8013
Construct Field Expedient Antennas
061-275-8014
Supervise the Operations of SINCGARS
061-275-8015
Supervise SINCGARS Net Control Station (NCS) Procedures
061-275-8016
Supervise the Operation of Improved High Frequency Radio (IHFR) Sets
061-275-8020
Supervise Field Artillery (FA) Automation/Communications System Operation
061-276-1012
Install Antenna Group OE-254/GRC
061-288-5111
Install Antenna Group OE-303 (Version 11)
061-300-5009
Perform Troubleshooting Procedures on the TAFCS (AFATDS Units)
31 July 2006
FM 3-09.8
6-7
Chapter 6
SUPPORTING INDIVIDUAL TASKS
Task Number
Task Title
061-300-5018
Supervise Preparation of the TAFCS
061-300-5019
Supervise Operation of the TAFCS
061-300-5022
Update the Master unit List (AFATDS Units)
061-300-5023
Direct TAFCS Operations (AFATDS Units)
061-C01-1028
Direct the Employment of Antenna Group OE-254/GRC
113-572-4008
Transmit a Voice United States Message Text Format (USMTF) Message
113-572-5005
Receive a Voice United States Message Text Format (USMTF) Message
113-572-6005
Write a United States Message Text Format (USMTF) Message
113-572-6006
Read a United States Message Text Format (USMTF) Message
113-573-0002
Conduct Operations Security (OPSEC) Procedures
113-573-8006
Use an Automated Signal Operation Instruction (SOI)
113-596-1017
Construct a Field Expedient Antenna for Tactical FM Radio
6-8
FM 3-09.8
31 July 2006
FDC/BOC/POC Section Tables
COMPUTE MLRS SAFETY TEST STATION
TEST ADMINISTRATIVE GUIDE
STATION 3A (MLRS)
TASK: Compute Multiple Launch Rocket System Safety
CONDITIONS: Given a launcher firing point, range safety card, rocket crest clearance
tables, SDC or check launcher FCS, and a current MET message.
STANDARDS: Compute and construct a safety T, safety hazard areas, and check
downrange/intervening crest clearance without error in accordance with procedures outlined
in Chapter 2 of this manual.
PERSONNEL, EQUIPMENT, AND MATERIAL REQUIRED:
•
Primary evaluator (SSG or above) in charge of administering the test (evaluator may also
occupy a test station).
•
Station evaluator (SGT or above; one per test station).
•
Classroom or training area.
•
Stopwatch (one per evaluator).
•
Criterion-scoring checklist (one per Soldier).
•
Desk and chair or clipboard (one per Soldier).
•
Pencils (one per Soldier).
•
FM 3-09.8 (one per station).
•
Safety data calculator or check launcher FCS.
•
Current MET message.
TEST PLANNING TIME:
•
Administrative time: 5 minutes
•
Test time: 30 minutes
•
Total time: 35 minutes
OTHER INFORMATION:
INSTRUCTIONS TO THE SOLDIER: “You are preparing to -fire live ammunition and have
been provided range safety card data and a current MET message. You have been directed
to compute safety data, determine safety hazard areas, construct a safety T, and check
clearance of intervening crests. Do you understand the requirements of this test? Do you
have any questions? You may begin.”
31 July 2006
FM 3-09.8
6-9
Chapter 6
Performance Measures
1.
2.
3.
4.
5.
6.
6-10
GO
NO- GO
Identified computational procedures (OPAREA, point-to point, or firing
point).
Determined surface danger zone.
Determined firing data.
Constructed the basic safety T diagram.
Computed the launcher danger areas.
Determined down-range masking data.
FM 3-09.8
31 July 2006
FDC/BOC/POC Section Tables
PERFORM MANUAL SAFETY PROCEDURES TEST STATION
TEST ADMINISTRATIVE GUIDE
STATION 3B (CANNON)
TASK: Perform Manual Safety Procedures (061-280-5005)
CONDITIONS: Given an XO’s report, range safety card, appropriate tabular firing table
(TFT), graphical firing table (GFT), graphical site table (GST), Chapter 2 of this manual, and
a current MET message.
STANDARDS: Compute manual safety, XO’s minimum QE, and intervening crest without
error in accordance with procedures outlined in FM 6-40/MCWP 3-1.6.19 with current
changes and Chapter 2 of this manual.
PERSONNEL, EQUIPMENT, AND MATERIAL REQUIRED:
•
Primary evaluator (SSG or above) in charge of administering the test (evaluator may also
occupy a test station).
•
Station evaluator (SGT or above; one per test station).
•
Classroom or training area.
•
Stopwatch (one per evaluator).
•
Criterion-scoring checklist (one per Soldier).
•
Desk and chair or clipboard (one per Soldier).
•
Pencils (one per Soldier).
•
FM 3-09.8 (one per station).
•
XO’s report.
•
Range safety card.
•
GFT.
•
TFT.
•
GST.
•
Current MET message.
•
Pencil and paper.
•
AFATDS.
TEST PLANNING TIME:
•
Administrative time: 5 minutes
•
Test time: 30 minutes
•
Total time: 35 minutes
31 July 2006
FM 3-09.8
6-11
Chapter 6
OTHER INFORMATION:
INSTRUCTIONS TO THE SOLDIER: “You are preparing to -fire live ammunition and have
been provided range safety card data and a current MET message. You have been directed
to compute low angle, high angle, and illumination safety data, construct a safety T, and
check clearance of intervening crests. Do you understand the requirements of this test? Do
you have any questions? You may begin.”
Performance Measures
1.
2.
3.
4.
5.
6.
7.
8.
9.
10.
6-12
GO
NO- GO
Identified manual computational procedures.
Constructed the basic safety diagram.
Computed low angle safety data.
Updated safety data after determining a GFT setting.
Computed high-angle safety.
Determined the maximum effective illumination area.
Identified the elements of computation of minimum QE.
Computed manual minimum QE.
Computed minimum QE using the RFTs.
Determined intervening crest.
FM 3-09.8
31 July 2006
FDC/BOC/POC Section Tables
MET MESSAGE CHECKING PROCEDURES TEST STATION
TEST ADMINISTRATIVE GUIDE
STATION 4 (ALL)
TASK: MET Message Checking Procedures
CONDITIONS: Given a computer MET message.
STANDARDS: Check the message for possible errors in accordance with procedures in FM
6.40/MCWP 3-1.6.19.
PERSONNEL, EQUIPMENT, AND MATERIAL REQUIRED:
•
Primary evaluator (SSG or above) in charge of administering the test (the evaluator may also
occupy a test station).
•
Station evaluator (SGT or above; one per test station).
•
Classroom or training area.
•
Stopwatch (one per evaluator).
•
Criterion-scoring checklist (one per Soldier).
•
Desk and chair or clipboard (one per Soldier).
•
Pencils (one per Soldier).
•
FM 3-09.8 (one per station).
•
Computer MET messages.
•
1:50,000 scale map.
TEST PLANNING TIME:
•
Administrative time: 5 minutes
•
Test time: 10 minutes
•
Total time: 15 minutes
OTHER INFORMATION: Ballistic and computer MET messages should be developed
with representative errors for each performance measure to be evaluated.
INSTRUCTIONS TO THE SOLDIER: “Your current location is __________. You are
preparing to fire and have received the current MET messages that I am providing. You are
to check the messages for validity in accordance with the procedures in FM 6-40/MCWP
3-1.6.19 and FM 6-60. You are to inform the evaluator of any element of data that may
require action and what your action would be. Do you understand the requirements of this
test? Do you have any questions? You may begin.” (Start the time.)
31 July 2006
FM 3-09.8
6-13
Chapter 6
Performance Measures
1.
2.
GO
NOGO
Checked message type, octant, and location entries for correctness. (MET
messages for artillery are considered valid up to 20 kilometers from the
balloon release point [MET section].)
Checked date andtime entries to ensure that data were current. If the MET
message was more than 4 hours old, consulted with the MET section to
determine message validity.
Note. Date and time entries are expressed in Zulu time.
3.
4.
5.
6.
Checked MET station height.
Checked that the identification line pressure and surface (line 00) pressure
were the same.
Wind speeds and directions should be uniform with proportional changes in
altitude. Questioned drastic changes (1,000 mils or greater) or sudden
reverses of wind direction from line to line, particularly if wind speeds were
more than 10 knots. (Direction changes greater than 1,000 mils are common
when wind speeds are 10 knots or less.)
Questioned severe increases or decreases (10 knots or greater) in wind
speed from line to line.
Note. Ballistic temperatures and densities normally show an inverse relationship; that is, as
temperature increases, density should decrease.
7.
8.
Checked for erratic changes in temperature (for example, ±20 Kelvin).
Checked for drastic changes (2 percent or more) in density or temperature.
Note. Atmospheric pressures always decrease consistently from line to line. Pressure will never
increase with height.
6-14
FM 3-09.8
31 July 2006
FDC/BOC/POC Section Tables
COMPUTE MUZZLE VELOCITY INFORMATION (MANUAL) TEST STATION
TEST ADMINISTRATIVE GUIDE
STATION 5 (CANNON)
TASK: Compute Muzzle Velocity Information (Manual) (061-280-5006)
CONDITIONS: Given M93/M94 velocimeter readings, tabular firing table (TFT), MVCT-1,
partially completed DA Form 4982-1-R (M90 Velocimeter Worksheet), partially completed
DA Form 4982-R (Muzzle Velocity Record), calibration information, and FM 6-40/MWCP 31.6.19.
STANDARDS: Compute muzzle velocity information without error in accordance with
procedures outlined in FM 6-40/MCWP 3-1.6.19.
PERSONNEL, EQUIPMENT, AND MATERIAL REQUIRED:
•
Primary evaluator (SSG or above) in charge of administering the test (the evaluator may also
occupy a test station).
•
Station evaluator (SGT or above; one per test station).
•
Classroom or training area.
•
Stopwatch (one per evaluator).
•
Criterion-scoring checklist (one per Soldier).
•
Desk and chair or clipboard (one per Soldier).
•
Pencils (one per Soldier).
•
FM 3-09.8 (one per station).
•
M93/M94 velocimeter readings.
•
TFT.
•
MVCT-1.
•
DA Form 4982-1.
•
DA Form 4982-R.
•
Calibration data.
•
FM 6-40/MCWP 3-1.6.19.
TEST PLANNING TIME:
•
Administrative time: 5 minutes
•
Test time: 15 minutes
•
Total time: 20 minutes
OTHER INFORMATION: The evaluator must ensure that velocimeter worksheets and
muzzle velocity records with weapon data, powder temperatures, and records of muzzle
velocities are prepared in advance.
31 July 2006
FM 3-09.8
6-15
Chapter 6
INSTRUCTIONS TO THE SOLDIER: “You are currently located at a firing position. The
howitzers have recorded MV readings and calibration data on the forms provided. You are
to compute muzzle velocity information without error in accordance with the procedures in
FM 6-40/MCWP 3-1.6.19. Do you understand the requirements of this test? Do you have
any questions?” You may begin.”
Performance Measures
1.
2.
3.
4.
5.
6.
7.
8.
9.
10.
11.
12.
13.
14.
15.
6-16
GO
NO- GO
Verified the administrative data.
Verified the weapon information.
Verified the starting and ending powder temperature for each weapon.
Calculated the average powder temperature for each weapon.
Recorded the average powder temperature for each weapon.
Verified the M93/M94 velocimeter readout by round for each weapon.
Averaged all the usable measured muzzle velocities for each weapon.
Compared the average with each usable muzzle velocity.
Discarded any measured muzzle velocity if more than ±3 mps.
Recalculated the average, if any muzzle velocity was discarded.
Recorded the readout average for each howitzer.
Determined the MVCT correction data.
Determined the calibrated muzzle velocity.
Recorded the calibrated muzzle velocity.
Completed the muzzle velocity record (DA Form 4982-R).
FM 3-09.8
31 July 2006
FDC/BOC/POC Section Tables
SECTION II. FDC/BOC/POC TABLES
6-6. The FDC/BOC/POC Tables listed in Table 6-1 provide a standardized, tabular format to train and
evaluate FDC/BOC/POC section tasks. These task-based tables include individual and collective tasks
from STPs and MTPs and the equipment-specific tasks from system TMs. Tables II and III do not exist for
these sections.
Table 6-1. FDC/BOC/POC Tables.
Table No.
Description
Remarks
I
Individual Soldier and Leader Tasks
(Includes Safety Certification)
Occupation and Setup
Compute Firing Data
Provide Command and Control
Section Dry-Fire Training
Section Live-Fire Qualification
Unit exam samples available on
FKN and master gunner site.
IV
V
VI
VII
VIII
FDC TABLE I. INDIVIDUAL LEADER AND SOLDIER TASKS
6-7. The tables provide a standardized and tabular format to train and evaluate FDC section tasks. These
task-based tables include individual and collective tasks from STPs and MTPs and include equipmentspecific tasks from system TMs. The tasks to be trained in Table I for FDC/BOC/POC personnel depend
on many factors, such as—
z
The automated fire control system and version software assigned to the organization.
z
The backup system or procedures required (includes degraded mode procedures).
z
The unit METL.
z
The unit TACSOP.
6-8. The example task selection in Table 6-2 represents selected tasks that could be trained during
sergeant’s time training or weekly digital sustainment training. This is not a recommended task selection.
Actual tasks would be selected as a result of METL, training assessment, and type of automated fire control
from the complete task list in the appropriate STP. All tasks in Table 6-2 are found in STP 6-13D1-SM-TG
and STP 6-13P14-SM-TG.
31 July 2006
FM 3-09.8
6-17
Chapter 6
Table 6-2. Example of task selection.
Task No.
Task
061-275-8004
061-276-1011
061-300-5003
061-300-5010
061-300-5011
061-300-5014
061-300-5015
061-300-5035
061-300-5045
061-300-5046
061-300-5047
Operate SINCGARS ICOM with VIC-1
Use SOI Extract
Incorporate the Printer into the TAFCS
Configure Received Message Types
Process Messages for Transmission
Prepare the TAFCS for Fire Mission Processing
Process Target Information
Manage Map Functions
Run Munitions Calculator
Initiate a Target List Search
Process a Received Fire Support Munitions Restriction Guidance Using an
AFATDS
Input Trigger Events for the Current Situation
Load Digital Maps
Process Survey Control Points
Process Met Data
Prepare a Situation Map
Operate the Command Post Vehicle
Prepare to Process Fire Mission in Degraded Mode (Manual)
Process Fire Mission in Degraded Mode (Manual)
Operate Improved High Frequency Radio (IHFR) Sets
Operate Mobile Subscriber Radio Telephone Terminals
Use Field Wire Laying Techniques
Prepare the TAFCS for Operations
Disseminate Information Via Data Distribution
Process Movement Data
Determine Elevation of a Point on the Ground Using a Map
Convert Azimuths
Locate and Unknown Point on the Ground Using Intersection
Locate and Unknown Point on the Ground Using Resection
Configure the TAFCS Database
Establish TAFCS Communication Configurations
Process Geometry Data in the TAFCS
Update Unit Data in TAFCS
Enter Commander's Guidance into the TAFCS
Initialize the AFATDS
Shutdown the AFATDS Workstation
Process Muzzle Velocity Information Using AFATDS
Verify Computed Muzzle Velocities Using AFATDS
061-300-5147
061-300-5181
061-300-5183
061-300-5184
071-332-5021
061-266-5000
061-280-5000
061-280-5001
061-275-8008
061-275-8009
061-275-8010
061-300-5000
061-300-5012
061-300-5186
071-329-1004
071-329-1009
071-329-1014
071-329-1015
061-300-5001
061-300-5002
061-300-5006
061-300-5007
061-300-5013
061-300-5033
061-300-5034
061-300-5072
061-300-5135
6-18
FM 3-09.8
31 July 2006
FDC/BOC/POC Section Tables
Table 6-2. Example of task selection.
Task No.
Task
061-300-5137
061-300-5400
061-300-5401
061-288-5102
061-288-5201
061-275-8020
061-300-5124
061-288-5305
Perform Functions of the System Administrator
Determine Commander’s Guidance
Process Fire Support Plans
Maintain Operational Graphics on a Map
Verify Operational Graphics on a Map
Supervise FA Automation/Communication System Operation
Determine Allocation of Attack System to Attack Requirements
Advise Supported Unit of MLRS Capabilities and Limitations
6-9. The evaluation of tasks in FDC Table I is an ongoing process that will routinely be accomplished
during sergeant’s time training. The proficiency on Table I tasks is included in the semiannual testing of
FDC personnel as part of the commander’s safety certification process. Example questions are available on
the fires knowledge network master gunner site to assist the commander in developing a written exam. The
safety certification must include other questions concerning local range regulations and unit TACSOP. The
commander should select questions from this manual and add questions from local/unit sources.
FDC TABLE IV: OCCUPATION AND SETUP
6-10. FDC Table IV includes the collective task Establish and Maintain Battery/Platoon Operations and
Fire Direction Centers, 06-2-W109.
FDC Table IV—Occupation and setup
Task No.
Task
Reference
06-2-W109
Establish and Maintain Battery/Platoon Operations and
Fire Direction Centers
Precombat Checks and Inspections
Inspect Load Plans
Conduct Emergency Occupation, Step 2
Establish Firing Capability at the Firing Position (Paladin
Units), Task Steps 2 and 6
ARTEP 6-037-30-MTP
06-3-C002
06-3-G004
Unit TACSOP
Unit TACSOP
ARTEP 6-037-30-MTP
ARTEP 6-037-30-MTP
6-11. The tasks in the ASPT are gates for this table. FDC Table V should include the precombat checks
and inspections, load plans, and CP setup drills in accordance with unit TACSOP. The following task steps
of the emergency occupation task Conduct Emergency Missions 06-3-C002, Task Step 2 for cannon
units—
The FDC/POC does the following:
a. Verifies tactical data.
b. Determines AOF.
c. Computes the firing data for the fire mission.
d. Transmits message to observer.
and the following task Establish Firing Capability at the Firing Position (Paladin Units) 06-3-G004, Task Steps
2 and 6—
2.
Fire direction officer: In addition to those listed in FM 6-50, the FDO has the following
responsibilities in a Paladin Unit: Verifies POC and gun databases by conducting a verification mission (dry
fire or AMC) after initialization, when either the AFCS and LCU is powered up, or when a significant change
occurs to the LCU/howitzer’s database (MET, MVV, registration corrections).
Note. Location is not a significant change to a howitzer database.
31 July 2006
FM 3-09.8
6-19
Chapter 6
6.
POC: The platoon operation center conducts a verification mission every time there is a
significant change in the database, MVVs, MET, and registration data. The POC verifies that targets do not
violate fire support coordination measures and that the targets plot within the prescribed target area. It is
imperative that the FDO or chief computer verifies the plot of the target and the target location that is input
into LCU.
a. Ensure voice and digital communications with BN, FDC, and howitzers have been
established.
b.
Receive piece status (HOW;UPDATE) from howitzers and verify center sector.
c.
Verify howitzer location plots inside the firing area by plotting on howitzer tracking
chart.
d. Verify database. If database information changes occur, the POC directs a
verification mission (that is, check/change MVVs, registrations, ammunition, and MET). At this time, the firing
unit is ready to fire.
e.
Verify and announce XO’s minimum QE to the guns.
f.
Ensure fire support measures are posted.
should also be included as tasks in the STX to train FDC Table V.
FDC TABLE V: COMPUTE FIRING DATA
6-12. FDC Table V includes the core tasks for the FDC/BOC/POC to initialize, communicate, and
compute firing data. This table requires the response and input from launcher/howitzers and battalion FDC
or an active simulation such as SISTIM. The focus of the tasks in this table is on the firing data
computation and includes all types of fire missions and methods of control, adherence to time standards,
and computation accuracies.
FDC Table V – Tasks for computing firing data
Task
Task Number
Remarks
Control and Coordinate MLRS Fire Missions
(Battery)
Determine Firing Data
Establish and Maintain Battery/Platoon
Operations and Fire Direction Centers
Establish and Maintain Communications
Establish and Maintain Communications
Perform Initialization of the AFC/DS Database
Initialize the Fire Direction System (FDS)
(Version 11)
Initialize the AFATDS
06-2-W111
MLRS BOC/POC
06-4-C002
06-2-W109
All Cannon FDC/BOC/POC
All
06-2-A000.06-C000
06-2-A000.06-M000
061-279-5002
061-288-5105
All Cannon FDC/BOC/POC
MLRS BOC/POC
M109A6 Unit
MLRS BOC/POL
061-300-5033
All AFATDS Equipped Units
FDC TABLE VI: PROVIDE COMMAND AND CONTROL
6-13. FDC Table VI includes all tasks in Table V in addition to the planning, command, and control tasks
that the FDC/BOC/POC must also performed . FDC Table VI also requires the cues and responses of live
or simulated howitzers/launchers and higher echelon FDCs. This table should be evaluated in a CPX type
of event that requires the element to conduct tactical moves under day and night conditions. In addition to
FDC Table V, the following tasks are also included in FDC Table VI:
6-20
FM 3-09.8
31 July 2006
FDC/BOC/POC Section Tables
FDC Table VI – Provide command and control
Task
Task Number
Remarks
Command and Control Delivery of Fires
Control and Coordinate MLRS Battery Operations
Direct and Control Firing Battery/Platoon Operations (Cannon)
Control and Coordinate MLRS Battery Operations
Prepare For Combat
Develop and Communicate a Plan
Move a Cannon Battery or Platoon
Coordinate MLRS Firing Platoon Ammunition Resupply
06-1-W103
06-2-W110
06-3-C001
06-2-W110
06-2-A098
06-2-A099
06-3-C013
06-3-M014
All
MLRS
Cannon
MLRS
All
All
Cannon
MLRS
6-14. The execution of this table requires an operations order, FA support plan, maps, a scenario, and a
driver for the automated systems. A TSP has been developed with the required materials to support this
training and is available on the USAFAS Training and Doctrine Web Site (http://sill-www.army.mil/).
FDC TABLES VII/VIII: TRAINING AND QUALIFICATION
6-15. FDC Tables VII/VIII include all of the individual and collective tasks in the ASPT and in Tables IVI. The live-fire qualification is conducted semiannually during the battery/platoon EXEVAL or during
battalion FTX EXEVAL or both. The FDC/BOC/POC evaluation requires all of the support materials
discussed in paragraph 6-14.The howitzer/launcher sections provide cues and responses and a higher level
FDC to act as a “white cell” for the evaluation.
31 July 2006
FM 3-09.8
6-21
This page intentionally left blank.
Appendix A
Minimum QE Rapid Fire Tables
This appendix provides minimum QE Rapid Fire Tables.
A-1. Use rapid fire tables only when ∠1 + ∠2 is less than or equal to 300 mils. ∠1 is the greatest site to
crest as reported by the COS. Use the following table (Table A-1) to extract ∠2 for a given PCR:*
Table A-1. Extracting ∠2 for a given PCR
Range (meters)_
∠2
100
200
300
400
500
600
700
800
900-1,000
1,100-1,200
1,300-1,600
1,700-2,500
2,600-5,000
5,100-
51
26
17
13
11
9
8
7
6
5
4
3
2
1
*∠2 is determined with the formula.
5 Meters
∠2 =
PCR (in thousands)
where 5 meters is the appropriate vertical clearance for firing fuzes other than armed VT.
Note. All M557, M564 tables are used for unarmed VT fuzes. Use EL on VT tables only when
firing less than minimum safe time.
Table A-2. Rapid Fire Table I
FUZE: M557, M564
Piece-to- Crest Range
100
200
31 July 2006
PROPELLANT: M67
CHG 1
CHG 2
CHG 3
WEAPON: M102/M119
CHG 4
CHG 5
CHG 6
CHG 7
67
65
63
61
59
58
57
54
50
46
42
39
36
34
FM 3-09.8
A-1
Appendix A
Table A-2. Rapid Fire Table I
FUZE: M557, M564
Piece-to- Crest Range
300
400
500
600
700
800
900
1000
1100
1200
1300
1400
1500
1600
1700
1800
1900
2000
2100
2200
2300
2400
2500
2600
2700
2800
2900
3000
3100
3200
3300
3400
3500
3600
3700
3800
3900
4000
4500
A-2
PROPELLANT: M67
CHG 1
CHG 2
CHG 3
WEAPON: M102/M119
CHG 4
CHG 5
CHG 6
CHG 7
58
51
45
40
35
30
27
68
57
50
43
36
30
25
78
68
56
47
39
31
25
91
79
65
53
42
33
25
105
89
74
59
46
36
27
116
98
82
64
50
38
28
128
110
89
70
54
41
29
143
121
98
77
59
45
31
162
136
109
86
64
49
36
177
147
118
93
69
53
36
190
159
128
99
74
56
37
205
170
137
106
79
60
40
219
182
146
113
84
64
43
248
203
159
124
91
69
45
262
214
170
130
95
72
50
278
226
179
137
101
76
50
293
240
189
147
106
81
53
310
252
199
154
112
85
56
349
280
218
166
119
92
60
367
293
228
173
125
97
63
385
308
238
181
131
101
66
404
321
249
189
136
106
69
424
337
261
199
144
111
72
493
372
282
212
152
115
75
514
389
292
220
158
119
78
536
403
305
228
164
124
81
558
421
316
236
170
129
85
584
438
328
245
176
134
88
503
359
263
185
142
94
522
371
270
191
148
98
541
385
281
198
155
102
562
398
289
204
160
105
583
413
300
210
165
109
457
322
221
171
113
472
331
227
176
117
488
340
234
181
123
502
352
240
187
128
519
362
247
192
132
690
436
290
227
157
FM 3-09.8
31 July 2006
Minimum QE Rapid Fire Tables
Table A-2. Rapid Fire Table I
FUZE: M557, M564
Piece-to- Crest Range
PROPELLANT: M67
CHG 1
CHG 2
CHG 3
5000
5500
6000
6500
7000
7500
8000
8500
9000
9500
10000
31 July 2006
WEAPON: M102/M119
CHG 4
CHG 5
CHG 6
CHG 7
531
337
257
180
670
387
298
208
450
334
234
527
389
270
633
430
299
516
340
565
375
431
471
561
609
FM 3-09.8
A-3
Appendix A
Rapid Fire Table I
FUZE: M513
Piece-toCrest Range
100
200
300
400
500
600
700
800
900
1000
1100
1200
1300
1400
1500
1600
1700
1800
1900
2000
2100
2200
2300
2400
2500
2600
2700
2800
2900
3000
3100
3200
3300
3400
3500
3600
3700
3800
A-4
PROPELLANT: M67
CHG 1
CHG 2
CHG 3
WEAPON: M102/M119
CHG 4
CHG 5
CHG 6
CHG 7
EL
TI
EL
TI
EL
TI
EL
TI
EL
TI
EL
TI
EL
TI
67
8.0
65
8.0
63
8.0
61
8.0
59
8.0
58
8.0
57
8.0
54
8.0
50
8.0
46
8.0
42
8.0
39
8.0
36
8.0
34
8.0
58
8.0
51
8.0
45
8.0
40
8.0
35
8.0
30
8.0
27
8.0
259
8.0
57
8.0
50
8.0
43
8.0
36
8.0
30
8.0
25
8.0
230
8.0
220
8.0
208
8.0
47
8.0
39
8.0
31
8.0
25
8.0
218
9.0
206
9.0
194
8.0
180
8.0
42
8.0
33
8.0
25
8.0
241
9.0
198
9.0
183
9.0
168
9.0
155
8.0
36
8.0
108
8.0
211
10.0
193
10.0
177
9.0
159
9.0
145
8.0
133
8.0
108
8.0
213
10.0
195
10.0
174
10.0
155
9.0
139
9.0
126
8.0
108
8.0
219
11.0
197
11.0
174
10.0
153
10.0
135
9.0
121
9.0
108
8.0
232
11.0
206
11.0
179
11.0
156
10.0
134
9.0
119
9.0
103
8.0
240
12.0
210
12.0
181
11.0
156
10.0
132
10.0
116
9.0
99
9.0
249
13.0
218
12.0
187
11.0
158
11.0
133
10.0
115
10.0
96
9.0
260
13.0
225
12.0
192
12.0
161
11.0
133
10.0
115
10.0
95
9.0
270
14.0
233
13.0
197
12.0
164
12.0
135
11.0
115
10.0
94
9.0
295
14.0
250
13.0
206
13.0
171
12.0
138
11.0
115
10.0
92
10.0
307
15.0
259
14.0
215
13.0
175
12.0
140
11.0
116
11.0
92
10.0
321
15.0
269
15.0
222
14.0
180
13.0
144
12.0
119
11.0
93
10.0
333
16.0
280
15.0
229
14.0
187
13.0
146
12.0
120
11.0
93
10.0
348
16.0
290
16.0
237
15.0
192
14.0
150
12.0
123
12.0
94
11.0
385
17.0
316
16.0
254
15.0
202
14.0
155
13.0
127
12.0
96
11.0
402
18.0
328
17.0
263
15.0
208
14.0
160
13.0
131
12.0
98
11.0
418
18.0
341
17.0
271
16.0
214
15.0
164
14.0
134
13.0
99
11.0
435
19.0
352
18.0
280
16.0
220
15.0
167
14.0
136
13.0
100
12.0
454
20.0
367
18.0
291
17.0
229
16.0
174
14.0
140
13.0
102
12.0
523
20.0
402
19.0
312
17.0
242
16.0
182
15.0
144
14.0
105
12.0
543
21.0
418
19.0
321
18.0
249
16.0
187
15.0
148
14.0
107
13.0
564
22.0
431
20.0
333
18.0
256
17.0
192
15.0
152
14.0
109
13.0
585
22.0
448
21.0
343
19.0
263
17.0
197
16.0
156
15.0
112
13.0
610
23.0
464
21.0
354
19.0
271
18.0
202
16.0
160
15.0
114
13.0
528
22.0
384
20.0
288
18.0
210
16.0
167
15.0
119
14.0
546
23.0
395
20.0
296
19.0
215
17.0
171
16.0
122
14.0
564
23.0
408
21.0
304
19.0
221
17.0
177
16.0
125
14.0
584
24.0
420
22.0
312
20.0
226
18.0
182
16.0
127
15.0
605
25.0
435
22.0
322
20.0
232
18.0
187
17.0
131
15.0
793
25.0
478
23.0
343
20.0
242
18.0
191
17.0
134
15.0
493
23.0
352
21.0
248
19.0
197
17.0
138
16.0
508
24.0
360
21.0
254
19.0
201
18.0
143
16.0
FM 3-09.8
31 July 2006
Minimum QE Rapid Fire Tables
Rapid Fire Table I
FUZE: M513
Piece-toCrest Range
3900
4000
4500
5000
5500
6000
6500
7000
7500
8000
8500
9000
9500
10000
31 July 2006
PROPELLANT: M67
CHG 1
CHG 2
WEAPON: M102/M119
CHG 3
CHG 4
CHG 5
CHG 6
CHG 7
521
25.0
371
22.0
259
20.0
206
18.0
147
16.0
538
25.0
381
22.0
266
20.0
211
19.0
151
17.0
707
29.0
453
25.0
307
22.0
243
20.0
174
18.0
546
28.0
352
24.0
271
22.0
195
20.0
684
31.0
401
26.0
312
24.0
222
22.0
463
29.0
346
26.0
247
24.0
539
31.0
401
28.0
282
25.0
644
34.0
FM 3-09.8
440
31.0
310
27.0
526
33.0
350
26.0
575
36.0
385
32.0
440
34.0
480
36.0
569
39.0
617
42.0
A-5
Appendix A
Rapid Fire Table I
FUZE: M728, M732
Piece- toCrest Range
100
200
300
400
500
600
700
800
900
1000
1100
1200
1300
1400
1500
1600
1700
1800
1900
2000
2100
2200
2300
2400
2500
2600
2700
2800
2900
3000
3100
3200
3300
3400
3500
3600
3700
3800
3900
4000
4500
5000
5500
6000
6500
7000
7500
8000
8500
9000
9500
10000
A-6
PROPELLANT: M67
CHG 1
EL
67
54
58
183
169
167
170
173
180
189
204
215
225
238
250
276
289
304
317
335
370
388
405
422
442
511
532
553
574
600
TI
8.0
8.0
8.0
8.0
8.0
9.0
9.0
10.0
10.0
11.0
11.0
12.0
13.0
13.0
14.0
14.0
15.0
15.0
16.0
16.0
17.0
18.0
18.0
19.0
20.0
20.0
21.0
22.0
22.0
23.0
CHG 2
EL
65
50
51
57
159
155
154
155
162
167
178
185
194
203
213
231
241
252
264
275
301
314
328
339
355
390
407
420
437
454
519
537
555
575
596
784
CHG 3
TI
8.0
8.0
8.0
8.0
8.0
9.0
9.0
10.0
10.0
11.0
11.0
12.0
12.0
12.0
13.0
13.0
14.0
15.0
15.0
16.0
16.0
17.0
17.0
18.0
18.0
19.0
19.0
20.0
21.0
21.0
22.0
23.0
23.0
24.0
25.0
25.0
EL
63
46
45
50
147
143
139
139
141
144
151
156
163
170
177
187
197
205
213
222
239
249
258
267
279
300
310
322
332
344
375
386
399
411
426
469
485
500
513
530
700
WEAPON: M102/M119
CHG 4
TI
8.0
8.0
8.0
8.0
8.0
8.0
9.0
9.0
10.0
10.0
11.0
11.0
11.0
12.0
12.0
13.0
13.0
14.0
14.0
15.0
15.0
15.0
16.0
16.0
17.0
17.0
18.0
18.0
19.0
19.0
20.0
20.0
21.0
22.0
22.0
23.0
23.0
24.0
25.0
25.0
29.0
EL
61
42
40
43
47
129
124
121
122
123
128
131
134
139
144
152
157
163
171
177
187
194
201
207
217
230
238
245
252
261
279
287
295
303
313
334
344
352
363
373
446
540
678
FM 3-09.8
CHG 5
TI
8.0
8.0
8.0
8.0
8.0
8.0
9.0
9.0
9.0
10.0
10.0
10.0
11.0
11.0
12.0
12.0
12.0
13.0
13.0
14.0
14.0
14.0
15.0
15.0
16.0
16.0
16.0
17.0
17.0
18.0
18.0
19.0
19.0
20.0
20.0
20.0
21.0
21.0
22.0
22.0
25.0
28.0
31.0
EL
59
39
35
36
39
42
111
107
106
105
106
107
109
111
115
119
122
127
130
135
140
146
151
154
162
170
176
191
186
192
201
205
212
217
223
233
240
246
251
258
300
346
395
458
534
640
CHG 6
TI
8.0
8.0
8.0
8.0
8.0
8.0
8.0
8.0
9.0
9.0
9.0
10.0
10.0
10.0
11.0
11.0
11.0
12.0
12.0
12.0
13.0
13.0
14.0
14.0
14.0
15.0
15.0
15.0
16.0
16.0
16.0
17.0
17.0
18.0
18.0
18.0
19.0
19.0
20.0
20.0
22.0
24.0
26.0
29.0
31.0
34.0
EL
58
36
30
30
31
33
36
95
93
91
91
91
91
93
95
96
98
102
104
108
112
117
121
123
128
132
137
141
145
150
158
162
168
173
178
182
189
193
196
203
236
265
306
341
396
436
522
571
CHG 7
TI
8.0
8.0
8.0
8.0
8.0
8.0
8.0
8.0
8.0
9.0
9.0
9.0
10.0
10.0
10.0
10.0
11.0
11.0
11.0
12.0
12.0
12.0
13.0
13.0
13.0
14.0
14.0
14.0
15.0
15.0
15.0
16.0
16.0
16.0
17.0
17.0
17.0
18.0
18.0
19.0
20.0
22.0
24.0
26.0
28.0
31.0
33.0
36.0
EL
57
34
27
25
25
25
27
28
29
78
75
74
74
74
74
74
74
76
77
79
81
84
86
87
90
93r
96
98
101
104
111
113
116
118
122
125
130
135
141
143
167
189
216
242
277
306
346
381
437
477
566
614
TI
8.0
8.0
8.0
8.0
8.0
8.0
8.0
8.0
8.0
8.0
8.0
9.0
9.0
9.0
9.0
10.0
10.0
10.0
10.0
11.0
11.0
11.0
11.0
12.0
12.0
12.0
13.0
13.0
13.0
13.0
14.0
14.0
14.0
15.0
15.0
15.0
16.0
16.0
16.0
17.0
18.0
20.0
22.0
24.0
25.0
27.0
29.0
32.0
34.0
36.0
39.0
42.0
31 July 2006
Minimum QE Rapid Fire Tables
Table A-3. Rapid Fire Table II
FUZE: M557, M564
Piece- to- Crest Range
100
200
300
400
500
600
700
800
900
1000
1100
1200
1300
1400
1500
1600
1700
1800
1900
2000
2100
2200
2300
2400
2500
2600
2700
2800
2900
3000
3100
3200
3300
3400
3500
3600
3700
3800
3900
4000
4500
5000
5500
6000
6500
7000
7500
8000
8500
PROPELLANT: GREEN BAG M3A1
WEAPON: M109A2-A6/M198
CHG 1
CHG 2
CHG 3
CHG 4
CHG 5
67
53
57
65
77
87
98
111
125
137
151
167
181
194
210
231
244
260
276
303
317
335
352
370
407
427
447
467
490
551
576
602
631
664
813
64
47
48
53
62
69
77
86
96
108
116
126
137
147
160
172
181
192
204
221
232
245
256
269
290
303
315
329
341
370
385
398
414
430
469
486
504
522
541
607
62
43
40
43
48
52
58
64
72
80
86
93
99
106
116
123
129
137
144
155
164
170
179
187
199
208
216
224
232
247
256
264
273
284
300
309
320
330
330
362
432
521
644
61
40
36
37
40
43
45
52
56
61
66
76
76
81
87
95
99
105
111
117
123
129
135
141
150
155
161
167
175
183
189
196
202
208
219
225
232
241
247
259
302
350
403
466
549
659
59
37
31
31
33
35
37
40
43
47
50
58
58
62
66
71
75
79
84
89
93
100
105
110
115
119
124
129
134
140
145
150
155
160
168
173
178
183
189
197
228
262
297
335
379
427
483
554
646
Note. CHG 1 restriction due to possibility of a “sticker” (see TM 9-2350-217-10N)
31 July 2006
FM 3-09.8
A-7
Appendix A
Rapid Fire Table II
FUZE: M557, M564
Piece- toCrest Range
100
200
300
400
500
600
700
800
900
1000
1100
1200
1300
1400
1500
1600
1700
1800
1900
2000
2100
2200
2300
2400
2500
2600
2700
2800
2900
3000
3100
3200
3300
3400
3500
3600
3700
3800
3900
4000
4500
5000
5500
6000
6500
7000
7500
A-8
PROPELLANT: WHITE BAG M4A1 (CHG 3-7), M119
(CHG 8)
CHG 3
60
41
38
39
43
47
54
59
64
70
75
81
88
94
100
108
114
121
128
137
143
152
158
165
174
181
188
195
202
215
222
229
236
246
258
266
275
283
291
308
362
423
500
596
CHG 4
59
37
33
33
36
39
42
46
50
55
60
67
71
76
82
87
91
96
101
108
113
118
124
129
138
142
148
153
159
166
172
178
184
190
199
207
213
219
225
234
272
312
356
410
468
542
642
CHG 5
58
35
29
28
30
32
35
37
40
43
46
50
53
56
60
67
70
74
79
83
88
92
97
101
105
110
115
119
126
131
136
141
146
151
156
163
168
173
178
183
213
244
277
312
352
392
442
FM 3-09.8
CHG 6
56
32
25
24
24
24
26
27
29
32
34
36
38
40
43
46
48
50
53
56
59
62
65
68
71
73
76
80
84
89
93
96
100
103
107
110
114
118
122
128
149
173
195
224
249
282
310
WEAPON: M109A2A6/M198
CHG 7
55
31
23
21
20
20
21
21
22
24
26
27
28
30
32
34
34
36
38
40
42
44
46
48
50
51
54
56
58
60
63
66
68
70
73
76
78
80
83
85
101
116
133
149
172
191
215
CHG 8
55
30
22
19
18
17
17
17
17
19
19
20
20
21
23
24
24
25
27
28
30
32
33
34
36
36
38
39
40
42
43
45
46
48
50
51
53
54
56
58
66
77
85
95
109
121
135
31 July 2006
Minimum QE Rapid Fire Tables
Rapid Fire Table II
FUZE: M557, M564
Piece- toCrest Range
8000
8500
9000
9500
10000
10500
11000
11500
12000
12500
13000
13500
14000
14500
15000
15500
16000
31 July 2006
PROPELLANT: WHITE BAG M4A1 (CHG 3-7), M119
(CHG 8)
CHG 3
CHG 4
CHG 5
499
569
660
FM 3-09.8
CHG 6
348
394
428
492
531
648
697
WEAPON: M109A2A6/M198
CHG 7
238
266
291
325
352
393
423
478
513
597
639
CHG 8
149
167
183
203
222
244
266
291
315
347
372
409
438
484
516
585
622
A-9
Appendix A
Rapid Fire Table II
FUZE: M514
Piece- toCrest Range
100
200
300
400
500
600
700
800
900
1000
1100
1200
1300
1400
1500
1600
1700
1800
1900
2000
2100
2200
2300
2400
2500
2600
2700
2800
2900
3000
3100
3200
3300
3400
3500
3600
3700
3800
3900
4000
4500
5000
5500
6000
6500
7000
7500
A-10
PROPELLANT: GREEN BAG M3A1
CHG 1
EL
TI
67
53
57
254
268
251
239
235
236
237
249
253
262
269
280
301
311
324
337
351
381
398
413
429
445
502
521
540
561
583
720
746
773
805
842
8.0
8.0
8.0
8.0
8.0
9.0
9.0
9.0
10.0
10.0
11.0
11.0
12.0
12.0
13.0
13.0
14.0
14.0
14.0
15.0
15.0
16.0
16.0
17.0
19.0
20.0
21.0
21.0
22.0
23.0
24.0
24.0
25.0
26.0
27.0
CHG 2
EL
TI
64
47
48
53
253
231
216
208
205
204
207
209
215
220
224
238
244
252
261
269
286
298
307
318
328
354
365
378
388
402
439
451
466
481
496
558
575
592
610
630
8.0
8.0
8.0
8.0
8.0
9.0
9.0
9.0
10.0
10.0
11.0
11.0
12.0
12.0
13.0
13.0
14.0
14.0
14.0
15.0
15.0
16.0
16.0
17.0
17.0
18.0
19.0
19.0
20.0
20.0
21.0
21.0
22.0
22.0
23.0
24.0
24.0
25.0
26.0
26.0
WEAPON: M109A2-A6/M198
CHG 3
EL
TI
62
43
40
43
48
213
196
185
180
176
175
174
175
176
182
186
189
194
198
203
213
220
225
231
237
250
257
264
270
279
295
302
310
320
327
347
358
366
374
385
453
514
589
8.0
8.0
8.0
8.0
8.0
8.0
9.0
9.0
9.0
10.0
10.0
10.0
11.0
11.0
12.0
12.0
12.0
13.0
13.0
14.0
14.0
14.0
15.0
15.0
16.0
16.0
16.0
17.0
17.0
18.0
18.0
19.0
19.0
19.0
20.0
20.0
21.0
21.0
22.0
22.0
25.0
28.0
31.0
FM 3-09.8
CHG 4
EL
TI
61
40
36
37
40
43
184
172
163
157
155
152
151
151
151
156
157
160
163
165
171
176
180
184
188
194
199
204
210
215
224
230
235
240
246
257
263
271
276
282
323
369
421
482
564
673
8.0
8.0
8.0
8.0
8.0
8.0
8.0
9.0
9.0
9.0
10.0
10.0
10.0
11.0
11.0
11.0
12.0
12.0
12.0
13.0
13.0
13.0
14.0
14.0
14.0
15.0
15.0
15.0
16.0
16.0
17.0
17.0
17.0
18.0
18.0
18.0
19.0
19.0
20.0
20.0
22.0
24.0
27.0
29.0
32.0
35.0
CHG 5
EL
TI
58
36
30
30
32
35
37
160
150
143
138
135
133
131
130
132
132
134
135
137
139
145
148
151
153
157
161
165
168
172
178
182
186
191
195
202
206
211
215
220
249
281
315
351
395
441
497
8.0
8.0
8.0
8.0
8.0
8.0
8.0
8.0
8.0
9.0
9.0
9.0
10.0
10.0
10.0
11.0
11.0
11.0
12.0
12.0
12.0
12.0
13.0
13.0
13.0
14.0
14.0
14.0
15.0
15.0
15.0
16.0
16.0
16.0
17.0
17.0
18.0
18.0
18.0
19.0
20.0
22.0
24.0
26.0
28.0
30.0
33.0
31 July 2006
Minimum QE Rapid Fire Tables
Rapid Fire Table II
FUZE: M514
Piece- toCrest Range
PROPELLANT: GREEN BAG M3A1
CHG 1
EL
TI
CHG 2
EL
TI
CHG 3
EL
8000
8500
31 July 2006
FM 3-09.8
WEAPON: M109A2-A6/M198
TI
CHG 4
EL
TI
CHG 5
EL
TI
566
657
35.0
38.0
A-11
Appendix A
Rapid Fire Table II
FUZE: M514
Piece- toCrest Range
100
200
300
400
500
600
700
800
900
1000
1100
1200
1300
1400
1500
1600
1700
1800
1900
2000
2100
2200
2300
2400
2500
2600
2700
2800
2900
3000
3100
3200
3300
3400
3500
3600
3700
3800
3900
4000
4500
5000
5500
6000
6500
7000
7500
A-12
PROPELLANT: WHITE BAG M4A1
(CHG 3-7), M119 (CHG 8)
CHG 3
EL
TI
61
8.0
41
8.0
38
8.0
39
8.0
234
8.0
207
8.0
191
8.0
179
9.0
171
9.0
166
9.0
165
10.0
163
10.0
165
10.0
165
11.0
166
11.0
170
12.0
173
12.0
178
12.0
181
13.0
185
13.0
190
13.0
198
14.0
202
14.0
207
15.0
212
15.0
222
15.0
228
16.0
234
16.0
239
16.0
247
17.0
258
17.0
264
18.0
270
18.0
279
18.0
285
19.0
300
19.0
308
20.0
315
20.0
322
21.0
331
21.0
383
23.0
442
26.0
517
28.0
614
31.0
CHG 4
EL
TI
59
8.0
37
8.0
33
8.0
33
8.0
36
8.0
40
8.0
180
8.0
167
8.0
158
9.0
152
9.0
149
9.0
148
10.0
147
10.0
146
10.0
146
11.0
148
11.0
149
11.0
151
12.0
153
12.0
156
12.0
159
13.0
163
13.0
167
13.0
170
14.0
176
14.0
181
14.0
186
15.0
190
15.0
194
15.0
198
16.0
206
16.0
211
17.0
216
17.0
221
17.0
226
18.0
237
18.0
242
18.0
247
19.0
252
19.0
257
19.0
293
21.0
331
23.0
374
26.0
426
28.0
556
33.0
655
36.0
CHG 5
EL
TI
58
8.0
35
8.0
29
8.0
28
8.0
30
8.0
32
8.0
35
8.0
157
8.0
147
8.0
139
9.0
134
9.0
130
9.0
128
9.0
125
10.0
124
10.0
127
10.0
127
11.0
128
11.0
130
11.0
131
12.0
133
12.0
136
12.0
139
12.0
141
13.0
143
13.0
147
13.0
151
14.0
154
14.0
159
14.0
163
14.0
167
15.0
171
15.0
175
16.0
179
16.0
183
16.0
190
17.0
194
17.0
198
17.0
202
18.0
206
18.0
234
20.0
263
22.0
295
24.0
328
25.0
367
27.0
406
30.0
455
32.0
FM 3-09.8
WEAPON: M109A2-A6/M198
CHG 6
EL
TI
58
8.0
34
8.0
27
8.0
26
8.0
26
8.0
26
8.0
28
8.0
29
8.0
138
8.0
129
8.0
123
8.0
117
9.0
114
9.0
110
9.0
108
9.0
107
9.0
106
10.0
105
10.0
105
10.0
105
11.0
107
11.0
109
11.0
110
11.0
111
12.0
112
12.0
113
12.0
115
12.0
118
13.0
121
13.0
123
13.0
128
14.0
130
14.0
133
14.0
135
15.0
138
15.0
141
15.0
144
15.0
147
16.0
150
16.0
153
16.0
176
18.0
195
20.0
220
21.0
244
23.0
273
25.0
301
27.0
337
29.0
CHG 7
EL
TI
56
8.0
32
8.0
24
8.0
22
8.0
21
8.0
21
8.0
22
8.0
22
8.0
23
8.0
25
8.0
115
8.0
108
8.0
104
8.0
100
9.0
97
9.0
95
9.0
92
9.0
91
9.0
90
10.0
89
10.0
88
10.0
89
10.0
89
10.0
89
11.0
89
11.0
89
11.0
91
11.0
92
12.0
92
12.0
93
12.0
95
12.0
97
13.0
98
13.0
99
13.0
101
13.0
103
13.0
105
14.0
106
14.0
108
14.0
109
15.0
123
16.0
137
17.0
153
19.0
167
20.0
190
22.0
208
24.0
231
25.0
CHG 8
EL
TI
56
8.0
31
8.0
23
8.0
20
8.0
19
8.0
18
8.0
18
8.0
18
8.0
18
8.0
20
8.0
21
8.0
22
8.0
97
8.0
92
8.0
89
8.0
86
8.0
83
9.0
81
9.0
80
9.0
78
9.0
76
9.0
77
9.0
76
10.0
75
10.0
75
10.0
74
10.0
75
10.0
75
11.0
74
11.0
75
11.0
75
11.0
76
11.0
76
11.0
77
12.0
78
12.0
79
12.0
80
12.0
80
12.0
81
13.0
82
13.0
88
14.0
97
15.0
106
16.0
115
17.0
126
19.0
137
20.0
151
21.0
31 July 2006
Minimum QE Rapid Fire Tables
Rapid Fire Table II
FUZE: M514
Piece- toCrest Range
8000
8500
9000
9500
10000
10500
11000
11500
12000
12500
13000
13500
14000
14500
15000
15500
31 July 2006
PROPELLANT: WHITE BAG M4A1
(CHG 3-7), M119 (CHG 8)
CHG 3
EL
TI
CHG 4
EL
TI
CHG 5
EL
TI
511
34.0
580
37.0
671
39.0
FM 3-09.8
WEAPON: M109A2-A6/M198
CHG 6
EL
TI
365
31.0
411
33.0
446
35.0
623
40.0
667
42.0
718
45.0
CHG 7
EL
TI
254
27.0
281
29.0
307
31.0
368
35.0
408
37.0
439
39.0
493
41.0
529
43.0
614
46.0
657
49.0
CHG 8
EL
TI
164
23.0
182
25.0
198
26.0
237
30.0
258
31.0
281
33.0
305
35.0
330
37.0
363
39.0
387
41.0
425
43.0
455
45.0
501
47.0
533
50.0
605
52.0
643
55.0
A-13
Appendix A
Rapid Fire Table II
FUZE: M728, M732
Piece- toCrest Range
100
200
300
400
500
600
700
800
900
1000
1100
1200
1300
1400
1500
1600
1700
1800
1900
2000
2100
2200
2300
2400
2500
2600
2700
2800
2900
3000
3100
3200
3300
3400
3500
3600
3700
3800
3900
4000
4500
5000
5500
A-14
PROPELLANT: GREEN BAG M3A1
CHG 1
EL
TI
67
8.0
53
8.0
57
8.0
65
8.0
209
8.0
201
9.0
196
9.0
198
10.0
203
10.0
207
11.0
221
11.0
228
12.0
238
12.0
147
13.0
260
14.0
282
14.0
293
15.0
307
15.0
321
16.0
336
16.0
367
17.0
384
17.0
400
18.0
416
19.0
433
19.0
491
20.0
510
21.0
529
21.0
551
22.0
573
23.0
711
24.0
736
24.0
764
25.0
796
26.0
834
27.0
CHG 2
EL
TI
64
8.0
47
8.0
48
8.0
53
8.0
194
8.0
181
9.0
173
9.0
171
9.0
172
10.0
174
10.0
179
11.0
184
11.0
191
12.0
197
12.0
204
13.0
219
13.0
226
14.0
235
14.0
245
14.0
254
15.0
272
15.0
284
16.0
294
16.0
305
17.0
316
17.0
343
18.0
354
19.0
367
19.0
378
20.0
392
20.0
430
21.0
442
21.0
457
22.0
472
22.0
488
23.0
549
24.0
567
24.0
584
25.0
602
26.0
623
26.0
CHG 3
EL
TI
62
8.0
43
8.0
40
8.0
43
8.0
48
8.0
163
8.0
153
9.0
148
9.0
147
9.0
146
10.0
147
10.0
149
10.0
151
11.0
154
11.0
160
12.0
167
12.0
171
12.0
177
13.0
182
13.0
188
14.0
199
14.0
206
14.0
212
15.0
218
15.0
225
16.0
239
16.0
246
16.0
253
17.0
260
17.0
269
18.0
286
18.0
293
19.0
301
19.0
311
19.0
319
20.0
338
20.0
349
21.0
358
21.0
367
22.0
378
22.0
446
25.0
534
28.0
656
31.0
FM 3-09.8
WEAPON: M109A2A6/M198
CHG 4
EL
TI
61
8.0
40
8.0
36
8.0
37
8.0
40
8.0
43
8.0
141
8.0
135
9.0
130
9.0
127
9.0
127
10.0
127
10.0
127
10.0
129
11.0
131
11.0
137
11.0
139
12.0
143
12.0
147
12.0
150
13.0
157
13.0
162
13.0
167
14.0
171
14.0
176
14.0
183
15.0
188
15.0
193
15.0
200
16.0
205
16.0
215
17.0
221
17.0
226
17.0
231
18.0
238
18.0
248
18.0
255
19.0
263
19.0
269
20.0
275
22.0
316
22.0
363
24.0
415
27.0
CHG 5
EL
TI
58
8.0
36
8.0
30
8.0
30
8.0
32
8.0
35
8.0
37
8.0
123
8.0
117
8.0
113
9.0
110
9.0
110
9.0
109
10.0
109
10.0
110
10.0
113
11.0
114
11.0
117
11.0
119
12.0
122
12.0
125
12.0
131
12.0
135
13.0
138
13.0
141
13.0
146
14.0
150
14.0
154
14.0
158
15.0
162
15.0
169
15.0
173
16.0
177
16.0
182
16.0
187
17.0
194
17.0
198
18.0
204
18.0
208
18.0
213
19.0
242
20.0
275
22.0
309
24.0
31 July 2006
Minimum QE Rapid Fire Tables
Rapid Fire Table II
FUZE: M728, M732
Piece- toCrest Range
6000
6500
7000
7500
8000
8500
31 July 2006
PROPELLANT: GREEN BAG M3A1
CHG 1
CHG 2
CHG 3
FM 3-09.8
WEAPON: M109A2A6/M198
CHG 4
477
29.0
559
32.0
669
35.0
CHG 5
346
26.0
390
28.0
437
30.0
493
33.0
562
35.0
654
38.0
A-15
Appendix A
Rapid Fire Table II
FUZE: M728, M732
Piece- toCrest Range
100
200
300
400
500
600
700
800
900
1000
1100
1200
1300
1400
1500
1600
1700
1800
1900
2000
2100
2200
2300
2400
2500
2600
2700
2800
2900
3000
3100
3200
3300
3400
3500
3600
3700
3800
3900
4000
4500
5000
5500
A-16
PROPELLANT: WHITE BAG M4A1 (CHG 3-7),
M119 (CHG 8)
WEAPON: M109A2-A6/M198
CHG 3
EL
TI
CHG 4
EL
TI
CHG 5
EL
TI
CHG 6
EL
TI
CHG 7
EL
TI
CHG 8
EL
TI
61
41
38
39
43
181
148
132
138
136
137
138
141
143
146
151
155
161
165
170
176
184
189
194
200
211
217
223
229
237
249
255
262
270
277
291
300
307
315
324
376
436
511
59
37
33
33
36
40
137
130
125
122
121
123
123
124
126
129
131
134
137
141
145
149
154
157
164
170
175
179
184
188
197
202
207
212
218
228
234
239
245
250
286
325
368
58
35
29
28
30
32
35
120
113
108
106
105
104
103
104
108
109
111
114
116
119
122
126
128
131
136
140
143
149
153
158
162
166
170
175
181
186
190
195
199
227
257
289
57
33
26
25
25
25
27
28
105
99
95
92
90
88
88
88
88
88
89
90
93
95
97
98
100
102
104
107
111
113
119
121
124
126
130
132
136
139
143
146
169
189
214
56
32
24
22
21
21
22
22
23
25
87
83
80
78
77
76
74
74
74
74
74
75
76
76
77
78
80
81
82
83
86
88
89
90
93
94
97
98
101
102
116
131
147
56
31
23
20
19
18
18
18
18
20
21
21
72
69
68
67
65
64
64
63
62
63
63
62
63
63
64
64
64
65
66
67
67
68
70
70
72
72
74
75
81
91
100
8.0
8.0
8.0
8.0
8.0
8.0
8.0
9.0
9.0
9.0
10.0
10.0
10.0
11.0
11.0
12.0
12.0
12.0
13.0
13.0
13.0
14.0
14.0
15.0
15.0
15.0
16.0
16.0
16.0
17.0
17.0
18.0
18.0
18.0
19.0
19.0
20.0
20.0
21.0
21.0
21.0
26.0
28.0
8.0
8.0
8.0
8.0
8.0
8.0
8.0
8.0
9.0
9.0
9.0
10.0
10.0
10.0
11.0
11.0
11.0
12.0
12.0
12.0
13.0
13.0
13.0
14.0
14.0
14.0
15.0
15.0
15.0
16.0
16.0
17.0
17.0
17.0
18.0
18.0
18.0
19.0
19.0
19.0
21.0
23.0
26.0
8.0
8.0
8.0
8.0
8.0
8.0
8.0
8.0
8.0
9.0
9.0
9.0
9.0
10.0
10.0
10.0
11.0
11.0
11.0
12.0
12.0
12.0
13.0
13.0
13.0
13.0
14.0
14.0
14.0
15.0
15.0
15.0
16.0
16.0
16.0
17.0
17.0
17.0
18.0
18.0
20.0
22.0
24.0
FM 3-09.8
8.0
8.0
8.0
8.0
8.0
8.0
8.0
8.0
8.0
8.0
8.0
9.0
9.0
9.0
9.0
10.0
10.0
10.0
10.0
11.0
11.0
11.0
11.0
12.0
12.0
12.0
12.0
13.0
13.0
13.0
14.0
14.0
14.0
15.0
15.0
15.0
15.0
16.0
16.0
16.0
17.0
20.0
21.0
8.0
8.0
8.0
8.0
8.0
8.0
8.0
8.0
8.0
8.0
8.0
8.0
8.0
9.0
9.0
9.0
9.0
9.0
10.0
10.0
10.0
10.0
10.0
11.0
11.0
11.0
11.0
12.0
12.0
12.0
12.0
12.0
13.0
13.0
13.0
13.0
14.0
14.0
14.0
14.0
16.0
17.0
19.0
8.0
8.0
8.0
8.0
8.0
8.0
8.0
8.0
8.0
8.0
8.0
8.0
8.0
8.0
8.0
8.0
9.0
9.0
9.0
9.0
9.0
9.0
10.0
10.0
10.0
10.0
10.0
11.0
11.0
11.0
11.0
11.0
11.0
12.0
12.0
12.0
12.0
12.0
13.0
13.0
14.0
15.0
16.0
31 July 2006
Minimum QE Rapid Fire Tables
Rapid Fire Table II
FUZE: M728, M732
Piece- toCrest Range
CHG 3
EL
TI
6000 609
6500
7000
7500
8000
8500
9000
9500
10000
10500
11000
11500
12000
12500
13000
13500
14000
14500
15000
15500
31 July 2006
PROPELLANT: WHITE BAG M4A1 (CHG 3-7),
M119 (CHG 8)
31.0
WEAPON: M109A2-A6/M198
CHG 4
EL
TI
CHG 5
EL
TI
CHG 6
EL
TI
CHG 7
EL
TI
CHG 8
EL
TI
421
479
552
651
323
362
402
451
507
577
667
239
268
297
343
361
408
442
546
664
162
185
204
227
250
278
303
365
405
436
41
526
611
655
110
121
133
147
160
179
194
234
255
278
303
327
360
385
423
453
498
531
603
641
28.0
30.0
33.0
36.0
26.0
28.0
30.0
32.0
34.0
37.0
40.0
FM 3-09.8
23.0
25.0
27.0
29.0
31.0
33.0
35.0
40.0
42.0
20.0
22.0
24.0
25.0
27.0
29.0
31.0
35.0
37.0
39.0
41.0
43.0
46.0
49.0
17.0
19.0
20.0
21.0
23.0
25.0
26.0
30.0
31.0
33.0
35.0
37.0
39.0
41.0
43.0
45.0
47.0
50.0
52.0
55.0
A-17
Appendix A
Rapid Fire Table II
FUZE: M557, M564
Piece- to- Crest Range
100
200
300
400
500
600
700
800
900
1000
1100
1200
1300
1400
1500
1600
1700
1800
1900
2000
2100
2200
2300
2400
2500
2600
2700
2800
2900
3000
3100
3200
3300
3400
3500
3600
3700
3800
3900
4000
4500
5000
5500
6000
6500
A-18
SHELL RAP
CHG 7RB
ROCKET ON
ONLY
CHG 8WB
WEAPON:
M109A2-A6/M198
CHG M203
55
32
24
22
21
21
22
22
23
25
26
28
29
31
32
34
35
37
39
41
43
44
46
48
50
51
53
55
57
60
63
66
67
69
71
74
76
78
80
83
94
107
117
128
141
55
31
23
20
19
18
18
18
19
20
20
21
21
23
24
25
25
27
28
29
31
33
34
35
37
37
39
40
41
43
44
46
47
49
50
52
53
55
56
58
66
73
82
90
97
54
30
22
18
17
16
16
15
15
16
16
17
16
17
18
19
19
19
20
21
22
23
24
25
25
25
26
27
28
29
30
31
32
33
34
35
36
37
38
39
44
49
54
60
65
FM 3-09.8
31 July 2006
Minimum QE Rapid Fire Tables
Rapid Fire Table II
FUZE: M557, M564
Piece- to- Crest Range
7000
7500
8000
8500
9000
9500
10000
10500
11000
11500
12000
12500
13000
13500
14000
14500
15000
15500
16000
16500
17000
17500
18000
18500
19000
19500
20000
20500
21000
21500
22000
22500
23000
23500
24000
24500
25000
25500
26000
26500
27000
27500
28000
28500
29000
29500
31 July 2006
SHELL RAP
CHG 7RB
152
165
177
192
206
221
238
256
273
295
313
339
360
389
412
447
474
515
545
601
636
728
771
1173
1241
FM 3-09.8
ROCKET ON
ONLY
CHG 8WB
WEAPON:
M109A2-A6/M198
CHG M203
105
113
123
132
141
151
161
170
184
196
208
223
237
251
268
85
302
324
343
366
387
416
440
471
498
538
567
622
657
745
789
71
77
85
91
97
103
109
114
121
129
138
143
152
160
170
175
187
198
209
214
229
242
256
266
281
297
315
328
347
365
383
404
425
445
468
500
525
550
577
648
577
648
525
550
577
648
A-19
Appendix A
Rapid Fire Table II
SHELL DPICM
Piece-to-Crest
Range
WEAPON: M109A2-A6/M198
CHG
3GB
100 62
200 44
300 43
400 46
500 51
600 50
700 65
800 71
900 78
1000 88
1100 96
1200 104
1300 111
1400 119
1500 127
1600 140
1700 149
1800 157
1900 165
2000 174
2100 188
2200 196
2300 207
2400 216
2500 224
2600 241
2700 250
2800 262
2900 271
3000 281
3100 303
3200 313
3300 325
3400 335
3500 346
3600 376
3700 307
3800 390
3900 411
4000 423
4500 523
5000 671
5500 1068
6000
6500
7000
7500
8000
A-20
CHG
3WB
CHG
4GB
CHG
4WB
CHG
5GB
CHG
5WB
CHG
6WB
CHG
7RB
CHG
7WB
61
42
39
41
45
50
55
62
68
74
81
87
92
99
108
117
123
130
137
145
155
162
169
177
186
196
203
211
218
228
243
251
258
268
277
294
302
313
321
330
392
468
563
709
1087
59
41
37
39
43
47
51
56
61
67
72
80
85
91
97
104
111
117
123
130
138
147
153
160
167
172
183
190
197
204
211
224
232
241
248
256
271
278
286
294
338
394
460
58
38
34
35
38
41
45
49
54
59
64
69
73
78
86
92
96
102
107
113
120
126
132
137
143
150
156
164
170
176
185
191
197
203
209
221
227
236
242
249
289
335
386
447
521
622
783
58
37
32
32
34
37
40
44
47
52
56
61
64
69
73
79
83
88
92
97
103
108
113
118
123
129
134
139
144
150
157
162
168
173
181
190
195
201
207
212
246
282
323
367
420
479
556
661
57
35
30
30
31
34
37
39
42
46
49
53
56
60
65
70
73
77
82
86
92
96
103
107
112
117
121
126
131
136
143
148
153
158
163
170
175
181
186
191
224
256
289
329
371
420
478
548
56
33
27
25
26
28
29
31
32
35
37
40
42
44
47
50
52
5
58
62
66
69
72
76
79
82
86
89
93
96
101
105
109
112
116
121
127
131
135
139
163
186
211
241
270
300
336
372
55
31
23
20
19
10
19
19
19
20
22
23
23
25
26
27
28
29
30
32
33
34
36
37
39
39
41
42
44
45
47
48
50
52
53
55
57
58
60
62
72
81
93
104
117
129
145
160
55
32
25
22
22
22
23
24
24
26
28
30
31
33
35
37
38
40
42
44
47
50
52
54
56
58
60
62
65
67
70
73
75
78
0
83
86
88
91
94
109
125
145
163
185
205
232
254
FM 3-09.8
31 July 2006
Minimum QE Rapid Fire Tables
Rapid Fire Table II
SHELL DPICM
Piece-to-Crest
Range
WEAPON: M109A2-A6/M198
CHG
3GB
CHG
3WB
CHG
4GB
CHG
4WB
8500
9000
9500
10000
10500
11000
11500
12000
12500
13000
13500
14000
14500
15000
15500
16000
16500
17000
31 July 2006
FM 3-09.8
CHG
5GB
CHG
5WB
CHG
6WB
CHG
7RB
CHG
7WB
854
642
796
413
461
516
585
676
829
177
195
214
232
374
278
307
329
363
388
429
459
509
542
619
660
845
902
284
302
346
374
420
451
514
550
661
709
A-21
Appendix A
Rapid Fire Table II
SHELL COPPERHEAD
Piece-to-Crest
Range
100
200
300
400
500
600
700
800
900
1000
1100
1200
1300
1400
1500
1600
1700
1800
1900
2000
2100
2200
2300
2400
2500
2600
2700
2800
2900
3000
A-22
CHG 4GB
99
82
82
86
93
100
107
115
123
132
141
150
159
169
179
189
198
209
220
231
242
253
265
277
289
301
314
327
341
356
WEAPON: M109A2-A6/M198
CHG 5GB
CHG 6WB
97
78
76
79
83
88
93
99
105
112
118
125
132
139
147
154
161
169
177
185
194
202
211
219
228
236
245
255
264
274
FM 3-09.8
95
75
70
71
73
76
79
83
87
92
96
101
105
110
116
121
126
131
137
143
149
155
161
167
174
179
185
192
199
206
CHG 7WB
94
73
67
67
68
70
72
75
78
81
84
88
91
95
99
103
106
110
115
119
124
128
133
138
142
146
151
156
162
167
CHG 8WB
93
71
65
63
64
65
67
68
70
73
75
77
79
82
85
88
90
93
96
100
103
106
109
113
116
119
122
126
130
133
31 July 2006
Appendix B
Fire Mission Grading
This appendix provides detailed instructions to assist an evaluator in grading fire
missions to support the Conduct of Fire Support Tables VII and VIII.C.
FIRE MISSION GRADING TABLE VII AND TABLE VIII.C
B-1. The following procedures provide a standardized approach to grading observers on Conduct of Fire
procedures.
TARGET LOCATION
B-2. Target Location Error (TLE). There are three methods that an evaluator may use to determine an
observer’s TLE: total range and deviation corrections or evaluator spotting.
(1)
Total range and deviation corrections. If the guns are firing accurately, the observer’s range and
deviation corrections are summed to determine the TLE.
EXAMPLE:
R100, +400; R40, -200; L30, +100; +50 FFE =Total correction of R110, +350
(2)
Evaluator spotting. If the guns are firing erratically, then the evaluator must subjectively spot
the student’s initial round and compute TLE.
(3)
Survey target list. The evaluator compares the observer’s target location with the actual survey
location from a known target survey list.
Note. Simulation software generates TLE.
PROCEDURAL ERRORS
B-3. Procedural Errors (PE). A cut of 5 points is assessed for each PE that is not corrected by the
observer on his own initiative. PEs consist of data being sent in an untimely manner or omitted, sent in the
wrong sequence, or sent to the wrong accuracy.
B-4.
Major Procedural Error. A cut of 10 points is assessed for each major PE that is not corrected
by the observer on his own initiative.
PERFORMANCE GOALS
B-5. In the Area Adjust Fire Mission, the observer must enter fire for effect (FFE) using no more than
five adjusting rounds (this does not include the initial round). The FFE must have effects on target (impact
or burst within 50 meters of the target). The observer must formulate and transmit a call for fire within 120
seconds or less.
GRADING STANDARDS
B-6. The observer must meet all performance objectives and maintain a score of 70 or above to
satisfactorily pass the mission.
31 July 2006
FM 3-09.8
B-1
Appendix B
B-7. If the observer fails to achieve all performance goals, the maximum grade awarded is either 69 or
100 minus the total number of cuts, whichever is less.
MISSION TIME REQUIREMENTS
B-8. For all missions except FPF, Priority Target, Immediate Suppression, and Immediate Smoke.
All three transmissions of the elements of the initial call for fire must be completed within 45 seconds after
the mission is initiated in order to not lose points against their shoot score. An observer has a total of 120
seconds to complete the entire call for fire or receive 69 points for failing a performance goal.
B-9. For FPF, Priority Target, Immediate Suppression, and Immediate Smoke. All three
transmissions of the elements of the initial CFF must be completed within 25 seconds after the target is
identified in order to not lose points against their shoot score.
B-10. For Subsequent Round Adjustments. Each adjustment must be transmitted within 10 seconds in
order not to lose points.
CUT SHEET
B-11. Target Location Error Deductions, Area Adjust Fire Mission. After 250 meters, the observer
will lose points based on the following distance brackets:
z
251-400 meters = -5.
z
401-550 meters = -10.
z
>551 meters = -15.
B-12. Target Location Error Deductions, FFE Mission. After 150 meters, the observer will lose points
based on the following distance brackets:
z
151-300 meters = -5.
z
301-550 meters = -10.
z
>551 meters = -15.
B-13. For Initial CFF for all missions except Fire FPF, Immediate Suppression, Priority Target, or
Immediate Smoke. After 45 seconds, the observer will lose points based on the following time brackets:
z
46-60 seconds = -5.
z
61-90 seconds = -10.
z
91-120 seconds = -15.
B-14. For Initial CFF to Fire FPF, Immediate Suppression, Priority Target, or Immediate Smoke.
After 25 seconds, the observer will lose points based on the following time brackets:
z
26-30 seconds = -5.
z
31-45 seconds = -10.
z
46-60 seconds = -15.
B-15. For Subsequent Adjustments. After 10 seconds, the students will lose points based on the
following time brackets:
z
11-15 seconds = -5.
z
16-25 seconds = -10.
z
26-40 seconds = -15.
B-16. Procedural Error (-5).
z
Sequence, omission, or format error.
z
Wrong or no target description or sh/fz requested.
z
No direction sent.
z
No refinement, EOM, or surveillance.
z
Incorrect sequence of subsequent corrections.
B-2
FM 3-09.8
31 July 2006
Fire Mission Grading
z
z
z
z
z
z
z
z
z
Direction error greater than 100 mils.
Deviation correction of less than 30 meters.
Deviation correction sent to the nearest meter.
Fail to correct range during subsequent adjustments (obvious + or -).
Creeping fires (three or more subsequent adjustments in the same direction which either fail to
establish a bracket, or have effects on target), except during danger close missions.
Incorrect application of OT factor.
Failure to request/cancel Danger Close or Cancel Danger Close.
Initial direction not within ±60 mils.
Correction direction of less than 100 mils given.
B-17. Major PE (ALL-10)
z
Wrong adjusting point.
z
Observer loses visible round.
z
Correction wrong way during subsequent adjustments (Dev or Rg).
z
Wasted round (includes two rounds fired at the same range).
z
Evaluator help required.
Note. If an observer fails to have effects within 50 meters of the target or complete the entire
call for fire within 120 seconds, he can receive no higher than a 69 on his fire mission. The
observer may score lower based on the cumulative deductions for his mission.
31 July 2006
FM 3-09.8
B-3
Appendix B
MISSION: REQUEST AND ADJUST AREA FIRE
CONDITIONS:
Given a 1:50,000 map, an OF fan, a compass, a terrain sketch (drawn by
the observer), communications with an FDC, a GPS, a laser range finder (LRF) (an LRF will
not be replicated in TSFO or GUARDFIST), binoculars, night vision goggles (during hours of
limited visibility), and an enemy target.
STANDARDS:
Engage a target of opportunity by initially locating it within 250 meters and
completing the CFF within 45 seconds of target identification. Enter FFE within 50 meters of
the target. Follow all procedures specified in FM 6-30.
EVALUATION PREPARATION:
The evaluator must—
1. Ensure that the observer has established communications with the FDC during the
previous task.
2. Locate and identify a suitable target for an adjust fire mission.
3. Be able to determine if the observer’s target location and subsequent adjustment are
correct.
4. Ensure that a stopwatch is available to time the mission.
EVALUATION GUIDE
Step
1
2
2A
2B
3
4
5
B-4
Performance Measures/Grader Instructions
Deductions
Transmits the observer ID and “ADJUST FIRE OVER” as the first
transmission. The observer must include a warning order if intending to use any
method of target location other than grid in the first transmission. Sequence is
graded.
Transmits target coordinates (six or eight) as the second transmission of
the call for fire.
Transmits polar plot data as the second transmission of the call for fire.
The observer sends OT direction to nearest 10 mils (±60 mils), distance to the
target to the nearest 100 meters (10 meters is acceptable if the observer is using
a laser range finder), and a vertical shift when it is greater than 35 meters to the
nearest 5 meters. The observer must send OT direction to nearest 1 mil,
distance to the nearest 10 meters, and a vertical angle to the nearest 1 mil when
equipped with a G/VLLD or similar device. Sequence is graded.
Transmits shift from a known point data as the second transmission of the
CFF. The observer sends an OT direction to the nearest 10 mils (±60 mils), a
lateral shift to the nearest 10 meters, a range shift to the nearest 100 meters, and
a vertical shift when it is greater than 35 meters to the nearest 5 meters.
Sequence is graded.
Determines the target location within 250 meters of the actual location. The
grader must be able to confirm or deny that the observer has met the 250-meter
standard.
Completes the third transmission of the CFF within 45 seconds of target
identification. At a minimum, the observer must include target description in his
third transmission and danger close when applicable. Sequence is graded.
Correctly determines the OT factor. Grader must ask for the OT factor.
FM 3-09.8
31 July 2006
Fire Mission Grading
EVALUATION GUIDE
Step
6
7
8
9
10
Performance Measures/Grader Instructions
Deductions
Transmits OT direction to the nearest 10 mils (±60 mils) prior to the first
adjustment when applicable.
Transmits subsequent corrections within 10 seconds of HE burst and each
adjustment moves the round(s) closer to the target or maintains
successive bracketing. Sequence is graded.
Utilizes no more than five adjusting rounds to include the initial round to
enter FFE.
Enters FFE when the HE rounds will impact within 50 meters of the target.
Transmits refinement data, records as target or known point, “END OF
MISSION,” and surveillance. The observer must transmit refinement, but does
not necessarily have to record the target unless directed by the grader.
Sequence is graded.
Evaluation Guidance:
If an observer fails to have effects within 50 meters of the
target or complete the entire CFF within 120 seconds, he can receive no higher than a 69 on
the fire mission. The observer may score lower based on the cumulative deductions for the
mission.
References:
FM 6-30, STP 6-13F14-SM-TG, Task Numbers 061-283-1011, 061-2831002, 061-283-1003, and 061-283-1004
31 July 2006
FM 3-09.8
B-5
Appendix B
MISSION: CONDUCT A FIRE FOR EFFECT MISSION
CONDITIONS:
Given a 1:50,000 map, an OF fan, a compass, a terrain sketch (drawn by
the observer), communications with an FDC, a GPS, an LRF (an LRF will not be replicated
in TSFO or GUARDFIST), binoculars, night vision goggles (during hours of limited visibility),
and an enemy target.
STANDARDS:
Engage a target of opportunity with an FFE mission within 150 meters of
actual target location and complete the CFF within 45 seconds of target identification. Follow
all procedures specified in FM 6-30.
EVALUATION PREPARATION:
The evaluator must—
1.
2.
3.
4.
Ensure that the observer has established communications with the FDC during the
previous task.
Locate and identify a suitable target for an FFE mission.
Be able to determine if the observer’s target location is correct.
Ensure that a stopwatch is available to time the mission.
EVALUATION GUIDE
Step
1
2
2A
2B
3
4
5
B-6
Performance Measures/Grader Instructions
Deductions
Transmits the observer ID and “FIRE FOR EFFECT OVER” as the first
transmission. The observer must include a warning order if he intends to use
any method of target location other than grid in his first transmission. Sequence
is graded.
Transmits target coordinates (six or eight) as the second transmission of
the call for fire.
Transmits polar plot data as the second transmission of the call for fire.
The observer sends OT direction to the nearest 10 mils (±60 mils), distance to
the target to the nearest 10 or 100 meters, and a vertical shift when it is greater
than
35 meters to the nearest 5 meters. The observer must send OT direction to
nearest 1 mil, distance to the nearest 10 meters, and a vertical angle to the
nearest 1 mil when equipped with a G/VLLD or similar device. Sequence is
graded.
Transmits shift from a known point data as the second transmission of the
CFF. The observer sends an OT direction to the nearest 10 mils (±60 mils), a
lateral shift to the nearest 10 meters, a range shift to the nearest 100 meters, and
a vertical shift when it is greater than 35 meters to the nearest 5 meters.
Sequence is graded.
Determines the target location within 150 meters of the actual location. The
grader must be able to confirm or deny that the observer has met the 150-meter
standard.
Completes the third transmission of the CFF within 45 seconds of target. At
a minimum, the observer must include target description and danger close when
applicable. Sequence is graded.
Transmits refinement data, “END OF MISSION,” and surveillance. Sequence
is graded.
FM 3-09.8
31 July 2006
Fire Mission Grading
Evaluation Guidance:
If an observer fails to have effects within 50 meters of the
target or complete the entire CFF within 120 seconds, he can receive no higher than a 69 on
the fire mission. The observer may score lower based on the cumulative deductions for the
mission.
References:
FM 6-30, STP 6-13F14-SM-TG Task Numbers 061-283-1015, 061-2831002, 061-283-1003, and 061-283-1004
31 July 2006
FM 3-09.8
B-7
Appendix B
MISSION: REQUEST AND ADJUST FPF
CONDITIONS:
Given a 1:50,000 map, an OF fan, a compass, a terrain sketch (drawn by
the observer), communications with an FDC, a GPS, an LRF (an LRF will not be replicated
in TSFO or GUARDFIST), binoculars, night vision goggles (during hours of limited visibility),
and a location for a Final Protective Fire (FPF).
STANDARDS:
Adjust an FPF so that all rounds impact within 50 meters of either side of
an FPF line. This is in accordance with the procedures in FM 6-30 as outlined in the
Evaluation Guide.
EVALUATION PREPARATION:
The evaluator must—
1. Ensure that the observer is able to communicate with the FDC.
2. Locate and identify a suitable location for the FPF.
3. Be able to determine if the observer’s target location and subsequent adjustments
are correct.
4. Specify what target block the observer will use to record the FPF.
EVALUATION GUIDE
Step
1
2
3
4
5
6
7
8
9
B-8
Performance Measures/Grader Instructions
Deductions
Transmits the observer ID and “ADJUST FIRE OVER” as the first
transmission.
Transmits an eight-digit grid that plots 200-400 meters beyond the center of
the FPF line. The grader will clearly identify the left and right limits on the linear
line that forms the FPF.
Includes FPF, Attitude (between 0000-3100), Danger Close, and Delay in the
third transmission of the CFF. The tolerance for attitude is graded in
Step 12. Sequence is graded.
Transmits OT direction to the nearest 10 mils (±60 mils) to the center of the
FPF line prior to the first adjustment.
Initial round impacts at least 200 meters beyond the FPF line.
Correctly determines the OT factor. Grader must ask for the OT factor.
Uses creeping fires for all range corrections. Corrections between 60 and
100 meters to the nearest 10 meters.
Transmits deviation or range corrections of 50 meters or less in the form
on refinement data only. Deviation refinement must precede range refinement.
Determines and transmits corrections so that the HE bursts will impact
within 50 meters of the FPF line when the FPF is fired. Only the center gun
will fire if the FDC is equipped with a battery computer system (BCS) or similar
device. Once the center gun is adjusted to the center of the FPF (within 50
meters), the mission is ended. All other guns are computed from data fired by the
FDC. If manual computation is required, all guns/tubes will fire in adjustment.
The firing unit will fire one volley centered on the initial grid sent by the observer.
The observer begins adjustment with the flank piece closest to the FPF line.
Once the first gun is adjusted, the observer announces, “NUMBER (refinement),
NUMBER __ IS ADJUSTED, NUMBER __, REPEAT OVER.” This process
continues until the last gun/tube is adjusted.
FM 3-09.8
31 July 2006
Fire Mission Grading
EVALUATION GUIDE
Step
10
11
12
Performance Measures/Grader Instructions
Deductions
Rounds are adjusted to equally space (±10 m) them along the FPF line.
Normally, the FDC determines the lateral separation; however, during a manual
adjustment the observer must correct for deviation to ensure that there is a
lateral separation.
Transmits refinement for the final correction, records the FPF as a target
number, and ends the mission. Sequence is graded.
All rounds impact within ±50 meters of either side of the FPF line when the
FPF is fired.
Evaluation Guidance:
If an observer fails to have effects within 50 meters of the
target or complete the entire CFF within 120 seconds, he can receive no higher than a 69 on
the fire mission. The observer may score lower based on the cumulative deductions for the
mission.
References:
31 July 2006
FM 6-30, STP 6-13F14-SM-TG Task Number 061-283-2002
FM 3-09.8
B-9
Appendix B
MISSION: CONDUCT AN IMMEDIATE SMOKE MISSION
CONDITIONS:
Given a 1:50,000 map; an OF fan; a compass; a terrain sketch (drawn by
the observer); communications with an FDC; a GPS; an LRF (an LRF will not be replicated
in TSFO or GUARDFIST); binoculars; night vision goggles (during hours of limited visibility);
a cross, head, or tailwind; and an enemy target.
STANDARDS:
Obscures a target of opportunity with an immediate smoke mission. This
is in accordance with the procedures in FM 6-30 as outlined in the Evaluation Guide.
EVALUATION PREPARATION:
The evaluator must—
1. Ensure that the observer is able to communicate with the FDC.
2. Locate and identify a suitable target for an immediate smoke mission.
3. Review the procedures for obscuring targets listed in FM 6-30 prior to evaluating the
task.
4. Ensure that a stopwatch is available to time the mission.
EVALUATION GUIDE
Step
1
2
2A
2B
3
B-10
Performance Measures/Grader Instructions
Deductions
Transmits the observer ID and “IMMEDIATE SMOKE.” The observer must
include a warning order if intending to use any method of target location other
than grid. Sequence is graded.
Transmits target coordinates (six or eight) after the warning order in the
first transmission of the call for fire.
Transmits polar plot data after the warning order in the first transmission
of the call for fire. The observer sends OT direction to the nearest 10 mils (±60
mils), distance to the target to the nearest 10 or 100 meters, and a vertical shift
when it is greater than 35 meters to the nearest 5 meters. The observer must
send OT direction to the nearest 1 mil, distance to the nearest 10 meters, and a
vertical angle to the nearest 1 mil when equipped with a G/VLLD or similar
device. Sequence is graded.
Transmits shift from a known point data after the warning order in the first
transmission of the CFF. The observer sends an OT direction to the nearest 10
mils (±60 mils), a lateral shift to the nearest 10 meters, a range shift to the
nearest 100 meters, and a vertical shift when it is greater than 35 meters to the
nearest 5 meters. Sequence is graded.
Completes the CFF within 25 seconds of target identification. The observer
may send a second transmission to include a target description, but it is not
necessary. Time will stop when the observer transmits target location data
unless danger close is required. Danger close must be included, when
applicable, at the conclusion of the first transmission or as a separate
transmission. Sequence is graded.
FM 3-09.8
31 July 2006
Fire Mission Grading
EVALUATION GUIDE
Step
4
5
Performance Measures/Grader Instructions
Deductions
Obscures the target. In order to obscure the target without adjustments, the
observer will have to use a placement point for the target location. Placement
points are approximate and are designed to obscure the target. Placement points
are as follows: a crosswind is 100 meters upwind and 100 meters short of the
target, a tailwind is 200 meters short of the target, and a headwind is 100 meters
short of the target.
Transmits refinement data, “END OF MISSION,” and surveillance. Sequence
is graded.
Evaluation Guidance:
If an observer fails to obscure the target or complete the entire
CFF within 120 seconds, he can receive no higher than a 69 on the fire mission. The
observer may score lower based on the cumulative deductions for his mission.
References:
FM 6-30, STP 6-13F14-SM-TG Task Numbers 061-283-1014, 061-2831002, 061-283-1003, 061-283-1004
31 July 2006
FM 3-09.8
B-11
Appendix B
MISSION: CONDUCT A QUICK SMOKE MISSION
CONDITIONS:
Given a 1:50,000 map, an OF fan, a compass, a terrain sketch (drawn by
the observer), communications with an FDC, a GPS, an LRF (an LRF will not be replicated
in TSFO or GUARDFIST), binoculars, night vision goggles (during hours of limited visibility),
and an enemy target.
STANDARDS:
Locates the center of the smoke screen or the adjusting point within 250
meters of the actual target location. Requests shell smoke when the 200-meter bracket is
split. Completely obscures the target. Follows all procedures specified in FM 6-30.
EVALUATION PREPARATION:
The evaluator must—
1. Ensure that the observer is able to communicate with the FDC.
2. Locate and identify a suitable target for a quick fire mission.
EVALUATION GUIDE
Step
1
2
2A
2B
3
B-12
Performance Measures/Grader Instructions
Deductions
Transmits the observer ID and “ADJUST FIRE OVER” as the first
transmission. The observer must include a warning order if he intends to use
any method of target location other than grid in his first transmission. Sequence
is graded.
Transmits target coordinates (six or eight) as the second transmission of
the call for fire.
Transmits polar plot data as the second transmission of the call for fire.
The observer sends OT direction to nearest 10 mils (±60 mils), distance to the
target to the nearest 10 or 100 meters, and a vertical shift when it is greater than
35 meters to the nearest 5 meters. The observer must send OT direction to
nearest 1 mil, distance to the nearest 10 meters, and a vertical angle to the
nearest 1 mil when equipped with a G/VLLD or similar device. Sequence is
graded.
Transmits shift from a known point data as the second transmission of the
CFF. The observer sends an OT direction to the nearest 10 mils (±60 mils), a
lateral shift to the nearest 10 meters, a range shift to the nearest 100 meters, and
a vertical shift when it is greater than 35 meters to the nearest 5 meters.
Sequence is graded.
Determines the location to the center of the smoke screen or the adjusting
point within 250 m of the actual center of the smoke screen or the adjusting
point. The observer must ensure that the smoke screen is 200 meters short of
the target for a crosswind, 100 meters short for a headwind, 400 meters short for
a tailwind, for HC/M825 smoke; when an artillery unit is firing the smoke the FDC
will determine the amount of the lateral offset. When mortars provide the smoke,
the observer will use an adjusting point; the adjusting point should be 100 meters
short and 100 meters upwind for a crosswind, 100 meters short for a headwind,
and 200 meters short for a tailwind.
FM 3-09.8
31 July 2006
Fire Mission Grading
EVALUATION GUIDE
Step
4
4A
5
6
7
8
9
10
11
Performance Measures/Grader Instructions
Deductions
Transmits target description, length (nearest 10 m); maneuver target
direction; direction for the wind (left or right cross-, head-, or tailwind);
duration (to the nearest 1 minute); “SMOKE IN EFFECT OVER.”
Transmits target description, length (to the nearest 10 meters), attitude
(0000-3100); direction for the wind (left or right, cross-, head-, or tailwind);
duration (to the nearest 1 minute); “SMOKE IN EFFECT OVER.” The
observer must use Step 4A for mortars and may use 4A when it is more accurate
to determine attitude verses maneuver target direction.
Correctly determines the OT factor. Grader must ask for the OT factor.
Transmits OT direction to the nearest 10 mils (±60 mils) prior to the first
adjustment when applicable.
Transmits subsequent corrections within 10 seconds of HE burst and each
adjustment moves the round(s) closer to the center of the smoke screen or
the adjusting point. Sequence is graded.
When a 200-m bracket is split, the observer requests smoke and adjusts
the smoke prior to FFE. Based on the accuracy of the offset, the observer may
not have to adjust the smoke. Splitting the 200-meter bracket is defined as any
correction less than 200 meter. Sequence is graded.
Enters FFE when the smoke rounds will obscure the target.
Completely obscures the target.
Transmits “END OF MISSION” and surveillance. Sequence is graded.
Evaluation Guidance:
If an observer fails to obscure the target or complete the entire
CFF within 120 seconds, he can receive no higher than a 69 on the fire mission. The
observer may score lower based on the cumulative deductions for his mission.
References:
FM 6-30, STP 6-13F14-SM-TG Task #s 061-283-2023, 1002-283-2023,
1003-283-2023, and 1004-283-2023
31 July 2006
FM 3-09.8
B-13
Appendix B
MISSION: REQUEST FIRE ON AN IRREGULARLY SHAPED TARGET
CONDITIONS:
Given a 1:50,000 map, an OF fan, a compass, a terrain sketch (drawn by
the observer), communications with an FDC, a GPS, an LRF (an LRF will not be replicated
in TSFO or GUARDFIST), binoculars, night vision goggles (during hours of limited visibility),
and an irregularly shaped enemy target.
STANDARDS:
Engages an irregularly shaped target of opportunity by providing the FDC
with target location and an accurate target description within 45 seconds of target
identification. Enters FFE within 50 meters of the target. Follows all procedures for engaging
irregularly shaped targets in FM 6-30.
EVALUATION PREPARATION:
The evaluator must—
1. Ensure that the observer is able to communicate with the FDC.
2. Locate and identify a target that could not be engaged without specifying the target
size as a part of the target description.
3. Ensure that a stopwatch is available to time the mission.
4. Be able to determine if the observer’s target location and subsequent adjustments
are correct.
EVALUATION GUIDE
Step
Performance Measures/Grader Instructions
1
Transmits the observer ID and “ADJUST FIRE OVER” as the first
transmission. The observer may initially FFE; however, this changes the
initial target location standard to 150 meters. The observer must include a
warning order if he intends to use any method of target location other than
grid in his first transmission. Sequence is graded.
Transmits target center coordinates (six or eight) as the second
transmission of the call for fire.
Transmits polar plot data to the center of the target as the second
transmission of the call for fire. The observer sends OT direction to
nearest 10 mils (±60 mils), distance to the target to the nearest 10 or 100
meters, and a vertical shift when it is greater than 35 meters to the nearest
5 meters. The observer must send OT direction to nearest 1 mil, distance
to the nearest 10 meters, and a vertical angle to the nearest 1 mil when
equipped with a G/VLLD or similar device. Sequence is graded.
Transmits shift from a known point data to the center of the target as
the second transmission of the CFF. The observer sends an OT
direction to the nearest 10 mils (±60 mils), a lateral shift to the nearest 10
meters, a range shift to the nearest 100 meters, and a vertical shift when it
is greater than 35 meters to the nearest 5 meters. Sequence is graded.
2
2A
2B
B-14
FM 3-09.8
Deductions
31 July 2006
Fire Mission Grading
EVALUATION GUIDE
Step
Performance Measures/Grader Instructions
3
Determines the target location within 250 meters of the actual
location based on an AF mission. The grader must be able to confirm or
deny that the observer has met the 250-meter standard.
Determines the target location within 150 meters of the actual
location based on an FFE mission. The grader must be able to confirm
or deny that the observer has met the 250-meter standard.
For a linear target (greater than 150 meters in length and less than 50
meters width), transmits a length to the nearest 10 meters and an
attitude (0000-3100) after the target description. The accuracy of this
data is evaluated based on the effects on target. Sequence is graded.
For a rectangular target (greater than 150 meters and greater than 50
m in width), transmits a length to the nearest 10 meters, width to the
nearest 10 meters, and an attitude (0000-3100) after the target
description. The accuracy of this data is evaluated based on the effects
on target. Sequence is graded.
For a circular target, transmits radius to the nearest 10 meters after
the target description. The accuracy of this data is evaluated based on
the effects on target. Sequence is graded.
For other shapes, transmits grid-to-grid-to-grid coordinates as the
second transmission. The accuracy of this data is evaluated based on
the effects on target. Sequence is graded.
Polar plot data may be transmitted to multiple points as a laser draw.
The FDC must be equipped with a BCS or similar device in order to
compute target location data sent in this format. The accuracy of this data
is evaluated based on the effects on target. Sequence is graded.
Completes the third transmission of the CFF within 45 seconds of
target identification. At a minimum, the observer must include target
description in his third transmission and danger close when applicable.
Sequence is graded.
Correctly determines the OT factor. Grader must ask for the OT factor.
Transmits OT direction to the nearest 10 mils (±60 mils) prior to
sending the first adjustment when applicable.
Transmits subsequent corrections within 10 seconds of HE burst.
Each adjustment moves the round(s) closer to the target.
Enters FFE when the HE rounds will impact within 50 meters of the
target.
Transmits refinement data, “END OF MISSION,” and surveillance.
Sequence is graded.
3A
4
4A
4B
4C
4D
5
6
7
8
9
10
11
Deductions
Evaluation Guidance:
If an observer fails to have effects within 50 meters of the
target or complete the entire CFF within 120 seconds, he can receive no higher than a 69 on
his fire mission. He may score lower based on the cumulative deductions for his mission.
References:
FM 6-30, STP 6-13F14-SM-TG Task Numbers 061-283-2206, 061-2831002, 061-283-1003, 061-283-1004
31 July 2006
FM 3-09.8
B-15
Appendix B
MISSION: CONDUCT AN IMMEDIATE SUPPRESSION MISSION
CONDITIONS:
Given a 1:50,000 map, an OF fan, a compass, a terrain sketch (drawn by
the observer), communications with an FDC, a GPS, an LRF (an LRF will not be replicated
in TSFO or GUARDFIST), binoculars, night vision goggles (during hours of limited visibility),
and an enemy target.
STANDARDS:
Engage a target of opportunity with an immediate suppression mission
within 150 meters of actual target location and complete the call for fire within 25 seconds
of target identification. Follow all procedures specified in FM 6-30, as outlined in the
Evaluation Guide.
EVALUATION PREPARATION:
The evaluator must—
1.
2.
3.
4.
Ensure that the observer is able to communicate with the FDC.
Locate and identify a suitable target for an immediate suppression mission.
Be able to determine if the observer’s target location is correct.
Ensure that a stopwatch is available to time the mission.
EVALUATION GUIDE
Step
1
2
2A
2B
3
4
5
B-16
Performance Measures/Grader Instructions
Deductions
Transmits the observer ID and “IMMEDIATE SUPPRESSION” as the
warning order. The observer must include a warning order if he intends to use
any method of target location other than grid. Sequence is graded.
Transmits target coordinates (six or eight) after the warning order in the
first transmission of the call for fire.
Transmits polar plot data after the warning order in the first transmission
of the call for fire. The observer sends OT direction to the nearest 10 mils (±60
mils), distance to the target to the nearest 10 or 100 meters, and a vertical shift
when it is greater than 35 meters to the nearest 5 meters. The observer must
send OT direction to the nearest 1 mil, distance to the nearest 10 meters, and a
vertical angle to the nearest 1 mil when equipped with a G/VLLD or similar
device. Sequence is graded.
Transmits shift from a known point data after the warning order in the first
transmission of the CFF. The observer sends an OT direction to the nearest 10
mils (±60 mils), a lateral shift to the nearest 10 meters, a range shift to the
nearest 100 meters, and a vertical shift when it is greater than 35 meters to the
nearest 5 meters. Sequence is graded.
Determines the target location within 150 meters of the actual location. The
grader must be able to confirm or deny that the observer has met the 150-meter
standard.
Completes the CFF within 25 seconds of target identification. The observer
may send a second transmission to include a target description, but it is not
necessary. Time will stop when the observer transmits target location data
unless danger close is required. Danger close must be included, when
applicable, at the conclusion of the first transmission or as a separate
transmission. Sequence is graded.
Transmits refinement data, “END OF MISSION,” and surveillance. Sequence
is graded.
FM 3-09.8
31 July 2006
Fire Mission Grading
Evaluation Guidance: If an observer fails to have effects within 50 meters of the target or
complete the entire CFF within 120 seconds, he can receive no higher than a 69 on his fire
mission. He may score lower based on the cumulative deductions for his mission.
References: FM 6-30, STP 6-13F14-SM-TG Task Numbers 061-283-1014, 061-283-1002,
061-283-1003, 061-283-1004
31 July 2006
FM 3-09.8
B-17
Appendix B
MISSION: CONDUCT AN IMPACT AND TIME REGISTRATION
CONDITIONS:
Given a 1:50,000 map, an OF fan, a compass, a terrain sketch (drawn by
the observer), communications with an FDC, a GPS, an LRF, binoculars, night vision
goggles (during hours of limited visibility), DA Form 5429-R (Conduct of Fire) or a field
reproduction of this form, and a location for a Registration Point (RP). (When it is impossible
to replicate an LRF, the grader will provide the distance to the RP [nearest 10 meters] and
then offset the grid no more than 200 meters in order to replicate a firing unit’s failure to
meet the requirements for accurate fires.)
STANDARDS:
Accurately locate a registration point and adjust both HE and time rounds
to meet the objective of both the impact and time portion without error. This is in accordance
with the procedures in FM 6-30 as outlined in the Evaluation Guide.
EVALUATION PREPARATION:
The evaluator must—
1.
2.
3.
4.
Ensure that the observer is able to communicate with the FDC.
Locate and identify a suitable location for the registration point.
Be able to determine if the observer’s RP location and subsequent adjustments are
correct.
Direct the FDC to begin the mission utilizing a vicinity grid format for the MTO.
EVALUATION GUIDE
Step
1
2
3
4
5
6
7
8
Performance Measures/Grader Instructions
Deductions
Selects an RP that is on level terrain, semipermanent, and in the center of
the zone of fire. The grader may have to ask the observer if he knows what the
requirements for an RP are in accordance with FM 6-30.
Transmits an eight-digit grid (±10 meters on either the easting, northing, or
both of the actual RP location), an altitude to the nearest 5 meters (±10
meters), and the OT direction to the nearest 10 mils (±60 mils) after he
reads back the MTO.
Records spottings (to the nearest 1 mil) and corrections on both the sketch
and table portion of DA Form 5429-R or a field reproduction of this form.
Correctly determines the OT factor. Grader must ask for the OT factor.
Corrects each subsequent round to move it closer to the RP.
Corrects for deviation only when a round is spotted a range doubtful. The
grader will use the observer’s spotting(s) when determining pass or fail for this
measure.
Brings the round online before splitting the 200-meter bracket.
Requests repeat when a round is spotted as target or range correct. A
target or range correct spotting counts as both an over and short; therefore, the
impact portion of the mission could be finished if the observer spotted two rounds
as target or range correct.
Note. Deviation refinement may still be necessary and must be correctly determined.
9
B-18
Requests two rounds add or drop 25 meters after the 50 meters is fired.
FM 3-09.8
31 July 2006
Fire Mission Grading
EVALUATION GUIDE
Step
10
11
12
13
14
15
16
17
Performance Measures/Grader Instructions
Deductions
Changes to a volume of one round or repeats the two-round volume based
on the spotting of the last round(s). The grader will use the observer’s
spotting(s) when determining pass or fail for this measure.
Transmits deviation refinement to the nearest 10 meters based on the
spottings of two, three, or four rounds. The observer’s computation
procedures must be without error.
Transmits range refinement to the nearest 10 meters based on the standard
range refinement corrections in FM 6-30.
Transmits deviation followed by range refinement, records the registration
as an RP number or a target number, and requests “TIME REPEAT OVER”
when appropriate. Sequence is graded.
Corrects to a measurable airburst using the automatic correction of “UP40”
when the time round is spotted as a graze burst.
Transmit “3 ROUNDS REPEAT OVER” once a measurable airburst has
been spotted.
Determines the correct refinement to achieve a 20-meter HOB utilizing the
automatic refinement corrections when appropriate or adds the four
airbursts, divides by 4, multiplies by the OT factor, and corrects (to the
nearest 5 meter) to achieve a 20-m HOB. Computation procedures must be
without error.
Transmits time refinement, records as “TIME RP (same number),” and ends
the mission. Sequence is graded.
Evaluation Guidance:
This is not a timed mission. If the observer fails to provide
accurate target location (see step 2), he can receive no higher than 69 on this mission. The
observer may score lower based on the cumulative deductions for his mission.
References:
31 July 2006
FM 6-30, STP 6-13F14-SM-TG Task Number 061-283-2102
FM 3-09.8
B-19
Appendix B
MISSION: CONDUCT A MORTAR REGISTRATION
CONDITIONS:
Given a 1:50,000 map, an OF fan, a compass, a terrain sketch (drawn by
the observer), communications with an FDC, a GPS, an LRF, binoculars, night vision
goggles (during hours of limited visibility), DA Form 5429-R or a field reproduction of the
form, and a location for an RP. (When it is impossible to replicate an LRF, the grader will
provide the distance to the RP [to the nearest 10 meters] and then offset the grid no more
than 200 meters in order to replicate a firing unit’s failure to meet the requirements for
accurate fires).
STANDARDS:
Accurately locate a registration point, adjust HE rounds to meet the
objective of a mortar registration, and adjust the sheaf without error. This is in accordance
with the procedures in FM 6-30 as outlined in the Evaluation Guide.
EVALUATION PREPARATION:
The evaluator must—
1. Ensure that the observer is able to communicate with the FDC.
2. Locate and identify a suitable location for the registration point.
3. Be able to determine if the observer’s RP location and subsequent adjustments are
correct.
4. Review the procedures for conducting a mortar registration in FM 6-30 prior to
evaluating the task.
5. Direct the FDC to begin the mission utilizing a vicinity grid format for the MTO.
Step
1
2
3
4
5
6
7
8
9
B-20
EVALUATION GUIDE
Performance Measures/Grader Instructions
Selects an RP that is on level terrain, semipermanent, and in the center
of the zone of fire. The grader may have to ask the observer if he knows
what the requirements for an RP are in accordance with FM 6-30.
Transmits an eight-digit grid (±10 meters of the actual RP location), an
altitude to the nearest 5 meters (±10 meters), and the OT direction to the
nearest 10 mils (±60 mils) after he reads back the MTO. The observer may
use a known point to communicate the RP location.
Records spottings (to the nearest 1 mil) and corrections on both the
sketch and table portion of DA Form 5429-R or a field reproduction of
this form.
Correctly determines the OT factor. Grader must ask for the OT factor.
Corrects each subsequent round to move it closer to the RP.
Corrects for deviation only when a round is spotted as range doubtful.
The grader will use the observer’s spotting(s) when determining pass or fail for
this measure.
Brings the round online before splitting the 200-meter bracket.
Utilizes successive bracketing to ensure that the last round fired is
within 50 meters of the RP. This step may not be necessary if the observer
spots a round as target or range correct.
Determines deviation refinement to the nearest 10 meters or no deviation
refinement to move the last round closer to the RP.
FM 3-09.8
Deductions
31 July 2006
Fire Mission Grading
Step
10
11
12
13
14
15
16
17
18
EVALUATION GUIDE
Performance Measures/Grader Instructions
Determines ADD or DROP 25 or no range refinement to move the round
closer to the RP.
Transmits deviation followed by range refinement, records the
registration as an RP number or a target number, and ends the mission.
Sequence is graded.
Determines section left or right based on the type of wind when the FDC
requests that the sheaf be adjusted.
Reads back the fire order from the FDC and transmits “SECTION
LEFT/RIGHT REPEAT OVER.”
Determines deviation (lateral) refinement or corrections to the nearest
10meters, but transmits corrections of less than 50 meters as refinement
data only.
Ignores range corrections for rounds impacting within 50 meters of the
sheaf.
Transmits corrections before refinement and transmits refinement data
in the order the tubes fired. Sequence is graded.
Adjusts all rounds online at approximately the same range (within 50
meters) and with a 40-meter lateral spread between rounds. If angle T is
greater than 500 mils, each piece is adjusted onto the registration point and
the FDC computes data for the sheaf.
Transmits refinement, “SHEAF IS ADJUSTED,” and ends the mission.
Sequence is graded.
Deductions
Evaluation Guidance:
This is not a timed mission. If the observer fails to provide
accurate target location (see Step 2), he can receive no higher than 69 on this mission. The
observer may score lower based on the cumulative deductions for the mission.
References:
31 July 2006
FM 6-30, STP 6-13F14-SM-TG Task Number 061-283-2104
FM 3-09.8
B-21
Appendix B
MISSION: REQUEST AND ADJUST COORDINATED ILLUMINATION
CONDITIONS:
Given a 1:50,000 map, an OF fan, a compass, a terrain sketch (drawn by
the observer), communications with an FDC, a GPS, an LRF (an LRF will not be replicated
in TSFO or GUARDFIST), binoculars, night vision goggles (during hours of limited visibility),
and an enemy target.
STANDARDS:
Transmit a request for illumination by completing the CFF within 45
seconds of target identification. Adjust the illumination so it best illuminates the target of
opportunity when HE rounds impact. Transmit a request for HE fires by completing a second
call for fire within 45 seconds of marking the illumination. Establish a bracket to ensure the
FFE is within 50 meters of the target. Follow all procedures specified in FM 6-30 as outlined
in the Evaluation Guide.
EVALUATION PREPARATION
The evaluator must—
1.
2.
3.
4.
Step
1
2
2A
2B
3
4
5
B-22
Ensure that the observer is able to communicate with the FDC.
Locate and identify a suitable target for a coordinated illumination mission.
Determine if the observer’s target location and subsequent adjustment are correct.
Ensure that a stopwatch is available to time the mission.
EVALUATION GUIDE
Performance Measures/Grader Instructions
Deductions
Transmits the observer ID and “ADJUST FIRE OVER” as the first
transmission. The observer must include a warning order if he intends to use
any method of target location other than grid in his first transmission. Sequence
is graded.
Transmits target coordinates (six or eight) as the second transmission of
the call for fire.
Transmits polar plot data as the second transmission of the call for fire.
The observer sends OT direction to nearest 10 mils (±60 mils), distance to the
target to the nearest 10 or 100 m, and a vertical shift when it is greater than
30 meters to the nearest 5 meters. The observer must send OT direction to the
nearest 1 mil, distance to the nearest 10 meters, and a vertical angle to the
nearest 1 mil when equipped with a G/VLLD or similar device. Sequence is
graded.
Transmits shift from a known point data as the second transmission of the
CFF. The observer sends an OT direction to the nearest 10 mils (±60 mils), a
lateral shift to the nearest 10 meters, a range shift to the nearest 100 m, and a
vertical shift when it is greater than 30 meters to the nearest 5 meters.
Sequence is graded.
Transmits suspected enemy activity and a request for illumination in the
third transmission. Sequence is graded.
Completes the third transmission of the CFF within 45 seconds of hearing
noises that prompt a need for illumination.
Transmits OT direction to the nearest 10 mils prior to the first adjustment
when applicable.
FM 3-09.8
31 July 2006
Fire Mission Grading
Step
6
7
8
9
10
10A
10B
11
12
13
14
15
16
EVALUATION GUIDE
Performance Measures/Grader Instructions
Deductions
Adjusts the illumination to identify the location of the enemy target.
Sequence is graded.
Transmits “ILLUMINATION…MARK OVER” when it best illuminates the
target.
Transmits “COORDINATED ILLUMINATION OVER.”
Transmits the observer ID and “ADJUST FIRE OVER” as the first
transmission. The observer must include a warning order if he intends to use
any method of target location other than grid in his first transmission. Sequence
is graded.
Transmits target coordinates (6 or 8) as the second transmission of the
call for fire.
Transmits polar plot data as the second transmission of the call for fire.
The observer sends OT direction to the nearest 10 mils (±60 mils), distance to
the target to the nearest 10 or 100 meters, and a vertical shift when it is greater
than 30 meters to the nearest 5 meters. The observer must send OT direction to
the nearest 1 mil, distance to the nearest 10 meters, and a vertical angle to the
nearest 1 mil when equipped with a G/VLLD or similar device. Sequence is
graded.
Transmits shift from a known point data as the second transmission of the
CFF. The observer sends an OT direction to the nearest 10 mils (±60 mils), a
lateral shift to the nearest 10 meters, a range shift to the nearest 100 meters,
and a vertical shift when it is greater than 30 meters to the nearest 5 meters.
Sequence is graded.
Completes the third transmission of the CFF within 45 seconds of
“ILLUMINATION…MARK OVER.” The grader should begin timing the mission
when the observer transmits “OVER.” At a minimum, the observer must include
target description and danger close when applicable. Sequence is graded.
Transmits OT direction to the nearest 10 mils (±60 mils) prior to the first
adjustment when applicable.
Transmits subsequent corrections within 10 seconds of HE burst and
each adjustment moves the round(s) closer to the target. Sequence is
graded.
Utilizes no more than four adjusting rounds to include the initial round to
enter FFE.
Enters FFE when the HE rounds will impact within 50 meters of the target.
Transmits refinement data, “END OF MISSION,” and surveillance.
Sequence is graded.
Evaluation Guidance:
If an observer fails to have effects within 50 meters of the
target or complete the entire CFF within 120 seconds, he can receive no higher than a 69 on
his fire mission. He may score lower based on the cumulative deductions for his mission.
References: FM 6-30, STP 6-13F14-SM-TG Task Numbers 061-283-1021, 061-283-1011,
061-283-1002, 061-283-1003, 061-283-1004.
31 July 2006
FM 3-09.8
B-23
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Appendix C
Sample Leader Exams
TABLE I (HOWITZER) SAFETY HANDS-ON COMPONENT
PHASE I:
Task 1:
Perform prefire checks on an applicable weapon.
Conditions: The Soldier is given an emplaced weapon in operational condition, ready for
low-angle firing.
Standards: Conduct the prefire checks, state what is a safe and unsafe condition, and
specify what necessary corrective action is to be taken.
Reference: Appropriate -10 manual, FM 6-50, and DA Pam 385-63
Task 2: Verify emplacement of aiming points and recording of deflection.
Conditions: Given an operational emplaced howitzer with the aiming posts, safety and lay
circles, and collimator emplaced; all deflections recorded on a gunner’s reference card are
correct.
Standards: Determine and announce if the aiming posts are properly emplaced to within
1 mil of the recorded deflections. Announce any error found and what must be done to
correct them. All bubbles must be leveled and the scales zeroed out.
Reference: Appropriate -10 Manual
Task 3: Verify boresight.
Conditions: Given an emplaced weapon that has been correctly boresighted. The fire
control equipment and a gunner’s quadrant is available. An assistant is available to help
traverse or elevate the tube.
31 July 2006
FM 3-09.8
C-1
Appendix C
Standards: Correctly demonstrate the procedures to verify that the weapon is properly
boresighted. Announce to the tester whether or not the weapon is properly boresighted. If
any error was found, indicate what corrective action should be taken.
Reference: Appropriate -10 Manual
Task 4: Emplacement of safety aids (stakes or tape).
Conditions: Given an emplaced weapon with a standard reference point (collimator or
aiming posts), fire control equipment, safety aids, a Safety T with the right and left deflection
limits, and a crewmember to assist in the emplacement of the safety aids.
Standards: Correctly emplace the safety aids at the proper deflection limits to within 10 mils
accuracy.
Reference: FM 6-50
C-2
FM 3-09.8
31 July 2006
Sample Leader Exams
Task 5: Determine site to crest.
Conditions: Given an emplaced weapon, assistant, assigned sector of fire, and visible crest
less than 1,000 meters away.
Standards: Determine and report the site to crest, within 10 mils, to the tester.
Reference: FM 6-50
Task 6: Perform end for end, gunner’s quadrant test.
Conditions: Given a weapon and a gunner’s quadrant.
Standards: Correctly perform the end-for-end test to within 0.1 mil accuracy and report the
result to the tester. State the criteria for determining the quadrant’s serviceability.
Reference: Appropriate -10 Manual
Task 7: Perform micrometer test for the gunner’s quadrant.
Conditions: Given a weapon and an accurate gunner’s quadrant.
Standards: Correctly perform the micrometer test procedures and announce the result to
within 0 mils tolerance to the tester. State the criteria for determining if the gunner’s
quadrant is serviceable.
Reference: Appropriate -10 Manual
Task 8: Set the cannon for deflection using a distant aiming point.
Conditions: Given an emplaced weapon with sights, the gunner’s reference card with the
recorded deflection to the collimator and DAP; collimator and aiming posts are not available
for use.
Standards: Correctly set the cannon for the deflection of the fire mission using the DAP,
aligning the tube and sight to within 1 mil accuracy. All bubbles must be leveled.
31 July 2006
FM 3-09.8
C-3
Appendix C
Reference: FM 6-50
Task 9: Determine that the weapon is safe to fire (10 missions).
Conditions: Given an emplaced weapon with crew, correctly boresighted, the prefire
checks completed, Safety T and a gunner’s quadrant available, and ammunition and charge
increments available. Fire commands will be verbally issued by the tester, and the weapon
data will be set off by the crew.
Standards: Verify that the commands are safe; confirm the crew set off the data correctly to
1 mil accuracy, and prepare the ammunition properly (correct and complete charge and time
fuzes set to 0.1 sec accuracy). If an unsafe condition or error greater than 1 mil exists,
“check firing” is announced, along with the reason why. After the condition is corrected,
continue to safe the weapon and then fire the weapon.
Reference: FM 6-50, TM 43-0001-28, and appropriate -10 Manual
C-4
FM 3-09.8
31 July 2006
Sample Leader Exams
Task 10: Set up and orient an M2 aiming circle by the grid azimuth method.
Conditions: Given a declinated aiming circle in march order configuration and an AOF.
Standards: Correctly set up and level the circle, determine and place the instrument
reading on the circle to 0 mil accuracy, and correctly orient the circle to within 0 mil
accuracy.
Note. Leveling the circle can be accomplished by either the circular leveling vial (fish-eye
bubble) or the tubular leveling vial. The orientation of the circle will be checked by a reciprocal
reading from another circle by the tester.
Reference: FM 6-50
Task 11: Set up and orient an M2 aiming circle by the orienting angle method.
Conditions: Given an unleveled, declinated aiming circle on a tripod, an AOF, an orienting
station (OS), a clearly marked end of the orienting line (EOL), and azimuth to the EOL.
Standards: Correctly level the circle, determine and place the instrument reading on the
circle to 0 mil accuracy, and correctly orient the circle to 0 mil accuracy.
Note. Leveling the circle can be accomplished by either the circular leveling vial (fish-eye
bubble) or the tubular leveling vial. The orientation of the circle will be checked by reciprocal
reading by another circle. The circle should initially be positioned near, but not over, the OS.
Reference: FM 6-50
31 July 2006
FM 3-09.8
C-5
Appendix C
Task 12: Determine the orientation of the lay circle as safe or unsafe.
Conditions: Given leveled, declinated, aiming circles on a tripod that have been oriented.
Standards: Verify the orientation of the lay circle with the safety circle. If safe, correctly
zero-out the safety circle to 0 mil accuracy. If unsafe, announce the error, recheck the lay
circle after it has been reoriented, and then zero out the safety circle. Record the deflections
on paper.
Note. The circles must check within 10 mils. After zeroing, the circles must check within 0 mil.
The initial deflection on the test should be unsafe. An immediate second reading will be given
that is safe.
Reference: FM 6-50 and USAFAS Battery Executive Officer’s Handbook
Task 13: Set up and level the GLPS.
Conditions: Given an M67 Gun Laying Positioning System in the stowed configuration.
Standard: Set up and level the GLPS in accordance with TM 9-6675-347-13&P.
Task 14: Position and orientation using the M67 GLPS.
Conditions: Given an M67 GLPS set up and leveled in a field location; known azimuths to
two azimuth markers; an AoF, a howitzer in a firing position, necessary assistants, and
communication with the howitzer.
Standard: Perform positioning and orientation in accordance with TM 9-6675-347-13&P.
C-6
FM 3-09.8
31 July 2006
Appendix D
The Contemporary Operating Environment
The global war on terror (GWOT) has changed the COE for U.S. Army artillery
units. The impact of the changes resulting from COE prompted a reexamination of
the current missions of the artillery force, which will be reflected in other training
literature and materials. The execution of the training tables provided in FM 3-09.8
must address COE conditions.
BACKGROUND
D-1. The expanded missions capture the tasks being performed in the field by artillery units as required by
emerging operational doctrine. FM 3-09.08 is a tool that supports realigned mission/task training. The
current mission set for the field artillery force includes—
z
Command and Control.
z
Develop Intelligence.
z
Communicate.
z
Detect and Locate Surface Targets.
z
Coordinate Fires and Effects.
z
Conduct Tactical Deployment/Redeployment Activities.
z
Conduct Surface-to-Surface Attack.
z
Conduct Tactical Maneuver.
z
Provide Combat Service Support.
z
Provide Force Protection.
z
SOSO (Stability Operations and Support Operations).
D-2. Command and Control. The C2 mission provides the collective tasks that support a properly
designated commander exercising authority and direction over assigned and available forces in
accomplishing the mission. For the FA battery, C2 directly addresses the arrangement of personnel,
information management, procedures, and equipment and facilities essential to the commander to conduct
(plan, prepare, execute, and continuously assess) operations. COE settings for executing the Field Artillery
Tables can focus on scenarios consistent with scheduled deployments, assigned theater of operations, or
variants, depending on the experience, continuity, and task mastery of the section in training. An example
is provided in Section D-3 to illustrate how the conditions may be adjusted to train differing aspects of C2
using FDC/BOC/POC Table VI.
D-3. Develop Intelligence. The development of intelligence is a continuous process that is fundamental to
FA operations and integrated into battle command. The mission focuses on providing information and
intelligence to the commander that assist in achieving a clear understanding of the force’s current state with
relation to the enemy and the environment. Intelligence supports the FA commander’s ability to make
sound decisions. Intelligence functions are performed during all phases of operations, including
predeployment, deployment, HIC, SOSO, and redeployment. The Artillery Tables affected by COE
changes to conditions for the Intelligence mission include the ROC-V portion of the ASPT for
FIST/COLT/Knight and FS Table IV; Occupation of the OP; and the inclusive task of reporting
intelligence information. FDC/BOC/POC Table VI (C2) must integrate intelligence from all available
sensors and platforms, including observers, UAVs, and radars.
D-4. Communicate. This is a critical task in COE that poses challenges because of the limitations of
TO&E communications means. The range of current fire mission communications provides challenges to
31 July 2006
FM 3-09.8
D-1
Appendix D
using AFATDS in a noncontiguous battlefield. The ability to communicate is imperative to accomplish C2,
distribute intelligence, deliver fires, sustain a COP, provide security, and logistically sustain the force.
Communications tasks—individual and collective—are included in the APST, and as a part of the tables,
and are integrated functionally in Tables VII and VIII. The impact of COE is the increased demand on
redundant, long-range communications; linked sensors and networked fires; and training on
alternative/backup means of controlling fires (for example, transferring C2 to another POC/BOC).
D-5.
Detect and Locate Surface Targets. The mission is to perceive an object of possible military
interest without confirming it by recognition (detect). The mission includes determining the placement of a
target on the battlefield (locate). This is the primary mission for FIST/COLT/Knight and radar sections.
D-6. Coordinate Fires and Effects. Fire support coordination is the primary means of synchronizing fire
support. It involves the tactical and technical considerations necessary to deliver effects on target. Fire
support coordination is the continual process of coordinating fire support plans and managing the fire
support assets that are available to a maneuver force. The FA commander serves as the force commander’s
FSCOORD and speaks for the force commander on all matters pertaining to fire support. The tasks in COE
address coordinating, integrating, and synchronizing fires and effects, emphasizing joint fires. The COE
places a premium on fire support personnel at all levels being trained to coordinate all effects, lethal and
nonlethal. The ever-expanding role of information operations (IO) under COE has placed increasing
demands on fire supporters at every level to assist the commanders in planning and integrating IO. The
addition of IO tasks to FS Table VI (Lethal and Nonlethal Fire Planning) would be a means of training FS
sections on this critical task.
D-7. Conduct Tactical Deployment/Redeployment Activities. The deployment mission is composed of
activities required to prepare and move forces, sustainment equipment, and supplies to an area of
operations (AO). The force organizes, echelons, and tailors itself for movement based on the mission,
concept of operations, available lift, and other resources. Redeployment involves transferring forces and
materiel to support another joint force commander’s operational requirements or returning personnel,
equipment, and materiel to the home and/or demobilization stations for reintegration and/or outprocessing.
Redeployment optimizes readiness of forces and materiel to meet new contingencies or crises.
D-8. Conduct Surface-to-Surface Attack. These missions use ground-based, indirect-fire weapons
systems to destroy, suppress, or neutralize enemy equipment, materiel, personnel, fortifications, and
facilities. This remains the single most important mission or core competency for all sections.
D-9. Conduct Tactical Maneuver. Maneuver is the movement of field artillery forces on the battlefield
using terrain and combat formations to accomplish the mission. Commanders take full advantage of
maneuvers to achieve a position of advantage over the enemy to deliver fires and yet sustain the unit in
COE. Each type of section includes a task table designed to train the tasks associated with the mission
Conduct Tactical Maneuver (for example, Occupation of OP, Deliberate Occupation, Occupation under
Special Conditions, and Occupation and Setup). The conditions of the COE and the asymmetric battlefield
have generated a new emphasis on “old” tasks, such as reaction to ambush, dealing with civilians on the
battlefield, and increasing focus on individual and crew-served weapons. Tables have been provided to
assist with the training and qualification of assigned machine guns.
D-10. Provide Combat Service Support (CSS). This support provides all classes of supplies necessary to
equip, maintain, and operate the unit. CSS tasks also encompass conducting PMCS to quickly identify
potential problems, including quick turnaround repairs by component replacement, minor repairs, and
performing scheduled services at the operator, crew, battery, and battalion/task force levels. FA units
coordinate maintenance operations among the various activities and maintain maintenance/equipment
records. CSS tasks include planning and coordinating the transportation and movement of personnel,
equipment, and supplies; managing strength accounting data and readiness; administering essential
personnel services to maintain Soldier readiness; and sustaining the human dimension of the unit, including
coordinating combat casualty care.
D-11. Provide Force Protection. This COE mission requires emphasis on basic Soldier tasks including—
z
Protect against enemy hazards within the AO.
z
Conduct CBRN defense.
D-2
FM 3-09.8
31 July 2006
The Contemporary Operating Environment
z
z
z
z
z
z
Tactical dispersion and protection of unit.
Conduct security operations.
Combat terrorism in an AO.
Employ combined arms for air defense.
Engage threat with direct fire weapons of the unit, including small arms, antitank weapons,
automatic weapons, attached weapons systems, and direct fire with howitzers.
Conduct counter ambush actions.
D-12. Conduct Stability Operations and Support Operations (SOSO). Stability operations employ FA
units outside the United States and U.S. territories to promote and protect U.S. national interests by
influencing threat, political, and information dimensions of the operational environment. The two types of
support operations are domestic and foreign humanitarian assistance. SOSO support is a combination of
peacetime developmental, cooperative activities and coercive actions in response to crisis.
FA units conduct support operations forces to assist civil authorities, foreign or domestic,
as they prepare for or respond to crises and relieve suffering. In support operations, units
provide essential services, assets, or specialized resources to help civil authorities deal
with situations beyond their capabilities. Recent experience has resulted in the FA units
being among the first selected when indirect fires are no longer a priority.
COE FOCUS ON FA MISSIONS AND TRAINING TO STANDARD
WITH GUNNERY TABLES
D-13. METT-TC analysis in the COE is an ongoing process to accommodate dynamic (concurrent) input of
data and the broadest spectrum of conflict. This includes artillery operations against enemy states with
sophisticated capabilities (high-intensity conflict) to stability operations coping with events associated with
terrorist organizations, as identified in the GWOT. FM 3-09.08 provides a means to train to standard with
the flexibility needed to deal with tactical/operational issues posed in worldwide contingencies.
D-14. FM 3-09.08 also focuses on section-level training. Units train with COE as a condition—not to be
confused with a condition statement. Units provide leader and Soldier training designed to build adaptive
leaders in the expert trades of FA. Leader and Soldier mastery of basic tasks are tested against a dynamic,
intelligent threat in challenging environments. Adaptations to training prescriptions in executing a tabular
training strategy are required to prepare qualified sections/units for a multitude of circumstances.
FDC TABLE VI: PROVIDE COMMAND AND CONTROL
D-15. Units that execute FDC Table VI train BOC/POC either in preparation for deployment certification
or postdeployment readiness train-up for section qualification. The preliminary tables, which emphasize
individual and team skills, have been trained to standard as the “crawl” level of training for this “walk”
level of training in preparation for Table VIII “run” qualification (C, W, R).
D-16. Table VI (shown in table D-1) should be evaluated in a CPX type of event that requires the element
to provide security, conduct tactical moves under day and night conditions, process all types of data, and
execute the tasks included in Table VI in a simulated environment with appropriate threat.
FDC Table VI – Provide command and control.
Task
Command and Control Delivery of Fires
Control and Coordinate MLRS Battery Operations
Direct and Control Firing Battery/Platoon Operations
(Cannon)
Control and Coordinate MLRS Battery Operations
Prepare For Combat
Develop and Communicate a Plan
31 July 2006
FM 3-09.8
Task
Number
06-1-W103
06-2-W110
06-3-C001
Remarks
All
MLRS
Cannon
06-2-W110
06-2-A098
06-2-A099
MLRS
All
All
D-3
Appendix D
Task
Move a Cannon Battery or Platoon
Coordinate MLRS Firing Platoon Ammunition Resupply
Task
Number
06-3-C013
06-3-M014
Remarks
Cannon
MLRS
D-17. The COE integration should—
z
Allow performance of FA operational missions as outlined in mission capability statements.
z
Assign additional nonstandard missions aligned with extended SOSO.
z
Direct performance of IO (for example, integration of “lethal and nonlethal effects” function as
a part of the “Targeting Process”).
z
Focus on basic combat tasks aligned with Force Protection under both combat and SOSO
conditions ( for example, Conduct of Convoy Operations, Response to Ambush, and Perform
Security Techniques).
z
Conduct of Autonomous Battery Operations, the leaders execute tasks like Develop and
Communicate a Plan, 06-2-A099, supplemented by applicable task steps of Tasks 06-1-5450
and 06-1-A040.
D-18. This example illustrates how a unit commander and leaders utilize a prescriptive gunnery training
table to address the training progression required to certify training readiness at section level. Field artillery
units require all sections to be qualified. Maintenance of the mastery of section tasks is required to sustain
readiness at the qualified section level under predeployment and postdeployment environments that are a
part of today’s COE. Unit commanders that integrate and structure their use of FM 3-09.08 as a training
tool sustain leader, Soldier, and unit training readiness.
D-4
FM 3-09.8
31 July 2006
Glossary
SECTION I – ACRONYMS AND ABBREVIATIONS
Acronym/Term
Definition
AAR
after action review
ACTD
advanced concept technology demonstration
ADAM
area denial artillery munitions
AFATDS
AFC
AFC/DS
AFCS
automated fire control
Automated Fire Control/Direction System
automatic fire control system
ALT
altitude
AMB
air mission brief
AMC
at my command
AN/CYZ
AN/GRA-39
AN/PSG-7
AN/PVS
data transfer device
radio set control group (remote device)
forward entry device
night vision goggle
AN/TPQ-36
firefinder radar
AN/TPQ-37
mobile phased array artillery locating radar system
AN/TVS
ANCD
AO
night vision sight
air net control device
area of operations
AOF
azimuth of fire
AOL
azimuth of lay
APU
auxiliary power unit
ARTEP
ASPT
ATC
AZ
BC/1SG
Army Training and Evaluation Program
Artillery Skills Proficiency Test
ammunition team chief
Azimuth
Brigade Commander/1st Sergeant
BCS
Battery Computer System
BCT
brigade combat team
BDE
Brigade
BFIST
Bradley Fire Support Team
BFV
Bradley fighting vehicle
BILI
basic issue list items
BIT
BMP
31 July 2006
Advanced Field Artillery Tactical Data System
Built-in test
Bronevaya Maschina Piekhota – Soviet Armored Troop Carrier
FM 3-09.8
Glossary-1
Glossary
BOC
Crawl, Walk, Run
C/VAM
compass/vertical angle measurement
C2
command and control
CATS
combined arms training strategy
CBRN
chemical, biological, radiological, nuclear
CDT
control display terminal
CFB
chief of firing battery
CFF
call for fire
CFFT
call for fire trainer
CFL
coordinated fire line
CHG
charge
CLGP
cannon-launched guided projectile
CMD
command
COE
contemporary operational environment
COLT
combat observation and lasing team
COMP
Complementary
COMSEC
CORR
COS
CP
communications security
Correction
chief of section
concrete-piercing
CPX
command post exercise
CRP
center reference point
CSM
command sergeant major
DA
DAP
DF
DFT
department of the army
distant aiming point
deflection
drift
DODIC
department of defense identification code
DPICM
dual purpose improved conventional munitions
DS
direct support
DTD
data transfer device
DTG
date time group
DZ
ECCM
drop zone
electronic counter-countermeasures
ECM
electronic countermeasures
EFAT
essential field artillery tasks
EFST
essential fire support task
EL
EOM
Glossary-2
battery operations center
C, W, R
elevation
end of mission
FM 3-09.8
31 July 2006
Glossary
EP
EPROM
ERF
ETAC
erasable programmable read-only memory
electronic counter-countermeasures remote fill
emergency tactical air control
ETI
elevation-to-impact
EXEVAL
external evaluation
FA
FAASV
FASCAM
field artillery
field artillery ammunition supply vehicle
family of scatterable mines
FCE
fire control element
FCP
fire control party
FCS
fire control system
FCTN
function
FDC
fire direction center
FDO
fire direction officer
FDS
fire direction system
FED
forward entry device
FEM
field exercise mode
FFE
FH
FIST
fire for effect
frequency hopping
fire support team
FIST-V
fire support team-Vehicle
FLOT
forward line of own troops
FM
Field Manual
FO
forward observer
FORTRAN
FOS
FP
FPF
FS
FSCATT
FSCM
FSE
FSNCO
formula translation (computer programing language)
forward observer system
firing point
final protective fire
fire support
fire support combined arms tactical trainer
fire support coordinating measure
fire support element
fire support noncommissioned officer
FSO
fire support officer
FTX
field training exercise
FWR
G/VLLD
GB
GFT
31 July 2006
electronic protection
fire when ready
ground/vehicular laser locator designator
green bag
graphical firing table
FM 3-09.8
Glossary-3
Glossary
GN
grid north
GPS
global positioning system
GSG
general support group
GSPT
GST
Gunnery Skills Proficiency Test
graphical site table
HA
hide area
HB
high burst
HC
hexachloroethane
HCO
HDRS
HE
HE/WP/SMK
HEPI
HERA
horizontal control operator
heavy drop rigging site
high explosive
high explosive/white phosphorous/smoke
heavy equipment point of impact
high explosive rocket-assisted
HIMARS
High-mobility artillery rocket system
HMMWV
High-mobility multipurpose wheeled vehicle
HOB
height of burst
HQ
Headquarters
HT
height
ICM
ICOM
ID
IED
improved conventional munitions
intercommunications
idenitfication
improvised explosive device
IETM
interactive electronic technical manual
IHFR
improved high frequency radio
ILA
illumination
ILLUM
Illumination
INIT
INS
IPDS
JED
JI
KM
initialize
inertial navigation system
improved position determining system
Joint Educational Doctrine
joint inspection
Kilometer
kPa
LARS
LEFT ADD RIGHT SUBTRACT (memory aid)
LCHR
launcher
LCU
lightweight computer unit
LDS
launcher drive system
LDST
LFX
Glossary-4
launcher drive system test
live fire exercise
FM 3-09.8
31 July 2006
Glossary
LLDR
LLM
launcher loader module
LM
Launcher Module
LMG
light machine gun
LO
low
LP
load plan
LPC
launch pod containers
LRF
laser range finder
LRSO
laser range safety officer
LST
launcher status
LTX
Lane Training Exercise
LZ
landing zone
M2
.50 Cal Machine Gun, compass
M2A2
Bradley Fighting Vehicle
MAPS
modular azimuth positioning system
MCWP
Marine Corps Warfighting Publication
MEP
mission equipment package
MET
meteorology
METL
METT-TC
MG
MHL
mission essential task list
mission, enemy, terrain, and weather, troops and suport available, time available,
civilian considerations
machine gun
manufacturer’s hair-line
MLRF
Melios Laser Range Finder
MLRS
Multiple Launch Rocket System
MOPP
Mission-oriented protective posture
MOS
military occupational specialty
MPI
mean-point-of-impact
MSD
maintenance support device
MSE
mobile subscriber equipment
MTP
mission training plan, MOS training plan
MTSQ
MUL
NA
NATO
31 July 2006
lightweight laser designator/rangefinder
mechanical time, super quick
Master Unit List
table 2-4 not applicable
North Atlantic Treaty Organization (set of standards)
NCS
net control station
NHA
noise hazard area
NOD
night observation device
OIC
officer in charge
OP
observation post
FM 3-09.8
Glossary-5
Glossary
OPAREA
operational area
OPORD
operation order
OPSEC
operations security
PA
PADS
PCR
PD
Performance Assessment Data System
piece-to-crest range
point detonating
PDS
position determining system
PDU
power distribution unit
PE
PFK
PIAFS
PL
PLGR
probable error
programmable function key
portable induction artillery fuze setter
phase line
precise lightweight global positioning system receiver
PLT
platoon
PLU
Program Load Unit
PMCS
preventive maintenance checks and services
PNU
Position Navigational Unit
POC
Platoon Operations Center
POI
PROJ
PSI
PWR
PZ/LZ
QE
RAAMS
RAP
RB
program of instruction
projectile
pounds per square inch
power
pickup zone/landing zone
quadrant elevation
remote antiarmor mine system
rocket-assisted projectile
red bag
RCO
range control officer
RDP
range-deflection protractor
REF
reference
RFT
Rapid-fire table
RG
range
RL
range limits
ROC-V
RP
recognition of combat vehicles
registration point, reference point, release point
RPG
rocket propelled grenade
RPM
revolutions per minute
RSO
range safety officer
RSOP
Glossary-6
performance assessment
reconnaissance, selection, and occupation of position
FM 3-09.8
31 July 2006
Glossary
RTI
RWS
SADARM
SBCT
remote weapon station
sense and destroy armor
Stryker brigade combat team
SCP
survey control point
SDC
safety data calculator
SDZ
surface danger zone
SEC
sector
SGT
Sergeant
SI
SI FAC
SINCGARS
SISTIM
SN
site
site factor
single-channel ground and airborne radio system
simulation/simulation system
serial number
SLO
suspension lock out
SNVT
short no voltage test
SOI
SOI/SSI
SOP
signal operating instructions
signal operating instructions/signal supplemental instructions
standing operating procedure
SOSO
stability operations and support operations
SPLL
self-propelled launcher loader
SPORT
SRP
SRP/PDS
SSG
SSI
Soldier’s portable on-system repair tool
stabilization reference package
Stabilization Reference Package/Position Determining System
staff sergeant, strategic studies group
signal supplemental instructions
STP
Soldier training publication
STR
standard training requirment
STRAC
STX
SWPQ
TA
T&E
Standards in Training Commission
situational training exercise
stryker weapons proficiency qualification
Target acquistion
traversing and elevation
TADSS
training aids, devices, simulators, and simulations
TAFCS
Tactical Automated Fire Control System
TC
TEK
TF
TFT
TI
31 July 2006
range-to-impact
tank commander, track commander
traffic encryption key
task force
tabular firing table
time
FM 3-09.8
Glossary-7
Glossary
TLABSPAP
TLE
TM
TNT
TO&E
trails, lay, aimpoint established, boresight verified, safe, prefire checks performed,
ammunition prepared
target location error
technical manual
trinitrotoluene
table of organization and equipment
TOF
time of flight
TOT
time on target
TP
transfer point
TRADOC
TS
Training and doctrine command
test support
TSCP
targeting station control panel
TSFO
training set forward observation
TSK
TSOP
transmission security key
tactical standing operating procedure
TSP
training support package
TTF
time to fire
TTP
tactics, techniques, and procedures
TTT
timed time on target
TWR
UA
USAF
USMTF
VCO
timed when ready
unit of action
United States Air Force
United States message text format
vertical control operator
VE
velocity error
VI
vertical interval
VIC-1
VMS
vehicle intercom system
vehicle motion sensor
VT
Variable time (fuze)
WB
white bag
WIU
WLRS
weapon interface unit
Weapon Location Radar Section
WP
white phosphorous
XO
executive officer
XMT
ZUPT
transmit
zero velocity update
SECTION II – TERMS
mil
Glossary-8
A unit of angular measurement equal to 1/6400 of 360 degrees and used
especially in artillery.
FM 3-09.8
31 July 2006
Glossary
complementary angle
of site
The area immediately to the rear of the launcher that is directly exposed to
blast and debris (launcher danger area).
The complementary site factor for the appropriate charge at the piece-to-crest
range multiplied by the sum of angles 1 and 2.
conversion formula
To convert feet to meters feet ٪ 3.28 = meters
crab angle
?
distance W
A distance to either side of the target wide enough to include all debris
(payload, warhead skin, and rocket motor) from normally functioning rounds.
Distance W is the maximum lateral distance a projectile will ricochet after
impacting within the dispersion area. Distance W defines the maximum lateral
edge of the ricochet area.
A distance beyond the target adequate to contain rockets when the fuze fails
to function (M26/A1/A2/M28). Distance X is further defined as the maximum
distance a rocket will travel when fired or launched at a given quadrant with a
given propulsion system (M28A1/A2).
A distance short of the target sufficient to include all debris (payload, warhead
skin, and rocket motor) from normally functioning rounds.
Total range multiplied by Range K expressed to the nearest 10 meters.
Area F
distance X
distance Y
entry range
“left least, right
most” rule
Height of the launcher above mean sea level.
The lowest (least) drift is applied to all left deflection limits, and the highest
(greatest) drift is applied to all right deflection limits.
MET + VE technique
?
mini-max rule
The rule for determining the correct altitude for safety purposes—at the
minimum range, maximum altitude is selected; at the maximum range, the
minimum range is selected.
The sum of elevation and site and express to the nearest whole mil. Also
known as QE.
The total range correction from the graphical firing table setting expressed as
a percentage.
Convenient method of arranging safety data and used to verify the safety of
fire commands.
The sum of the diagram range and the range correction expressed to the
nearest 10 meters.
Determined by subtracting the unit altitude from the altitude corresponding to
the diagram range and expressed to the nearest whole meter. Also known as
VI.
The maximum possible value of W. For OPAREAs, this is the value of W at a
range from the rear edge of the OPAREA to the geographic center of the
usable portion of the installation impact area.
The maximum possible value of X. For OPAREAs, this is the value of X at a
range from the forward edge of the OPAREA to the geographic center of the
usable portion of the installation impact area.
The maximum possible value of Y. For OPAREAs, this is the value of Y at a
range from the forward edge of the OPAREA to the geographic center of the
usable portion of the installation impact area.
H
quadrant elevation
Range K
Safety T
total range
vertical interval
Wmax
Xmax
Ymax
31 July 2006
FM 3-09.8
Glossary-9
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References
SOURCES USED
These are the sources quoted or paraphrased in this publication.
AR 220-1, Unit Status Reporting, 10 June 2003.
AR 385-63/MCO P3570.1B, Range Safety, 19 May 2003.
AR 600-8-22, Military Awards, 25 February 1995.
ARTEP 6-037-30-MTP, Mission Training Plan for the Consolidated Cannon Battery, M102, M119,
M198, M109A5, M109A6, 1 April 2000.
ARTEP 6-115-MTP, Mission Training Plan for the Field Artillery Cannon Battalion Command and
Staff Section, Headquarters and Headquarters Battery, and Service Battery, 1 April 2000.
ARTEP 6-303-30-MTP, Mission Training Plan for the Target Acquisition Battery and the Corps
Target Acquisition Detachment, 1 April 2000.
ARTEP 6-395-MTP, Mission Training Plan for the Field Artillery Multiple Launch Rocket System
Battalion Command and Staff Section and Headquarters and Service Battery. 1 April 2000.
ARTEP 6-397-30-MTP, Mission Training Plan for the Multiple Launch Rocket System Battery. 1
April 2000.
DA Form 581, Request for Issue and Turn-In of Ammunition.
DA Form 2028, Recommended Changes to Publications and Blank Forms.
DA Form 2404, Equipment Inspection and Maintenance Worksheet.
DA Form 2408-4, Weapon Record Data.
DA Form 4446, Level, Transit, and General Survey Record Book.
DA Form 4513, Record of Missions Fired.
DA Form 4982-R, Muzzle Velocity Record.
DA Form 4982-1-R, M90 Velocimeter Work Sheet.
DA Form 5429-R, Conduct of Fire.
DA Form 5699-R, Howitzer Range Card.
DA Form 7232-R, MLRS FDC Fire Mission Log. DA Form 7233-R, MLRS Launcher Fire Mission
Log (LRA).
DA Form 7353-R, Universal Safety T.
DA Pam 350-38, Standards in Training Commission (STRAC).
DA Pam 385-63, Range Safety.
FM 3-09.70 (6-70), Tactics, Techniques, and Procedures for M109A6 Howitzer (Paladin) Operations.
1 August 2000.
FM 3-22.1, Bradley Gunnery. 28 November 2003.
FM 3-22.68 (FM 23-14), M249 Crew-Served Machine Guns, 5-56 mm and 7.62 mm. 31 January 2003.
FM 3-22.27 (FM 23-27), MK 19, 40-mm Grenade Machine Gun, Mod 3. 28 November 2003.
FM 3-22.65 (FM 23-65), Browning Machine Gun Caliber .50 HB, M2. . 3 March 2005.
FM 6-15, Tactics, Techniques, and Procedures for Field Artillery Meteorology. 13 August 1997.
FM 6-30, Tactics, Techniques, and Procedures for Observed Fire Procedures. 16 July 1991. (Will be
revised as FM 3-09.3)
FM 6-40/MCWP 3-1.6.19, Tactics, Techniques, and Procedures for Field Artillery Manual Cannon
Gunnery . 1 October 1999.
31 July 2006
FM 3-09.8
References-1
References
FM 6-50, Tactics, Techniques, and Procedures for the Field Artillery Cannon Battery. 23 December
1996. (Will be revised as FM 3-09.50)
FM 6-60, Tactics, Techniques, and Procedures for Multiple Launch Rocket System (MLRS)
Operations. 23 April 1996. (Will be revised as FM 3-09.60)
FM 7-0. Training the Force. 22 October 2002.
FM 7-1. Battle-Focused Training. 15 September 2003.
FM 10-450-3, Multiservice Helicopter Sling Load: Basic Operations and Equipment. 10 April 1997.
FM 10-450-5, Multiservice Helicopter Sling Load: Dual-Point Rigging Procedures. 30 August 1999.
FM 10-450-4 (FM 55-450-4) Multiservice Helicopter Slingload: Single-Point Load Rigging
Procedures. 30 May 1998.
FM 90-4, Air Assault Operations. 16 March 1987.
FM 90-26, Airborne Operations. 18 December 1990.
ST 6-50-20, Battery Executive Officer’s/Platoon Leader’s Handbook. 20 February 1998.
STP 6-13B14-SM-TG, Soldier’s Manual and Trainer’s Guide, MOS 13B, Cannon Crewmember Skill
Levels 1/2/3/4. 15 August 1989.
STP 6-13F14-SM-TG, Soldier’s Manual, Skill Levels 1234, and Trainer’s Guide, MOS 13F Fire
Support Specialist. 24 September 1993.
STP 6-13P14-SM-TG, Soldier's Manual, Skill Levels 1/2/3/4 and Trainer's Guide, MOS 13P Multiple
Launch Rocket System (MLRS) Fire Direction Specialist. 28 December 1994.
STP 6-13R14-SM-TG, Soldier’s Manual, Skill Levels 1234, and Trainer’s Guide, MOS 13R, FA
Firefinder Radar Operator. 21 May 1993.
STP 21-1-SMCT, Soldier’s Manual of Common Tasks, Skill Level 1. 31 August 2003.
STP 21-24-SMCT, Soldier’s Manual of Common Tasks, Skill Levels 2 to 4. 31 August 2003.
IETM 9-1055-647-13&P, Interactive Electronic Manual for the Multiple Launch Rocket System
(MLRS) M270A1 Launcher and M993/M993A1 Carrier. 31 March 2005.
TM 9-1015-234-10, Operator's Maintenance Manual For Howitzer, Light, Towed: 105-mm, M102.
18 August 1985.
TM 9-1015-252-10, Operator’s Manual for Howitzer, Light, Towed 105mm, M119A2. 12 August
1999.
TM 9-1425-646-10-1, Operator's Manual for Launcher, Rocket, Armored Vehicle Mounted: M270
(Multiple Launch Rocket System). 30 April 1998.
TM 9-1425-646-10-2,Operator’s Manual for Volume 2 Launcher, Rocket, Armored Vehicle Mounted:
M270 Part No. 13029700-202 (NSN 1055-01-251-9756) (EIC: QBJ) Part No. 1302700-203
(1055-01-329-6826) (EIC: QBU) (Multiple Launch Rocket System). 30 April 1998.
TM 9-2350-314-10, Operator's Manual Howitzer, Medium, Self-Propelled 155 Millimeter M109A6.
8 February 1999.
TM 9-2350-362-10, Operator’s Manual for Striker Fire Support Vehicle M707 (NSN 2350-01-4553174) (EIC: 3RH). 21 March 2003.
TM 9-6675-347-13&P, Operator, Organizational and Direct Support Maintenance Manual Including
Repair Parts and Special Tools List for Gun Laying and Positioning System (GLPS): M67
(NSN 6675-01-430-1965) (EIC: CJ2). 31 October 2000.
TM 11-5820-890-10-1, Operator’s Manual – SINCGARS Ground Combat Net Radio, ICOM. 1
September 1992.
TM 11-5840-355-10, Operator's Manual for Radar Set, AN/TPQ-37(V)1 (NSN 5840-01-043-4258)
(EIC: IYB) and AN/TPQ-37(V)2 (5840-01-084-5374) (EIC: IYD) AN/TPQ-37(V)5 (5840-01270-5101) (EIC: IYG) and AN/TPQ-37(V)6 (5840-01-270-5100) (EIC: IYF).. 1 April 2002.
References-2
FM 3-09.8
31 July 2006
References
TM 11-5840-378-10, Operator's Manual for Radar Sets AN/TPQ-36(V) (NSN 5840-01-185-4244)
(EIC: N/A) and AN/TPQ-36(V)5 (5840-01-229-1276) (EIC: IYE) and AN/TPQ-36(V)7 (NSN
5840-01-229-1278) (EIC: IT6). 1 July 2000.
TM 11-5840-380-10, Operator's Manual for Radar Set AN/TPQ-36(V)8, (NSN 5840-01-390-0529)
(EIC: Q68). 1 February 2000.
TM 11-7025-275-10, Operator’s Manual for Fed Forward Observer/Fire Support Team (FO/FIST)
(AN/PSG-7 softward)15 January 1992.
TM 11-7025-297-10, Operator's Manual, Advanced Field Artillery Tactical Data System (AFATDS).
15 April 2000.
TM 43-0001-28, Army Ammunition Data Sheets for Artillery Ammunition: Guns, Howitzers, Mortars,
Recoilless Rifles, Grenade Launchers and Artillery Fuses (FSC 1310, 1315, 1320, 1390).
Reprinted with Basic Incl C1. 28 April 1994.
DOCUMENTS NEEDED
These documents must be available to the intended users of this publication.
IETM 9-2300-310-14&P, Interactive Electronic Technical Manual Operator’s Instruction: Operator,
Unit, Direct Support and General Support Maintenance: and Repair Parts and Special Tools
List HIMARS Launcher Chassis: HIMARS XM1140 (2320-01-491-3436) (UOC:MRS)
TM 9-1055-647-13&P, The Multiple Launch Rocket System (MLRS) M270A1 Launcher &
M993/M993A1 Carrier. 30 July 2004.
TM 9-1325-646-13&P, Operator's Manual for Launcher, Rocket, Armored Vehicle Mounted: M270
(Multiple Launch Rocket System). 17 May 2004.
TM 9-1325-646-13&P, Operator’s Manual for Volume 2 Launcher, Rocket, Armored Vehicle
Mounted: M270 Part No. 13029700-202 (NSN 1055-01-251-9756) (EIC: QBJ) Part No.
1302700-203 (1055-01-329-6826) (EIC: QBU) (Multiple Launch Rocket System).
17 May 2004.
TM 9-2350-314-10, Operator's Manual for Howitzer, Medium, Self-Propelled 155-mm M109A6.
(NSN 2350-01-305-0028) 8 February 1999.
TM 11-5820-890-10-1, Operator’s Manual for SINCGARS Ground Combat Net Radio, ICOM
Manpack Radio AN/PRC-119A (NSN 5820-01-267-9482) (EIC: L2Q) Short Range Vehicular
Radio AN/VRC-87A (5820-01-267-9480) (EIC: L22) Short Range Vehicular Radio With
Single Radio Mount AN/VRC-87C (5820-01-304-2045) (EIC: GDC). 1 September 1992.
INTERNET WEB SITES (current at printing)
Program of Instruction (POI) for ROC-V Train-The-Trainer, ROC-V (Visible), ROC-V (1st Gen), ROC-V (2nd
Gen)
http://rocv.army.mil/rocv/ROCV_desc.php
USAFAS Training and Doctrine Web Site
http://sill-www.army.mil/
31 July 2006
FM 3-09.8
References-3
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FM 3-09.8
31 July 2006
By Order of the Secretary of the Army:
PETER J. SCHOOMAKER
General, United States Army
Chief of Staff
Official:
JOYCE E. MORROW
Administrative Assistant to the
Secretary of the Army
0612801
DISTRIBUTION:
Active Army, Army National Guard, and U. S. Army Reserve: To be distributed in
accordance with the initial distribution number 110772, requirements for FM 6-20.
This page intentionally left blank.
PIN: 083279-000
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