Oracle Database Net Services Reference, 11g Release 1 (11.1

Oracle Database Net Services Reference, 11g Release 1 (11.1
Oracle® Database
Net Services Reference
11g Release 1 (11.1)
B28317-03
October 2012
Oracle Database Net Services Reference, 11g Release 1 (11.1)
B28317-03
Copyright © 2002, 2012, Oracle and/or its affiliates. All rights reserved.
Contributors: Robert Achacoso, Santanu Datta, Steve Ding, Caroline Johnston, Feroz Khan, Paul Lane,
Bhaskar Mathur, Scot McKinley, Ed Miner, Sweta Mogra, Srinivas Pamu, Kant Patel, Murali Purayathu,
Karthik Rajan, Saravanakumar Ramasubramanian, Sudeep Reguna, Richard Strohm, Norman Woo
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Contents
Preface ................................................................................................................................................................. xi
Audience....................................................................................................................................................... xi
Documentation Accessibility .................................................................................................................... xii
Related Documents .................................................................................................................................... xii
Conventions ............................................................................................................................................... xiii
Part I
1
Control Utilities
Listener Control Utility
Listener Control Utility Overview ........................................................................................................ 1-1
SET and SHOW Commands of the Listener Control Utility ........................................................... 1-2
Distributed Operations ........................................................................................................................... 1-2
Oracle Net Listener Security .................................................................................................................. 1-3
Listener Control Utility Commands ..................................................................................................... 1-3
CHANGE_PASSWORD .................................................................................................................... 1-4
EXIT...................................................................................................................................................... 1-6
HELP .................................................................................................................................................... 1-6
QUIT..................................................................................................................................................... 1-7
RELOAD.............................................................................................................................................. 1-8
SAVE_CONFIG .................................................................................................................................. 1-8
SERVICES............................................................................................................................................ 1-9
SET..................................................................................................................................................... 1-10
SET CURRENT_LISTENER ........................................................................................................... 1-11
SET DISPLAYMODE ...................................................................................................................... 1-12
SET INBOUND_CONNECT_TIMEOUT..................................................................................... 1-12
SET LOG_DIRECTORY.................................................................................................................. 1-13
SET LOG_FILE................................................................................................................................. 1-13
SET LOG_STATUS.......................................................................................................................... 1-14
SET PASSWORD ............................................................................................................................. 1-15
SET SAVE_CONFIG_ON_STOP................................................................................................... 1-15
SET STARTUP_WAITTIME .......................................................................................................... 1-16
SET TRC_DIRECTORY .................................................................................................................. 1-16
SET TRC_FILE ................................................................................................................................. 1-17
SET TRC_LEVEL ............................................................................................................................. 1-18
SHOW ............................................................................................................................................... 1-18
iii
SPAWN.............................................................................................................................................
START...............................................................................................................................................
STATUS ...........................................................................................................................................
STOP..................................................................................................................................................
TRACE ..............................................................................................................................................
VERSION..........................................................................................................................................
2
1-19
1-20
1-21
1-22
1-23
1-24
Oracle Connection Manager Control Utility
Oracle Connection Manager Control Utility Overview.................................................................... 2-1
Command Modes and Syntax ................................................................................................................ 2-1
Distributed Operations ........................................................................................................................... 2-2
Oracle Connection Manager Control Utility Commands................................................................. 2-2
ADMINISTER .................................................................................................................................... 2-4
CLOSE CONNECTIONS .................................................................................................................. 2-4
EXIT...................................................................................................................................................... 2-6
HELP .................................................................................................................................................... 2-6
QUIT..................................................................................................................................................... 2-7
RELOAD ............................................................................................................................................. 2-7
RESUME GATEWAYS ...................................................................................................................... 2-8
SAVE_PASSWORD .......................................................................................................................... 2-8
SET........................................................................................................................................................ 2-9
SET ASO_AUTHENTICATION_FILTER .................................................................................... 2-10
SET CONNECTION_STATISTICS ............................................................................................... 2-10
SET EVENT ...................................................................................................................................... 2-11
SET IDLE_TIMEOUT...................................................................................................................... 2-11
SET INBOUND_CONNECT_TIMEOUT..................................................................................... 2-12
SET LOG_DIRECTORY.................................................................................................................. 2-12
SET LOG_LEVEL ............................................................................................................................ 2-13
SET OUTBOUND_CONNECT_TIMEOUT................................................................................. 2-14
SET PASSWORD ............................................................................................................................. 2-14
SET SESSION_TIMEOUT .............................................................................................................. 2-15
SET TRACE_DIRECTORY............................................................................................................. 2-16
SET TRACE_LEVEL........................................................................................................................ 2-16
SHOW ............................................................................................................................................... 2-17
SHOW ALL ...................................................................................................................................... 2-18
SHOW CONNECTIONS................................................................................................................ 2-19
SHOW DEFAULTS ......................................................................................................................... 2-20
SHOW EVENTS .............................................................................................................................. 2-21
SHOW GATEWAYS ....................................................................................................................... 2-21
SHOW PARAMETERS................................................................................................................... 2-22
SHOW RULES ................................................................................................................................. 2-23
SHOW SERVICES ........................................................................................................................... 2-24
SHOW STATUS............................................................................................................................... 2-25
SHOW VERSION ............................................................................................................................ 2-25
SHUTDOWN .................................................................................................................................. 2-26
STARTUP ......................................................................................................................................... 2-27
SUSPEND GATEWAY ................................................................................................................... 2-27
iv
Part II
3
Configuration Parameters
Syntax Rules for Configuration Files
Configuration File Syntax Overview....................................................................................................
Further Syntax Rules for Configuration Files ....................................................................................
Network Character Set ............................................................................................................................
Character Set..............................................................................................................................................
4
Protocol Address Configuration
ADDRESSes and ADDRESS_LISTs.....................................................................................................
ADDRESS ............................................................................................................................................
ADDRESS_LIST..................................................................................................................................
Protocol Parameters..................................................................................................................................
Recommended Port Numbers................................................................................................................
Port Number Limitations ........................................................................................................................
5
3-1
3-2
3-2
3-3
4-1
4-1
4-2
4-2
4-3
4-3
Profile Parameters (sqlnet.ora)
Overview of Profile Configuration File............................................................................................... 5-1
sqlnet.ora Profile Parameters ................................................................................................................. 5-1
BEQUEATH_DETACH ..................................................................................................................... 5-3
DEFAULT_SDU_SIZE ....................................................................................................................... 5-4
DISABLE_OOB ................................................................................................................................... 5-4
NAMES.DCE.PREFIX........................................................................................................................ 5-4
NAMES.DEFAULT_DOMAIN ........................................................................................................ 5-5
NAMES.DIRECTORY_PATH .......................................................................................................... 5-5
NAMES.LDAP_AUTHENTICATE_BIND ..................................................................................... 5-6
NAMES.LDAP_PERSISTENT_SESSION........................................................................................ 5-6
NAMES.NIS.META_MAP ................................................................................................................ 5-7
RECV_BUF_SIZE .............................................................................................................................. 5-7
SDP.PF_INET_SDP ............................................................................................................................ 5-7
SEC_USER_AUDIT_ACTION_BANNER ...................................................................................... 5-8
SEC_USER_UNAUTHORIZED_ACCESS_BANNER .................................................................. 5-8
SEND_BUF_SIZE .............................................................................................................................. 5-9
SQLNET.ALLOWED_LOGON_VERSION .................................................................................... 5-9
SQLNET.AUTHENTICATION_KERBEROS5_SERVICE ......................................................... 5-11
SQLNET.AUTHENTICATION_SERVICES ................................................................................ 5-11
SQLNET.CLIENT_REGISTRATION............................................................................................ 5-12
SQLNET.CRYPTO_CHECKSUM_CLIENT ................................................................................ 5-12
SQLNET.CRYPTO_CHECKSUM_SERVER ................................................................................ 5-13
SQLNET.CRYPTO_CHECKSUM_TYPES_CLIENT .................................................................. 5-13
SQLNET.CRYPTO_CHECKSUM_TYPES_SERVER .................................................................. 5-14
SQLNET.CRYPTO_SEED .............................................................................................................. 5-14
SQLNET.ENCRYPTION_CLIENT ............................................................................................... 5-14
SQLNET.ENCRYPTION_SERVER ............................................................................................... 5-15
SQLNET.ENCRYPTION_TYPES_CLIENT ................................................................................. 5-15
SQLNET.ENCRYPTION_TYPES_SERVER................................................................................. 5-16
v
SQLNET.EXPIRE_TIME.................................................................................................................
SQLNET.INBOUND_CONNECT_TIMEOUT............................................................................
SQLNET.KERBEROS5_CC_NAME..............................................................................................
SQLNET.KERBEROS5_CLOCKSKEW ........................................................................................
SQLNET.KERBEROS5_CONF ......................................................................................................
SQLNET.KERBEROS5_KEYTAB..................................................................................................
SQLNET.KERBEROS5_REALMS .................................................................................................
SQLNET.OUTBOUND_CONNECT_TIMEOUT........................................................................
SQLNET.RADIUS_ALTERNATE.................................................................................................
SQLNET.RADIUS_ALTERNATE_PORT ....................................................................................
SQLNET.RADIUS_ALTERNATE_RETRIES...............................................................................
SQLNET.RADIUS_AUTHENTICATION....................................................................................
SQLNET.RADIUS_AUTHENTICATION_INTERFACE...........................................................
SQLNET.RADIUS_AUTHENTICATION_PORT.......................................................................
SQLNET.RADIUS_AUTHENTICATION_RETRIES .................................................................
SQLNET.RADIUS_AUTHENTICATION_TIMEOUT...............................................................
SQLNET.RADIUS_CHALLENGE_RESPONSE .........................................................................
SQLNET.RADIUS_SECRET ..........................................................................................................
SQLNET.RADIUS_SEND_ACCOUNTING................................................................................
SQLNET.RECV_TIMEOUT ..........................................................................................................
SQLNET.SEND_TIMEOUT ..........................................................................................................
SSL_CERT_REVOCATION ..........................................................................................................
SSL_CERT_FILE .............................................................................................................................
SSL_CERT_PATH ..........................................................................................................................
SSL_CIPHER_SUITES ....................................................................................................................
SSL_CLIENT_AUTHENTICATION ............................................................................................
SSL_SERVER_DN_MATCH..........................................................................................................
SSL_VERSION .................................................................................................................................
TCP.CONNECT_TIMEOUT..........................................................................................................
TCP.EXCLUDED_NODES.............................................................................................................
TCP.INVITED_NODES ..................................................................................................................
TCP.VALIDNODE_CHECKING ..................................................................................................
TCP.NODELAY...............................................................................................................................
TNSPING.TRACE_DIRECTORY..................................................................................................
TNSPING.TRACE_LEVEL ............................................................................................................
USE_CMAN.....................................................................................................................................
USE_DEDICATED_SERVER.........................................................................................................
WALLET_LOCATION ..................................................................................................................
WALLET_OVERRIDE ....................................................................................................................
Diagnostic Parameters in sqlnet.ora ..................................................................................................
ADR Diagnostic Parameters in sqlnet.ora ...................................................................................
ADR_BASE ...............................................................................................................................
DIAG_ADR_ENABLED..........................................................................................................
TRACE_LEVEL_CLIENT .......................................................................................................
TRACE_LEVEL_SERVER .......................................................................................................
TRACE_TIMESTAMP_CLIENT ............................................................................................
TRACE_TIMESTAMP_SERVER............................................................................................
vi
5-16
5-17
5-18
5-18
5-18
5-19
5-19
5-19
5-20
5-20
5-20
5-21
5-21
5-21
5-22
5-22
5-22
5-22
5-23
5-23
5-24
5-24
5-25
5-25
5-25
5-26
5-26
5-27
5-27
5-27
5-28
5-28
5-28
5-29
5-29
5-29
5-30
5-31
5-32
5-33
5-34
5-34
5-34
5-35
5-35
5-35
5-36
Non-ADR Diagnostic Parameters in sqlnet.ora ..........................................................................
LOG_DIRECTORY_CLIENT..................................................................................................
LOG_DIRECTORY_SERVER .................................................................................................
LOG_FILE_CLIENT.................................................................................................................
LOG_FILE_SERVER ................................................................................................................
TRACE_DIRECTORY_CLIENT.............................................................................................
TRACE_DIRECTORY_SERVER ............................................................................................
TRACE_FILE_CLIENT............................................................................................................
TRACE_FILE_SERVER ...........................................................................................................
TRACE_FILELEN_CLIENT ...................................................................................................
TRACE_FILELEN_SERVER ...................................................................................................
TRACE_FILENO_CLIENT .....................................................................................................
TRACE_FILENO_SERVER.....................................................................................................
TRACE_UNIQUE_CLIENT....................................................................................................
6
5-36
5-37
5-37
5-37
5-38
5-38
5-38
5-39
5-39
5-39
5-39
5-40
5-40
5-40
Local Naming Parameters (tnsnames.ora)
Overview of Local Naming Parameters ............................................................................................... 6-1
General Syntax of tnsnames.ora ............................................................................................................ 6-1
Multiple Descriptions in tnsnames.ora ............................................................................................... 6-2
Multiple Address Lists in tnsnames.ora .............................................................................................. 6-2
Connect-Time Failover and Client Load Balancing with Oracle Connection Managers ........... 6-3
Local Naming Parameters ....................................................................................................................... 6-4
Connect Descriptor Descriptions ..................................................................................................... 6-4
DESCRIPTION ............................................................................................................................ 6-4
DESCRIPTION_LIST .................................................................................................................. 6-5
Protocol Address Section .................................................................................................................. 6-5
ADDRESS ..................................................................................................................................... 6-5
ADDRESS_LIST........................................................................................................................... 6-6
Optional Parameters for Lists........................................................................................................... 6-6
ENABLE ....................................................................................................................................... 6-6
FAILOVER ................................................................................................................................... 6-7
LOAD_BALANCE ...................................................................................................................... 6-7
RECV_BUF_SIZE ........................................................................................................................ 6-8
SDU ............................................................................................................................................... 6-9
SEND_BUF_SIZE ........................................................................................................................ 6-9
SOURCE_ROUTE .................................................................................................................... 6-10
TYPE_OF_SERVICE ................................................................................................................ 6-11
Connect Data Section ..................................................................................................................... 6-11
CONNECT_DATA .................................................................................................................. 6-11
FAILOVER_MODE.................................................................................................................. 6-12
GLOBAL_NAME ..................................................................................................................... 6-13
HS ............................................................................................................................................... 6-13
INSTANCE_NAME ................................................................................................................. 6-13
RDB_DATABASE .................................................................................................................... 6-14
SERVER ..................................................................................................................................... 6-14
SERVICE_NAME ..................................................................................................................... 6-15
SID .............................................................................................................................................. 6-15
vii
Security Section .............................................................................................................................. 6-16
SECURITY................................................................................................................................. 6-16
SSL_SERVER_CERT_DN........................................................................................................ 6-16
7
Oracle Net Listener Parameters (listener.ora)
Overview of Oracle Net Listener Configuration File........................................................................ 7-1
Oracle Net Listener Parameters ............................................................................................................. 7-2
Protocol Address Section .................................................................................................................. 7-2
ADDRESS..................................................................................................................................... 7-3
DESCRIPTION ............................................................................................................................ 7-3
IP.................................................................................................................................................... 7-3
QUEUESIZE................................................................................................................................. 7-3
RECV_BUF_SIZE ....................................................................................................................... 7-4
SEND_BUF_SIZE ........................................................................................................................ 7-5
Static Service Registration (SID_LIST) Section .............................................................................. 7-5
ENVS............................................................................................................................................. 7-6
GLOBAL_DBNAME................................................................................................................... 7-7
ORACLE_HOME ........................................................................................................................ 7-7
PROGRAM................................................................................................................................... 7-8
SID_DESC .................................................................................................................................... 7-8
SID_LIST....................................................................................................................................... 7-8
SID_NAME .................................................................................................................................. 7-9
SDU ............................................................................................................................................... 7-9
Connection Rate Limiter ................................................................................................................... 7-9
CONNECTION_RATE_listener name .................................................................................... 7-10
RATE_LIMIT ............................................................................................................................ 7-10
Control Parameters ......................................................................................................................... 7-11
ADMIN_RESTRICTIONS_listener_name .............................................................................. 7-11
CRS_NOTIFICATION_listener_name .................................................................................... 7-12
DEFAULT_SERVICE_listener_name ...................................................................................... 7-12
INBOUND_CONNECT_TIMEOUT_listener_name ............................................................. 7-12
PASSWORDS_listener_name ................................................................................................... 7-13
SAVE_CONFIG_ON_STOP_listener_name........................................................................... 7-13
SSL_CLIENT_AUTHENTICATION ..................................................................................... 7-14
STARTUP_WAIT_TIME_listener_name................................................................................. 7-14
SUBSCRIBE_NODE_DOWN_EVENT_listener_name ......................................................... 7-14
WALLET_LOCATION ........................................................................................................... 7-15
Diagnostic Parameters for Oracle Net Listener .......................................................................... 7-16
ADR Diagnostic Parameters in listener.ora ......................................................................... 7-17
Non-ADR Diagnostic Parameters in listener.ora ................................................................ 7-19
Class of Secure Transports (COST) Parameters............................................................................... 7-21
SECURE_CONTROL_listener_name ............................................................................................. 7-21
SECURE_REGISTER_listener_name .............................................................................................. 7-22
SECURE_PROTOCOL_listener_name ........................................................................................... 7-22
DYNAMIC_REGISTRATION_listener_name............................................................................... 7-23
Using COST Parameters in Combination .................................................................................... 7-23
viii
8
Oracle Connection Manager Parameters (cman.ora)
Overview of Oracle Connection Manager Configuration File ........................................................ 8-1
Oracle Connection Manager Parameters ............................................................................................. 8-4
ADDRESS ............................................................................................................................................ 8-4
ASO_AUTHENTICATION_FILTER ............................................................................................... 8-4
CONNECTION_STATISTICS .......................................................................................................... 8-5
EVENT_GROUP................................................................................................................................. 8-5
IDLE_TIMEOUT................................................................................................................................. 8-5
INBOUND_CONNECT_TIMEOUT................................................................................................ 8-5
MAX_CMCTL_SESSIONS ................................................................................................................ 8-6
MAX_CONNECTIONS..................................................................................................................... 8-6
MAX_GATEWAY_PROCESSES ...................................................................................................... 8-6
MIN_GATEWAY_PROCESSES ....................................................................................................... 8-6
OUTBOUND_CONNECT_TIMEOUT............................................................................................ 8-6
PASSWORD_instance_name .............................................................................................................. 8-6
REMOTE_ADMIN ............................................................................................................................ 8-6
RULE .................................................................................................................................................... 8-7
SESSION_TIMEOUT ......................................................................................................................... 8-8
Diagnostic Parameters for Oracle Connection Manager .................................................................. 8-8
ADR Diagnostic Parameters in cman.ora ....................................................................................... 8-8
ADR_BASE .................................................................................................................................. 8-9
DIAG_ADR_ENABLED............................................................................................................. 8-9
LOG_LEVEL ................................................................................................................................ 8-9
TRACE_LEVEL ........................................................................................................................ 8-10
TRACE_TIMESTAMP ............................................................................................................. 8-10
Non-ADR Diagnostic Parameters in cman.ora ........................................................................... 8-10
LOG_DIRECTORY .................................................................................................................. 8-11
TRACE_DIRECTORY.............................................................................................................. 8-11
TRACE_FILELEN .................................................................................................................... 8-12
TRACE_FILENO ...................................................................................................................... 8-12
9
Directory Usage Parameters (ldap.ora)
Overview of Directory Server Usage File ............................................................................................
Directory Usage Parameters ...................................................................................................................
DIRECTORY_SERVERS ....................................................................................................................
DIRECTORY_SERVER_TYPE ..........................................................................................................
DEFAULT_ADMIN_CONTEXT......................................................................................................
Part III
A
9-1
9-1
9-1
9-2
9-2
Appendixes
Features Not Supported in This Release
Overview of Unsupported Features..................................................................................................... A-1
Unsupported Parameters ....................................................................................................................... A-3
Unsupported Control Utility Commands........................................................................................... A-3
ix
B
Upgrade Considerations for Oracle Net Services
Overview of Unsupported Oracle Net Services Features................................................................
Unsupported Parameters and Control Utility Commands..............................................................
Client and Database Coexistence Issues ............................................................................................
Oracle9i Database Connections.......................................................................................................
Oracle8i or Oracle7 Database Connections ...................................................................................
Oracle Names.....................................................................................................................................
Using the Oracle Net Manager to Handle Compatibility Issues ...................................................
Upgrading to Oracle Net Services........................................................................................................
Step 1: Verify Service Name and Instance Name .........................................................................
Step 2: Perform Software Upgrade on the Database Server .......................................................
Step 3: Perform Software Upgrade on the Client .........................................................................
Step 4: Perform Functional Upgrade..............................................................................................
tnsnames.ora ..............................................................................................................................
listener.ora ..................................................................................................................................
C
LDAP Schema for Oracle Net Services
Structural Object Classes.......................................................................................................................
orclDBServer ......................................................................................................................................
orclNetService....................................................................................................................................
orclNetServiceAlias...........................................................................................................................
orclNetDescription............................................................................................................................
orclNetDescriptionList .....................................................................................................................
orclNetAddress..................................................................................................................................
orclNetAddressList...........................................................................................................................
orclNetDescriptionAux1 ..................................................................................................................
orclNetAddressAux1 ........................................................................................................................
Attributes ..................................................................................................................................................
Glossary
Index
x
B-1
B-3
B-3
B-3
B-4
B-4
B-5
B-5
B-6
B-6
B-6
B-6
B-7
B-7
C-1
C-1
C-2
C-2
C-2
C-2
C-3
C-3
C-3
C-3
C-3
Preface
Oracle Database Net Services Reference contains a complete listing and description of the
control utility commands and configuration file parameters available for managing
components of Oracle Net Services.
This document describes the features of Oracle Database 11g software that apply to the
Microsoft Windows and UNIX operating systems.
This preface contains these topics:
■
Audience
■
Documentation Accessibility
■
Related Documents
■
Conventions
Audience
Oracle Database Net Services Reference is intended for network administrators who are
responsible for configuring and administering network components.
To use this document, you need to be familiar with the networking concepts and
configuration tasks described in Oracle Database Net Services Administrator's Guide.
This document contains:
Part I, "Control Utilities"
Chapter 1, "Listener Control Utility"
This chapter describes the Listener Control utility commands.
Chapter 2, "Oracle Connection Manager Control Utility"
This chapter describes the Oracle Connection Manager Control utility commands.
Part II, "Configuration Parameters"
Chapter 3, "Syntax Rules for Configuration Files"
This chapter describes the syntax rules for networking configuration files.
Chapter 4, "Protocol Address Configuration"
This chapter describes how to configure a protocol address.
xi
Chapter 5, "Profile Parameters (sqlnet.ora)"
This chapter describes the sqlnet.ora file parameters.
Chapter 6, "Local Naming Parameters (tnsnames.ora)"
This chapter describes the tnsnames.ora file parameters.
Chapter 7, "Oracle Net Listener Parameters (listener.ora)"
This chapter describes the listener.ora file parameters.
Chapter 8, "Oracle Connection Manager Parameters (cman.ora)"
This chapter describes the cman.ora file parameters.
Chapter 9, "Directory Usage Parameters (ldap.ora)"
This chapter describes the ldap.ora file parameters.
Part III, "Appendixes"
Appendix A, "Features Not Supported in This Release"
This appendix describes the control utility commands and parameters no longer
supported by Oracle Net Services.
Appendix B, "Upgrade Considerations for Oracle Net Services"
This appendix describes coexistence and upgrade issues for Oracle Net Services.
Appendix C, "LDAP Schema for Oracle Net Services"
This appendix describes the Oracle schema for Oracle Net Services.
Glossary
Documentation Accessibility
For information about Oracle's commitment to accessibility, visit the Oracle
Accessibility Program website at
http://www.oracle.com/pls/topic/lookup?ctx=acc&id=docacc.
Access to Oracle Support
Oracle customers have access to electronic support through My Oracle Support. For
information, visit http://www.oracle.com/pls/topic/lookup?ctx=acc&id=info or
visit http://www.oracle.com/pls/topic/lookup?ctx=acc&id=trs if you are hearing
impaired.
Related Documents
For more information, see these Oracle resources:
■
Oracle Database Net Services Administrator's Guide
■
Online Help for Net Services tools and utilities
■
Oracle Database documentation set
Many books in the documentation set use the sample schemas of the seed database,
which is installed by default when you install Oracle. Refer to Oracle Database Sample
xii
Schemas for information on how these schemas were created and how you can use
them yourself.
Printed documentation is available for sale in the Oracle Store at
http://oraclestore.oracle.com/
To download free release notes, installation documentation, white papers, or other
collateral, please visit the Oracle Technology Network (OTN). You must register online
before using OTN; registration is free and can be done at
http://otn.oracle.com/membership/
If you already have a user name and password for OTN, then you can go directly to
the documentation section of the OTN Web site at
http://www.oracle.com/technology/documentation/
Conventions
The following text conventions are used in this document:
Convention
Meaning
boldface
Boldface type indicates graphical user interface elements associated
with an action, or terms defined in text or the glossary.
italic
Italic type indicates book titles, emphasis, or placeholder variables for
which you supply particular values.
monospace
Monospace type indicates commands within a paragraph, URLs, code
in examples, text that appears on the screen, or text that you enter.
xiii
xiv
Part I
Part I
Control Utilities
Oracle Net Services provides control utilities to administer listeners, Oracle Names
servers, and Oracle Connection Manager. Part 1 lists the commands that are available
with each utility, including any applicable prerequisites, passwords, syntax or
argument rules, and usage notes or examples to help you use them.
This part contains the following chapters:
■
Chapter 1, "Listener Control Utility"
■
Chapter 2, "Oracle Connection Manager Control Utility"
1
1
Listener Control Utility
This chapter describes the commands and associated syntax of the Listener Control
utility.
This chapter contains these topics:
■
Listener Control Utility Overview
■
SET and SHOW Commands of the Listener Control Utility
■
Distributed Operations
■
Oracle Net Listener Security
■
Listener Control Utility Commands
Listener Control Utility Overview
The Listener Control utility enables you to administer listeners.You can use its
commands to perform basic management functions on one or more listeners.
Additionally, you can view and change parameter settings.
The basic syntax of Listener Control utility commands is as follows:
lsnrctl command listener_name
where listener_name is the name of the listener to be administered. If no name is
specified, then the default name, LISTENER, is assumed.
You can also issue Listener Control utility commands at the LSNRCTL> program
prompt. To obtain the prompt, enter lsnrctl with no arguments at the operating
system command line. When you run lsnrctl, the program is started. You can then
enter the necessary commands from the program prompt. The basic syntax of issuing
commands from LSNRCTL> program prompt is as follows:
lsnrctl
LSNRCTL> command listener_name
Listener Control Utility
1-1
SET and SHOW Commands of the Listener Control Utility
Note: You can combine commands in a standard text file, and then
run them as a sequence of commands. To execute in batch mode, use
the format:
lsnrctl @file_name
You can use either REM or # to identify comments in the batch script; all
other lines are considered commands. Any commands that would
typically require confirmation do not require confirmation during
batch execution.
For a majority of commands, the Listener Control utility establishes an Oracle Net
connection with the listener that is used to transmit the command. To initiate an Oracle
Net connection to the listener, the Listener Control utility must obtain the protocol
addresses for the named listener or a listener named LISTENER. This is done by
resolving the listener name with one of the following mechanisms:
■
■
■
listener.ora file in the directory specified by the TNS_ADMIN environment
variable
listener.ora file in the $ORACLE_HOME/network/admin directory on UNIX
operating systems and the %ORACLE_HOME%\network\admin directory on Windows
operating systems
Naming method, for example, a tnsnames.ora file
If the listener name is LISTENER and it cannot be resolved, a protocol address of
TCP/IP, port 1521 is assumed.
The Listener Control utility supports several types of commands:
■
Operational commands, such as START, STOP, and so forth.
■
Modifier commands, such as SET TRC_LEVEL
■
Informational commands, such as STATUS and SHOW LOG_FILE
■
Operational commands, such as EXIT, RELOAD, and HELP
SET and SHOW Commands of the Listener Control Utility
You can use the SET command to alter parameter values for a specified listener. You
set the name of the listener you want to administer with the SET CURRENT_
LISTENER command. Parameter values remain in effect until the listener is shut
down. If you want these settings to persist, use the SAVE_CONFIG command to save
changes to the listener.ora.
You can use the SHOW command to display the current value of a configuration
setting.
Distributed Operations
The Listener Control utility can perform operations on a local or a remote listener.
To set up a computer to remotely administer a listener:
1.
1-2
Ensure that the Listener Control utility (lsnrctl) executable is installed.
Oracle Database Net Services Reference
Listener Control Utility Commands
2.
Ensure that the name of the listener you want to administer can be resolved
through a listener.ora file or a naming method, as described in "Listener Control
Utility Overview" on page 1-1.
All commands except START can be issued when a listener is administered remotely.
The Listener Control utility can only start the listener on the same computer from
where the utility is running.
When issuing commands, specify the listener name as an argument. For example:
LSNRCTL> SERVICES lsnr
If the name is omitted, then listener name set with the SET CURRENT_LISTENER
command is used, or the default name, LISTENER is assumed.
Oracle Net Listener Security
Local listener administration is secure through local operating system authentication,
which restricts listener administration to the user who started the listener or to the
superuser. By default, no other user can administer the listener. However, you can
optionally configure a password. If the listener control client is installed locally and a
password is configured, a check for password authentication is done. If this check fails,
local operating system administration authentication is attempted.
In contrast, you must configure a password for remote listener administration, that is,
when the listener control utility is installed on a remote computer. In this case, local
operating system authentication is not used, and the user executing the listener control
utility on the remote computer does not have to be a superuser or the same user who
started the listener process.
Use the Listener Control utility's CHANGE_PASSWORD command or Oracle Net
Manager to set or modify an encrypted password in the PASSWORDS_listener_name
parameter in the listener.ora file. If the PASSWORDS_listener_name parameter is set
to an unencrypted password, you must manually remove it from the listener.ora file
prior to modifying it. If the unencrypted password is not removed, you will be unable
to successfully set an encrypted password.
If the PASSWORDS_listener_name parameter is set in the listener.ora file or the
CHANGE_PASSWORD command has been used to create a new, encrypted password, then
the Listener Control utility will require a SET PASSWORD command prior to any
protected command, such as STOP.
Note: If you are administering the listener remotely over an insecure
network and require maximum security, configure the listener with a
secure protocol address that uses the TCP/IP with SSL protocol. If the
listener has multiple protocol addresses, ensure that the TCP/IP with
SSL protocol address is listed first in the listener.ora file.
Listener Control Utility Commands
This section lists and describes the following Listener Control utility commands:
■
CHANGE_PASSWORD
■
EXIT
■
HELP
■
QUIT
Listener Control Utility
1-3
Listener Control Utility Commands
■
RELOAD
■
SAVE_CONFIG
■
SERVICES
■
SET
■
SET CURRENT_LISTENER
■
SET DISPLAYMODE
■
SET INBOUND_CONNECT_TIMEOUT
■
SET LOG_DIRECTORY
■
SET LOG_FILE
■
SET LOG_STATUS
■
SET PASSWORD
■
SET SAVE_CONFIG_ON_STOP
■
SET STARTUP_WAITTIME
■
SET TRC_DIRECTORY
■
SET TRC_FILE
■
SET TRC_LEVEL
■
SHOW
■
SPAWN
■
START
■
STATUS
■
STOP
■
TRACE
■
VERSION
CHANGE_PASSWORD
Purpose
Use the CHANGE_PASSWORD command to establish an encrypted password or change an
encrypted password set with the PASSWORDS_listener_name parameter in the
listener.ora file.
Prerequisites
None
Password Required If One Has Been Set:
Yes. If a password is set, then issue then issue the SET PASSWORD command prior to
this command.
Syntax
From the operating system:
lsnrctl CHANGE_PASSWORD [listener_name]
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Listener Control Utility Commands
From the Listener Control utility:
LSNRCTL> CHANGE_PASSWORD [listener_name]
Arguments
[listener_name]: Specify the listener name, if the default name of LISTENER is not
used.
Usage Notes
The Listener Control utility prompts you for the old password and then for the new
one. It asks you to re-enter the new one, and then changes it. Neither the old nor the
new password displays during this procedure. CHANGE_PASSWORD is usually followed
by the SAVE_CONFIG command to save the new password in the listener.ora file. If
a SAVE_CONFIG command is not issued, then the new password will be in effect only
until the listener is shut down.
See Also: Oracle Database Net Services Administrator's Guide for
further information about password security of the listener
Example
The following shows a new password of takd01 being set:
LSNRCTL> CHANGE_PASSWORD
Old password:
New password: takd01
Reenter new password: takd01
Connecting to (DESCRIPTION=(ADDRESS=(PROTOCOL=tpc)(HOST=sales-server)(PORT=1521)))
Password changed for LISTENER
The command completed successfully
LSNRCTL> SAVE_CONFIG
Connecting to (DESCRIPTION=(ADDRESS=(PROTOCOL=TCP)(HOST=sales-server)(PORT=1521)))
Saved LISTENER configuration parameters.
Listener Parameter File
/oracle/network/admin/listener.ora
Old Parameter File
/oracle/network/admin/listener.bak
The command completed successfully
The following shows the password being changed from takd01 to smd01:
LSNRCTL> SET PASSWORD
Password: takd01
The command completed successfully
LSNRCTL> CHANGE_PASSWORD
Old password: takd01
New password: smd01
Reenter new password: smd01
Connecting to (DESCRIPTION=(ADDRESS=(PROTOCOL=tpc)(HOST=sales-server)(PORT=1521)))
Password changed for LISTENER
The command completed successfully
LSNRCTL> SAVE_CONFIG
Connecting to (DESCRIPTION=(ADDRESS=(PROTOCOL=TCP)(HOST=sales-server)(PORT=1521)))
Saved LISTENER configuration parameters.
Listener Parameter File
/oracle/network/admin/listener.ora
Old Parameter File
/oracle/network/admin/listener.bak
The command completed successfully
Listener Control Utility
1-5
Listener Control Utility Commands
EXIT
Purpose
Use the EXIT command to exit from the Listener Control utility.
Prerequisites
None
Password Required If One Has Been Set
No. If a password is set, then the SET PASSWORD command does not need to be
issued prior to this command.
Syntax
From the Listener Control utility:
LSNRCTL> EXIT
Arguments
None
Usage Notes
This command is identical to the RELOAD command.
Example
LSNRCTL> EXIT
HELP
Purpose
Use the command HELP to provide a list of all the Listener Control utility commands or
provide syntax help for a particular Listener Control utility command.
Prerequisites
None
Password Required If One Has Been Set
No. If a password is set, then the SET PASSWORD command does not need to be
issued prior to this command.
Syntax
From the operating system:
lsnrctl HELP command
From the Listener Control utility:
LSNRCTL> HELP command
Arguments
command: Specify a HELP command. Commands are shown in the following example
output.
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Listener Control Utility Commands
When you enter a command as an argument to HELP, the Listener Control utility
displays information about how to use the command. When you enter HELP without
an argument, the Listener Control utility displays a list of all the commands.
Example
LSNRCTL> HELP
The following operations are available
An asterisk (*) denotes a modifier or extended command:
change_password
exit
quit
reload
services
set*
show*
spawn
start
status
stop
trace
version
QUIT
Purpose
Use the QUIT command to exit the Listener Control utility and return to the operating
system prompt.
Prerequisites
None
Password Required If One Has Been Set
No. If a password is set, then the SET PASSWORD command does not need to be
issued prior to this command.
Syntax
From the Listener Control utility
LSNRCTL> QUIT
Arguments
None
Usage Notes
This command is identical to the EXIT command.
Example
LSNRCTL> QUIT
Listener Control Utility
1-7
Listener Control Utility Commands
RELOAD
Purpose
Use the RELOAD command to reread the listener.ora file. This command enables you
to add or change statically configured services without actually stopping the listener.
In addition, the database services, instances, service handlers, and listening endpoints
that were dynamically registered with the listener will be unregistered and
subsequently registered again.
Prerequisites
None
Password Required If One Has Been Set
Yes. If a password is set, then issue the SET PASSWORD command prior to this
command.
Syntax
From the operating system:
lsnrctl RELOAD listener_name
From the Listener Control utility:
LSNRCTL> RELOAD listener_name
Arguments
listener_name: Specify the listener name, if the default name of LISTENER is not used.
Example
LSNRCTL> RELOAD
Connecting to (DESCRIPTION=(ADDRESS=(PROTOCOL=TCP)(HOST=sales-server)(PORT=1521)))
The command completed successfully
SAVE_CONFIG
Purpose
Use the SAVE_CONFIG command to compare the current configuration state of the
listener, including trace level, trace file, trace directory, and logging to the
listener.ora file. Any changes are stored in listener.ora, preserving formatting,
comments, and case as much as possible. Prior to modification of the listener.ora
file, a backup of the file, called listener.bak, is created.
Password Required If One Has Been Set
Yes. If a password is set, then issue then issue the SET PASSWORD command prior to
this command.
Syntax
From the operating system:
lsnrctl SAVE_CONFIG listener_name
From the Listener Control utility:
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Listener Control Utility Commands
LSNRCTL> SAVE_CONFIG listener_name
Arguments
listener_name: Specify the listener name, if the default name of LISTENER is not used.
Usage Notes
This command enables you to save all run-time configuration changes to the
listener.ora file, which can be especially useful for saving changed encrypted
passwords.
Example
LSNRCTL> SAVE_CONFIG listener
Connecting to (DESCRIPTION=(ADDRESS=(PROTOCOL=TCP)(HOST=sales-server)(PORT=1521)))
Saved LISTENER configuration parameters.
Listener Parameter File
/oracle/network/admin/listener.ora
Old Parameter File
/oracle/network/admin/listener.bak
The command completed successfully
SERVICES
Purpose
Use the SERVICES command to obtain detailed information about the database
services, instances, and service handlers (dispatchers and dedicated servers) to which
the listener forwards client connection requests.
Prerequisites
None
Password
Required if one has been set. If a password is set, then issue the SET PASSWORD
command prior to this command.
Syntax
From the operating system:
lsnrctl SERVICES listener_name
From the Listener Control utility:
LSNRCTL> SERVICES listener_name
Arguments
listener_name: Specify the listener name, if the default name of LISTENER is not used.
Usage Notes
See Also: Oracle Database Net Services Administrator's Guide for a
complete description of SERVICES output
The SET DISPLAYMODE command changes the format and the detail level of the
output.
Listener Control Utility
1-9
Listener Control Utility Commands
Example
This example shows SERVICES output in the default display mode. The output shows
the following:
■
■
■
An instance named sales belonging to two services, sales1.us.example.com and
sales2.us.example.com, with a total of three service handlers.
Service sales1.us.example.com is handled by one dispatcher only.
Service sales2.us.example.com is handled by one dispatcher and one dedicated
server, as specified by in the following output.
LSNRCTL> SERVICES
Connecting to (DESCRIPTION=(ADDRESS=(PROTOCOL=ipc)(KEY=net)))
Services Summary...
Service "sales1.us.example.com" has 1 instance(s).
Instance "sales", status READY, has 1 handler(s) for this service...
Handler(s):
"D000" established:0 refused:0 current:0 max:10000 state:ready
DISPATCHER <machine: sales-server, pid: 5696>
(ADDRESS=(PROTOCOL=tcp)(HOST=sales-server)(PORT=53411))
Service "sales2.us.example.com" has 1 instance(s).
Instance "sales", status READY, has 2 handler(s) for this service...
Handler(s):
"DEDICATED" established:0 refused:0 state:ready
LOCAL SERVER
"D001" established:0 refused:0 current:0 max:10000 state:ready
DISPATCHER <machine: sales-server, pid: 5698>
(ADDRESS=(PROTOCOL=tcp)(HOST=sales-server)(PORT=52618))
The command completed successfully
SET
Purpose
Use the SET command to alter the parameter values for the listener. Parameter values
changes remain in effect until the listener is shut down. To make the changes
permanent, use the SAVE_CONFIG command to save changes to the listener.ora
file.
Prerequisites
None
Password Required If One Has Been Set
No. If a password is set, then the SET PASSWORD command does not need to be
issued prior to this command.
Syntax
From the operating system:
lsnrctl SET parameter
From the Listener Control utility:
LSNRCTL> SET parameter
1-10
Oracle Database Net Services Reference
Listener Control Utility Commands
Arguments
parameter: Specify a SET parameter to modify its configuration setting. Parameters are
shown in the example output.
When you enter SET without an argument, the Listener Control utility displays a list of
all the parameters.
Usage Notes
If you are using the SET commands to alter the configuration of a listener other than
the default LISTENER listener, use the SET CURRENT_LISTENER command to set the
name of the listener you want to administer.
Example
LSNRCTL> SET
The following operations are available with set.
An asterick (*) denotes a modifier or extended command.
current_listener
displaymode
inbound_connect_timeout
log_file
log_directory
log_status
password
raw_mode
save_config_on_stop
startup_waittime
trc_file
trc_directory
trc_level
SET CURRENT_LISTENER
Purpose
Use the SET CURRENT_LISTENER command to set the name of the listener to administer.
Subsequent commands that would normally require listener_name can be issued
without it.
Password Required If One Has Been Set
No. If a password is set, then the SET PASSWORD command does not need to be
issued prior to this command.
Syntax
From the Listener Control utility
LSNRCTL> SET CURRENT_LISTENER listener_name
Arguments
listener_name: Specify the listener name, if the default name of LISTENER is not used.
Usage Notes
When SET CURRENT_LISTENER is set, the Listener Control utility commands act on the
listener you set. You do not have to specify the name of the listener.
Listener Control Utility 1-11
Listener Control Utility Commands
Example
LSNRCTL> SET CURRENT_LISTENER lsnr
Current Listener is lsnr
SET DISPLAYMODE
Purpose
Use the SET DISPLAYMODE command to change the format and level of detail for the
SERVICES and STATUS commands.
Password Required If One Has Been Set
No. If a password is set, then the SET PASSWORD command does not need to be
issued prior to this command.
Syntax
From the Listener Control utility:
LSNRCTL> SET DISPLAYMODE {compat | normal | verbose | raw}
Arguments
compat: Specify to display output that is compatible with older versions of the listener.
normal: Specify to display output in a formatted and descriptive output. Oracle
recommends this mode.
verbose: Specify to display all data received from the listener in a formatted and
descriptive output.
raw: Specify to display all data received from the listener without any formatting. This
output should be used only if recommended by Oracle Support Services.
Example
LSNRCTL> SET DISPLAYMODE normal
Service display mode is NORMAL
SET INBOUND_CONNECT_TIMEOUT
Purpose
Use the SET INBUND_CONNECT_TIMEOUT command to specify the time, in seconds, for the
client to complete its connect request to the listener after the network connection had
been established.
If the listener does not receive the client request in the time specified, then it
terminates the connection. In addition, the listener logs the IP address of the client and
an ORA-12525:TNS: listener has not received client's request in time
allowed error message to the listener.log file.
See Also: Oracle Database Net Services Administrator's Guide for
information about specifying the time-out for client connections
Syntax
From the Listener Control utility:
LSNRCTL> SET INBOUND_CONNECT_TIMEOUT time
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Oracle Database Net Services Reference
Listener Control Utility Commands
Arguments
time: Specify the time, in seconds. Default setting is 60 seconds.
Example
LSNRCTL> SET INBOUND_CONNECT_TIMEOUT 2
Connecting to (ADDRESS=(PROTOCOL=TCP)(HOST=sales-server)(PORT=1521))
LISTENER parameter "inbound_connect_timeout" set to 2
The command completed successfully.
SET LOG_DIRECTORY
Purpose
Use the command SET LOG_DIRECTORY to set destination directory where the listener
log file is written. By default, the log file is written to the $ORACLE_HOME/network/log
directory on UNIX operating systems and the %ORACLE_HOME%\network\log directory
on Windows.
Prerequisites
None
Password Required If One Has Been Set
Yes. If a password is set, then issue the SET PASSWORD command prior to this
command.
Syntax
From the operating system:
lsnrctl SET LOG_DIRECTORY directory
From the Listener Control utility:
LSNRCTL> SET LOG_DIRECTORY directory
Arguments
directory: Specify the directory path of the listener log file.
Example
LSNRCTL> SET LOG_DIRECTORY /usr/oracle/admin
Connecting to (ADDRESS=(PROTOCOL=TCP)(HOST=sales-server)(PORT=1521))
LISTENER parameter "log_directory" set to /usr/oracle/admin
The command completed successfully
SET LOG_FILE
Purpose
Use the command SET LOG_FILE to set the name for the listener log file. By default, the
log file name is listener.log.
Prerequisites
None
Listener Control Utility 1-13
Listener Control Utility Commands
Password Required If One Has Been Set
Yes. If a password is set, then issue the SET PASSWORD command prior to this
command.
Syntax
From the operating system:
lsnrctl SET LOG_FILE file_name
From the Listener Control utility:
LSNRCTL> SET LOG_FILE file_name
Arguments
file_name: Specify file name of the listener log.
Example
LSNRCTL> SET LOG_FILE list.log
Connecting to (ADDRESS=(PROTOCOL=TCP)(HOST=sales-server)(PORT=1521))
LISTENER parameter "log_file" set to list.log
The command completed successfully
SET LOG_STATUS
Purpose
Use the command SET LOG_STATUS to turn listener logging on or off.
Prerequisites
None
Password Required If One Has Been Set
Yes. If a password is set, then issue the SET PASSWORD command prior to this
command.
Syntax
From the operating system:
lsnrctl SET LOG_STATUS {on | off}
From the Listener Control utility:
LSNRCTL> SET LOG_STATUS {on | off}
Arguments
on: Specify to turn logging on.
off: Specify to turn logging off.
Example
LSNRCTL> SET LOG_STATUS on
Connecting to (ADDRESS=(PROTOCOL=TCP)(HOST=sales-server)(PORT=1521))
LISTENER parameter "log_status" set to ON
The command completed successfully
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Oracle Database Net Services Reference
Listener Control Utility Commands
SET PASSWORD
Purpose
Use the command SET PASSWORD prior to privileged Listener Control utility
commands, such as SAVE_CONFIG and STOP.
The password entered should match the one established for the PASSWORDS_listener_
name parameter in the listener.ora file or set by the CHANGE_PASSWORD
command.
Syntax
From the Listener Control utility:
LSNRCTL> SET PASSWORD
Password: password
Arguments
None
Usage Notes
You can enter this command when you start up the Listener Control utility or at any
time during the session as needed.
See Also:
"Oracle Net Listener Security" on page 1-3
Example
LSNRCTL> SET PASSWORD
Password: lnrc11g
The command completed successfully
SET SAVE_CONFIG_ON_STOP
Purpose
Use the command SET SAVE_CONFIG_ON_STOP to specify whether or not changes made
to the parameter values for the listener by the SET commands are to be saved to the
listener.ora file at the time the listener is stopped with the STOP command.
When changes are saved, the Listener Control utility tries to preserve formatting,
comments, and letter case. Prior to modification of the listener.ora file, a back up of
the file, called listener.bak, is created.
To have all parameters saved right away, use the SAVE_CONFIG command.
Password Required If One Has Been Set
No. If a password is set, then the SET PASSWORD command does not need to be
issued prior to this command.
Syntax
From the operating system:
lsnrctl SET SAVE_CONFIG_ON_STOP
{on | off}
From the Listener Control utility:
LSNRCTL> SET SAVE_CONFIG_ON_STOP
{on | off}
Listener Control Utility 1-15
Listener Control Utility Commands
Arguments
on: Specify to save configuration to listener.ora.
off: Specify to not save configuration to listener.ora.
Example
LSNRCTL> SET SAVE_CONFIG_ON_STOP on
LISTENER parameter "save_config_on_stop" set to ON
The command completed successfully
SET STARTUP_WAITTIME
Note: This command is deprecated in Oracle9i and will be
desupported in a future release. If you require this command to run
the listener, please notify Oracle Support Services.
Purpose
Use the command SET STARTUP_WAITTIME to specify the amount of time for the listener
to wait before responding to a START command.
Prerequisites
None
Password Required If One Has Been Set
Yes. If a password is set, then issue the SET PASSWORD command prior to this
command.
Syntax
From the operating system:
lsnrctl SET STARTUP_WAITTIME time
From the Listener Control utility:
LSNRCTL> SET STARTUP_WAITTIME time
Arguments
time: Specify the time, in seconds.
Example
LSNRCTL> SET STARTUP_WAITTIME 10
Connecting to (ADDRESS=(PROTOCOL=TCP)(HOST=sales-server)(PORT=1521))
LISTENER parameter "startup_waittime" set to 10
The command completed successfully
SET TRC_DIRECTORY
Purpose
Use the command SET TRC_DIRECTORY to set the destination directory where the
listener trace files are written. By default, the trace file are written to the $ORACLE_
HOME/network/trace directory on UNIX operating systems and the %ORACLE_
HOME%\network\trace directory on Windows.
1-16
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Listener Control Utility Commands
Prerequisites
None
Password Required If One Has Been Set
No. If a password is set, then the SET PASSWORD command does not need to be
issued prior to this command.
Syntax
From the operating system:
lsnrctl SET TRC_DIRECTORY directory
From the Listener Control utility:
LSNRCTL> SET TRC_DIRECTORY directory
Arguments
directory: Specify the directory path of the listener trace files.
Example
LSNRCTL> SET TRC_DIRECTORY /usr/oracle/admin
Connecting to (ADDRESS=(PROTOCOL=TCP)(HOST=sales-server)(PORT=1521))
LISTENER parameter "trc_directory" set to /usr/oracle/admin
The command completed successfully
SET TRC_FILE
Purpose
Use the command SET TRC_FILE to set the name of the listener trace file. By default, the
trace file name is listener.trc.
Prerequisites
None
Password Required If One Has Been Set
No. If a password is set, then the SET PASSWORD command does not need to be
issued prior to this command.
Syntax
From the operating system:
lsnrctl SET TRC_FILE file_name
From the Listener Control utility:
LSNRCTL> SET TRC_FILE file_name
Arguments
file_name: Specify the file name of the listener trace.
Example
LSNRCTL> SET TRC_FILE list.trc
Connecting to (ADDRESS=(PROTOCOL=TCP)(HOST=sales-server)(PORT=1521))
LISTENER parameter "trc_file" set to list.trc
Listener Control Utility 1-17
Listener Control Utility Commands
The command completed successfully
SET TRC_LEVEL
Purpose
Use the command SET TRC_LEVEL to set a specific level of tracing for the listener.
Prerequisites
None
Password Required If One Has Been Set
Yes. If a password is set, then issue the SET PASSWORD command prior to this
command.
Syntax
From the operating system:
lsnrctl SET TRC_LEVEL level
From the Listener Control utility:
LSNRCTL> SET TRC_LEVEL level
Arguments
level: Specify one of the following trace levels:
■
off for no trace output
■
user for user trace information
■
admin for administration trace information
■
support for Oracle Support Services trace information
Usage Notes
This command has the same functionality as the TRACE command.
Example
LSNRCTL> SET TRC_LEVEL admin
Connecting to (ADDRESS=(PROTOCOL=TCP)(HOST=sales-server)(PORT=1521))
LISTENER parameter "trc_level" set to admin
The command completed successfully
SHOW
Purpose
Use the command SHOW to view the current parameter values for the listener.
All of the SET parameters, except SET PASSWORD, have equivalent SHOW parameters.
Prerequisites
None
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Listener Control Utility Commands
Password Required If One Has Been Set
Yes. If a password is set, then issue the SET PASSWORD command prior to using this
command.
Syntax
From the operating system:
lsnrctl SHOW parameter
From the Listener Control utility:
LSNRCTL> SHOW parameter
Arguments
parameter: Specify a SHOW parameter to view its configuration settings. Parameters are
shown in the example output.
When you enter SET without an argument, the Listener Control utility displays a list of
all the parameters.
Example
LSNRCTL> SHOW
The following properties are available with SHOW:
An asterisk (*) denotes a modifier or extended command:
current_listener
displaymode
inbound_connect_timeout
log_file
log_directory
log_status
rawmode
save_config_on_stop
startup_waittime
trc_file
trc_directory
trc_level
Note: SHOW STARTUP_WAITTIME is deprecated in Oracle9i and will be
desupported in a future release. If you require this command to run
the listener, please notify Oracle Support Services.
SPAWN
Purpose
Use the SPAWN command to start a program stored on the computer on which the
listener is running, and which is listed with an alias in the listener.ora file.
Prerequisites
None
Password Required If One Has Been Set
Yes. If a password is set, then issue the SET PASSWORD command prior to this
command.
Listener Control Utility 1-19
Listener Control Utility Commands
Syntax
From the operating system:
lsnrctl SPAWN listener_name alias (arguments='arg1,arg2,...')
From the Listener Control utility
LSNRCTL> SPAWN listener_name alias (arguments='arg1,arg2,...')
Arguments
listener_name: Specify the listener name, if the default name of LISTENER is not used.
alias: The alias of the program to be spawned off is specified by a listener.ora file
entry, similar to the following:
alias = (PROGRAM=(NAME=)(ARGS=)(ENVS=))
For example:
nstest = (PROGRAM=(NAME=nstest)(ARGS=test1)(ENVS='ORACLE_HOME=/usr/oracle'))
Example
This program can then be spawned off using the following command:
lsnrctl SPAWN listener_name nstest
START
Purpose
Use the command START to start the named listener.
Prerequisites
Listener must not already be running.
Password Required If One Has Been Set
No. If a password is set, then the SET PASSWORD command does not need to be
issued prior to this command.
Syntax
From the operating system:
lsnrctl START listener_name
From the Listener Control utility:
LSNRCTL> START listener_name
Arguments
listener_name: Specify the listener name, if the default name of LISTENER is not used.
Usage Notes
To start a listener configured in the listener.ora file with a name other than
LISTENER, include that name.
For example, if the listener name is tcp_lsnr, enter:
lsnrctl START tcp_lsnr
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Listener Control Utility Commands
From the Listener Control utility:
LSNRCTL> START tcp_lsnr
Example
LSNRCTL> START
Starting /private/dsteiner/sales/bin/tnslsnr: please wait...
TNSLSNR for Solaris: Version 9.0.1.0.0
System parameter file is /oracle/network/admin/listener.ora
Log messages written to /oracle/network/log/listener.log
Listening on: (DESCRIPTION=(ADDRESS=(PROTOCOL=tcp)(HOST=sales-server)(PORT=1521)))
Connecting to (DESCRIPTION=(ADDRESS=(PROTOCOL=TCP)(HOST=sales-server)(PORT=1521)))
STATUS of the LISTENER
-----------------------Alias
LISTENER
Version
TNSLSNR for Solaris: Version 9.0.1.0.0
Start Date
15-NOV-2003 18:02:25
Uptime
0 days 0 hr. 0 min. 0 sec
Trace Level
off
Security
OFF
SNMP
OFF
Listener Parameter File
/oracle/network/admin/listener.ora
Listener Log File
/oracle/network/log/listener.log
Listening Endpoints Summary...
(DESCRIPTION=(ADDRESS=(PROTOCOL=tcp)(HOST=sales-server)(PORT=1521)))
The listener supports no services
The command completed successfully
STATUS
Note: You can also obtain the status of the listener through the
Oracle Enterprise Manager Console. See the Oracle Database 2 Day
DBA for further information.
Purpose
Use the command STATUS to display basic status information about a listener,
including a summary of listener configuration settings, listening protocol addresses,
and a summary of services registered with the listener.
Prerequisites
None
Password Required If One Has Been Set
Yes. If a password is set, then issue the SET PASSWORD command prior to this
command.
Syntax
From the operating system:
lsnrctl STATUS listener_name
From the Listener Control utility:
Listener Control Utility 1-21
Listener Control Utility Commands
LSNRCTL> STATUS listener_name
Arguments
listener_name: Specify the listener name, if the default name of LISTENER is not used.
Usage Notes
See Also: Oracle Database Net Services Administrator's Guide or a
complete description of STATUS output
The SET DISPLAYMODE command changes the format and level of the detail of the
output.
Example
The following example shows STATUS output in the default display mode. The output
contains:
■
Listener configuration settings
■
Listening endpoints summary
■
Services summary, which is an abbreviated version of the SERVICES command
output
LSNRCTL> STATUS
Connecting to (DESCRIPTION=(ADDRESS=(PROTOCOL=ipc)(KEY=net)))
STATUS of the LISTENER
-----------------------Alias
LISTENER
Version
TNSLSNR for Solaris: Version 10.0.0.0.0
Start Date
15-JAN-2003 12:02:00
Uptime
0 days 0 hr. 5 min. 29 sec
Trace Level
support
Security
OFF
SNMP
OFF
Listener Parameter File
/oracle/network/admin/listener.ora
Listener Log File
/oracle/network/log/listener.log
Listener Trace File
/oracle/network/trace/listener.trc
Listening Endpoints Summary...
(DESCRIPTION=(ADDRESS=(PROTOCOL=ipc)(KEY=net)))
(DESCRIPTION=(ADDRESS=(PROTOCOL=tcp)(HOST=sales-server)(PORT=1521)))
(DESCRIPTION=(ADDRESS=(PROTOCOL=tcps)(HOST=sales-server)(PORT=2484)))
Services Summary...
Service "sales1.us.example.com" has 1
Instance "sales", status READY, has
Service "sales2.us.example.com" has 1
Instance "sales", status READY, has
The command completed successfully
instance(s).
1 handler(s) for this service...
instance(s).
2 handler(s) for this service...
STOP
Purpose
Use the command STOP to stop the named listener.
Prerequisites
The listener must be running.
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Listener Control Utility Commands
Password Required If One Has Been Set
Yes. If a password is set, then issue the SET PASSWORD command prior to this
command.
Syntax
From the operating system:
lsnrctl STOP listener_name
From the Listener Control utility:
LSNRCTL> STOP listener_name
Arguments
listener_name: Specify the listener name, if the default name of LISTENER is not used.
Example
LSNRCTL> STOP
Connecting to (ADDRESS=(PROTOCOL=TCP)(HOST=sales-server)(PORT=1521))
The command completed successfully
TRACE
Purpose
Use the command TRACE to turn on tracing for the listener.
Password Required If One Has Been Set
Yes. If a password is set, then issue the SET PASSWORD command prior to this
command.
Syntax
From the operating system:
lsnrctl trace level listener_name
From the Listener Control utility:
LSNRCTL> trace level listener_name
Arguments
level: Specify one of the following trace levels:
■
off for no trace output
■
user for user trace information
■
admin for administration trace information
■
support for Oracle Support Services trace information
[listener_name: Specify the listener name, if the default name of LISTENER is not
used.
Usage Notes
This command has the same functionality as SET TRC_LEVEL command.
Listener Control Utility 1-23
Listener Control Utility Commands
Example
LSNRCTL> TRACE ADMIN lsnr
Connecting to (ADDRESS=(PROTOCOL=TCP)(HOST=sales-server)(PORT=1521))
Opened trace file: /oracle/network/trace/listener.trc
The command completed successfully
VERSION
Purpose
Use the command VERSION to display the current version of Listener Control utility.
Prerequisites
None
Password Required If One Has Been Set
No. If a password is set, then the SET PASSWORD command does not need to be
issued prior to this command.
Syntax
From the operating system:
lsnrctl VERSION listener_name
From the Listener Control utility:
LSNRCTL> VERSION listener_name
Arguments
listener_name: Specify the listener name, if the default name of LISTENER is not used.
Example
LSNRCTL> VERSION listener1
Connecting to ADDRESS=(PROTOCOL=TCP)(HOST=sales-server)(PORT=1521))
TNSLSNR for Solaris: Version 10.0.0.0.0
TNS for Solaris: Version 10.0.0.0.0
Oracle Bequeath NT Protocol Adapter for Solaris: Version 10.0.0.0.0
Unix Domain Socket IPC NT Protocol Adaptor for Solaris: Version 10.0.0.0.0
TCP/IP NT Protocol Adapter for Solaris: Version 10.0.0.0.0
The command completed successfully
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2
2
Oracle Connection Manager Control Utility
This chapter describes the commands and associated syntax of the Oracle Connection
Manager Control utility.
This chapter contains these topics:
■
Oracle Connection Manager Control Utility Overview
■
Command Modes and Syntax
■
Distributed Operations
■
Oracle Connection Manager Control Utility Commands
Oracle Connection Manager Control Utility Overview
The Oracle Connection Manager Control utility enables you to administer Oracle
Connection Managers. You can use its commands to perform basic management
functions on one or more Oracle Connection Managers. Additionally, you can view
and change parameter settings.
Command Modes and Syntax
The basic syntax of the Oracle Connection Manager Control utility is as follows:
cmctl command [argument]
You can choose between two command modes:
■
Interactive:
Enter cmctl at the command line to obtain the program prompt; then issue the
command:
cmctl
CMCTL> command
■
All at once:
Enter the entire command from the operating system command prompt:
cmctl [command] [argument1 . . . argumentN] [-c instance_name] [-p password]
Each command issued in this way can have the name of an Oracle Connection
Manager and a password appended as arguments. If an Oracle Connection
Manager name is not provided, the default instance name is assumed. A password
is necessary only if one was set in a previous CMCTL session. Note that an
Oracle Connection Manager Control Utility
2-1
Distributed Operations
interactive session of Oracle Connection Manager requires that a password be
entered only once, at the outset, if one has been set at all.
See Also: Oracle Database Net Services Administrator's Guide for an
overview of the Oracle Connection Manager processes
■
Batch mode:
You can combine commands in a standard text file and then run them as a
sequence of commands. To execute in batch mode, use the following format:
cmctl @input_file
The Oracle Connection Manager Control utility supports four types of commands:
■
Initialization and termination commands such as STARTUP and SHUTDOWN
■
Alter commands such as SET LOG_LEVEL and SET EVENT
■
Display commands, such as SHOW STATUS and SHOW RULES
■
Gateway commands such as SHOW GATEWAYS and RESUME GATEWAYS
Note that while you can use SET commands to dynamically alter configuration
parameters, these changes only remain in effect until the Oracle Connection Manager
is shut down. You cannot save them to the cman.ora file. The one exception is the
Oracle Connection Manager password, which you can save by issuing the command
SAVE_PASSWORD.
Distributed Operations
The Oracle Connection Manager Control utility can perform operations on a local or a
remote Oracle Connection Manager. Note, however, that an instance must be started
locally—that is, on the computer where the instance is located.
To set up one instance of Oracle Connection Manager to remotely administer another:
1.
Configure the tnsnames.ora file on the local computer to include the remote
listening address. Assume, for instance, that the local Oracle Connection Manager
is called cman1 and that it resides on proxysvr1. Assume, too, that the remote
Oracle Connection Manager is called cman2 and that it resides on proxysvr2. The
tnsnames.ora file on proxysvr1 would be configured this way:
CMAN2=
((ADDRESS=(PROTOCOL=tcp)(HOST=proxysvr2)(PORT=1521)))
1.
In the cman.ora file on the remote computer, set the value of the parameter
REMOTE_ADMIN to yes as in the following example:
CMAN2=
(CONFIGURATION=
(ADDRESS=(PROTOCOL=tcp)(host=proxysvr2)(port=1521))
(PARAMETER_LIST=
(REMOTE_ADMIN=YES)))
Oracle Connection Manager Control Utility Commands
This section lists and describes the following commands for the Oracle Connection
Manager Control utility:
■
2-2
ADMINISTER
Oracle Database Net Services Reference
Oracle Connection Manager Control Utility Commands
■
CLOSE CONNECTIONS
■
EXIT
■
HELP
■
QUIT
■
RELOAD
■
RESUME GATEWAYS
■
SAVE_PASSWORD
■
SET
■
SET ASO_AUTHENTICATION_FILTER
■
SET CONNECTION_STATISTICS
■
SET EVENT
■
SET IDLE_TIMEOUT
■
SET INBOUND_CONNECT_TIMEOUT
■
SET LOG_DIRECTORY
■
SET LOG_LEVEL
■
SET OUTBOUND_CONNECT_TIMEOUT
■
SET PASSWORD
■
SET SESSION_TIMEOUT
■
SET TRACE_DIRECTORY
■
SET TRACE_LEVEL
■
SHOW
■
SHOW ALL
■
SHOW CONNECTIONS
■
SHOW DEFAULTS
■
SHOW EVENTS
■
SHOW GATEWAYS
■
SHOW PARAMETERS
■
SHOW RULES
■
SHOW SERVICES
■
SHOW STATUS
■
SHOW VERSION
■
SHUTDOWN
■
STARTUP
■
SUSPEND GATEWAY
Oracle Connection Manager Control Utility
2-3
Oracle Connection Manager Control Utility Commands
ADMINISTER
Purpose
Use the ADMINISTER command to choose an instance of Oracle Connection Manager.
Prerequisites
None.
Syntax
From the Oracle Connection Manager Control utility:
CMCTL> ADMINISTER instance_name using password
Arguments
[instance_name]: Specify the instance of Oracle Connection Manager that you would
like to administer. Instances are defined in the cman.ora file.
[password]: Specify the password, if any, for this instance of Oracle Connection
Manager.
Usage Notes
Issue ADMINISTER only in interactive mode. You cannot issue the command from the
operating system.
ADMINISTER enables you to choose an Oracle Connection Manager to administer. To
start this Oracle Connection Manager, you must issue STARTUP.
When you omit the instance name from the command, the instance administered
defaults to the local instance.
A password is required only if one was provided at install time or during a previous
session of the Oracle Connection Manager.
Example
CMCTL> ADMINISTER cman_indl040ad using jayu123
Current instance cman_indl040ad is already started
Connections refer to (address=(protocol=TCP)(host=indl040ad)(port=1560)).
The command completed successfully
CMCTL:cman_indl040ad>
CLOSE CONNECTIONS
Purpose
Use the CLOSE CONNECTIONS command to terminate connections, using specific
qualifiers to select connections.
Prerequisites
Oracle Connection Manager must be running.
Syntax
From the operating system:
cmctl CLOSE CONNECTIONS [in state] [gt time] [from source] [to destination]
[for service] [using gateway_process_id] [connect_identifier_list]
[-c cman_name][-p password]
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Oracle Connection Manager Control Utility Commands
From the Oracle Connection Manager Control utility:
CMCTL> CLOSE CONNECTIONS [in state] [gt time] [from source] [to destination] [for
service] [using gateway_process_id] [connect_identifier_list]
Arguments
[in state:] Use one of the following values to specify the connection state:
■
idle: Connections that are inactive in the established state
■
connecting: Connections that are in the process of connecting
■
established: Connections that are connected and are transferring data
■
terminating: Connections that are disconnecting
If no state is specified, CLOSE CONNECTIONS defaults to all possible states. If the time
qualifier is included under these conditions, the time specified is the amount of time
that has elapsed since a client initiated a connection.
[gt time:] Use the following format to specify connections greater than the time
indicated:
gt[hh:mm:]ss
[from source]: Use one of the following formats to specify the source address:
■
from IP
■
from hostname
■
from subnet
[to destination]: Use one of the following formats to specify the destination
address:
■
to IP
■
to hostname
■
to subnet
[for service]: Use the following format to request a service:
for service_name
[using gateway_process_id]: Use this format to specify connections that are proxied
by the gateway process indicated.
[connect_identifier_list]: Space between multiple connection identifiers in a list.
Usage Notes
Because the CLOSE CONNECTIONS command aborts connections, it might generate error
messages on both client and server sides.
The IDLE state qualifier always requires a time qualifier.
Issuing CLOSE CONNECTIONS without an argument closes all connections.
Examples
The following shuts down connections in any state. The elapsed time of the connection
must be greater than 1 hour and 30 minutes. The connection source is the specified
subnet; the destination, the specified host name.
Oracle Connection Manager Control Utility
2-5
Oracle Connection Manager Control Utility Commands
CMCTL:CMAN_user-sun.us.example.com>
CLOSE CONNECTIONS gt 1:30:00 from 192.0.2.32/27 to host1
The following shuts down those connections proxied by gateway process 0 that have
been in the idle state more than 30 minutes:
CMCTL:CMAN_user-sun.us.example.com> CLOSE idle CONNECTIONS gt 30:00 using 0
The following shuts down connections that are connected to the service
sales.us.example.com:
CMCTL:CMAN_user-sun.us.example.com> CLOSE established CONNECTIONS for
sales.us.example.com
EXIT
Purpose
Use the EXIT command to exit from the Oracle Connection Manager Control utility.
Prerequisites
None
Syntax
From the operating system:
cmctl EXIT [-c instance_name] [-p password]
From the Oracle Connection Manager Control utility:
CMCTL> EXIT
Usage Notes
This command is identical to the QUIT command.
Example
CMCTL:CMAN_user-sun.us.example.com> EXIT
HELP
Purpose
Use the HELP command to provide a list of all commands for the Oracle Connection
Manager Control utility or to provide help with the syntax of a particular command.
Prerequisites
None
Syntax
From the operating system:
cmctl HELP [command] [-c instance_name] [-p password]
From the Oracle Connection Manager Control utility:
CMCTL> HELP [command]
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Oracle Connection Manager Control Utility Commands
Arguments
[command]: Specify a HELP command. Commands are shown in the following example
output.
When you enter a command as an argument to HELP, the Oracle Connection Manager
Control utility displays information about how to use the command. When you enter
HELP without an argument, the Oracle Connection Manager Control utility displays a
list of all the commands.
Example
CMCTL:CMAN_user-sun.us.example.com> HELP
The following operations are available
An asterisk (*) denotes a modifier or extended command:
administer
resume*
shutdown
show_version
close*
save_password
sleep
quit
exit
set*
startup
reload
show*
suspend*
QUIT
Purpose
Use the QUIT command to exit the Oracle Connection Manager Control utility and
return to the operating system prompt.
Prerequisites
None
Syntax
From the operating system:
cmctl QUIT
From the Oracle Connection Manager Control utility:
CMCTL> QUIT
Usage Notes
This command is identical to the EXIT command.
Example
CMCTL:CMAN_user-sun.us.example.com> QUIT
RELOAD
Purpose
Use the RELOAD command to dynamically reread parameters and rules.
Prerequisites
Oracle Connection Manager must be running.
Syntax
From the operating system:
Oracle Connection Manager Control Utility
2-7
Oracle Connection Manager Control Utility Commands
cmctl RELOAD [-c instance_name] [-p password]
From the Oracle Connection Manager Control utility:
CMCTL> RELOAD
Usage Notes
Configuration information modified using the RELOAD command applies only to new
connections. Existing connections are unaffected. SET RELOAD, on the other hand,
restores configurations set in cman.ora, thereby overriding the SET command.
RELOAD reregisters gateways with the Oracle Connection Manager listener, in the
course of which some new connections might be refused.
Example
CMCTL:CMAN_user-sun.us.example.com> RELOAD
The command completed successfully
RESUME GATEWAYS
Purpose
Use the RESUME GATEWAYS command to resume gateway processes that have been
suspended.
Prerequisites
Oracle Connection Manager must be running.
Syntax
From the operating system:
cmctl RESUME GATEWAYS [gateway_process_id] [cman_name][-p password]
From the Oracle Connection Manager Control utility:
CMCTL> RESUME GATEWAYS [gateway_process_id]
Arguments
[gateway_process_id]: Specify one or more gateway processes to reopen. Space once
between entries to specify multiple gateway processes.
Usage Notes
Issuing RESUME GATEWAYS without an argument reopens all gateway processes that
have been closed.
Example
CMCTL:CMAN_user-sun.us.example.com> RESUME GATEWAYS 1
The command completed successfully
SAVE_PASSWORD
Purpose
Use the SAVE_PASSWORD command to save the current password to cman.ora, the
configuration file for Oracle Connection Manager.
2-8
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Oracle Connection Manager Control Utility Commands
Prerequisites
Oracle Connection Manager must be running.
Syntax
From the operating system:
cmctl SAVE_PASSWORD [-c instance_name][-p password]
From the Oracle Connection Manager Control utility:
CMCTL> SAVE_PASSWORD
Usage Notes
If you execute this command, the next session of Oracle Connection Manager will start
with this password intact.
Example
CMCTL> SAVE_PASSWORD
SET
Purpose
Use the SET command to display a list of parameters that can be modified using this
command.
Prerequisites
None
Syntax
From the operating system:
cmctl SET
From the Oracle Connection Manager Control utility:
CMCTL> SET
Example
CMCTL:CMAN_user-sun.us.example.com> SET
The following operations are available after set
An asterisk (*) denotes a modifier or extended command:
aso_authentication_filter
connection_statistics
event
idle_timeout
inbound_connect_timeout
log_directory
log_level
outbound_connect_timeout
password
session_timeout
trace_directory
trace_level
Oracle Connection Manager Control Utility
2-9
Oracle Connection Manager Control Utility Commands
SET ASO_AUTHENTICATION_FILTER
Purpose
Use the SET ASO_AUTHENTICATION_FILTER command to indicate whether the client
must use Oracle Advanced Security to authenticate.
Prerequisites
Oracle Connection Manager must be running.
Syntax
From the operating system:
cmctl SET ASO_AUTHENTICATION_FILTER {on | off}[-c instance_name][-p password]
From the Oracle Connection Manager Control utility:
CMCTL> SET ASO_AUTHENTICATION_FILTER {on | off}
Arguments
[on]: Specify to reject connections that are not using Secure Network Service (SNS) to
perform client authentication. SNS is part of Oracle Advanced Security.
[off] (default): Specify so that no authentication is required for client connections.
Example
CMCTL:CMAN_user-sun.us.example.com> set aso_authentication_filter ON
CMAN_user-sun.us.example.com parameter aso_authentication_filter set to ON
The command completed successfully
SET CONNECTION_STATISTICS
Purpose
Use the SET CONNECTION_STATISTICS command to specify whether gateway processes
collect connection statistics.
Prerequisites
Oracle Connection Manager must be running.
Syntax
From the operating system:
cmctl SET CONNECTION_STATISTICS {yes | no}[-c instance_name][-p password]
From the Oracle Connection Manager Control utility:
CMCTL> SET CONNECTION_STATISTICS {yes | no}
Arguments
[yes]: Specify to have gateway processes collect connection statistics
[no]: (Default) Specify that gateway processes not collect connection statistics
Usage Notes
If SET CONNECTION_STATISTICS is set to yes, you can obtain statistics by issuing the
SHOW CONNECTIONS command.
2-10
Oracle Database Net Services Reference
Oracle Connection Manager Control Utility Commands
Example
CMCTL:CMAN_user-sun.us.example.com> set connection_statistics ON
CMAN_user-sun.us.example.com parameter connection_statistics set to ON
The command completed successfully
SET EVENT
Purpose
Use the SET EVENT command to log information for a particular event.
Syntax
From the operating system:
cmctl SET EVENT event_group [-c instance_name][-p password]
From the Oracle Connection Manager Control utility:
CMCTL> SET EVENT event_group {on | off}
Arguments
[event_group]: Specify one of the following event groups:
■
init_and_term—initialization and termination
■
memory_ops—memory operations
■
conn_hdlg—connection handling
■
proc_mgmt—process management
■
reg_and_load—Registration and load update
■
wake_up—events related to CMADMIN wakeup queue
■
timer—gateway timeouts
■
cmd_proc—command processing
■
relay—events associated with connection control blocks
[on | off]: Specify whether to turn an event group on or off.
Usage Notes
The SET EVENT command accepts only one argument. To log multiple events, you must
reissue the command.
Example
CMCTL:CMAN_user-sun.us.example.com> set event memory_ops on
show connections [detail | count] {[in state][gt hh:mm:ss
from source][to destination][for service][using gw_id]
| [id_list] - Shows statistics of selected connections
The command completed successfully
SET IDLE_TIMEOUT
Purpose
Use the SET IDLE_TIMEOUT command to specify the amount of time a client can be idle
without transmitting data.
Oracle Connection Manager Control Utility 2-11
Oracle Connection Manager Control Utility Commands
Prerequisites
Oracle Connection Manager must be running.
Syntax
From the operating system:
cmctl SET IDLE_TIMEOUT [time] [-c instance_name] [-p password]
From the From the Oracle Connection Manager Control utility:
CMCTL> SET IDLE_TIMEOUT [time]
Arguments
[time]: Specify the idle timeout in seconds. The default is 0, which disables this
feature.
Example
CMCTL:CMAN_user-sun.us.example.com> SET IDLE_TIMEOUT 30
CMAN_user-sun.us.example.com parameter idle_timeout set to 30
The command completed successfully
SET INBOUND_CONNECT_TIMEOUT
Purpose
Use the SET INBOUND_CONNECT_TIMEOUT command to specify the maximum amount of
time the Oracle Connection Manager listener will wait for a valid connection request
from the client before timing out.
Prerequisites
Oracle Connection Manager must be running.
Syntax
From the operating system:
cmctl SET INBOUND_CONNECT_TIMEOUT [time] [-c instance_name] [-p password]
From the Oracle Connection Manager Control utility:
CMCTL> SET INBOUND_CONNECT_TIMEOUT [time]
Arguments
[time]: Specify the inbound connect timeout in seconds. The default is 60, which
disables this feature.
Example
CMCTL:CMAN_user-sun.us.example.com> SET INBOUND_CONNECT_TIMEOUT 30
CMAN_user-sun.us.example.com parameter inbound_connect_timeout set to 30
The command completed successfully
SET LOG_DIRECTORY
Purpose
Use the SET LOG_DIRECTORY command to designate where the log files for an Oracle
Connection Manager are written.
2-12
Oracle Database Net Services Reference
Oracle Connection Manager Control Utility Commands
Prerequisites
Oracle Connection Manager must be running.
Syntax
From the operating system:
cmctl SET LOG_DIRECTORY [directory_path] [-c instance_name] [-p password]
From the Oracle Connection Manager Control utility:
CMCTL> SET LOG_DIRECTORY [directory_path]
Arguments
[directory_path]: Specify to indicate the location of the log directory. The default
path is as follows:
■
UNIX:
$ORACLE_HOME/network/log directory
■
Windows 2000/NT:
%ORACLE_HOME%\network\log directory
Usage Notes
Issue the SHOW PARAMETERS command to determine the location of the log files.
Example
CMCTL:CMAN_user-sun.us.example.com>
SET LOG_DIRECTORY /disk1/user_cman_test/oracle/network/admin
CMAN_user-sun.us.example.com parameter log_directory set to /disk1/user
_cman_test/oracle/network/admin
The command completed successfully
SET LOG_LEVEL
Purpose
Use the SET LOG_LEVEL command to set the log level for an Oracle Connection
Manager.
Prerequisites
Oracle Connection Manager must be running.
Syntax
From the operating system:
cmctl SET LOG_LEVEL [level] [-c instance_name] [-p password]
From the Oracle Connection Manager Control utility:
CMCTL> SET LOG_LEVEL [level]
Arguments
[level]: Specify one of the following log levels:
Oracle Connection Manager Control Utility 2-13
Oracle Connection Manager Control Utility Commands
■
off for no logging
■
user for user log information
■
admin for administrative log information
■
support (default) for Oracle Support Services log information
Usage Notes
Choose off to capture a minimum amount of log information. Choose support to
capture a maximum amount.
Example
CMCTL:CMAN_user-sun.us.example.com> SET LOG_LEVEL SUPPORT
CMAN_user-sun.us.example.com parameter log_level set to support
The command completed successfully
SET OUTBOUND_CONNECT_TIMEOUT
Example
Use the SET OUTBOUND_CONNECT_TIMEOUT command to specify the maximum amount
of time the Oracle Connection Manager instance will wait for a valid connection with
the server before timing out.
Prerequisites
Oracle Connection Manager must be running.
Syntax
From the operating system:
cmctl SET OUTBOUND_CONNECT_TIMEOUT [time] [-c instance_name] [-p password]
From the From the Oracle Connection Manager Control utility:
CMCTL> SET OUTBOUND_CONNECT_TIMEOUT [time]
Arguments
[time]: Specify the outbound connect timeout in seconds. The default is 0.
Example
CMCTL:CMAN_user-sun.us.example.com> SET OUTBOUND_CONNECT_TIMEOUT 30
CMAN_user-sun.us.example.com parameter outbound_connect_timeout set to 30
The command completed successfully
SET PASSWORD
Purpose
Use the SET PASSWORD command to assign a password to the Oracle Connection
Manager instance.
Prerequisites
Oracle Connection Manager must be running.
2-14
Oracle Database Net Services Reference
Oracle Connection Manager Control Utility Commands
Syntax
From the operating system:
cmctl SET PASSWORD
From the Oracle Connection Manager Control utility:
CMCTL> SET PASSWORD
Arguments
None.
Usage Notes
This command may be used either to set a password for the first time or to change an
existing one.
This command does not save the password to cman.ora. As a result the password is
valid only for the current session. To save the password once you have set it, execute
the SAVE_PASSWORD command.
Example
CMCTL:CMAN_user-sun.us.example.com> SET PASSWORD
Enter Old password:
Enter New password:
Reenter New password:
The command completed successfully
SET SESSION_TIMEOUT
Purpose
Use the SET SESSION_TIMEOUT command to specify the maximum amount of time for a
session of Oracle Connection Manager.
Prerequisites
Oracle Connection Manager must be running.
Syntax
From the operating system:
cmctl SET SESSION_TIMEOUT [time] [-c
instance_name] [-p password]
From the Oracle Connection Manager Control utility:
CMCTL> SET SESSION_TIMEOUT [time]
Arguments
[time]: Specify the session timeout in seconds. The default is 0, which disables this
feature.
Example
CMCTL:CMAN_user-sun.us.example.com> SET SESSION_TIMEOUT 60
CMAN_user-sun.us.example.com parameter session_timeout set to 60
The command completed successfully
Oracle Connection Manager Control Utility 2-15
Oracle Connection Manager Control Utility Commands
SET TRACE_DIRECTORY
Purpose
Use the SET TRACE_DIRECTORY command to designate where the trace files for an
Oracle Connection Manager are written.
Prerequisites
Oracle Connection Manager must be running.
Syntax
From the operating system:
cmctl SET TRACE_DIRECTORY [directory_path] [-c instance_name] [-p password}
From the Oracle Connection Manager Control utility:
CMCTL> SET TRACE_DIRECTORY [directory_path]
Arguments
[directory_path]: Specify to indicate the location of the trace directory. The default
path is as follows:
■
UNIX:
$ORACLE_HOME/network/trace
■
Windows 2000/NT:
%ORACLE_HOME%\network\trace
Usage Notes
Issue the SHOW PARAMETERS command to determine the location of the trace files.
Example
CMCTL:cman1>SET TRACE_DIRECTORY /disk1/mpurayat_newtest/oracle/network/trace
cman1 parameter trace_directory set to /disk1/mpurayat_newtest/oracle/network
/trace
The command completed successfully
SET TRACE_LEVEL
Purpose
Use the SET TRACE_LEVEL command to set the trace level for an Oracle Connection
Manager.
Prerequisites
Oracle Connection Manager must be running.
Syntax
From the operating system:
cmctl SET TRACE_LEVEL [level] [-c instance_name] [-p password]
From the Oracle Connection Manager Control utility:
CMCTL> SET TRACE_LEVEL [level]
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Oracle Database Net Services Reference
Oracle Connection Manager Control Utility Commands
Arguments
[level]: Specify one of the following log levels:
■
off (default) for no tracing
■
user for user trace information
■
admin for administrative trace information
■
support for Oracle Support Services trace information
Usage Notes
Choose off to capture a minimum amount of trace information. Choose support to
capture a maximum amount.
Issue the SHOW PARAMETERS command to determine the current trace level.
Example
CMCTL:CMAN_user-sun.us.example.com> SET TRACE_LEVEL SUPPORT
CMAN_user-sun.us.example.com parameter trace_level set to user
The command completed successfully
SHOW
Purpose
Use the SHOW command to display a list of parameters that may be used as arguments
for this command. Entering one of these parameters with the command displays the
parameter value or values.
Prerequisites
None
Syntax
From the operating system:
cmctl SHOW [-c instance_name] [-p password]
From the Oracle Connection Manager Control utility:
CMCTL> SHOW
Example
CMCTL:CMAN_user-sun.us.example.com> SHOW
The following operations are available after show
An asterisk (*) denotes a modifier or extended command:
all
connections
defaults
events
gateways
parameters
rules
services
status
version
Oracle Connection Manager Control Utility 2-17
Oracle Connection Manager Control Utility Commands
SHOW ALL
Purpose
Use the SHOW ALL command to combine and display output from the SHOW PARAMETERS
and SHOW RULES commands.
Prerequisites
Oracle Connection Manager must be running.
Syntax
From the operating system:
cmctl SHOW ALL [-c instance_name] [-p password]
From the Oracle Connection Manager Control utility:
CMCTL> SHOW ALL
Example
CMCTL:CMAN_user-sun.us.example.com> SHOW ALL
listener_address
|
(address=(protocol=tcp)(host=user-sun.us.example.com)(port=1630))
aso_authentication_filter |
OFF
connection_statistics
|
OFF
event_group
|
OFF
log_directory
| /disk1/user_cman_test/oracle/network/log/
log_level
| SUPPORT
max_connections
|
256
idle_timeout
|
0
inbound_connect_timeout
|
0
session_timeout
|
0
outbound_connect_timeout |
0
max_gateway_processes
|
16
min_gateway_processes
|
2
max_cmctl_sessions
|
4
password
|
OFF
remote_admin
|
OFF
trace_directory
| /disk1/user_cman_test/oracle/network/trace/
trace_level
|
OFF
trace_timestamp
|
OFF
trace_filelen
|
0
trace_fileno
|
0
(rule_list=
(rule=
(src=*)
(dst=*)
(srv=*)
(act=accept)
)
)
The command completed successfully
2-18
Oracle Database Net Services Reference
Oracle Connection Manager Control Utility Commands
SHOW CONNECTIONS
Purpose
Use the SHOW CONNECTIONS command to display information about specific
connections or all connections.
Prerequisites
Oracle Connection Manager must be running.
Syntax
From the operating system:
cmctl SHOW CONNECTIONS [information] [in state] [gt time] [from source]
to destination] [for service] [using gateway_process_id] [connect_identifier_list]
[-c instance_name][-p password]
From the Oracle Connection Manager Control utility:
CMCTL> SHOW CONNECTIONS [information][in state] [gt time] [from source]
[to destination] [for service] [using gateway_process_id] [connect_identifier_
list]
Arguments
[information]: Use one of the following two values to display information about
connections. Information categories include connection ID, source, destination, service,
current state, total idle time, and total elapsed time.
■
■
count: (default) Displays the total number of connections that meet the criteria
specified by the other qualifiers.
detail: Displays all information about connections specified by the other
qualifiers.
[in state]: Use one of the following values to specify the connection state:
■
idle—Connections that are inactive in the established state
■
connecting—Connections that are in the process of connecting
■
established—Connections that are connected and are transferring data
■
terminating—Connections that are disconnecting
If no state is specified, SHOW CONNECTIONS defaults to all possible states. If the time
qualifier is included under these conditions, the time specified is the amount of time
that has elapsed since a client initiated a connection.
[gt time]: Use the following format to specify connections greater than the time
indicated:
gt[hh:mm:]ss
[from source]: Use one of the following formats to specify the source address:
■
from IP
■
from hostname
■
from subnet
[to destination]: Use one of the following formats to specify the destination
address:
Oracle Connection Manager Control Utility 2-19
Oracle Connection Manager Control Utility Commands
■
from IP
■
from hostname
■
from subnet
[for service]: Use the following format to request a service:
for service_name
[using gateway_process_id]: Use this format to specify connections that are proxied
by the gateway process indicated
using gateway_process_id
[connect_identifier_list]: Space between multiple connection identifiers in a list
Usage Notes
Connections are sorted by gateway process ID and connection identifier, in ascending
order.
Issuing SHOW CONNECTIONS without an argument displays all connections.
Examples
The following displays a detailed description of connections in any state. The elapsed
time of the connection must be greater than 1 hour and 30 minutes. The connection
source is the specified subnet, and the destination the specified host name.
CMCTL> SHOW CONNECTIONS gt 1:30:00 from 192.0.2.32/27 to host1
The following displays the number of connections proxied by cman 0 that have been in
the idle state more than 30 minutes:
CMCTL> SHOW idle CONNECTIONS count gt 30:00 using 0
The following displays a detailed description of connections that are connected to the
service sales.us.example.com:
CMCTL> SHOW established CONNECTIONS detail for sales.us.example.com
SHOW DEFAULTS
Purpose
Use the SHOW DEFAULTS command to display default parameter settings.
Prerequisites
Oracle Connection Manager must be running.
Syntax
From the operating system:
cmctl SHOW DEFAULTS [-c instance_name] [-p password]
From the Oracle Connection Manager Control utility:
CMCTL> SHOW DEFAULTS
Example
CMCTL:CMAN_user-sun.us.example.com> SHOW DEFAULTS
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Oracle Database Net Services Reference
Oracle Connection Manager Control Utility Commands
listener_address
|
(ADDRESS=(PROTOCOL=TCP)(HOST=user-sun.us.example.com)(PORT=1521))
aso_authentication_filter |
OFF
connection_statistics
|
OFF
event_group
|
OFF
log_directory
| /disk1/user_cman_test/oracle/network/log/
log_level
| SUPPORT
max_connections
|
256
idle_timeout
|
0
inbound_connect_timeout
|
0
session_timeout
|
0
outbound_connect_timeout |
0
max_gateway_processes
|
16
min_gateway_processes
|
2
max_cmctl_sessions
|
4
password
|
OFF
remote_admin
|
OFF
trace_directory
| /disk1/user_cman_test/oracle/network/trace/
trace_level
|
OFF
trace_timestamp
|
OFF
trace_filelen
|
0
trace_fileno
|
0
The command completed successfully
SHOW EVENTS
Purpose
Use the SHOW EVENTS command to display the events that are in operation.
Prerequisites
Oracle Connection Manager must be running.
Syntax
From the operating system:
cmctl SHOW EVENTS [-c instance_name] [-p password]
From the Oracle Connection Manager Control utility:
CMCTL> SHOW EVENTS
Example
CMCTL:CMAN_user-sun.us.example.com> SHOW EVENTS
Event Groups:
memory_ops
The command completed successfully
SHOW GATEWAYS
Purpose
Use the SHOW GATEWAYS command to display the current status of a specific gateway
process or processes. Statistics displayed include number of active connections,
number of peak active connections, total number of connections handled, and number
of connections refused.
Oracle Connection Manager Control Utility 2-21
Oracle Connection Manager Control Utility Commands
Prerequisites
Oracle Connection Manager must be running.
Syntax
From the operating system:
cmctl SHOW GATEWAYS [gateway] [-c instance_name] [-p password]
From the Oracle Connection Manager Control utility:
CMCTL> SHOW GATEWAYS [
gateway]
Arguments
[gateway]: Enter the ID of the gateway or gateways whose status you want to display
Issuing SHOW GATEWAYS without an argument displays the status of all gateway
processes.
Usage Notes
If you want to display multiple gateways, use a space to separate the ID numbers
when entering the command.
Example
CMCTL:CMAN_user-sun.us.example.com> SHOW GATEWAYS 1
Gateway ID
1
Gateway state
READY
Number of active connections
0
Peak active connections
0
Total connections
0
Total connections refused
0
The command completed successfully
SHOW PARAMETERS
Purpose
Use the SHOW PARAMETERS command to display current parameter settings for an
instance.
Prerequisites
Oracle Connection Manager must be running.
Syntax
From the operating system:
cmctl SHOW PARAMETERS [-c instance_name] [-p password]
From the Oracle Connection Manager Control utility:
CMCTL> SHOW PARAMETERS
Usage Notes
Several configuration parameters can be dynamically modified using the SET
command; therefore, the information that SHOW PARAMETERS displays might be
different from what appears in the cman.ora file.
2-22
Oracle Database Net Services Reference
Oracle Connection Manager Control Utility Commands
Example
CMCTL:CMAN_user-sun.us.example.com> SHOW PARAMETERS
listener_address
|
(address=(protocol=tcp)(host=user-sun.us.example.com)(port=1630))
aso_authentication_filter |
ON
connection_statistics
|
ON
event_group
| (memory_ops)
log_directory
| /disk1/user_cman_test/oracle/network/log/
log_level
| SUPPORT
max_connections
|
256
idle_timeout
|
0
inbound_connect_timeout
|
0
session_timeout
|
0
outbound_connect_timeout |
0
max_gateway_processes
|
16
min_gateway_processes
|
2
max_cmctl_sessions
|
4
password
|
OFF
remote_admin
|
OFF
trace_directory
| /disk1/user_cman_test/oracle/network/trace/
trace_level
| SUPPORT
trace_timestamp
|
OFF
trace_filelen
|
0
trace_fileno
|
0
The command completed successfully
SHOW RULES
Purpose
Use the SHOW RULES command to display the access control list currently used by the
instance.
Prerequisites
Oracle Connection Manager must be running.
Syntax
From the operating system:
cmctl SHOW_RULES [-c instance_name] [-p password]
From the Oracle Connection Manager Control utility:
CMCTL> SHOW_RULES
Usage Notes
You can update the rules list by issuing the RELOAD command.
Example
CMCTL:CMAN_user-sun.us.example.com> SHOW RULES
Number of filtering rules currently in effect: 4
(rule_list=
(rule=
(src=usunnae12)
(dst=usunnae13)
(srv=*)
(act=accept)
Oracle Connection Manager Control Utility 2-23
Oracle Connection Manager Control Utility Commands
(action_list=(mit=120)(mct=1800)(conn_stats=on)(aut=off))
)
(rule=
(src=usunnae12)
(dst=usunnae14)
(srv=service2)
(act=accept)
)
(rule=
(src=*)
(dst=usunnae15)
(srv=*)
(act=accept)
(action_list=(mit=120)(mct=3000)(moct=200)(aut=on))
)
(rule=
(src=*)
(dst=usunnae16)
(srv=*)
(act=reject)
(action_list=(moct=20)(aut=on))
)
(rule=
(src=user-sun.us.example.com)
(dst=user-sun.us.example.com)
(srv=cmon)
(act=accept)
(action_list=(mit=100)(mct=1130)(moct=200)(aut=on))
)
)
SHOW SERVICES
Purpose
Use the SHOW SERVICES command to display comprehensive information about the
Oracle Connection Manager instance. The information displayed includes number of
handlers for gateway and CMADMIN processes, listening ports of handlers, and
number of connections—refused and current.
Prerequisites
Oracle Connection Manager must be running.
Syntax
From the operating system:
cmctl SHOW SERVICES [-c instance_name] [-p password]
From the Oracle Connection Manager Control utility:
CMCTL> SHOW SERVICES
Example
CMCTL:CMAN_user-sun.us.example.com> SHOW SERVICES
Services Summary...
Proxy service "cmgw" has 1 instance(s).
2-24
Oracle Database Net Services Reference
Oracle Connection Manager Control Utility Commands
Instance "cman", status READY, has 2 handler(s) for this service...
Handler(s):
"cmgw001" established:0 refused:0 current:0 max:256 state:ready
<machine: user-sun, pid: 29190>
(ADDRESS=(PROTOCOL=tcp)(HOST=user-sun)(PORT=33175))
"cmgw000" established:0 refused:0 current:0 max:256 state:ready
<machine: user-sun, pid: 29188>
(ADDRESS=(PROTOCOL=tcp)(HOST=user-sun)(PORT=33174))
Service "cmon" has 1 instance(s).
Instance "cman", status READY, has 1 handler(s) for this service...
Handler(s):
"cmon" established:0 refused:0 current:0 max:4 state:ready
<machine: user-sun, pid: 29184>
(ADDRESS=(PROTOCOL=tcp)(HOST=user-sun)(PORT=33168))
The command completed successfully
SHOW STATUS
Purpose
Use the SHOW STATUS command to display basic information about the instance,
including version, start time, and current statistics.
Prerequisites
Oracle Connection Manager must be running.
Syntax
From the operating system:
cmctl SHOW STATUS
From the Oracle Connection Manager Control utility:
CMCTL> SHOW STATUS
Example
CMCTL:CMAN_user-sun.us.example.com> SHOW STATUS
Status of the Instance
---------------------Instance name
CMAN_user-sun.us.example.com
Version
CMAN for Solaris: Version 10.1.0.0.0
Start date
20-JAN-2003 14:50:35
Uptime
0 days 1 hr. 25 min. 24 sec
Num of gateways started
2
Average Load level
0
Log Level
SUPPORT
Trace Level
OFF
Instance Config file
/disk1/user_cman_test/oracle/network/admin/cman.ora
Instance Log directory
/disk1/user_cman_test/oracle/network/log/
Instance Trace directory /disk1/user_cman_test/oracle/network/trace/
The command completed successfully
SHOW VERSION
Purpose
Use the SHOW VERSION command to display the current version and name of the Oracle
Connection Manager Control utility.
Oracle Connection Manager Control Utility 2-25
Oracle Connection Manager Control Utility Commands
Prerequisites
None
Syntax
From the operating system:
cmctl SHOW VERSION [-c instance_name] [-p password]
From the Oracle Connection Manager Control utility:
CMCTL> SHOW VERSION
Examples
CMCTL:CMAN_user-sun.us.example.com> SHOW VERSION
CMAN for Solaris: Version 10.1.0.0.0
The command completed successfully
SHUTDOWN
Purpose
Use the SHUTDOWN command to shut down specific gateway processes or the entire
Oracle Connection Manager instance.
Prerequisites
Oracle Connection Manager must be running.
Syntax
From the operating system:
cmctl SHUTDOWN [gateways {gateway}] [normal | abort] {-c instance_name} {-p
password}
From the Oracle Connection Manager Control utility:
CMCTL> SHUTDOWN [gateways] [gateway]] {normal | abort}
Arguments
[gateways]: Specify to shut down a specific gateway.
[normal]: (default): Specify to reject new connections and terminate after existing
connections close.
[abort]: Specify to shut down Oracle Connection Manager immediately, closing down
all open connections.
You can specify more than one gateway by inserting a space between them in the
command line.
Usage Notes
Issuing SHUTDOWN without an argument shuts down all gateways.
Example
CMCTL:CMAN_user-sun.us.example.com> SHUTDOWN GATEWAYS 0
The command completed successfully
2-26
Oracle Database Net Services Reference
Oracle Connection Manager Control Utility Commands
STARTUP
Purpose
Use the STARTUP command to start an Oracle Connection Manager.
Prerequisites
An Oracle Connection Manager configured with the same protocol address must not
be running.
Syntax
From the operating system:
cmctl STARTUP [-c instance_name] [-p password]
From the Oracle Connection Manager Control utility:
CMCTL> STARTUP
Usage Notes
Before issuing this command, you must issue the ADMINISTER command to choose
an instance to start.
Issuing this command starts all three instance components—
the listener, CMADMIN, and the gateway processes.
The command fails if any one of these components is already running.
Example
CMCTL:CMAN_user-sun.us.example.com> STARTUP
Starting CMAN instance: CMAN_user-sun.us.example.com, please wait...
TNS-04090: *** CMCTL WARNING: No password set in the CMAN instance ***
CMAN for Solaris: Version 10.1.0.0.0
Status of the Instance
---------------------Instance name
CMAN_user-sun.us.example.com
Version
CMAN for Solaris: Version 10.1.0.0.0
Start date
20-JAN-2003 19:04:25
Uptime
0 days 0 hr. 0 min. 3 sec
Num of gateways started
2
Average Load level
0
Log Level
SUPPORT
Trace Level
OFF
Instance Config file
/disk1/user_cman_test/oracle/network/admin/cman.ora
Instance Log directory
/disk1/user_cman_test/oracle/network/log/
Instance Trace directory /disk1/user_cman_test/oracle/network/trace/
The command completed successfully
SUSPEND GATEWAY
Purpose
Use the SUSPEND GATEWAY command to choose gateway processes that will no longer
accept new client connections.
Prerequisites
Oracle Connection Manager must be running.
Oracle Connection Manager Control Utility 2-27
Oracle Connection Manager Control Utility Commands
Syntax
From the operating system:
cmctl SUSPEND GATEWAY [gateway_process_id] [-c instance_name] [-p password]
From the Oracle Connection Manager Control utility:
CMCTL> SUSPEND GATEWAY [gateway_process_id]
Arguments
[gateway_process_id]: Specify the gateway process that will no longer accept new
connections. Specify multiple gateway processes by spacing once between entries.
Issuing SUSPEND GATEWAY without an argument suspends all gateway processes.
Usage Notes
Use the RESUME GATEWAYS command to enable gateway processes to accept new
connections.
Example
CMCTL:CMAN_user-sun.us.example.com> SUSPEND GATEWAY 1
The command completed successfully
2-28
Oracle Database Net Services Reference
Part II
Part II
Configuration Parameters
Part II describes how to configure listening protocol addresses and Oracle Net Services
configuration parameters.
This part contains the following chapters:
■
Chapter 3, "Syntax Rules for Configuration Files"
■
Chapter 4, "Protocol Address Configuration"
■
Chapter 5, "Profile Parameters (sqlnet.ora)"
■
Chapter 6, "Local Naming Parameters (tnsnames.ora)"
■
Chapter 7, "Oracle Net Listener Parameters (listener.ora)"
■
Chapter 8, "Oracle Connection Manager Parameters (cman.ora)"
■
Chapter 9, "Directory Usage Parameters (ldap.ora)"
3
3
Syntax Rules for Configuration Files
This chapter describes the syntax rules for Oracle Net Services configuration files.
This chapter contains these topics:
■
Configuration File Syntax Overview
■
Further Syntax Rules for Configuration Files
■
Network Character Set
■
Character Set
Configuration File Syntax Overview
The Oracle Net Services configuration files consist of parameters which include
keyword-value pairs. Keyword-value pairs are surrounded by parentheses:
parameter=(keyword=value)
Some keywords have other keyword-value pairs as their values:
(keyword=
(keyword=value)
(keyword=value))
For example, the address portion of a local naming configuration file (tnsnames.ora)
might include the following lines:
(ADDRESS=
(PROTOCOL=tcp)
(HOST=sales-server)
(PORT=1521))
Set up configuration files so that indentation reflects what keyword is the parent or
owner of other keyword-value pairs.
Even if you do not choose to indent your files in this way, you must indent a wrapped
line by at least one space, or it will be misread as a new parameter. The following
layout is acceptable:
(ADDRESS=(PROTOCOL=tcp)
(HOST=sales-server)(PORT=1521))
The following layout is not acceptable:
(ADDRESS=(PROTOCOL=tcp)
(HOST=sales-server)(PORT=1521))
Syntax Rules for Configuration Files
3-1
Further Syntax Rules for Configuration Files
Further Syntax Rules for Configuration Files
The following rules apply to the syntax of configuration files:
■
■
Any keyword in a configuration file that begins a parameter that includes one or
more keyword-value pairs must be in the far left column of a line. If it is indented
by one or more spaces, it is interpreted as a continuation of the previous line.
All characters must belong to the network character set
See Also:
■
■
■
"Network Character Set" on page 3-2
Keywords are not case sensitive. Values may be case sensitive, depending on the
operating system and protocol.
Spaces around the equal (=) sign are optional in keyword-value pairs.
There is a hierarchy of keywords in that some keywords are always followed by
others. At any level of the hierarchy, keywords can be listed in any order. For
example, the following entries are equally valid:
(ADDRESS=
(PROTOCOL=TCP)
(HOST=sales-server)
(PORT=1521))
(ADDRESS=
(PROTOCOL=tcp)
(PORT=1521)
(HOST=sales-server))
■
■
■
■
Keywords cannot contain spaces. Values must not contain spaces unless enclosed
within double quotes (") or single quotes (').
The maximum length of a connect descriptor is 4 KB
Comments can be included using the pound sign # at the beginning of a line.
Anything following the sign to the end of the line is considered a comment.
If the keyword-value pair consists of a single word or a concatenation of words on
either side of the equal sign, no parentheses are needed.
Network Character Set
The network character set for keyword values consists of the following characters.
Connect descriptors must be made up of single-byte characters.
A-Z, a-z
0-9
( ) < > / \
, . : ; ' "=- _
$ + * # & ! % ? @
Within this character set, the following symbols are reserved:
(
)=\ " ' #
Reserved symbols are used as delimiters, not as part of a keyword or a value unless
the keyword or value is quoted. Either single or double quotes can be used to enclose a
value containing reserved symbols. To include a quote within a value that is
surrounded by quotes, use different quote types. The backslash (\) is used as an escape
character.
3-2
Oracle Database Net Services Reference
Character Set
The following characters may be used within a connect descriptor, but not in a
keyword or value:
<Space> <Tab> <Carriage Return> <Newline>
Character Set
The listener name and net service name are limited to the following character set:
[a...z] [A...Z] [0...9] _
The first character must be an alphabetical character. In general, up to 64 characters is
acceptable. A database service name must match the global database name defined by
the database administrator, which consists of a database name (originally limited to
eight characters), and the database domain. Net service names and global database
names are not case sensitive.
Syntax Rules for Configuration Files
3-3
Character Set
3-4
Oracle Database Net Services Reference
4
4
Protocol Address Configuration
A network object is identified by a protocol address. When a connection is made, the
client and the receiver of the request (listener or Oracle Connection Manager) are
configured with identical protocol addresses.
The client uses this address to send the connection request to a particular network
object location, and the recipient "listens" for requests on this address, and grants a
connection based on its address information matching the client information.
This chapter contains these topics:
■
ADDRESSes and ADDRESS_LISTs
■
Protocol Parameters
■
Recommended Port Numbers
■
Port Number Limitations
ADDRESSes and ADDRESS_LISTs
Protocol address are comprised of ADDRESS and ADDRESS_LIST elements.
ADDRESS
Purpose
The ADDRESS parameter defines a protocol address.
Embed this parameter under an ADDRESS_LIST or DESCRIPTION parameter. A
DESCRIPTION is used in a tnsnames.ora or a listener.ora file.
See Also: "Protocol Parameters" on page 4-2 for each protocol's
required parameters
Example
(ADDRESS=
(PROTOCOL=tcp)
(HOST=sales-server)
(PORT=1521))
Protocol Address Configuration
4-1
Protocol Parameters
ADDRESS_LIST
Purpose
The ADDRESS_LIST parameter defines a list of protocol addresses that share common
characteristics.
Example
(ADDRESS_LIST=
(LOAD_BALANCE=on)
(ADDRESS=
(PROTOCOL=tcp)
(HOST=sales-server)
(PORT=1521))
(ADDRESS=
(PROTOCOL=tcp)
(HOST=hr-server)
(PORT=1521)))
(ADDRESS_LIST=
(ADDRESS=
(PROTOCOL=tcp)
(HOST=finance-server)
(PORT=1521)))
Protocol Parameters
The listener and Oracle Connection Manager are identified by protocol addresses.
Table 4–1, " Protocol-Specific Parameters" describes the parameters used by the Oracle
protocol support.
Table 4–1
Protocol-Specific Parameters
Protocol
Parameter
Description
IPC
PROTOCOL
Specify ipc as the value.
KEY
Specify a unique name for the service. Oracle recommends using the
service name or the Oracle System Identifier (SID) of the service.
Example:
(PROTOCOL=ipc)(KEY=sales)
Named Pipes
PROTOCOL
Specify nmp as the value.
SERVER
Specify the name of the Oracle server computer.
PIPE
Specify the pipe name you used to connect to the database server (the
same PIPE keyword you specified on server with Named Pipes). This
name can be any arbitrary name.
Example:
(PROTOCOL=nmp)(SERVER=sales)(PIPE=dbpipe0)
SDP
PROTOCOL
Specify sdp as the value.
HOST
Specify the host name or IP address of the computer.
PORT
Specify the listening port number.
Example:
(PROTOCOL=sdp)(HOST=sales-server)(PORT=1521)
(PROTOCOL=sdp)(HOST=192.0.2.204)(PORT=1521)
See Also: "Recommended Port Numbers" on page 4-3
4-2
Oracle Database Net Services Reference
Port Number Limitations
Table 4–1 (Cont.) Protocol-Specific Parameters
Protocol
Parameter
Description
TCP/IP
PROTOCOL
Specify tcp as the value.
HOST
Specify the host name or IP address of the computer.
PORT
Specify the listening port number.
Example:
(PROTOCOL=tcp)(HOST=sales-server)(PORT=1521)
(PROTOCOL=tcp)(HOST=192.0.2.204)(PORT=1521)
See Also: "Recommended Port Numbers" on page 4-3
TCP/IP with SSL
PROTOCOL
Specify tcps as the value.
HOST
Specify the host name or IP address of the computer.
PORT
Specify the listening port number.
Example:
(PROTOCOL=tcps)(HOST=sales-server)(PORT=2484)
(PROTOCOL=tcps)(HOST=192.0.2.204)(PORT=2484)
See Also: "Recommended Port Numbers" on page 4-3
Recommended Port Numbers
Table 4–2, " Recommended Port Numbers" lists the recommends the port numbers.
Table 4–2
Recommended Port Numbers
Port
Description
1521
Default listening port for client connections to the listener. In
future releases, this port number may change to the officially
registered port number of 2483 for TCP/IP and 2484 for TCP/IP
with SSL.
1521
Default and officially registered listening port for client
connections to Oracle Connection Manager
1830
Default and officially registered listening port for administrative
commands to Oracle Connection Manager
Port Number Limitations
Oracle Corporation allows port numbers from 1 to 65535. Port numbers less than 1024
are reserved for use by privileged processes on many operating systems.
On certain operating systems, only privileged processes can listen for TCP connections
on ports less than 1024. If you need to configure listener to listen on a port number less
than 1024, follow these general steps. Your operating system may require different
procedures.
1.
Use Oracle Net Configuration Assistant or Oracle Net Manager to configure the
listener with protocol addresses and other configuration parameters.
See Also:
2.
Oracle Database Net Services Administrator's Guide
Log in as super user (root) and set file ownership and access permissions for the
listener executable (tnslsnr) and the dependent shared libraries so that these files
can be modified only by the super user.
Protocol Address Configuration
4-3
Port Number Limitations
Ensure that the permissions of the individual directories found in the path names
to these files, starting with the root directory, are also modified in the same way.
3.
Start the listener as root.
At the operating system prompt, enter tnslsnr with optional command line
arguments. The usage is as follows:
tnslsnr listener_name -user user -group group
where:
Table 4–3
tnslsnr Utility Options
Option
Description
listener_name
Specify the name of the listener. If omitted, the default name
LISTENER will be used.
-user user
Specify the user whose privileges the listener will use when super
user (root) privileges are not needed. After performing the
privileged operations, the listener will give up root privileges
irreversibly.
-group group
Specify the group whose privileges the listener will use when super
user (root) group privileges are not needed. After performing the
privileged operations, the listener will give up root group privileges
irreversibly.
The listener will temporarily switch to the provided user and group immediately
after startup. All subsequent operations will be done with the specified user and
group privileges, except the system calls necessary to listen on configured
endpoints. The listener will revert to super user (root) for a short period of time to
listen on reserved addresses, such as TCP ports less than 1024. After the listener
starts listening on all of its endpoints configured in listener.ora, it will switch to
the specified user and group irreversibly. Therefore, the listener will give up the
root privilege that it initially had. In the current release, -user and -group
command line arguments only accept user and group identifiers specified in
numeric form.
For example, to execute a root listener called mylsnr and have it use privileges of a
user identified as 37555 with a group identifier of 16, enter the following at the
operating system command prompt. Note that 37555 could be the identifier for
user oracle and 16 could be the identifier for the dba group.
tnslsnr mylsnr -user 37555 -group 16
4.
After the listener has been started, you can administer it with the Listener Control
utility.
Important Notes:
■
■
4-4
Oracle recommends that the user under which the listener process
runs be oracle, as described in the example in Step 3, or
whichever user the listener process normally runs as on the
operating system.
Do not leave the listener process running as root because doing so
is a security vulnerability.
Oracle Database Net Services Reference
5
5
Profile Parameters (sqlnet.ora)
This chapter provides complete listing of the sqlnet.ora file configuration
parameters.
This chapter includes the following topics:
■
Overview of Profile Configuration File
■
sqlnet.ora Profile Parameters
■
Diagnostic Parameters in sqlnet.ora
Overview of Profile Configuration File
The sqlnet.ora file enables you to:
■
Specify the client domain to append to unqualified names
■
Prioritize naming methods
■
Enable logging and tracing features
■
Route connections through specific processes
■
Configure parameters for external naming
■
Configure Oracle Advanced Security
■
Use protocol-specific parameters to restrict access to the database
By default, sqlnet.ora is located in the $ORACLE_HOME/network/admin directory on
UNIX operating systems and the %ORACLE_HOME%\network\admin directory on
Windows operating systems. sqlnet.ora can also be stored in the directory specified
by the TNS_ADMIN environment variable.
sqlnet.ora Profile Parameters
This section lists and describes the following sqlnet.ora file parameters:
■
BEQUEATH_DETACH
■
DEFAULT_SDU_SIZE
■
DISABLE_OOB
■
NAMES.DCE.PREFIX
■
NAMES.DEFAULT_DOMAIN
■
NAMES.DIRECTORY_PATH
Profile Parameters (sqlnet.ora)
5-1
sqlnet.ora Profile Parameters
5-2
■
NAMES.LDAP_AUTHENTICATE_BIND
■
NAMES.LDAP_PERSISTENT_SESSION
■
NAMES.NIS.META_MAP
■
RECV_BUF_SIZE
■
SDP.PF_INET_SDP
■
SEC_USER_AUDIT_ACTION_BANNER
■
SEC_USER_UNAUTHORIZED_ACCESS_BANNER
■
SEND_BUF_SIZE
■
SQLNET.ALLOWED_LOGON_VERSION
■
SQLNET.AUTHENTICATION_KERBEROS5_SERVICE
■
SQLNET.AUTHENTICATION_SERVICES
■
SQLNET.CLIENT_REGISTRATION
■
SQLNET.CRYPTO_CHECKSUM_CLIENT
■
SQLNET.CRYPTO_CHECKSUM_SERVER
■
SQLNET.CRYPTO_CHECKSUM_TYPES_CLIENT
■
SQLNET.CRYPTO_CHECKSUM_TYPES_SERVER
■
SQLNET.CRYPTO_SEED
■
SQLNET.ENCRYPTION_CLIENT
■
SQLNET.ENCRYPTION_SERVER
■
SQLNET.ENCRYPTION_TYPES_CLIENT
■
SQLNET.ENCRYPTION_TYPES_SERVER
■
SQLNET.EXPIRE_TIME
■
SQLNET.INBOUND_CONNECT_TIMEOUT
■
SQLNET.KERBEROS5_CC_NAME
■
SQLNET.KERBEROS5_CLOCKSKEW
■
SQLNET.KERBEROS5_CONF
■
SQLNET.KERBEROS5_KEYTAB
■
SQLNET.KERBEROS5_REALMS
■
SQLNET.OUTBOUND_CONNECT_TIMEOUT
■
SQLNET.RADIUS_ALTERNATE
■
SQLNET.RADIUS_ALTERNATE_PORT
■
SQLNET.RADIUS_ALTERNATE_RETRIES
■
SQLNET.RADIUS_AUTHENTICATION
■
SQLNET.RADIUS_AUTHENTICATION_INTERFACE
■
SQLNET.RADIUS_AUTHENTICATION_PORT
■
SQLNET.RADIUS_AUTHENTICATION_RETRIES
■
SQLNET.RADIUS_AUTHENTICATION_TIMEOUT
Oracle Database Net Services Reference
sqlnet.ora Profile Parameters
■
SQLNET.RADIUS_CHALLENGE_RESPONSE
■
SQLNET.RADIUS_SECRET
■
SQLNET.RADIUS_SEND_ACCOUNTING
■
SQLNET.RECV_TIMEOUT
■
SQLNET.SEND_TIMEOUT
■
SSL_CERT_REVOCATION
■
SSL_CERT_FILE
■
SSL_CERT_PATH
■
SSL_CIPHER_SUITES
■
SSL_CLIENT_AUTHENTICATION
■
SSL_SERVER_DN_MATCH
■
SSL_VERSION
■
TCP.CONNECT_TIMEOUT
■
TCP.EXCLUDED_NODES
■
TCP.INVITED_NODES
■
TCP.VALIDNODE_CHECKING
■
TCP.NODELAY
■
TNSPING.TRACE_DIRECTORY
■
TNSPING.TRACE_LEVEL
■
USE_CMAN
■
USE_DEDICATED_SERVER
■
WALLET_LOCATION
■
WALLET_OVERRIDE
BEQUEATH_DETACH
Purpose
Use the parameter BEQUEATH_DETACH to turn signal handling on or off for UNIX
systems.
Default
no
Values
■
yes to turn signal handling off
■
no to leave signal handling on
Example
BEQUEATH_DETACH=yes
Profile Parameters (sqlnet.ora)
5-3
sqlnet.ora Profile Parameters
DEFAULT_SDU_SIZE
Purpose
Use the parameter DEFAULT_SDU_SIZE to specify the session data unit (SDU) size, in
bytes to connections.
Usage
Oracle recommends setting this parameter in both the client-side and server-side
sqlnet.ora file to ensure the same SDU size is used throughout a connection. When
the configured values of client and database server do not match for a session, the
lower of the two values is used.
You can override this parameter for a particular client connection by specifying the
SDU parameter in the connect descriptor for a client.
See Also: Oracle Database Net Services Administrator's Guide for
complete SDU usage and configuration information
Default
8192 bytes (8 KB)
Values
512 to 32767 bytes
Example
DEFAULT_SDU_SIZE=4096
DISABLE_OOB
Purpose
If turned off, the parameter DISABLE_OOB enables Oracle Net to send and receive
"break" messages using urgent data provided by the underlying protocol.
If turned on, disables the ability to send and receive "break" messages using urgent
data provided by the underlying protocol. Once enabled, this feature applies to all
protocols used by this client.
See Also: Operating system-specific documentation to determine if
the protocols you are using support urgent data requests. TCP/IP is
an example of a protocol that supports this feature.
Default
off
Example
DISABLE_OOB=on
NAMES.DCE.PREFIX
Purpose
Use the parameter NAMES.DCE.PREFIX to specify the Distributed Computing
Environment (DCE) cell name (prefix) to use for name lookups.
5-4
Oracle Database Net Services Reference
sqlnet.ora Profile Parameters
Default
/.:/subsys/oracle/names
Example
NAMES.DCE.PREFIX=/.:/subsys/oracle/names
NAMES.DEFAULT_DOMAIN
Purpose
Use the parameter NAMES.DEFAULT_DOMAIN to set the domain from which the client
most often looks up names resolution requests. When this parameter is set, the default
domain name is automatically appended to any unqualified net service name or
service name.
For example, if the default domain is set to us.example.com, then the connect string
CONNECT hr@sales gets searched as sales.us.example.com. If the connect string
includes the domain extension, such as CONNECT hr@sales.example.com, the domain
is not appended.
Default
None
Example
NAMES.DEFAULT_DOMAIN=example.com
NAMES.DIRECTORY_PATH
Purpose
Use the parameter NAMES.DIRECTORY_PATH to specify the order of the naming methods
used for client name resolution lookups.
Default
NAMES.DIRECTORY_PATH=(tnsnames, ezconnect, ldap)
Values
Table 5–1
NAMES.DIRECTORY_PATH Values
Naming Method
Value
Description
tnsnames (local
naming naming
method)
Set to resolve a net service name through the tnsnames.ora file on
the client.
ldap (directory
naming naming
method)
Set to resolve a database service name, net service name, or net
service alias through a directory server.
See Also: Oracle Database Net Services Administrator's Guide
See Also: Oracle Database Net Services Administrator's Guide
ezconnect or
Select to enable clients to use a TCP/IP connect identifier,
hostname (easy
consisting of a host name and optional port and service name.
connect naming or
See Also: Oracle Database Net Services Administrator's Guide
host naming method)
Profile Parameters (sqlnet.ora)
5-5
sqlnet.ora Profile Parameters
Table 5–1 (Cont.) NAMES.DIRECTORY_PATH Values
Naming Method
Value
Description
cds (CDS external
naming method)
Set to resolve an Oracle database name in a Distributed Computing
Environment (DCE) environment.
See Also: Oracle Database Advanced Security Administrator's Guide
nis (Network
Set to resolve service information through an existing NIS.
Information Service
See Also: Oracle Database Net Services Administrator's Guide
(NIS) external naming
method)
Example
NAMES.DIRECTORY_PATH=(tnsnames)
NAMES.LDAP_AUTHENTICATE_BIND
Purpose
Use the NAMES.LADP_AUTHENTICATE_BIND parameter to specify whether the LDAP
naming adapter should attempt to authenticate using a specified wallet when it
connects to the LDAP directory to resolve the name in the connect string.
Usage
The parameter value is boolean. If set to TRUE, the LDAP connection will be
authenticated using a wallet whose location must be specified in the WALLET_
LOCATION parameter.
If the parameter is set to FALSE, the LDAP connection will be established using an
anonymous bind.
Default
FALSE
Example
NAMES.LDAP_AUTHENTICATE_BIND=TRUE
NAMES.LDAP_PERSISTENT_SESSION
Purpose
Use the NAMES.LDAP_PERSISTENT_SESSION parameter to specify whether the LDAP
naming adapter should leave the session with the LDAP server open after name
lookup is complete.
Usage
The parameter value is boolean. If set to TRUE, the connection to the LDAP server will
be left open after the name lookup is complete; the connection will effectively stay
open for the duration of the process. If the connection is lost, it will be reestablished as
needed.
If FALSE, the LDAP connection is terminated as soon as the name lookup completes.
Every subsequent lookup opens the connection, performs the lookup, and closes the
connection.
5-6
Oracle Database Net Services Reference
sqlnet.ora Profile Parameters
Default
FALSE
Example
NAMES.LDAP_PERSISTENT_SESSION=TRUE
NAMES.NIS.META_MAP
Purpose
Use the NAMES.NIS.META_MAP parameter to specify the map file to be used to map
Network Information Service (NIS) attributes to an NIS mapname.
Default
sqlnet.maps
Example
NAMES.NIS.META_MAP=sqlnet.maps
RECV_BUF_SIZE
Purpose
Use the RECV_BUF_SIZE parameter to specify the buffer space limit for receive
operations of sessions. This parameter is supported by the TCP/IP, TCP/IP with SSL,
and SDP protocols.
Note: Additional protocols might support this parameter on certain
operating systems. Refer to operating-system specific documentation
for information about additional protocols that support this
parameter.
See Also: Oracle Net Services Administrator's Guide for information
about configuring this parameter
Default
The default value for this parameter is operating-system specific. The default for the
Solaris 2.6 Operating System is 32768 bytes (32 KB).
Usage
You can override this parameter for a particular client connection by specifying the
RECV_BUF_SIZE parameter in the connect descriptor for a client.
Example
RECV_BUF_SIZE=11784
SDP.PF_INET_SDP
Purpose
Use the SDP.PF_INET_SDP parameter to specify the protocol family or address family
constant for the SDP protocol on your system.
Profile Parameters (sqlnet.ora)
5-7
sqlnet.ora Profile Parameters
Default
27
Values
Any positive integer
Example
SDP.PF_INET_SDP=30
SEC_USER_AUDIT_ACTION_BANNER
Purpose
Use the SEC_USER_AUDIT_ACTION_BANNER parameter to specify a text file containing the
banner contents that warn the user about possible user action auditing. The complete
path of the text file must be specified in the sqlnet.ora file on the server. OCI
applications can make use of OCI features to retrieve this banner and display it to the
user.
Default
None
Values
Name of the file for which the database owner has read permissions
Example
SEC_USER_AUDIT_ACTION_BANNER=/opt/oracle/admin/data/auditwarning.txt
SEC_USER_UNAUTHORIZED_ACCESS_BANNER
Purpose
Use the SEC_USER_UNAUTHORIZED_ACCESS_BANNER parameter to specify a text file
containing the banner contents that warn the user about unauthorized access to the
database. The complete path of the text file must be specified in the sqlnet.ora file on
the server. OCI applications can make use of OCI features to retrieve this banner and
display it to the user.
Default
None
Values
Name of the file for which the database owner has read permissions
Example
SEC_USER_UNAUTHORIZED_ACCESS_BANNER=/opt/oracle/admin/data/unauthwarning.txt
5-8
Oracle Database Net Services Reference
sqlnet.ora Profile Parameters
SEND_BUF_SIZE
Purpose
Use the SEND_BUF_SIZE parameter to specify the buffer space limit for send operations
of sessions. This parameter is supported by the TCP/IP, TCP/IP with SSL, and SDP
protocols.
Note: Additional protocols might support this parameter on certain
operating systems. Refer to operating-system specific documentation
for information about additional protocols that support this
parameter.
See Also: Oracle Database Net Services Administrator's Guide for
information about configuring this parameter
Default
The default value for this parameter is operating-system specific. The default for the
Solaris 2.6 Operating System is 8192 bytes (8 KB).
Usage
You can override this parameter for a particular client connection by specifying the
SEND_BUF_SIZE parameter in the connect descriptor for a client.
Example
SEND_BUF_SIZE=11784
SQLNET.ALLOWED_LOGON_VERSION
Purpose
To set the minimum authentication protocol allowed when connecting to Oracle
Database instances. The term VERSION in the parameter name refers to the version of
the authentication protocol, not the Oracle Database release.
If the client release does not meet or exceed the value defined by this parameter, then
authentication fails with an ORA-28040: No matching authentication protocol
error or an ORA-03134: Connections to this server version are no longer
supported error.
See Also:
Oracle Database Advanced Security Administrator's Guide
Usage Notes
A setting of 8 permits most password versions, and allows any combination of the
DBA_USERS.PASSWORD_VERSIONS values 10G, and 11G.
A greater value means the server is less compatible in terms of the protocol that clients
must understand in order to authenticate. The server is also more restrictive in terms
of the password version that must exist to authenticate any specific account. The
ability for a client to authenticate depends on the DBA_USERS.PASSWORD_VERSIONS
value on the server for that account.
Note the following implications of setting the value to 12:
Profile Parameters (sqlnet.ora)
5-9
sqlnet.ora Profile Parameters
To take advantage of the password protections introduced in Oracle Database 11g,
users must change their passwords. The new passwords are case sensitive. When
an account password is changed, the earlier 10G case-insensitive password version
is automatically removed.
■
Releases of OCI clients before Oracle Database 10g and all versions of JDBC thin
clients cannot authenticate to the Oracle database using password-based
authentication.
■
If the client uses Oracle9i Database, then the client will receive an ORA-03134 error
message. To allow the connection, remove the SQLNET.ALLOWED_LOGON_VERSION
setting to return to the default. Ensure the DBA_USERS.PASSWORD_VERSIONS value
for the account contains the value 10G. It may be necessary to reset the password
for that account.
■
The client must support certain abilities of an authentication protocol before the server
will authenticate. If the client does not support a specified authentication ability, then
the server rejects the connection with an ORA-28040: No matching authentication
protocol error message.
The following is the list of all client abilities. Some clients do not have all abilities.
Clients that are more recent have all the capabilities of the older clients, but older
clients tend to have less abilities than more recent clients.
O5L_NP: The ability to perform the Oracle Database 10g authentication protocol
using the 11G password version, and generating a session key encrypted for
critical patch update CPUOct2012.
■
O5L: The ability to perform the Oracle Database 10g authentication protocol using
the 10G password version.
■
O4L: The ability to perform the Oracle9i database authentication protocol using the
10G password version.
■
O3L: The ability to perform the Oracle8i database authentication protocol using the
10G password version.
■
A higher ability value is more recent and secure than a lower ability value. Clients that
are more recent have all the capabilities of the older clients.
The following table describes the allowed values, password versions, and descriptions:
Value of
the
ALLOWED
_LOGON_
VERSION
Parameter
Ability
Generated Required
Password of the
Version
Client
121
11G
O5L_NP
Only clients which have applied critical patch update
CPUOct2012 or later can connect to the server.
11
10G, 11G
O5L
Clients using Oracle Database 10g and later can
connect to the server.
Meaning for Clients
Clients that have not applied critical patch update
CPUOct2012 or later patches must use the 10G
password version.
10
10G, 11G
O5L
Clients using Oracle Database 10g and later can
connect to the server.
Clients that have not applied critical patch update
CPUOct2012 or later patches must use the 10G
password version.
5-10
Oracle Database Net Services Reference
sqlnet.ora Profile Parameters
Value of
the
ALLOWED
_LOGON_
VERSION
Parameter
Ability
Generated Required
Password of the
Version
Client
9
10G, 11G
O4L
Oracle9i Database or later clients can connect to the
server.
8
10G, 11G
O3L
Oracle8i Database and later clients can connect to the
server.
1
Meaning for Clients
This is considered "Exclusive Mode" because it excludes the use of the 10G password version.
Allowed Values
■
12 for the critical patch updates CPUOct2012 and later Oracle Database 11g
authentication protocols (recommended)
■
11 for Oracle Database 11g authentication protocols
■
10 for Oracle Database 10g authentication protocols
■
9 for Oracle9i Database authentication protocols
■
8 for Oracle8i Database authentication protocols (default)
Default
8
Example
If both Oracle Database 11g and Oracle Database 10g are present, then set the
parameter as follows:
SQLNET.ALLOWED_LOGON_VERSION=10
SQLNET.AUTHENTICATION_KERBEROS5_SERVICE
Purpose
Use the parameter SQLNET.AUTHENTICATION_KERBEROS5_SERVICE to define the name of
the service used to obtain a Kerberos service ticket.
See Also:
Oracle Database Advanced Security Administrator's Guide
Default
None
Example
SQLNET.AUTHENTICATION_KERBEROS5_SERVICE=oracle
SQLNET.AUTHENTICATION_SERVICES
Purpose
Use the parameter SQLNET.AUTHENTICATION_SERVICES to enable one or more
authentication services. If authentication has been installed, it is recommended that
this parameter be set to either none or to one of the authentication methods.
Profile Parameters (sqlnet.ora)
5-11
sqlnet.ora Profile Parameters
Default
None
Note: When installing the database with Database Configuration
Assistant (DBCA), this parameter may be set to nts in the sqlnet.ora
file.
Values
Authentication Methods Available with Oracle Net Services:
■
none for no authentication methods, including Windows native operating system
authentication (to use Windows native operating system authentication, set this
parameter to nts). When SQLNET.AUTHENTICATION_SERVICES is set to none, a valid
user name and password can be used to access the database.
■
all for all authentication methods
■
nts for Windows native operating system authentication
Authentication Methods Available with Oracle Advanced Security:
■
kerberos5 for Kerberos authentication
■
radius for RADIUS authentication
■
dcegssapi for DCE GSSAPI authentication
See Also:
Oracle Database Advanced Security Administrator's Guide
Example
SQLNET.AUTHENTICATION_SERVICES=(kerberos5)
SQLNET.CLIENT_REGISTRATION
Purpose
Use the parameter SQLNET.CLIENT_REGISTRATION to set a unique identifier for this
client computer. This identifier is passed to the listener with any connection request
and is included in the Audit Trail. The identifier can be any alphanumeric string up to
128 characters long.
Default
None
Example
SQLNET.CLIENT_REGISTRATION=1432
SQLNET.CRYPTO_CHECKSUM_CLIENT
Purpose
Use the parameter SQLNET.CRYPTO_CHECKSUM_CLIENT to specify the checksum behavior
for the client.
See Also:
5-12
Oracle Database Advanced Security Administrator's Guide
Oracle Database Net Services Reference
sqlnet.ora Profile Parameters
Default
accepted
Values
■
accepted to enable the security service if required or requested by the other side
■
rejected to disable the security service, even if the required by the other side
■
requested to enable the security service if the other side allows it
■
required to enable the security service and disallow the connection if the other
side is not enabled for the security service
Example
SQLNET.CRYPTO_CHECKSUM_CLIENT=accepted
SQLNET.CRYPTO_CHECKSUM_SERVER
Purpose
Use the parameter SQLNET.CRYPTO_CHECKSUM_SERVER to specify the checksum behavior
for the database server.
See Also:
Oracle Database Advanced Security Administrator's Guide
Default
accepted
Values
■
accepted to enable the security service if required or requested by the other side
■
rejected to disable the security service, even if the required by the other side
■
requested to enable the security service if the other side allows it
■
required to enable the security service and disallow the connection if the other
side is not enabled for the security service
Example
SQLNET.CRYPTO_CHECKSUM_SERVER=accepted
SQLNET.CRYPTO_CHECKSUM_TYPES_CLIENT
Purpose
Use the parameter SQLNET.CRYPTO_CHECKSUM_TYPES_CLIENT to specify a list of
crypto-checksum algorithms for the client to use.
See Also:
Oracle Database Advanced Security Administrator's Guide
Default
all available algorithms
Values
■
md5 for the RSA Data Security's MD5 algorithm
■
sha1 for the Secure Hash algorithm
Profile Parameters (sqlnet.ora)
5-13
sqlnet.ora Profile Parameters
Example
SQLNET.CRYPTO_CHECKSUM_TYPES_CLIENT=(MD5)
SQLNET.CRYPTO_CHECKSUM_TYPES_SERVER
Purpose
Use the parameter SQLNET.CRYPTO_CHECKSUM_TYPES_SERVER to specify a list of
crypto-checksum algorithms for the database server to use.
See Also:
Oracle Database Advanced Security Administrator's Guide
Default
all available algorithms
Values
■
md5 for the RSA Data Security's MD5 algorithm
■
sha1 for the Secure Hash algorithm
Example
SQLNET.CRYPTO_CHECKSUM_TYPES_SERVER=(md5)
SQLNET.CRYPTO_SEED
Purpose
Use the parameter SQLNET.CRYPTO_SEED to specify the characters used when
generating cryptographic keys. The more random the characters are, the stronger the
keys are. The string should be 10-70 random characters. This optional parameter is
required for when encryption or checksumming are turned on. Encryption is turned
on if the SQLNET.ENCRYPTION_CLIENT parameter is specified for the client and the
SQLNET.ENCRYPTION_SERVER parameter is specified for the database server;
checksumming is turned on if the SQLNET.CRYPTO_CHECKSUM_CLIENT
parameter is specified for the client and the SQLNET.CRYPTO_CHECKSUM_SERVER
parameter is specified for the database server.
See Also:
Oracle Database Advanced Security Administrator's Guide
Default
qwertyuiopasdfghjkl;zxcvbnm,.s1
Example
SQLNET.CRYPTO_SEED="qwertyuiopasdfghjkl;zxcvbnm,.s1"
SQLNET.ENCRYPTION_CLIENT
Purpose
Use the parameter SQLNET.ENCRYPTION_CLIENT to turn encryption on for the client.
See Also:
5-14
Oracle Database Advanced Security Administrator's Guide
Oracle Database Net Services Reference
sqlnet.ora Profile Parameters
Default
accepted
Values
■
accepted to enable the security service if required or requested by the other side
■
rejected to disable the security service, even if the required by the other side
■
requested to enable the security service if the other side allows it
■
required to enable the security service and disallow the connection if the other
side is not enabled for the security service
Example
SQLNET.ENCRYPTION_CLIENT=accepted
SQLNET.ENCRYPTION_SERVER
Purpose
Use the parameter SQLNET.ENCRYPTION_SERVER to turn encryption on for the database
server.
See Also:
Oracle Database Advanced Security Administrator's Guide
Default
accepted
Values
■
accepted to enable the security service if required or requested by the other side
■
rejected to disable the security service, even if the required by the other side
■
requested to enable the security service if the other side allows it
■
required to enable the security service and disallow the connection if the other
side is not enabled for the security service
Example
SQLNET.ENCRYPTION_SERVER=accepted
SQLNET.ENCRYPTION_TYPES_CLIENT
Purpose
Use the parameter SQLNET.ENCRYPTION_TYPES_CLIENT to specify a list of encryption
algorithms for the client to use.
See Also:
Oracle Database Advanced Security Administrator's Guide
Default
All available algorithms.
Values
One or more of the following:
■
3des112 for triple DES with a two-key (112 bit) option
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■
3des168 for triple DES with a three-key (168 bit) option
■
des for standard 56 bit key size
■
des40 for 40 bit key size
■
rc4_40 for 40 bit key size
■
rc4_56 for 56 bit key size
■
rc4_128 for 128 bit key size
■
rc4_256 for 256 bit key size
Example
SQLNET.ENCRYPTION_TYPES_CLIENT=(rc4_56)
SQLNET.ENCRYPTION_TYPES_SERVER
Purpose
Use the parameter SQLNET.ENCRYPTION_TYPES_SERVER to specify a list of encryption
algorithms for the database server to use.
See Also:
Oracle Database Advanced Security Administrator's Guide
Default
All available algorithms
Values
One or more of the following:
■
3des112 for triple DES with a two-key (112 bit) option
■
3des168 for triple DES with a three-key (168 bit) option
■
des for standard 56 bit key size
■
des40 for 40 bit key size
■
rc4_40 for 40 bit key size
■
rc4_56 for 56 bit key size
■
rc4_128 for 128 bit key size
■
rc4_256 for 256 bit key size
Example
SQLNET.ENCRYPTION_TYPES_SERVER=(rc4_56, des, ...)
SQLNET.EXPIRE_TIME
Purpose
Use parameter SQLNET.EXPIRE_TIME to specify a time interval, in minutes, to send a
probe to verify that client/server connections are active. Setting a value greater than 0
ensures that connections are not left open indefinitely, due to an abnormal client
termination. If the probe finds a terminated connection, or a connection that is no
longer in use, it returns an error, causing the server process to exit. This parameter is
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primarily intended for the database server, which typically handles multiple
connections at any one time.
Limitations on using this terminated connection detection feature are:
■
■
■
It is not allowed on bequeathed connections.
Though very small, a probe packet generates additional traffic that may
downgrade network performance.
Depending on which operating system is in use, the server may need to perform
additional processing to distinguish the connection probing event from other
events that occur. This can also result in degraded network performance.
Default
0
Minimum Value
0
Recommended Value
10
Example
SQLNET.EXPIRE_TIME=10
SQLNET.INBOUND_CONNECT_TIMEOUT
Purpose
Use the SQLNET.INBOUND_CONNECT_TIMEOUT parameter to specify the time, in seconds,
for a client to connect with the database server and provide the necessary
authentication information.
If the client fails to establish a connection and complete authentication in the time
specified, then the database server terminates the connection. In addition, the database
server logs the IP address of the client and an ORA-12170: TNS:Connect timeout
occurred error message to the sqlnet.log file. The client receives either an
ORA-12547: TNS:lost contact or an ORA-12637: Packet receive failed error
message.
The default value of this parameter is appropriate for typical usage scenarios.
However, if you need to explicitly set a different value, Oracle recommends setting this
parameter in combination with the INBOUND_CONNECT_TIMEOUT_listener_name
parameter in the listener.ora file. When specifying the values for these parameters,
note the following recommendations:
■
■
Set both parameters to an initial low value.
Set the value of the INBOUND_CONNECT_TIMEOUT_listener_name parameter to a
lower value than the SQLNET.INBOUND_CONNECT_TIMEOUT parameter.
For example, you can set INBOUND_CONNECT_TIMEOUT_listener_name to 2 seconds and
SQLNET.INBOUND_CONNECT_TIMEOUT parameter to 3 seconds. If clients are unable to
complete connections within the specified time due to system or network delays that
are normal for the particular environment, then increment the time as needed.
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See Also:
■
■
"Control Parameters" on page 7-11 for more information about
INBOUND_CONNECT_TIMEOUT_listener_name
Oracle Net Services Administrator's Guide for information about
configuring these parameters
Default
60 seconds
Example
SQLNET.INBOUND_CONNECT_TIMEOUT=3
SQLNET.KERBEROS5_CC_NAME
Purpose
Use the parameter SQLNET.KERBEROS5_CC_NAME to specify the complete path name to
the Kerberos credentials cache file.
See Also:
Oracle Database Advanced Security Administrator's Guide
Default
/usr/tmp/krbcache on UNIX operating systems and c:\tmp\krbcache on Windows
operating systems
Example
SQLNET.KERBEROS5_CC_NAME=/usr/tmp/krbcache
SQLNET.KERBEROS5_CLOCKSKEW
Purpose
Use the parameter SQLNET.KERBEROS5_CLOCKSKEW to specify how many seconds can
pass before a Kerberos credential is considered out of date.
See Also:
Oracle Database Advanced Security Administrator's Guide
Default
300
Example
SQLNET.KERBEROS5_CLOCKSKEW=1200
SQLNET.KERBEROS5_CONF
Purpose
Use the parameter SQLNET.KERBEROS5_CONF to specify the complete path name to the
Kerberos configuration file, which contains the realm for the default Key Distribution
Center (KDC) and maps realms to KDC hosts. The KDC maintains a list of user
principals and is contacted through the kinit program for the user's initial ticket.
See Also:
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Default
/krb5/krb.conf on UNIX operating systems and c:\krb5\krb.conf on Windows
operating systems
Example
SQLNET.KERBEROS5_CONF=/krb5/krb.conf
SQLNET.KERBEROS5_KEYTAB
Purpose
Use the parameter SQLNET.KERBEROS5_KEYTAB to specify the complete path name to the
Kerberos principal/secret key mapping file, which is used to extract keys and decrypt
incoming authentication information.
See Also:
Oracle Database Advanced Security Administrator's Guide
Default
/etc/v5srvtab on UNIX operating systems and c:\krb5\v5srvtab on Windows
operating systems
Example
SQLNET.KERBEROS5_KEYTAB=/etc/v5srvtab
SQLNET.KERBEROS5_REALMS
Purpose
Use the parameter SQLNET.KERBEROS5_REALMS to specify the complete path name to the
Kerberos realm translation file, which provides a mapping from a host name or
domain name to a realm.
See Also:
Oracle Database Advanced Security Administrator's Guide
Default
/krb5/krb.realms on UNIX operating systems and c:\krb5\krb.realms on Windows
operating systems
Example
SQLNET.KERBEROS5_REALMS=/krb5/krb.realms
SQLNET.OUTBOUND_CONNECT_TIMEOUT
Purpose
Use the SQLNET.OUTBOUND_CONNECT_TIMEOUT parameter to specify the time, in seconds,
for a client to establish an Oracle Net connection to the database instance.
If an Oracle Net connection is not established in the time specified, the connect attempt
is terminated. The client receives an ORA-12170: TNS:Connect timeout occurred
error.
The outbound connect timeout interval is a superset of the TCP connect timeout
interval, which specifies a limit on the time taken to establish a TCP connection.
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Additionally, the outbound connect timeout interval includes the time taken to be
connected to an Oracle instance providing the requested service.
Without this parameter, a client connection request to the database server may block
for the default TCP connect timeout duration (approximately 8 minutes on Linux)
when the database server host system is unreachable.
The outbound connect timeout interval is only applicable for TCP, TCP with SSL, and
IPC transport connections.
Default
None
Example
SQLNET.OUTBOUND_CONNECT_TIMEOUT=10
SQLNET.RADIUS_ALTERNATE
Purpose
Use the SQLNET.RADIUS_ALTERNATE parameter to specify an alternate RADIUS server to
use in case the primary server is unavailable. The value can be either the IP address or
host name of the server.
See Also:
Oracle Database Advanced Security Administrator's Guide
Default
None
Example
SQLNET.RADIUS_ALTERNATE=radius2
SQLNET.RADIUS_ALTERNATE_PORT
Purpose
Use the parameter SQLNET.RADIUS_ALTERNATE_PORT to specify the listening port of the
alternate RADIUS server.
See Also:
Oracle Database Advanced Security Administrator's Guide
Default
1645
Example
SQLNET.RADIUS_ALTERNATE_PORT=1667
SQLNET.RADIUS_ALTERNATE_RETRIES
Purpose
Use the parameter SQLNET.RADIUS_ALTERNATE_RETRIES to specify the number of times
the database server should resend messages to the alternate RADIUS server.
See Also:
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Default
3
Example
SQLNET.RADIUS_ALTERNATE_RETRIES=4
SQLNET.RADIUS_AUTHENTICATION
Purpose
Use the parameter SQLNET.RADIUS_AUTHENTICATION to specify the location of the
primary RADIUS server, either by its host name or IP address.
See Also:
Oracle Database Advanced Security Administrator's Guide
Default
Local host
Example
SQLNET.RADIUS_AUTHENETICATION=officeacct
SQLNET.RADIUS_AUTHENTICATION_INTERFACE
Purpose
Use the parameter SQLNET.RADIUS_AUTHENTICATION_INTERFACE to specify the class
containing the user interface used to interact with the user.
See Also:
Oracle Database Advanced Security Administrator's Guide
Default
DefaultRadiusInterface
Example
SQLNET.RADIUS_AUTHENTICATION_INTERFACE=DefaultRadiusInterface
SQLNET.RADIUS_AUTHENTICATION_PORT
Purpose
Use the parameter SQLNET.RADIUS_AUTHENTICATION_PORT to specify the listening port
of the primary RADIUS server.
See Also:
Oracle Database Advanced Security Administrator's Guide
Default
1645
Example
SQLNET.RADIUS_AUTHENTICATION_PORT= 1667
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SQLNET.RADIUS_AUTHENTICATION_RETRIES
Purpose
Use the parameter SQLNET.RADIUS_AUTHENTICATION_RETRIES to specify the number of
times the database server should resend messages to the primary RADIUS server.
See Also:
Oracle Database Advanced Security Administrator's Guide
Default
3
Example
SQLNET.RADIUS_AUTHENTICATION_RETRIES=4
SQLNET.RADIUS_AUTHENTICATION_TIMEOUT
Purpose
Use the parameter SQLNET.RADIUS_AUTHENTICATION_TIMEOUT to specify the time, in
seconds, that the database server should wait for a response from the primary
RADIUS server.
See Also:
Oracle Database Advanced Security Administrator's Guide
Default
5
Example
SQLNET.RADIUS_AUTHENTICATION_TIMEOUT=10
SQLNET.RADIUS_CHALLENGE_RESPONSE
Purpose
Use the parameter SQLNET.RADIUS_CHALLENGE_RESPONSE to turn challenge response on
or off.
Default
off
Values
on | off
Example
SQLNET.RADIUS_CHALLENGE_RESPONSE=on
SQLNET.RADIUS_SECRET
Purpose:
Use the parameter SQLNET.RADIUS_SECRET to specify the location of the RADIUS secret
key.
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See Also:
Oracle Database Advanced Security Administrator's Guide
Default
The $ORACLE_HOME/network/security/radius.key file on UNIX operating systems
and the %ORACLE_HOME%\network\security\radius.key file on Windows.
Example
SQLNET.RADIUS_SECRET=oracle/bin/admin/radiuskey
SQLNET.RADIUS_SEND_ACCOUNTING
Purpose
Use the parameter SQLNET.RADIUS_SEND_ACCOUNTING to turn accounting on and off. If
enabled, packets are sent to the active RADIUS server at listening port plus one. The
default port is 1646.
See Also:
Oracle Database Advanced Security Administrator's Guide
Default
off
Values
on | off
Example
SQLNET.RADIUS_SEND_ACCOUNTING=on
SQLNET.RECV_TIMEOUT
Purpose
Use the parameter SQLNET.RECV_TIMEOUT to specify the time, in seconds, for a database
server to wait for client data after connection establishment. A client must send some
data within the time interval.
For environments in which clients shut down on occasion or abnormally, setting this
parameter is recommended. If a client does not send any data in time specified, then
the database server logs an ORA-12535: TNS:operation timed out and ORA-12609:
TNS: Receive timeout occurred to the sqlnet.log file. Without this parameter, the
database server may continue to wait for data from clients that may be down or are
experiencing difficulties.
You can also set this parameter on the client-side to specify the time, in seconds, for a
client to wait for response data from the database server after connection
establishment. Without this parameter, the client may wait for a long period of time for
a response from a database server saturated with requests.
Set the value for this parameter to an initial low value and adjust according to system
and network capacity. If necessary, use this parameter in conjunction with the
SQLNET.SEND_TIMEOUT parameter.
See Also: Oracle Database Net Services Administrator's Guide for
information about configuring these parameters
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Default
None
Example
SQLNET.RECV_TIMEOUT=3
SQLNET.SEND_TIMEOUT
Purpose
Use to specify the time, in seconds, for a database server to complete a send operation
to clients after connection establishment.
For environments in which clients shut down on occasion or abnormally, setting this
parameter is recommended. If the database server is unable to complete a send
operation in the time specified, then it logs an ORA-12535: TNS:operation timed out
and ORA-12608: TNS: Send timeout occurred to the sqlnet.log file. Without this
parameter, the database server may continue to send responses to clients that are
unable to receive data due to a downed computer or a busy state.
You can also set this parameter on the client-side to specify the time, in seconds, for a
client to complete send operations to the database server after connection
establishment. Without this parameter, the client may continue to send requests to a
database server already saturated with requests.
Set the value for this parameter to an initial low value and adjust according to system
and network capacity. If necessary, use this parameter in conjunction with the
SQLNET.RECV_TIMEOUT parameter.
See Also: Oracle Database Net Services Administrator's Guide for
information about configuring these parameters
Default
None
Example
SQLNET.SEND_TIMEOUT=3
SSL_CERT_REVOCATION
Purpose
Use the SSL_CRT_REVOCATION parameter to configure a revocation check for a
certificate.
See Also:
Oracle Database Advanced Security Administrator's Guide
Default
none
Values
■
■
5-24
none to turn off certificate revocation checking
requested to perform certificate revocation in case a Certificate Revocation List
(CRL) is available. Reject SSL connection if the certificate is revoked. If no
Oracle Database Net Services Reference
sqlnet.ora Profile Parameters
appropriate CRL is found to determine the revocation status of the certificate and
the certificate is not revoked, then accept the SSL connection
■
required to perform certificate revocation when a certificate is available. If a
certificate is revoked and no appropriate CRL is found, then reject the SSL
connection If no appropriate CRL is found to ascertain the revocation status of the
certificate and the certificate is not revoked. then accept the SSL connection.
Example
SSL_CERT_REVOCATION=required
SSL_CERT_FILE
Purpose
Use the parameter SSL_CRL_FILE to specify the name of the file where you can
assemble the CRL of CAs for client authentication.
This file contains the PEM-encoded CRL files, in order of preference. You can use this
file alternatively or in additional to the SSL_CERT_PATH parameter. This parameter is
only valid if SSL_CERT_REVOCATION is set to either requested or required.
See Also:
Oracle Database Advanced Security Administrator's Guide
Default
None
SSL_CERT_PATH
Purpose
Use the parameter SSL_CRL_PATH to specify the destination directory of the CRL of CA.
The files in this directory are hashed symbolic links created by Oracle Wallet Manager.
This parameter is only valid if SSL_CERT_REVOCATION is set to either requested or
required.
See Also:
Oracle Database Advanced Security Administrator's Guide
Default
None
SSL_CIPHER_SUITES
Purpose
Use the parameter SSL_CIPHER_SUITES to control what combination of encryption and
data integrity is used by the Secure Sockets Layer (SSL).
Default
None
Values
See Also: Oracle Database Advanced Security Administrator's Guide for
further information about cipher suite values
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Example
SSL_CIPHER_SUITE=(ssl_rsa_with_rc4_138_md5)
SSL_CLIENT_AUTHENTICATION
Purpose
Use the parameter SSL_CLIENT_AUTHENTICATION to specify whether or not a client—in
addition to the database server—is authenticated using SSL.
See Also:
Oracle Database Advanced Security Administrator's Guide
Default
true
Values
true | false
Example
SSL_CLIENT_AUTHENTICATION=true
SSL_SERVER_DN_MATCH
Purpose
Use the parameter SSL_SERVER_DN_MATCH to enforce that the distinguished name (DN)
for the database server matches its service name. If you enforce the match
verifications, then SSL ensures that the certificate is from the server. If you select to not
enforce the match verification, then SSL performs the check but allows the connection,
regardless if there is a match. Not enforcing the match allows the server to potentially
fake its identify.
See Also:
Oracle Database Advanced Security Administrator's Guide
Default
no
Values
■
■
yes | on | true to specify to enforce a match. If the DN matches the service name,
then the connection succeeds. If the DN does not match the service name, then the
connection fails.
no | off | false to specify to not enforce a match. If does not match the service
name, then the connection is successful, but an error is logged to the sqlnet.log
file.
Usage Notes
In addition to the sqlnet.ora file, configure the tnsnames.ora parameter SSL_
SERVER_CERT_DN to enable server DN matching.
See Also:
Oracle Database Advanced Security Administrator's Guide
Example
SSL_SERVER_DN_MATCH=yes
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SSL_VERSION
Purpose
Use the parameter SSL_VERSION to force the version of the SSL connection.
Clients and database servers must use a compatible version.
See Also:
Oracle Database Advanced Security Administrator's Guide
Default
undetermined
Values
undetermined | 2.0 | 3.0
Example
SSL_VERSION=2.0
TCP.CONNECT_TIMEOUT
Purpose
Use the TCP.CONNECT_TIMEOUT parameter to specify the time, in seconds, for a client to
establish a TCP connection to the database server.
If a TCP connection to the database host is not established in the time specified, the
connect attempt is terminated. The client receives an ORA-12170: TNS:Connect
timeout occurred error.
Without this parameter, a client connection request to the database server can block for
the default duration of the TCP connect timeout (approximately 8 minutes on Linux)
when the database server host system is unreachable.
This parameter only applies to TCP connections (PROTOCOL=tcp in the TNS connect
address).
Default
None
Example
TCP.CONNECT_TIMEOUT=10
TCP.EXCLUDED_NODES
Purpose
Use the parameter TCP.EXCLUDED_NODES to specify which clients are denied access to
the database.
Syntax
TCP.EXCLUDED_NODES=(hostname | ip_address, hostname | ip_address, ...)
Example
TCP.EXCLUDED_NODES=(finance.us.example.com, mktg.us.example.com, 192.0.2.25)
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TCP.INVITED_NODES
Purpose
Use the parameter TCP.INVITED_NODES to specify which clients are allowed access to
the database. This list takes precedence over the TCP.EXCLUDED_NODES parameter if
both lists are present.
Syntax
TCP.INVITED_NODES=(hostname | ip_address, hostname | ip_address, ...)
Example
TCP.INVITED_NODES=(sales.us.example.com, hr.us.example.com, 192.0.2.73)
TCP.VALIDNODE_CHECKING
Purpose
The TCP.VALIDNODE_CHECKING parameter creates a hard failure when any of the host
names in the invited/excluded list fail to resolve to an IP address. This is to ensure
that a customer's desired configuration is enforced, meaning that valid node checking
cannot take place unless the host names are resolvable to IP addresses.
This is important especially in the context of the TCP.INVITED_NODES parameter,
because it requires that every one of the client nodes be listed in the server's
sqlnet.invited_nodes list. When one of the clients is decommissioned, and thus
removed from the host name database, it becomes unresolvable, and will cause the
listener to fail to start.
Note: In order to utilize the TCP.VALIDNODE_CHECKING parameter's
invited nodes, the host name database must be kept in sync with the
sqlnet.invited_node list.
Default
no
Values
yes | no
Example
TCP.VALIDNODE_CHECKING=yes
TCP.NODELAY
Purpose
Use the parameter TCP.NODELAY to preempt delays in buffer flushing within the
TCP/IP protocol stack.
Default
yes
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Values
yes | no
Example
TCP.NODELAY=yes
TNSPING.TRACE_DIRECTORY
Purpose
Use the parameter TNSPING.TRACE_DIRECTORY to specify the destination directory for
the TNSPING utility trace file, tnsping.trc.
Default
The $ORACLE_HOME/network/trace directory on UNIX operating systems and the
%ORACLE_HOME%\network\trace directory on Windows operating systems
Example
TNSPING.TRACE_DIRECTORY=/oracle/traces
TNSPING.TRACE_LEVEL
Purpose
Use the parameter TNSPING.TRACE_LEVEL to turn TNSPING utility tracing on, at a
specific level, or off.
Default
off
Values
■
off for no trace output
■
user for user trace information
■
admin for administration trace information
■
support for Oracle Support Services trace information
Example
TNSPING.TRACE_LEVEL=admin
USE_CMAN
Purpose
If set to true, the parameter USE_CMAN routes the client to a protocol address for an
Oracle Connection Manager.
The following example shows two address lists. While the first address list routes the
client to an Oracle Connection Manager, the second address list routes the client
directly to a listener.
sales=
(DESCRIPTION=
(LOAD_BALANCE=on)
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(FAILOVER=on)
(ADDRESS_LIST=
(SOURCE_ROUTE=yes)
(ADDRESS=(PROTOCOL=tcp)(HOST=host1)(PORT=1630))
(ADDRESS=(PROTOCOL=tcp)(HOST=host2)(PORT=1521)))
(ADDRESS_LIST=
(ADDRESS=(PROTOCOL=tcp)(HOST=host3)(PORT=1521)))
(CONNECT_DATA=(SERVICE_NAME=sales.us.example.com)))
Without USE_CMAN=true, the client picks one of the address lists at random and fails
over to the other address list if the chosen ADDRESS_LIST fails. With USE_CMAN=true,
the client always uses the first address list.
If no Oracle Connection Manager addresses are available, connections are routed
through any available listener address.
Default
false
Values
true | false
Example
USE_CMAN=true
USE_DEDICATED_SERVER
Purpose
If set to on, the parameter USE_DEDICATED_SERVER automatically appends
(SERVER=dedicated) to the connect data for a connect descriptor. This way
connections from this client use a dedicated server process, even if shared server is
configured.
This parameter adds (SERVER=dedicated) to the CONNECT_DATA section of the connect
descriptor used by the client. It overrides the current value of the SERVER parameter
in the tnsnames.ora file.
See Also: Oracle Database Net Services Administrator's Guide for
complete configuration information
Default
off
Values
■
on to append (SERVER=dedicated)
■
off to hand off requests to existing server processes
Example
USE_DEDICATED_SERVER=on
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WALLET_LOCATION
Purpose
Use the parameter WALLET_LOCATION to specify the location of wallets. Wallets are
certificates, keys, and trustpoints processed by SSL.
See Also:
Oracle Database Advanced Security Administrator's Guide
Syntax
Oracle wallets on the file system:
WALLET_LOCATION=
(SOURCE=
(METHOD=file)
(METHOD_DATA=
(DIRECTORY=directory)
[(PKCS11=TRUE/FALSE)]))
Microsoft certificate store:
WALLET_LOCATION=
(SOURCE=
(METHOD=mcs))
Oracle wallets in the Windows registry:
WALLET_LOCATION=
(SOURCE=
(METHOD=reg)
(METHOD_DATA=
(KEY=registry_key)))
Entrust wallets:
WALLET_LOCATION=
(SOURCE=
(METHOD=entr)
(METHOD_DATA=
(PROFILE=file.epf)
(INIFILE=file.ini)))
Subparameters
WALLET_LOCATION supports the following subparameters:
SOURCE: Specify the type of storage for wallets and storage location.
METHOD: Specify the type of storage.
METHOD_DATA: Specify the storage location.
DIRECTORY: Specify the location of Oracle wallets on file system.
KEY: Specify the wallet type and location in the Windows registry.
PROFILE: Specify the Entrust profile file (.epf).
INIFILE: Specify the Entrust initialization file (.ini).
Default
None
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Usage Notes
■
■
The key/value pair for Microsoft's certificate store (MCS) omits the METHOD_DATA
parameter because MCS does not use wallets. Instead, Oracle PKI (public key
infrastructure) applications obtain certificates, trustpoints and private keys
directly from the user's profile.
If an Oracle wallet is stored in the Windows registry and the wallet's key (KEY) is
SALESAPP, the storage location of the encrypted wallet is HKEY_CURRENT_
USER\SOFTWARE\ORACLE\WALLETS\SALESAPP\EWALLET.P12. The storage location of
the decrypted wallet is HKEY_CURRENT_
USER\SOFTWARE\ORACLE\WALLETS\SALESAPP\CWALLET.SSO.
Values
true | false
Examples
Oracle wallets on file system:
WALLET_LOCATION=
(SOURCE=
(METHOD=file)
(METHOD_DATA=
(DIRECTORY=/etc/oracle/wallets/databases)))
Microsoft certificate store:
WALLET_LOCATION=
(SOURCE=
(METHOD=mcs))
Oracle Wallets in the Windows registry:
WALLET_LOCATION=
(SOURCE=
(METHOD=REG)
(METHOD_DATA=
(KEY=SALESAPP)))
Entrust Wallets:
WALLET_LOCATION=
(SOURCE=
(METHOD=entr)
(METHOD_DATA=
(PROFILE=/etc/oracle/wallets/test.epf)
(INIFILE=/etc/oracle/wallets/test.ini)))
WALLET_OVERRIDE
Purpose
This parameter determines whether the client should override the strong
authentication credential with the password credential in the secret store to log in to
the database.
Syntax
None.
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Diagnostic Parameters in sqlnet.ora
Subparameters
None.
Usage Notes
■
■
Users may have batch jobs that require logging into the database. There may be
scripts that access databases and are shared by administrators. This project
provides a way for them to use CONNECT / instead of specifying the user name
and password explicitly. It simplifies the maintenance of the scripts and secures
the password management for the applications.
Middle-tier applications create an Oracle Applications wallet at install time to
store the application's specific identity. The password may be randomly generated
rather than hardcoded. When an Oracle application accesses the database, it sets
appropriate values for SQLNET.AUTHENTICATION_SERVICES and WALLET_LOCATION.
The new wallet-based password authentication code uses the password credential
in the Oracle Applications wallet to log on to the database.
Examples
New commands will be implemented for mkstore to manage the entries in the secret
store.
To create a wallet:
mkstore -wrl wallet_location –create
To create an entry:
mkstore –wrl wallet_location –createCredential alias user_name password
To modify an entry:
mkstore -wrl wallet_location –modifyCredential alias user_name password
To delete an entry:
mkstore -wrl wallet_location –deleteCredential alias
To list all entries:
mkstore -wrl wallet_location –listCredential
Diagnostic Parameters in sqlnet.ora
Beginning with Oracle Database 11g, Oracle Database includes an advanced fault
diagnosability infrastructure for preventing, detecting, diagnosing, and resolving
problems. The problems that are targeted in particular are critical errors such as those
caused by database code bugs, metadata corruption, and customer data corruption.
When a critical error occurs, it is assigned an incident number, and diagnostic data for
the error (traces, dumps, and more) are immediately captured and tagged with this
number. The data is then stored in the automatic diagnostic repository (ADR)—a file
based repository outside the database—where it can later be retrieved by incident
number and analyzed.
ADR is enabled by default. The use of the following parameters depends on whether
ADR is enabled.
This section is divided into those parameters used when ADR is enabled (when DIAG_
ADR_ENABLED is set to on) and those used when ADR is disabled (when DIAG_ADR_
Profile Parameters (sqlnet.ora)
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Diagnostic Parameters in sqlnet.ora
ENABLED is set to off). Non-ADR parameters listed in the sqlnet.ora file are ignored
when ADR is enabled.
This section includes the following topics:
■
ADR Diagnostic Parameters in sqlnet.ora
■
Non-ADR Diagnostic Parameters in sqlnet.ora
ADR Diagnostic Parameters in sqlnet.ora
This section lists the parameters used when ADR is enabled (when DIAG_ADR_ENABLED
is set to on):
■
ADR_BASE
■
DIAG_ADR_ENABLED
■
TRACE_LEVEL_CLIENT
■
TRACE_LEVEL_SERVER
■
TRACE_TIMESTAMP_CLIENT
■
TRACE_TIMESTAMP_SERVER
ADR_BASE
Purpose
Use the ADR_BASE parameter to specify the base directory into which tracing and
logging incidents are stored when ADR is enabled.
Default
The default is $ORACLE_BASE, or $ORACLE_HOME/log on the server side, if $ORACLE_BASE
is not defined.
See Also: Oracle Call Interface Programmer's Guide for the default on
the client side
Values
Any valid directory path to a directory with write permission.
Example
ADR_BASE=/oracle/network/trace
DIAG_ADR_ENABLED
Purpose
The DIAG_ADR_ENABLED parameter indicates whether ADR tracing is enabled.
Usage
When the DIAG_ADR_ENABLED parameter is set to OFF, non-ADR file tracing is used.
Default
on
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Diagnostic Parameters in sqlnet.ora
Values
on or off
Example
DIAG_ADR_ENABLED=on
TRACE_LEVEL_CLIENT
Purpose
Use the parameter TRACE_LEVEL_CLIENT to turn client tracing on, at a specific level, or
off. This parameter is also applicable when non-ADR tracing is used.
Default
off or 0
Values
■
off or 0 for no trace output
■
user or 4 for user trace information
■
admin or 10 for administration trace information
■
support or 16 for Oracle Support Services trace information
Example
TRACE_LEVEL_CLIENT=user
TRACE_LEVEL_SERVER
Purpose
Use the TRACE_LEVEL_SERVER parameter to turn server tracing on, at a specific level, or
off. This parameter is also applicable when non-ADR tracing is used.
Default
off or 0
Values
■
off or 0 for no trace output
■
user or 4 for user trace information
■
admin or 10 for administration trace information
■
support or 16 for Oracle Support Services trace information
Example
TRACE_LEVEL_SERVER=admin
TRACE_TIMESTAMP_CLIENT
Purpose
Use the TRACE_TIMESTAMP_CLIENT parameter to add a time stamp in the form of
dd-mon-yyyy hh:mi:ss:mil to every trace event in the client trace file, which has a
Profile Parameters (sqlnet.ora)
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Diagnostic Parameters in sqlnet.ora
default name of sqlnet.trc. This parameter is also applicable when non-ADR tracing
is used.
Default
on
Values
on or true | off or false
Example
TRACE_TIMESTAMP_SERVER=true
TRACE_TIMESTAMP_SERVER
Purpose
Use the TRACE_TIMESTAMP_SERVER parameter to add a time stamp in the form of
dd-mon-yyyy hh:mi:ss:mil to every trace event in the database server trace file,
which has a default name of svr_pid.trc. This parameter is also applicable when
non-ADR tracing is used.
Default
on
Values
on or true | off or false
Example
TRACE_TIMESTAMP_SERVER=true
Non-ADR Diagnostic Parameters in sqlnet.ora
This section lists the parameters used when ADR is disabled (when DIAG_ADR_ENABLED
is set to off):
Notes:
■
The following parameters are used whether ADR is enabled or
not:
TRACE_LEVEL_CLIENT
TRACE_LEVEL_SERVER
TRACE_TIMESTAMP_CLIENT
TRACE_TIMESTAMP_SERVER
■
5-36
The default value of DIAG_ADR_ENABLED is on. Therefore, the
DIAG_ADR_ENABLED parameter must explicitly be set to off in order
for non-ADR tracing to be used.
■
LOG_DIRECTORY_CLIENT
■
LOG_DIRECTORY_SERVER
■
LOG_FILE_CLIENT
■
LOG_FILE_SERVER
Oracle Database Net Services Reference
Diagnostic Parameters in sqlnet.ora
■
TRACE_DIRECTORY_CLIENT
■
TRACE_DIRECTORY_SERVER
■
TRACE_FILE_CLIENT
■
TRACE_FILE_SERVER
■
TRACE_FILELEN_CLIENT
■
TRACE_FILELEN_SERVER
■
TRACE_FILENO_CLIENT
■
TRACE_FILENO_SERVER
■
TRACE_UNIQUE_CLIENT
LOG_DIRECTORY_CLIENT
Purpose
Use the LOG_DIRECTORY_CLIENT parameter to specify the destination directory for the
client log file. Use this parameter when ADR is not enabled.
Default
$ORACLE_HOME/network/log
Values
Any valid directory path.
Example
LOG_DIRECTORY_CLIENT=/oracle/network/log
LOG_DIRECTORY_SERVER
Purpose
Use the LOG_DIRECTORY_SERVER parameter to specify the destination directory for the
database server log file. Use this parameter when ADR is not enabled.
Default
$ORACLE_HOME/network/trace
Values
Any valid directory path to a directory with write permission.
Example
LOG_DIRECTORY_SERVER=/oracle/network/trace
LOG_FILE_CLIENT
Purpose
The LOG_FILE_CLIENT parameter specifies the name of the log file for the client. Use
this parameter when ADR is not enabled.
Profile Parameters (sqlnet.ora)
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Diagnostic Parameters in sqlnet.ora
Default
$ORACLE_HOME/network/log/sqlnet.log
Values
The default value cannot be changed.
LOG_FILE_SERVER
Purpose
Use the LOG_FILE_SERVER parameter to specify the name of the log file for the database
server. Use this parameter when ADR is not enabled.
Default
sqlnet.log
Example
LOG_FILE_SERVER=svr.log
TRACE_DIRECTORY_CLIENT
Purpose
Use the parameter TRACE_DIRECTORY_CLIENT to specify the destination directory for
the client trace file. Use this parameter when ADR is not enabled.
Default
The current working directory
Values
Any valid directory path to a directory with write permission.
Example
TRACE_DIRECTORY_CLIENT=/oracle/traces
TRACE_DIRECTORY_SERVER
Purpose
Use the TRACE_DIRECTORY_SERVER parameter to specify the destination directory for
the database server trace file. Use this parameter when ADR is not enabled.
Default
The $ORACLE_HOME/network/trace directory on UNIX operating systems and the
%ORACLE_HOME%\network\trace directory on Windows
Values
Any valid directory path to a directory with write permission.
Example
TRACE_DIRECTORY_SERVER=/oracle/traces
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TRACE_FILE_CLIENT
Purpose
Use the TRACE_FILE_CLIENT parameter to specify the name of the client trace file. Use
this parameter when ADR is not enabled.
Values
Any valid file name.
Default
$ORACLE_HOME/network/trace/cli.trc
Example
TRACE_FILE_CLIENT=clientsqlnet.trc
TRACE_FILE_SERVER
Purpose
Use the TRACE_FILE_SERVER parameter to specify the name of the file to which the
execution trace of the server program is written. Use this parameter when ADR is not
enabled.
Default
$ORACLE_HOME/network/trace/svr_pid.trc
Values
Any valid file name.
Example
TRACE_FILE_SERVER=svrsqlnet.trc
TRACE_FILELEN_CLIENT
Purpose
Use the TRACE_FILELEN_CLIENT parameter to specify the size of the client trace files in
kilobytes (KB). When the size is met, the trace information is written to the next file.
The number of files is specified with the TRACE_FILENO_CLIENT parameter. Use
this parameter when ADR is not enabled.
Example
TRACE_FILELEN_CLIENT=100
TRACE_FILELEN_SERVER
Purpose
Use the TRACE_FILELEN_SERVER parameter to specify the size of the database server
trace files in kilobytes (KB). When the size is met, the trace information is written to
the next file. The number of files is specified with the TRACE_FILENO_SERVER
parameter. Use this parameter when ADR is not enabled.
Profile Parameters (sqlnet.ora)
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Diagnostic Parameters in sqlnet.ora
Example
TRACE_FILELEN_SERVER=100
TRACE_FILENO_CLIENT
Purpose
Use the TRACE_FILENO_CLIENT parameter to specify the number of trace files for client
tracing. When this parameter is set along with the TRACE_FILELEN_CLIENT
parameter, trace files are used in a cyclical fashion. The first file is filled first, then the
second file, and so on. When the last file has been filled, the first file is re-used, and so
on.
The trace file names are distinguished from one another by their sequence number. For
example, if the default trace file of sqlnet.trc is used, and this parameter is set to 3,
the trace files would be named sqlnet1.trc, sqlnet2.trc and sqlnet3.trc.
In addition, trace events in the trace files are preceded by the sequence number of the
file. Use this parameter when ADR is not enabled.
Default
None
Example
TRACE_FILENO_CLIENT=3
TRACE_FILENO_SERVER
Purpose
Use the TRACE_FILENO_SERVER parameter to specify the number of trace files for
database server tracing. When this parameter is set along with the TRACE_FILELEN_
SERVER parameter, trace files are used in a cyclical fashion. The first file is filled first,
then the second file, and so on. When the last file has been filled, the first file is
re-used, and so on.
The trace file names are distinguished from one another by their sequence number. For
example, if the default trace file of svr_pid.trc is used, and this parameter is set to 3,
the trace files would be named svr1_pid.trc, svr2_pid.trc and svr3_pid.trc.
In addition, trace events in the trace files are preceded by the sequence number of the
file. Use this parameter when ADR is not enabled.
Default
None
Example
TRACE_FILENO_SERVER=3
TRACE_UNIQUE_CLIENT
Purpose
Use the TRACE_UNIQUE_CLIENT parameter to specify whether or not a unique trace file
is created for each client trace session. When the value is set to on, a process identifier
is appended to the name of each trace file, enabling several files to coexist. For
example, trace files named sqlnetpid.trc are created if default trace file name
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Diagnostic Parameters in sqlnet.ora
sqlnet.trc is used. When the value is set to off, data from a new client trace session
overwrites the existing file. Use this parameter when ADR is not enabled.
Default
on
Values
on or off
Example
TRACE_UNIQUE_CLIENT=on
Profile Parameters (sqlnet.ora)
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Oracle Database Net Services Reference
6
6
Local Naming Parameters (tnsnames.ora)
This chapter provides a complete listing of the tnsnames.ora file configuration
parameters.
This chapter contains these topics:
■
Overview of Local Naming Parameters
■
General Syntax of tnsnames.ora
■
Multiple Descriptions in tnsnames.ora
■
Multiple Address Lists in tnsnames.ora
■
■
Connect-Time Failover and Client Load Balancing with Oracle Connection
Managers
Local Naming Parameters
Overview of Local Naming Parameters
This tnsnames.ora file is a configuration file that contains net service names mapped
to connect descriptors for the local naming method, or net service names mapped to
listener protocol addresses.
A net service name is an alias mapped to a database network address contained in a
connect descriptor. A connect descriptor contains the location of the listener through a
protocol address and the service name of the database to which to connect. Clients and
database servers (that are clients of other database servers) use the net service name
when making a connection with an application.
By default, tnsnames.ora is located in the $ORACLE_HOME/network/admin directory on
UNIX operating systems and in the %ORACLE_HOME%\network\admin directory on
Windows operating systems. tnsnames.ora can also be stored the following locations:
■
■
The directory specified by the TNS_ADMIN environment variable or registry value
On UNIX operating systems, the global configuration directory. For example, on
the Solaris Operating System, this directory is /var/opt/oracle.
See Also:
Oracle operating system-specific documentation
General Syntax of tnsnames.ora
The basic syntax for a tnsnames.ora file is shown in Example 6–1. DESCRIPTION
contains the connect descriptor, ADDRESS contains the protocol address, and CONNECT_
DATA contains the database service identification information.
Local Naming Parameters (tnsnames.ora) 6-1
Multiple Descriptions in tnsnames.ora
Example 6–1 Basic Format of tnsnames.ora File
net_service_name=
(DESCRIPTION=
(ADDRESS=(protocol_address_information))
(CONNECT_DATA=
(SERVICE_NAME=service_name)))
Multiple Descriptions in tnsnames.ora
A tnsnames.ora file can contain net service names with one or more connect
descriptors. Each connect descriptor can contain one or more protocol addresses.
Example 6–2 shows two connect descriptors with multiple addresses. DESCRIPTION_
LIST defines a list of connect descriptors.
Note: Oracle Net Manager does not support the creation of multiple
connect descriptors for a net service name.
Example 6–2 Net Service Name with Multiple Connect Descriptors in tnsnames.ora
net_service_name=
(DESCRIPTION_LIST=
(DESCRIPTION=
(ADDRESS=(protocol_address_information))
(ADDRESS=(protocol_address_information))
(ADDRESS=(protocol_address_information))
(CONNECT_DATA=
(SERVICE_NAME=service_name)))
(DESCRIPTION=
(ADDRESS=(protocol_address_information))
(ADDRESS=(protocol_address_information))
(ADDRESS=(protocol_address_information))
(CONNECT_DATA=
(SERVICE_NAME=service_name))))
Multiple Address Lists in tnsnames.ora
The tnsnames.ora file also supports connect descriptors with multiple lists of
addresses, each with its own characteristics. In Example 6–3, two address lists are
presented. The first address list features client load balancing and no connect-time
failover, affecting only those protocol addresses within the ADDRESS_LIST. The second
protocol address list features connect-time failover and no client load loading
balancing, affecting only those protocol addresses within the ADDRESS_LIST. The client
first tries either the first or second protocol address at random, then tries protocol
addresses three and four sequentially.
Note: Oracle Net Manager supports only the creation of one
protocol address list for a connect descriptor.
Example 6–3 Multiple Address Lists in tnsnames.ora
net_service_name=
(DESCRIPTION=
(ADDRESS_LIST=
(LOAD_BALANCE=on)
(FAILOVER=off)
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Oracle Database Net Services Reference
Connect-Time Failover and Client Load Balancing with Oracle Connection Managers
(ADDRESS=(protocol_address_information))
(ADDRESS=(protocol_address_information)))
(ADDRESS_LIST=
(LOAD_BALANCE=off)
(FAILOVER=on)
(ADDRESS=(protocol_address_information))
(ADDRESS=(protocol_address_information)))
(CONNECT_DATA=
(SERVICE_NAME=service_name)))
Protocol address lists do not have to be embedded in an
ADDRESS_LIST if there is only one list, as was the case prior to release
8.1.
Note:
Connect-Time Failover and Client Load Balancing with Oracle Connection
Managers
When a connect descriptor in a tnsnames.ora file contains at least two protocol
addresses for Oracle Connection Manager, parameters for connect-time failover and
load balancing can be included in the file.
Example 6–4 illustrates failover of multiple Oracle Connection Manager protocol
addresses.
Example 6–4 Multiple Oracle Connection Manager Addresses in tnsnames.ora
sample1=
(DESCRIPTION=
(SOURCE_ROUTE=yes)
(ADDRESS=(PROTOCOL=tcp)(HOST=host1)(PORT=1630))
# hop 1
(ADDRESS_LIST=
(FAILOVER=on)
(LOAD_BALANCE=off)
# hop 2
(ADDRESS=(PROTOCOL=tcp)(HOST=host2a)(PORT=1630))
(ADDRESS=(PROTOCOL=tcp)(HOST=host2b)(PORT=1630)))
(ADDRESS=(PROTOCOL=tcp)(HOST=host3)(PORT=1521))
# hop 3
(CONNECT_DATA=(SERVICE_NAME=Sales.us.example.com)))
In Example 6–4:
1.
The client is instructed to connect to an protocol address of the first Oracle
Connection Manager, as indicated by:
(ADDRESS=(PROTOCOL=tcp)(HOST=host1)(PORT=1630))
2.
The first Oracle Connection Manager is then instructed to connect to the first
protocol address of another Oracle Connection Manager. If the first protocol
address fails, then it tries the second protocol address. This sequence is specified
with the following configuration:
(ADDRESS_LIST=
(FAILOVER=ON)
(LOAD_BALANCE=off)
(ADDRESS=(PROTOCOL=tcp)(HOST=host2a)(PORT=1630))
(ADDRESS=(PROTOCOL=tcp)(HOST=host2b)(PORT=1630))
3.
The Oracle Connection Manager then connects to the database service using the
following protocol address:
Local Naming Parameters (tnsnames.ora) 6-3
Local Naming Parameters
(ADDRESS=(PROTOCOL=tcp)(HOST=host3)(PORT=1521))
Example 6–5 illustrates client load balancing among two Oracle Connection Managers
and two protocol addresses:
Example 6–5 Client Load Balancing in tnsnames.ora
sample2=
(DESCRIPTION=
(LOAD_BALANCE=on)
(FAILOVER=on)
(ADDRESS_LIST=
(SOURCE_ROUTE=yes)
(ADDRESS=(PROTOCOL=tcp)(HOST=host1)(PORT=1630))
(ADDRESS=(PROTOCOL=tcp)(HOST=host2)(PORT=1521)))
(ADDRESS_LIST=
(SOURCE_ROUTE=yes)
(ADDRESS=(PROTOCOL=tcp)(HOST=host3)(port=1630))
(ADDRESS=(PROTOCOL=tcp)(HOST=host4)(port=1521)))
(CONNECT_DATA=(SERVICE_NAME=sales.us.example.com)))
In Example 6–5:
1.
The client is instructed to pick an ADDRESS_LIST at random and to failover to the
other if the chosen ADDRESS_LIST fails. This is indicated by the LOAD_BALANCE and
FAILOVER parameters being set to on.
2.
When an ADDRESS_LIST is chosen, the client first connects to the Oracle Connection
Manager, using the Oracle Connection Manager protocol address that uses port
1630 indicated for the ADDRESS_LIST.
3.
The Oracle Connection Manager then connects to the database service, using the
protocol address indicated for the ADDRESS_LIST.
Local Naming Parameters
This section lists and describes the tnsnames.ora file parameters that comprise
connect descriptors. Configuration parameters fall into the following categories:
■
Connect Descriptor Descriptions
■
Protocol Address Section
■
Optional Parameters for Lists
■
Connect Data Section
■
Security Section
Connect Descriptor Descriptions
Each connect descriptor is contained within the DESCRIPTION parameter. Multiple
connect descriptors are characterized by the DESCRIPTION_LIST parameter. These
parameters are described in this section.
DESCRIPTION
Purpose
Use the DESCRIPTION parameter as a container for a connect descriptor.
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Oracle Database Net Services Reference
Local Naming Parameters
Embed this parameter under the DESCRIPTION_LIST parameter.
Example
net_service_name=
(DESCRIPTION=
(ADDRESS=...)
(CONNECT_DATA=(SERVICE_NAME=sales.us.example.com)))
DESCRIPTION_LIST
Purpose
Use he DESCRIPTION_LIST parameter defines a list of connect descriptors for a
particular net service name.
Example
net_service_name=
(DESCRIPTION_LIST=
(DESCRIPTION=
(ADDRESS=...)
(CONNECT_DATA=(SERVICE_NAME=sales.example.com)))
(DESCRIPTION=
(ADDRESS=...)
(CONNECT_DATA=(SERVICE_NAME=sales2.us.example.com))))
Protocol Address Section
The protocol address section of the tnsnames.ora file specifies the protocol addresses
of the listener.
This section lists and describes the following parameters:
■
ADDRESS
■
ADDRESS_LIST
ADDRESS
Purpose
Use the ADDRESS parameter to define a single listener protocol address.
Embed this parameter under either the ADDRESS_LIST parameter or the DESCRIPTION
parameter.
Chapter 4, "Protocol Address Configuration" for
descriptions of the correct parameters to use for each protocol
See Also:
Example
net_service_name=
(DESCRIPTION=
(ADDRESS=(PROTOCOL=tcp)(HOST=sales-svr)(PORT=1521))
(CONNECT_DATA=(SERVICE_NAME=sales.us.example.com))
Local Naming Parameters (tnsnames.ora) 6-5
Local Naming Parameters
ADDRESS_LIST
Purpose
Use the ADDRESS_LIST parameter to define a list of protocol addresses. If there is only
address list, ADDRESS_LIST is not necessary.
Embed this parameter under either the DESCRIPTION parameter or the DESCRIPTION_
LIST parameter.
Example
net_service_name=
(DESCRIPTION=
(ADDRESS_LIST=
(ADDRESS=(PROTOCOL=tcp)(HOST=sales1-svr)(PORT=1521))
(ADDRESS=(PROTOCOL=tcp)(HOST=sales2-svr)(PORT=1521)))
(ADDRESS_LIST=
(FAILOVER=on)
(ADDRESS=(PROTOCOL=tcp)(HOST=sales1-svr)(PORT=1521))
(ADDRESS=(PROTOCOL=tcp)(HOST=sales2-svr)(PORT=1521))
(CONNECT_DATA=(SERVICE_NAME=sales.us.example.com)))
Optional Parameters for Lists
For multiple addresses, the following parameters are available for usage:
■
ENABLE
■
FAILOVER
■
LOAD_BALANCE
■
RECV_BUF_SIZE
■
SDU
■
SEND_BUF_SIZE
■
SOURCE_ROUTE
■
TYPE_OF_SERVICE
ENABLE
Purpose
The keepalive feature on the supported TCP transports can be enabled for a net service
client by embedding (ENABLE=BROKEN) under the DESCRIPTION parameter in the
connect string. Keepalive allows the caller to detect a dead remote server, although
typically it will take 2 hours or more to notice. Operating system TCP configurables,
which vary by platform, define the actual keepalive timing details.
Default
tcp_keepalive is off by default on the client side
Values
BROKEN
Example
net_service_name=
6-6
Oracle Database Net Services Reference
Local Naming Parameters
(DESCRIPTION=
(enable=broken)
(ADDRESS=(PROTOCOL=tcp)(HOST=sales1-svr)(PORT=1521))
(ADDRESS=(PROTOCOL=tcp)(HOST=sales2-svr)(PORT=1521)))
(CONNECT_DATA=(SERVICE_NAME=sales.us.example.com))
FAILOVER
Purpose
Use the parameter FAILOVER to enable or disable connect-time failover for multiple
protocol addresses.
When you set the parameter to on, yes, or true, Oracle Net, at connect time, fails over
to a different address if the first protocol address fails. When you set the parameter to
off, no, or false, Oracle Net tries one protocol address.
Embed this parameter under either the DESCRIPTION_LIST parameter, the DESCRIPTION
parameter, or the ADDRESS_LIST parameter.
Important: Do not set the GLOBAL_DBNAME parameter in the SID_
LIST_listener_name section of the listener.ora. A statically
configured global database name disables connect-time failover.
Default
on for DESCRIPTION_LISTs, DESCRIPTIONs, and ADDRESS_LISTs
Values
on | off | yes | no | true | false
Example
net_service_name=
(DESCRIPTION=
(FAILOVER=on)
(ADDRESS=(PROTOCOL=tcp)(HOST=sales1-svr)(PORT=1521))
(ADDRESS=(PROTOCOL=tcp)(HOST=sales2-svr)(PORT=1521)))
(CONNECT_DATA=(SERVICE_NAME=sales.us.example.com)))
LOAD_BALANCE
Purpose
Use the LOAD_BALANCE parameter to enable or disable client load balancing for multiple
protocol addresses.
When you set the parameter to on, yes, or true, Oracle Net progresses through the list
of addresses in a random sequence, balancing the load on the various listener or
Oracle Connection Manager protocol addresses. When you set the parameter to off,
no, or false, Oracle Net tries the protocol addresses sequentially until one succeeds.
Embed this parameter under either the DESCRIPTION_LIST parameter, the DESCRIPTION
parameter, or the ADDRESS_LIST parameter.
Default
on for DESCRIPTION_LISTs
Local Naming Parameters (tnsnames.ora) 6-7
Local Naming Parameters
Values
on | off | yes | no | true | false
Example
net_service_name=
(DESCRIPTION=
(LOAD_BALANCE=on)
(ADDRESS=(PROTOCOL=tcp)(HOST=sales1-svr)(PORT=1521))
(ADDRESS=(PROTOCOL=tcp)(HOST=sales2-svr)(PORT=1521)))
(CONNECT_DATA=(SERVICE_NAME=sales.us.example.com))
RECV_BUF_SIZE
Purpose
Use the RECV_BUF_SIZE parameter to specify, in bytes, the buffer space for receive
operations of sessions. This parameter is supported by the TCP/IP, TCP/IP with SSL,
and SDP protocols.
Note: Additional protocols might support this parameter on certain
operating systems. Refer to operating-system specific documentation
for information about additional protocols that support this
parameter.
Embed this parameter under the DESCRIPTION parameter or at the end of the protocol
address.
Default
The default value for this parameter is operating-system specific. The default for the
Solaris 2.6 Operating System is 32768 bytes.
Usage
Setting this parameter in the connect descriptor for a client overrides the RECV_BUF_
SIZE parameter at the client-side sqlnet.ora file.
See Also: Oracle Database Net Services Administrator's Guide for
information about configuring this parameter
Example
net_service_name=
(DESCRIPTION=
(ADDRESS_LIST=
(ADDRESS=(PROTOCOL=tcp)(HOST=sales1-server)(PORT=1521)
(RECV_BUF_SIZE=11784))
(ADDRESS=(PROTOCOL=tcp)(HOST=sales2-server)(PORT=1521)
(RECV_BUF_SIZE=11784))
(CONNECT_DATA=
(SERVICE_NAME=sales.us.example.com)))
net_service_name=
(DESCRIPTION=
(RECV_BUF_SIZE=11784)
(ADDRESS_LIST=
(ADDRESS=(PROTOCOL=tcp)(HOST=hr1-server)(PORT=1521)
(ADDRESS=(PROTOCOL=tcp)(HOST=hr2-server)(PORT=1521))
(CONNECT_DATA=
6-8
Oracle Database Net Services Reference
Local Naming Parameters
(SERVICE_NAME=hr.us.example.com)))
SDU
Purpose
Use the parameter SDU to instruct Oracle Net to optimize the transfer rate of data
packets being sent across the network with the session data unit (SDU) size you
specify.
Embed this parameter under the DESCRIPTION parameter.
Default
8192 bytes (8 KB)
Values
512 bytes to 32767
Usage
Setting this parameter in the connect descriptor for a client overrides the DEFAULT_
SDU_SIZE parameter at client-side sqlnet.ora file.
See Also: Oracle Database Net Services Administrator's Guide for
complete SDU usage and configuration information
Example
net_service_name=
(DESCRIPTION=
(SDU=8192)
(ADDRESS_LIST=
(ADDRESS=(PROTOCOL=tcp)(HOST=sales1-server)(PORT=1521))
(ADDRESS=(PROTOCOL=tcp)(HOST=sales2-server)(PORT=1521)))
(CONNECT_DATA=
(SERVER_NAME=sales.us.example.com))
SEND_BUF_SIZE
Purpose
Use the parameter SEND_BUF_SIZE to specify, in bytes, the buffer space for send
operations of sessions. This parameter is supported by the TCP/IP, TCP/IP with SSL,
and SDP protocols.
Note: Additional protocols might support this parameter on certain
operating systems. Refer to operating-system specific documentation
for information about additional protocols that support this
parameter.
Embed this parameter under the DESCRIPTION parameter or at the end of the protocol
address.
Default
The default value for this parameter is operating-system specific. The default for the
Solaris 2.6 Operating System is 8192 bytes.
Local Naming Parameters (tnsnames.ora) 6-9
Local Naming Parameters
Usage
Setting this parameter in the connect descriptor for a client overrides the SEND_BUF_
SIZE parameter at the client-side sqlnet.ora file.
See Also: Oracle Database Net Services Administrator's Guide for
information about configuring this parameter
Example
net_service_name=
(DESCRIPTION=
(ADDRESS_LIST=
(ADDRESS=(PROTOCOL=tcp)(HOST=sales1-server)(PORT=1521)
(SEND_BUF_SIZE=11784))
(ADDRESS=(PROTOCOL=tcp)(HOST=sales2-server)(PORT=1521)
(SEND_BUF_SIZE=11784))
(CONNECT_DATA=
(SERVICE_NAME=sales.us.example.com)))
net_service_name=
(DESCRIPTION=
(SEND_BUF_SIZE=11784)
(ADDRESS_LIST=
(ADDRESS=(PROTOCOL=tcp)(HOST=hr1-server)(PORT=1521)
(ADDRESS=(PROTOCOL=tcp)(HOST=hr2-server)(PORT=1521))
(CONNECT_DATA=
(SERVICE_NAME=hr.us.example.com)))
SOURCE_ROUTE
Purpose
Use the parameter SOURCE_ROUTE to enable routing through multiple protocol
addresses.
When you set to on or yes, Oracle Net uses each address in order until the destination
is reached.
To use Oracle Connection Manager, an initial connection from the client to Oracle
Connection Manager is required, and a second connection from Oracle Connection
Manager to the listener is required.
Embed this parameter under either the DESCRIPTION_LIST parameter, the DESCRIPTION
parameter, or the ADDRESS_LIST parameter.
See Also: Oracle Database Net Services Administrator's Guide for
complete configuration information
Default
off
Values
yes | no | on | off
Example
net_service_name=
(DESCRIPTION=
(SOURCE_ROUTE=on)
(ADDRESS=(PROTOCOL=tcp)(HOST=cman-pc)(PORT=1630))
(ADDRESS=(PROTOCOL=tcp)(HOST=sales1-svr)(PORT=1521)))
6-10
Oracle Database Net Services Reference
Local Naming Parameters
(CONNECT_DATA=(SERVICE_NAME=sales.us.example.com))
TYPE_OF_SERVICE
Purpose
Use the parameter TYPE_OF_SERVICE parameter to specify the type of service to use for
an Oracle Rdb database. This parameter should only be used if the application
supports both an Oracle Rdb and Oracle database service, and you want the
application to load balance between the two.
Embed this parameter under the DESCRIPTION parameter.
Example
net_service_name=
(DESCRIPTION_LIST=
(DESCRIPTION=
(ADDRESS=...)
(CONNECT_DATA=
(SERVICE_NAME=generic)
(RDB_DATABASE=[.mf]mf_personal.rdb)
(GLOBAL_NAME=alpha5))
(TYPE_OF_SERVICE=rdb_database))
(DESCRIPTION=
(ADDRESS=...)
(CONNECT_DATA=
(SERVICE_NAME=sales.us.example.com))
(TYPE_OF_SERVICE=oracle9_database)))
Connect Data Section
The connection data section of the tnsnames.ora file specifies the name of the
destination service.
CONNECT_DATA
Purpose
Use the CONNECT_DATA parameter to define the service to which to connect.
Embed this parameter under the DESCRIPTION parameter.
Usage Notes
CONNECT_DATA permits the following subparameters:
■
FAILOVER_MODE
■
GLOBAL_NAME
■
HS
■
INSTANCE_NAME
■
RDB_DATABASE
■
SERVER
■
SERVICE_NAME
■
SID
Local Naming Parameters (tnsnames.ora)
6-11
Local Naming Parameters
Example
net_service_name=
(DESCRIPTION=
(ADDRESS=(PROTOCOL=tcp)(HOST=sales1-svr)(PORT=1521))
(ADDRESS=(PROTOCOL=tcp)(HOST=sales2-svr)(PORT=1521))
(CONNECT_DATA=
(SERVICE_NAME=sales.us.example.com)))
FAILOVER_MODE
Purpose
Use the FAILOVER_MODE parameter to instruct Oracle Net to fail over to a different
listener if the first listener fails during run-time. Depending upon the configuration,
session or any SELECT statements which were in progress are automatically failed over.
This type of failover is called Transparent Application Failover (TAF) and should not
be confused with the connect-time failover FAILOVER parameter.
Embed this parameter under the CONNECT_DATA parameter.
See Also: Oracle Database Net Services Administrator's Guide for
complete configuration information
Subparameters
FAILOVER_MODE supports the following subparameters:
BACKUP: Specify the failover node by its net service name. A separate net service name
must be created for the failover node.
TYPE: Specify the type of failover. Three types of Oracle Net failover functionality are
available by default to Oracle Call Interface (OCI) applications:
session: Fails over the session; that is, if a user's connection is lost, a new session is
automatically created for the user on the backup. This type of failover does not
attempt to recover selects.
select: Allows users with open cursors to continue fetching on them after failure.
However, this mode involves overhead on the client side in normal select operations.
none: This is the default, in which no failover functionality is used. This can also be
explicitly specified to prevent failover from happening.
METHOD: Specify how fast failover is to occur from the primary node to the backup
node:
basic: Establishes connections at failover time. This option requires almost no work on
the backup database server until failover time.
preconnect: Pre-establishes connections. This provides faster failover but requires that
the backup instance be able to support all connections from every supported instance.
RETRIES: Specify the number of times to attempt to connect after a failover. If DELAY is
specified, RETRIES defaults to five retry attempts.
DELAY: Specify the amount of time in seconds to wait between connect attempts. If
RETRIES is specified, DELAY defaults to one second.
Note: If a callback function is registered, then RETRIES and DELAY
subparameters are ignored.
6-12
Oracle Database Net Services Reference
Local Naming Parameters
Example
See Also: Oracle Database Net Services Administrator's Guide for
implementation examples
GLOBAL_NAME
Purpose
Use the GLOBAL_NAME parameter to identify the Oracle Rdb database.
Embed this parameter under the CONNECT_DATA parameter.
Example
net_service_name=
(DESCRIPTION=
(ADDRESS=...)
(ADDRESS=...)
(CONNECT_DATA=
(SERVICE_NAME=generic)
(RDB_DATABASE=[.mf]mf_personal.rdb)
(GLOBAL_NAME=alpha5)))
HS
Purpose
Use the HS parameter to instruct Oracle Net to connect to a non-Oracle system through
Heterogeneous Services.
Embed this parameter under the CONNECT_DATA parameter.
See Also: Oracle Database Net Services Administrator's Guide for
complete configuration information
Default
None
Values
ok
Example
net_service_name=
(DESCRIPTION=
(ADDRESS=...)
(ADDRESS=...)
(CONNECT_DATA=
(SID=sales6)
(HS=ok)))
INSTANCE_NAME
Purpose
Use the INSTANCE_NAME parameter to identify the database instance to access. Set the
value to the value specified by the INSTANCE_NAME parameter in the initialization
parameter file.
Local Naming Parameters (tnsnames.ora)
6-13
Local Naming Parameters
Embed this parameter under the CONNECT_DATA parameter.
See Also: Oracle Database Net Services Administrator's Guide for
information about the use of INSTANCE_NAME
Example
net_service_name=
(DESCRIPTION=
(ADDRESS=...)
(ADDRESS=...)
(CONNECT_DATA=
(SERVICE_NAME=sales.us.example.com)
(INSTANCE_NAME=sales1)))
RDB_DATABASE
Purpose
Use the RDB_DATABASE parameter to specify the file name of an Oracle Rdb database.
Embed this parameter under the CONNECT_DATA parameter.
Example
net_service_name=
(DESCRIPTION=
(ADDRESS=...)
(ADDRESS=...)
(CONNECT_DATA=
(SERVICE_NAME=sales.us.example.com)
(RDB_DATABASE= [.mf]mf_personal.rdb)))
SERVER
Purpose
Use the SERVER parameter to instruct the listener to connect the client to a specific type
of service handler.
Embed this parameter under the CONNECT_DATA parameter.
Values
■
dedicated to specify that client requests be served by dedicated server
■
shared to specify that client request be served by shared server
Notes: Shared server must be configured in the database
initialization file in order for the client to connect to the database with
a shared server process. See the Oracle Database Net Services
Administrator's Guide for configuration information.
The USE_DEDICATED_SERVER parameter in the sqlnet.ora file
overrides this parameter.
■
6-14
pooled to get a connection from the connection pool if database resident
connection pooling is enabled on the server
Oracle Database Net Services Reference
Local Naming Parameters
See Also: Oracle Database Net Services Administrator's Guide for more
information about database resident connection pooling
Oracle Call Interface Programmer's Guide and Oracle Database
Administrator's Guide for more information about enabling and
configuring database resident connection pooling
Example
net_service_name=
(DESCRIPTION=
(ADDRESS=...)
(ADDRESS=...)
(CONNECT_DATA=
(SERVER_NAME=sales.us.example.com)
(SERVER=dedicated)))
SERVICE_NAME
Purpose
Use the SERVICE_NAME parameter to identify the Oracle9i or Oracle8 database service to
access. Set the value to a value specified by the SERVICE_NAMES parameter in the
initialization parameter file.
Embed this parameter under the CONNECT_DATA parameter.
See Also: Oracle Database Net Services Administrator's Guide for
information about the use of the SERVICE_NAME parameter
Example
net_service_name=
(DESCRIPTION=
(ADDRESS=...)
(ADDRESS=...)
(CONNECT_DATA=
(SERVICE_NAME=sales.us.example.com)))
SID
Purpose
Use the SID parameter to identify the Oracle8 database instance by its Oracle System
Identifier (SID). If the database is Oracle9i or Oracle8, use the SERVICE_NAME
parameter rather than the SID parameter.
See Also: Oracle Database Net Services Administrator's Guide for
information about the use of SID
Embed this parameter under the CONNECT_DATA parameter.
Example
net_service_name=
(DESCRIPTION=
(ADDRESS=...)
(ADDRESS=...)
(CONNECT_DATA=
(SID=sales)))
Local Naming Parameters (tnsnames.ora)
6-15
Local Naming Parameters
Security Section
The security section of the tnsnames.ora file specifies the following security-related
parameters for use with Oracle Advanced Security features:
■
SECURITY
■
SSL_SERVER_CERT_DN
SECURITY
Purpose
Use the SECURITY parameter to enable secure connections.
Embed this parameter under the DESCRIPTION parameter.
Usage Notes
SECURITY permits the SSL_SERVER_CERT_DN subparameter.
Example
net_service_name=
(DESCRIPTION=
(ADDRESS=(PROTOCOL=tcp)(HOST=sales1-svr)(PORT=1521))
(ADDRESS=(PROTOCOL=tcp)(HOST=sales2-svr)(PORT=1521))
(CONNECT_DATA=
(SERVICE_NAME=sales.us.example.com))
(SECURITY=
(SSL_SERVER_CERT_DN="cn=sales,cn=OracleContext,dc=us,dc=example,dc=com")))
SSL_SERVER_CERT_DN
Purpose
Use the SSL_SERVER_CERT_DN parameter to specify the distinguished name (DN) of
the database server. The client uses this information to obtain the list of DNs it expects
for each of the servers, enforcing the database server DN to match its service name.
Usage Notes
Use this parameter in conjunction with the sqlnet.ora parameter SSL_SERVER_DN_
MATCH to enable server DN matching.
See Also:
Oracle Database Advanced Security Administrator's Guide
Example
net_service_name=
(DESCRIPTION=
(ADDRESS=...)USE_DEDICATED_SERVER
(ADDRESS=...)
(CONNECT_DATA=
(SERVICE_NAME=finance.us.example.com))
(SECURITY=
(SSL_SERVER_CERT_DN="cn=finance,cn=OracleContext,dc=us,dc=example,dc=com")))
6-16
Oracle Database Net Services Reference
7
7
Oracle Net Listener Parameters (listener.ora)
This chapter provides a complete listing of the listener.ora file configuration
parameters.
This chapter contains these topics:
■
Overview of Oracle Net Listener Configuration File
■
Oracle Net Listener Parameters
■
Class of Secure Transports (COST) Parameters
Overview of Oracle Net Listener Configuration File
Oracle Net Listener configuration, stored in the listener.ora file, consists of the
following elements:
■
Name of the listener
■
Protocol addresses that the listener is accepting connection requests on
■
Database services
Dynamic service registration, eliminates the need for static configuration of
supported services. However, static service configuration is required if you plan to
use Oracle Enterprise Manager.
■
Control parameters
By default, the listener.ora file is located in the $ORACLE_HOME/network/admin
directory on UNIX operating systems and the %ORACLE_HOME%\network\admin
directory on Windows. listener.ora can also be stored the following locations:
■
■
The directory specified by the TNS_ADMIN environment variable or registry value
On UNIX operating systems, the global configuration directory. For example, on
the Solaris Operating System, this directory is /var/opt/oracle.
See Also:
Oracle operating system-specific documentation
It is possible to configure multiple listeners, each with unique name, in one
listener.ora file. Multiple listener configuration is possible because each of the
top-level configuration parameters has a suffix of the listener name or is the listener
name itself.
Oracle Net Listener Parameters (listener.ora)
7-1
Oracle Net Listener Parameters
Note: It is often useful to configure multiple listeners in one
listener.ora file. However, Oracle recommends running only one
listener for each node in most customer environments.
Example 7–1 shows a listener.ora file for a listener named LISTENER, which is the
default name of the listener.
Example 7–1 Example listener.ora File
LISTENER=
(DESCRIPTION=
(ADDRESS_LIST=
(ADDRESS=(PROTOCOL=tcp)(HOST=sale-server)(PORT=1521))
(ADDRESS=(PROTOCOL=ipc)(KEY=extproc))))
SID_LIST_LISTENER=
(SID_LIST=
(SID_DESC=
(GLOBAL_DBNAME=sales.us.example.com)
(ORACLE_HOME=/oracle11g)
(SID_NAME=sales))
(SID_DESC=
(SID_NAME=plsextproc)
(ORACLE_HOME=/oracle11g)
(PROGRAM=extproc)))
Oracle Net Listener Parameters
This section lists and describes the listener.ora file parameters. Listener
configuration parameters fall into the following categories:
■
Protocol Address Section
■
Static Service Registration (SID_LIST) Section
■
Connection Rate Limiter
■
Control Parameters
■
Diagnostic Parameters for Oracle Net Listener
Protocol Address Section
The protocol address section of the listener.ora file defines the protocol addresses
that the listener is accepting connection requests on. Discussed next are the most
common parameters used in protocol addresses. Note that ADDRESS_LIST is also
supported.
See Also: Chapter 4, "Protocol Address Configuration" for
information about the ADDRESS_LIST parameter
This section lists and describes the following parameters:
7-2
■
ADDRESS
■
DESCRIPTION
■
IP
■
QUEUESIZE
Oracle Database Net Services Reference
Oracle Net Listener Parameters
■
RECV_BUF_SIZE
■
SEND_BUF_SIZE
ADDRESS
Purpose
Use the ADDRESS parameter to specify a single listener protocol address.
Embed this parameter under the DESCRIPTION parameter.
Chapter 4, "Protocol Address Configuration" for
descriptions of the correct parameters to use for each type of support
protocol
See Also:
Example
listener_name=
(DESCRIPTION=
(ADDRESS=(PROTOCOL=tcp)(HOST=hr-server)(PORT=1521))
(ADDRESS=(PROTOCOL=tcp)(HOST=sales-server)(PORT=1521)))
DESCRIPTION
Purpose
Use the DESCRIPTION parameter as a container for listener protocol addresses.
Example
listener_name=
(DESCRIPTION=
(ADDRESS=(PROTOCOL=tcp)(HOST=hr-server)(PORT=1521))
(ADDRESS=(PROTOCOL=tcp)(HOST=sales-server)(PORT=1521)))
IP
Purpose
If the user specifies a host name for the HOST parameter in the ADDRESS line of the
listener.ora file, the listener listens on IN_ADDRANY in case the host name is default
host name. If the user wants the listener to listen on the first IP to which the specified
host name resolves, the address must further be qualified with (IP=FIRST).
Default
This feature is disabled by default.
Example
listener_name=
(DESCRIPTION=
(ADDRESS=(PROTOCOL=tcp)(HOST=rancode1-vip)(PORT=1521)IP=FIRST))
QUEUESIZE
Purpose
Use the QUEUESIZE parameter to specify the number of concurrent connection requests
that the listener can accept on a TCP/IP or IPC listening endpoint (protocol address).
Oracle Net Listener Parameters (listener.ora)
7-3
Oracle Net Listener Parameters
Embed this parameter at the end of the protocol address with its value set to the
expected number of concurrent connection requests.
Default
The default number of concurrent connection requests is operating system specific.
Following are the defaults for the Solaris Operating System and Windows:
■
Solaris Operating System: 5
■
Windows NT 4.0 Workstation: 5
■
Windows NT 4.0 Server: 50
Usage Notes
Oracle Net Services Administrator's Guide for information
about configuring this parameter
See Also:
Example
listener_name=
(DESCRIPTION=
(ADDRESS=(PROTOCOL=tcp)(HOST=hr-server)(PORT=1521)(QUEUESIZE=20)))
RECV_BUF_SIZE
Purpose
Use the RECV_BUF_SIZE parameter to specify, in bytes, the buffer space for receive
operations of sessions. This parameter is supported by the TCP/IP, TCP/IP with SSL,
and SDP protocols.
Note: Additional protocols might support this parameter on certain
operating systems. Refer to operating-system specific documentation
for information about additional protocols that support this
parameter.
Embed this parameter under the DESCRIPTION parameter or at the end of the protocol
address with its value set to the expected number of bytes.
Default
The default value for this parameter is operating-system specific. The default for the
Solaris 2.6 Operating System is 32768 bytes (32 KB).
Usage Notes
Oracle Net Services Administrator's Guide for information
about configuring this parameter
See Also:
Example
listener_name=
(DESCRIPTION=
(ADDRESS=(PROTOCOL=tcp)(HOST=sales-server)(PORT=1521)
(RECV_BUF_SIZE=11784))
(ADDRESS=(PROTOCOL=ipc)(KEY=extproc)
(RECV_BUF_SIZE=11784)))
7-4
Oracle Database Net Services Reference
Oracle Net Listener Parameters
listener_name=
(DESCRIPTION=
(RECV_BUF_SIZE=11784))
(ADDRESS=(PROTOCOL=tcp)(HOST=sales-server)(PORT=1521)
(ADDRESS=(PROTOCOL=ipc)(KEY=extproc)))
SEND_BUF_SIZE
Purpose
Use the SEND_BUF_SIZE parameter to specify, in bytes, the buffer space for send
operations of sessions. This parameter is supported by the TCP/IP, TCP/IP with SSL,
and SDP protocols.
Note: Additional protocols might support this parameter on certain
operating systems. Refer to operating-system specific documentation
for information about additional protocols that support this
parameter.
Embed this parameter under the DESCRIPTION parameter or at the end of the protocol
address.
Default
The default value for this parameter is 8192 bytes (8 KB).
Usage Notes
See Also: Oracle Database Net Services Administrator's Guide for
information about configuring this parameter
Example
listener_name=
(DESCRIPTION=
(ADDRESS_LIST=
(ADDRESS=(PROTOCOL=tcp)(HOST=sales-server)(PORT=1521)
(SEND_BUF_SIZE=11280))
(ADDRESS=(PROTOCOL=ipc)(KEY=extproc)
(SEND_BUF_SIZE=11280))))
listener_name=
(DESCRIPTION=
(ADDRESS_LIST=
(SEND_BUF_SIZE=11280))
(ADDRESS=(PROTOCOL=tcp)(HOST=sales-server)(PORT=1521)
(ADDRESS=(PROTOCOL=ipc)(KEY=extproc))))
Static Service Registration (SID_LIST) Section
You can use the SID_LIST section of the listener.ora to statically configure service
information for the listener.
The SID_LIST section is required for Oracle8 release 8.0 or Oracle7 database services,
as well as external procedure calls and Heterogeneous Services, and some
management tools, including Oracle Enterprise Manager.
SID_LIST_listener_name=
(SID_LIST=
Oracle Net Listener Parameters (listener.ora)
7-5
Oracle Net Listener Parameters
(SID_DESC=
(GLOBAL_DBNAME=global_database_name)
(SID_NAME=sid)
(ORACLE_HOME=oracle_home))
(SID_DESC=...))
For later database releases, the listener uses the dynamic service information about the
database and instance it has received through service registration before using statically
configured information in the listener.ora file. Therefore, the SID_LIST is not required,
unless Oracle Enterprise Manager is used to monitor an Oracle9i or Oracle8 database.
This section lists and describes the following parameters:
■
ENVS
■
GLOBAL_DBNAME
■
ORACLE_HOME
■
PROGRAM
■
SID_DESC
■
SID_LIST
■
SID_NAME
■
SDU
ENVS
Purpose
Use the parameter ENVS to specify environment variables for the listener to set prior to
executing (as a child process) a dedicated server program or an executable specified
with the PROGRAM parameter.
Embed this parameter under the SID_DESC parameter.
Note: This parameter in not supported on Windows. Any process
started by the listener will simply inherit the listener's environment.
Usage Notes
Enclose an environment variable and its value within double quotes ("):
(ENVS="variable=value")
A list of environment variables and their values can be specified. Enclose the list
within double quotes, from end to end, and separate environment variable definitions
with commas and no space.
(ENVS="variable=value,variable=value")
Note: Single quotes (') are supported for backward compatibility.
The use of the following characters within the environment variable or its value
definition (ENVS="variable=value") are not supported:
7-6
■
Comma (,)
■
Single quotes (')
Oracle Database Net Services Reference
Oracle Net Listener Parameters
■
Double quotes (")
■
Equal sign (=)
Example
SID_LIST_listener_name=
(SID_LIST=
(SID_DESC=
(SID_NAME=plsextproc)
(ORACLE_HOME=/oracle11g)
(PROGRAM=extproc)
(ENVS="LD_LIBRARY_PATH=/oracle/11g/lib:/oracle/11g/ctx/lib"))
(SID_DESC=
(SID_NAME=test)
(PROGRAM=/tmp/myexec)
(ENVS="LD_LIBRARY_
PATH=/private/xpm/lib:/private/mylibs,MYPATH=/usr/ucb:/usr/local/packages,APL_ENV_
FILE=/apl/conf/env.txt")))
GLOBAL_DBNAME
Purpose
Use the parameter GLOBAL_DBNAME to identify the database service.
While processing a client connection request, the listener tries to match the value of
this parameter with the value of the SERVICE_NAME parameter in the client connect
descriptor. If the client connect descriptor uses the SID parameter, then the listener
does not attempt to map the values. This parameter is primarily intended for
configurations with Oracle8 release 8.0 or Oracle7 databases (where dynamic service
registration is not supported for dedicated servers). This parameter may also be
required for use with Oracle9i and Oracle8 database services by some configurations
and management tools.
The value for this parameter is typically obtained from the combination of the DB_NAME
and DB_DOMAIN parameters (DB_NAME.DB_DOMAIN) in the initialization parameter file, but
the value can also contain any valid name used by clients to identify the service.
Embed this parameter under the SID_DESC parameter.
Example
SID_LIST_listener_name=
(SID_LIST=
(SID_DESC=
(GLOBAL_DBNAME=sales.us.example.com)
(SID_NAME=sales)
(ORACLE_HOME=/usr/oracle)))
ORACLE_HOME
Purpose
Use the parameter ORACLE_HOME to identify the Oracle home location of the service.
Embed this parameter under the SID_DESC parameter.
Example
SID_LIST_listener_name=
(SID_LIST=
Oracle Net Listener Parameters (listener.ora)
7-7
Oracle Net Listener Parameters
(SID_DESC=
(SID_NAME=extproc)
(ORACLE_HOME=/usr/oracle)
(PROGRAM=extproc)))
PROGRAM
Purpose
Use the parameter PROGRAM to identify the service executable program name.
Embed this parameter under the SID_DESC parameter.
Example
SID_LIST_listener_name=
(SID_LIST=
(SID_DESC=
(SID_NAME=sales)
(ORACLE_HOME=/usr/oracle)
(PROGRAM=extproc)))
SID_DESC
Purpose
Use the parameter SID_DESC to specify service information for a specific database
instance or a non-database service.
Embed this parameter under the SID_LIST parameter.
Example
SID_LIST_listener_name=
(SID_LIST=
(SID_DESC=...)
(SID_DESC=...))
SID_DESC permits the following parameters:
■
ENVS
■
GLOBAL_DBNAME
■
ORACLE_HOME
■
PROGRAM
■
SID_NAME
■
SDU
SID_LIST
Purpose
Use the parameter SID_LIST to identify a list of SID descriptions.
Example
SID_LIST_listener_name=
(SID_LIST=
(SID_DESC=...)
(SID_DESC=...))
7-8
Oracle Database Net Services Reference
Oracle Net Listener Parameters
SID_NAME
Purpose
Use the parameter SID_NAME to identify the Oracle System Identifier (SID) of the
instance. You can obtain the SID value from the INSTANCE_NAME parameter in the
initialization parameter file.
Embed this parameter under the SID_DESC parameter.
Example
SID_LIST_listener_name=
(SID_LIST=
(SID_DESC=
(GLOBAL_DBNAME=sales.us.example.com)
(SID_NAME=sales)
(ORACLE_HOME=/usr/oracle)))
SDU
Purpose
Use the parameter SDU to instruct Oracle Net to optimize the transfer rate of data
packets being sent across the network with the session data unit (SDU) size you
specify.
Embed this parameter under the SID_DESC parameter.
Usage
See Also: Oracle Database Net Services Administrator's Guide for
information about configuring this parameter
Default
8192 bytes (8KB)
Values
512 bytes to 32767
Example
SID_LIST_listener_name=
(SID_LIST=
(SID_DESC=
(SDU=8192)
(GLOBAL_DBNAME=sales.us.example.com)
(SID_NAME=sales)
(ORACLE_HOME=/usr/oracle)))
Connection Rate Limiter
The connection rate limiter feature in the Oracle Net Listener enables a DBA to specify
limits to the number of new connections handled by the listener. When this feature is
enabled, the Oracle Net Listener imposes a user-specified maximum limit on the
number of new connections handled by the listener every second.
Depending on the configuration, the rate can be applied to a collection of endpoints, or
to a specific endpoint.
Oracle Net Listener Parameters (listener.ora)
7-9
Oracle Net Listener Parameters
This feature is controlled through the following two listener.ora configuration
parameters:
■
CONNECTION_RATE_listener name
■
RATE_LIMIT
CONNECTION_RATE_listener name
Purpose
The CONNECTION_RATE_listener name parameter specifies a global rate that is
enforced across all listening endpoints that are rate-limited. When this parameter is
specified, it overrides any endpoint-level numeric rate values that might be specified.
Syntax
CONNECTION_RATE_listener_name=number_of_connections_per_second
RATE_LIMIT
Purpose
The RATE_LIMIT parameter indicates that a particular listening endpoint is rate limited.
The parameter is specified in the ADDRESS section of the listener endpoint
configuration.
Syntax
LISTENER= (ADDRESS_LIST=
(ADDRESS=(PROTOCOL=tcp)(HOST=)(PORT=1521)(RATE_LIMIT=yes))
)
There are two possible configurations:
1.
When the RATE_LIMIT parameter is set to yes, the end-point is included in the
enforcement of a listener-wide connection rate. This is used in conjunction with
the CONNECTION_RATE_listener_name parameter.
2.
When the RATE_LIMIT parameter is set to a value greater than 0, the rate limit is
enforced at that endpoint level.
Examples
The following two scenarios are examples using the CONNECTION_RATE_listener name
and RATE_LIMIT parameters.
Scenario 1
CONNECTION_RATE_LISTENER1=10
LISTENER= (ADDRESS_LIST=
(ADDRESS=(PROTOCOL=tcp)(HOST=)(PORT=1521)(RATE_LIMIT=yes))
(ADDRESS=(PROTOCOL=tcp)(HOST=)(PORT=1522)(RATE_LIMIT=yes))
(ADDRESS=(PROTOCOL=tcp)(HOST=)(PORT=1523))
)
In this configuration, the total number of new connections through ports 1521 and
1522 is capped at 10 every second. Connections through port 1523 are not limited and
do not count towards the overall rate of 10 connections every second.
Scenario 2
7-10
Oracle Database Net Services Reference
Oracle Net Listener Parameters
LISTENER= (ADDRESS_LIST=
(ADDRESS=(PROTOCOL=tcp)(HOST=)(PORT=1521)(RATE_LIMIT=5))
(ADDRESS=(PROTOCOL=tcp)(HOST=)(PORT=1522)(RATE_LIMIT=10))
(ADDRESS=(PROTOCOL=tcp)(HOST=)(PORT=1523))
)
In this configuration, the connection rates are enforced at the endpoint level. A
maximum of 5 connections are processed through port 1521 every second.
The limit for connections through port 1522 is 10 every second. Connections through
port 1523 are not rate-limited.
Note: The global CONNECTON_RATE_listener_name parameter is not
specified in this configuration. If it is specified, the limits on ports 1521
and 1522 are ignored, and the global value is used, instead.
Control Parameters
This section describes the following parameters that control the behavior of the
listener:
■
ADMIN_RESTRICTIONS_listener_name
■
CRS_NOTIFICATION_listener_name
■
DEFAULT_SERVICE_listener_name
■
INBOUND_CONNECT_TIMEOUT_listener_name
■
PASSWORDS_listener_name
■
SAVE_CONFIG_ON_STOP_listener_name
■
SSL_CLIENT_AUTHENTICATION
■
STARTUP_WAIT_TIME_listener_name
■
SUBSCRIBE_NODE_DOWN_EVENT_listener_name
■
WALLET_LOCATION
ADMIN_RESTRICTIONS_listener_name
Purpose
Use the ADMIN_RESTRICTIONS_listener_name parameter to restrict run-time
administration of the listener.
Setting ADMIN_RESTRICTIONS_listener_name=on disables the run-time modification of
parameters in listener.ora. That is, the listener will refuse to accept SET commands
that alter its parameters. To change any of the parameters in listener.ora, including
ADMIN_RESTRICTIONS_listener_name itself, modify the listener.ora file manually
and reload its parameters (with the RELOAD command) for the new changes to take
effect without explicitly stopping and restarting the listener.
See Also: Oracle Database Net Services Administrator's Guide for
further information about password security of the listener
Default
off
Oracle Net Listener Parameters (listener.ora)
7-11
Oracle Net Listener Parameters
Example
ADMIN_RESTRICTIONS_listener=on
CRS_NOTIFICATION_listener_name
Purpose
By default, the Oracle Net listener notifies Cluster Ready Service (CRS) when it is
started or stopped. These notifications allow CRS to manage the listener in an Oracle
Real Application Clusters environment. This behavior can be prevented by setting the
CRS_NOTIFICATION_listener_name parameter to off.
Default
The default value is on.
Values
on | off
DEFAULT_SERVICE_listener_name
Purpose
Use the DEFAULT_SERVICE_listener_name parameter to enable users to connect to the
database without having to specify a service name from client side.
In Oracle Database 11g, when a client tries to connect to the database the connection
request passes through the listener. The listener may be servicing several different
databases. If a service name is configured in this parameter, users may not necessarily
need to specify a service name in the connect syntax. If a user specifies a service name,
the listener will connect the user to that specific database, otherwise the listener will
connect to the service name specified by the DEFAULT_SERVICE_listener_name
parameter.
See Also: Oracle Database Net Services Administrator's Guide for more
information about the easy connect naming method
Default
There is no default value for the DEFAULT_SERVICE_listener_name parameter. If this
parameter is not configured and a user does not specify a fully qualified service name
in the connect syntax, the connection attempt fails. This parameter only accepts one
value.
Example
DEFAULT_SERVICE_LISTENER=sales.us.example.com
INBOUND_CONNECT_TIMEOUT_listener_name
Purpose
Use the INBOUND_CONNECT_TIMEOUT_listener_name parameter to specify the time, in
seconds, for the client to complete its connect request to the listener after the network
connection had been established.
If the listener does not receive the client request in the time specified, then it
terminates the connection. In addition, the listener logs the IP address of the client and
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Oracle Database Net Services Reference
Oracle Net Listener Parameters
an ORA-12525:TNS: listener has not received client's request in time
allowed error message to the listener.log file.
To protect both the listener and the database server, Oracle recommends setting this
parameter in combination with the SQLNET.INBOUND_CONNECT_TIMEOUT
parameter in the sqlnet.ora file. When specifying values for these parameters,
consider the following recommendations:
■
■
Set both parameters to an initial low value.
Set the value of the INBOUND_CONNECT_TIMEOUT_listener_name parameter to a
lower value than the SQLNET.INBOUND_CONNECT_TIMEOUT parameter.
For example, you can set INBOUND_CONNECT_TIMEOUT_listener_name to 2 seconds and
INBOUND_CONNECT_TIMEOUT parameter to 3 seconds. If clients are unable to complete
connections within the specified time due to system or network delays that are normal
for the particular environment, then increment the time as needed.
See Also: Oracle Database Net Services Administrator's Guide for
information about configuring these parameters
Default
60 seconds
Example
INBOUND_CONNECT_TIMEOUT_listener=2
PASSWORDS_listener_name
Purpose
Use the PASSWORDS_listener_name parameter to store an encrypted password for a
listener, so that certain privileges operations, such as SAVE_CONFIG and STOP, used
from the Listener Control utility are secure. An encrypted password can be set using
either the Listener Control utility CHANGE_PASSWORD command or Oracle Net
Manager.
See Also: Oracle Database Net Services Administrator's Guide for
further information about password security of the listener
Example
PASSWORDS_LISTENER=(2D6C48144CF753AC)
SAVE_CONFIG_ON_STOP_listener_name
Purpose
Use the SAVE_CONFIG_ON_STOP_listener_name parameter to specify whether or not
run-time configuration changes are saved into the listener.ora file.
When you set the parameter to true, any parameters that were modified while the
listener was running using the Listener Control utility SET command are saved to the
listener.ora file when the STOP command is issued. When you set the parameter to
false, the Listener Control utility does not save the run-time configuration changes to
the listener.ora file.
Default
false
Oracle Net Listener Parameters (listener.ora)
7-13
Oracle Net Listener Parameters
Values
true | false
Example
SAVE_CONFIG_ON_STOP_listener=true
SSL_CLIENT_AUTHENTICATION
Purpose
Use the SSL_CLIENT_AUTHENTICATION parameter to specify whether or not a client is
authenticated using the Secure Sockets Layer (SSL).
Default
true
Values
true | false
Usage Notes
The database server authenticates the client. Therefore, this value should be set to
false. If this parameter is set to true, the listener attempts to authenticate the client,
which can result in a failure.
See Also:
Oracle Database Advanced Security Administrator's Guide
Example
SSL_CLIENT_AUTHENTICATION=true
STARTUP_WAIT_TIME_listener_name
Note: This parameter is deprecated and will be desupported in a
future release. If you require this parameter to run the listener, please
notify Oracle Support Services.
Purpose
Use the STARTUP_WAIT_TIME_listener_name parameter to set the number of seconds
that the listener waits before responding to a Listener Control utility START command.
Default
0
Example
STARTUP_WAIT_TIME_listener=5
SUBSCRIBE_NODE_DOWN_EVENT_listener_name
Purpose
By default, the listener subscribes to the Oracle Notification Service (ONS) node down
event on startup, if ONS is available. This subscription enables the listener to remove
the affected service when it receives node down event notification from ONS. The
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Oracle Database Net Services Reference
Oracle Net Listener Parameters
listener uses asynchronous subscription for the event notification. Alter this behavior
setting SUBSCRIBE_NODE_DOWN_EVENT_listener_name=off in listener.ora.
Default
on
Values
on | off
WALLET_LOCATION
Purpose
Use the WALLET_LOCATION parameter to specify the location of wallets. Wallets are
certificates, keys, and trustpoints processed by SSL that allow for secure connections.
See Also:
Oracle Database Advanced Security Administrator's Guide
Syntax
Oracle wallets on file system:
WALLET_LOCATION=
(SOURCE=
(METHOD=file)
(METHOD_DATA=
(DIRECTORY=directory)
[(PKCS11=TRUE/FALSE)]))
Microsoft certificate store:
WALLET_LOCATION=
(SOURCE=
(METHOD=mcs))
Oracle wallets in the Windows registry:
WALLET_LOCATION=
(SOURCE=
(METHOD=reg)
(METHOD_DATA=
(KEY=registry_key)))
Entrust wallets:
WALLET_LOCATION=
(SOURCE=
(METHOD=entr)
(METHOD_DATA=
(PROFILE=file.epf)
(INIFILE=file.ini)))
Subparameters
WALLET_LOCATION supports the following subparameters:
SOURCE: Specify the type of storage for wallets and storage location.
METHOD: Specify the type of storage.
METHOD_DATA: Specify the storage location.
Oracle Net Listener Parameters (listener.ora)
7-15
Oracle Net Listener Parameters
DIRECTORY: Specify the location of Oracle wallets on file system.
KEY: Specify the wallet type and location in the Windows registry.
PROFILE: Specify the Entrust profile file (.epf).
INIFILE: Specify the Entrust initialization file (.ini).
Default
None
Usage Notes
■
The key/value pair for Microsoft's certificate store (MCS) omits the METHOD_DATA
parameter because MCS does not use wallets. Instead, Oracle PKI (public key
infrastructure) applications obtain certificates, trustpoints and private keys
directly from the user's profile.
■
If an Oracle wallet is stored in the Windows registry and the wallet's key (KEY) is
SALESAPP, the storage location of the encrypted wallet is HKEY_CURRENT_
USER\SOFTWARE\ORACLE\WALLETS\SALESAPP\EWALLET.P12. The storage location of
the decrypted wallet is HKEY_CURRENT_
USER\SOFTWARE\ORACLE\WALLETS\SALESAPP\CWALLET.SSO.
Examples
Oracle wallets on file system:
WALLET_LOCATION=
(SOURCE=
(METHOD=file)
(METHOD_DATA=
(DIRECTORY=/etc/oracle/wallets/databases)))
Microsoft certificate store:
WALLET_LOCATION=
(SOURCE=
(METHOD=mcs))
Oracle Wallets in the Windows registry:
WALLET_LOCATION=
(SOURCE=
(METHOD=REG)
(METHOD_DATA=
(KEY=SALESAPP)))
Entrust Wallets:
WALLET_LOCATION=
(SOURCE=
(METHOD=entr)
(METHOD_DATA=
(PROFILE=/etc/oracle/wallets/test.epf)
(INIFILE=/etc/oracle/wallets/test.ini)))
Diagnostic Parameters for Oracle Net Listener
This section is divided into those parameters used when ADR is enabled (when DIAG_
ADR_ENABLED_listener_name is set to on) and those used when ADR is disabled (when
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Oracle Database Net Services Reference
Oracle Net Listener Parameters
DIAG_ADR_ENABLED_listener_name is set to off). Non-ADR parameters listed in the
listener.ora file are ignored when ADR is enabled.
■
ADR Diagnostic Parameters in listener.ora
■
Non-ADR Diagnostic Parameters in listener.ora
ADR Diagnostic Parameters in listener.ora
This section lists the parameters used when ADR is enabled (when DIAG_ADR_
ENABLED_listener_name is set to on):
■
ADR_BASE_listener_name
■
DIAG_ADR_ENABLED_listener_name
■
LOGGING_listener_name
■
TRACE_LEVEL_listener_name
■
TRACE_TIMESTAMP_listener_name
ADR_BASE_listener_name
Purpose
Use the ADR_BASE_listener_name parameter to specify the base directory into which
tracing and logging incidents are stored when ADR is enabled.
Default
The default is $ORACLE_BASE, or $ORACLE_HOME/log if $ORACLE_BASE is not defined.
Values
Any valid directory path to a directory with write permission.
Example
ADR_BASE=/oracle/network/trace
DIAG_ADR_ENABLED_listener_name
Purpose
The DIAG_ADR_ENABLED_listener_name parameter indicates whether ADR tracing is
enabled.
Usage
When the DIAG_ADR_ENABLED_listener_name parameter is set to OFF, non-ADR file
tracing is used.
Default
on
Values
on or off
Example
DIAG_ADR_ENABLED=on
Oracle Net Listener Parameters (listener.ora)
7-17
Oracle Net Listener Parameters
LOGGING_listener_name
Purpose
Use the LOGGING_listener_name parameter to turn logging on or off. This parameter is
also applicable when non-ADR tracing is used.
Default
on
Values
on | off
Example
LOGGING_listener=on
TRACE_LEVEL_listener_name
Purpose
Use the TRACE_LEVEL_listener_name parameter to turn listener tracing on, at a specific
level, or off. This parameter is also applicable when non-ADR tracing is used.
Default
off or 0
Values
■
off or 0 for no trace output
■
user or 4 for user trace information
■
admin or 10 for administration trace information
■
support or 16 for Oracle Support Services trace information
Example
TRACE_LEVEL_listener=admin
TRACE_TIMESTAMP_listener_name
Purpose
When the TRACE_LEVEL_listener_name parameter is set to a specific tracing level,
you can use the TRACE_TIMESTAMP_listener_name parameter to add a time stamp in
the form of dd-mon-yyyy hh:mi:ss:mil to every trace event in the trace file for the
listener. This parameter is also applicable when non-ADR tracing is used.
Default
on
Values
on or true | off or false
Example
TRACE_TIMESTAMP_listener=true
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Oracle Database Net Services Reference
Oracle Net Listener Parameters
Non-ADR Diagnostic Parameters in listener.ora
This section lists the parameters used when ADR is disabled (when DIAG_ADR_
ENABLEDlistener_name is set to off):
Notes:
■
The following parameters are used whether ADR is enabled or
not:
LOGGING_listener_name
TRACE_LEVEL_listener_name
TRACE_TIMESTAMP_listener_name
■
The default value of DIAG_ADR_ENABLED_listener_name is on.
Therefore, the DIAG_ADR_ENABLED_listener_name parameter must
explicitly be set to off in order for non-ADR tracing to be used.
■
LOG_DIRECTORY_listener_name
■
LOG_FILE_listener_name
■
TRACE_DIRECTORY_listener_name
■
TRACE_FILELEN_listener_name
■
TRACE_FILENO_listener_name
LOG_DIRECTORY_listener_name
Purpose
Use the LOG_DIRECTORY_listener_name parameter to specify the destination directory
of the listener log file. Use this parameter when ADR is not enabled.
Default
The $ORACLE_HOME/network/log directory on UNIX operating systems and the
%ORACLE_HOME%\network\log directory on Windows operating systems.
Example
LOG_DIRECTORY_listener=/oracle/network/admin/log
LOG_FILE_listener_name
Purpose
Use the LOG_FILE_listener_name parameter to specify the name of the log file for the
listener. Use this parameter when ADR is not enabled.
Default
listener.log
Example
LOG_FILE_listener=list.log
Oracle Net Listener Parameters (listener.ora)
7-19
Oracle Net Listener Parameters
TRACE_DIRECTORY_listener_name
Purpose
Use the TRACE_DIRECTORY_listener_name parameter to specify the destination
directory of the listener trace file. Use this parameter when ADR is not enabled.
Default
The $ORACLE_HOME/network/trace directory on UNIX operating systems and the
%ORACLE_HOME%\network\trace directory on Windows
Example
TRACE_DIRECTORY_listener=/oracle/network/admin/trace
TRACE_FILE_listener_name
Purpose
Use the TRACE_FILE_listener_name parameter to specify the name of the trace file for
the listener. Use this parameter when ADR is not enabled.
Default
listener.trc
Example
TRACE_FILE_listener=list.trc
TRACE_FILELEN_listener_name
Purpose
Use the TRACE_FILELEN_listener_name parameter to specify the size of the listener
trace files in kilobytes (KB). When the size is met, the trace information is written to
the next file. The number of files is specified using the TRACE_FILENO_listener_name
parameter. Use this parameter when ADR is not enabled.
Default
Unlimited
Example
TRACE_FILELEN_listener=100
TRACE_FILENO_listener_name
Purpose
Use the TRACE_FILENO_listener_name parameter to specify the number of trace files
for listener tracing. When this parameter is set along with the TRACE_FILELEN_
listener_name parameter, trace files are used in a cyclical fashion. The first file is filled
first, then the second file, and so on. When the last file has been filled, the first file is
re-used, and so on.
The trace file names are distinguished from one another by their sequence number. For
example, if the default trace file of listener.trc is used, and this parameter is set to 3,
the trace files would be named listener1.trc, listener2.trc and listener3.trc.
7-20
Oracle Database Net Services Reference
Class of Secure Transports (COST) Parameters
In addition, trace events in the trace files are preceded by the sequence number of the
file. Use this parameter when ADR is not enabled.
Default
1
Example
TRACE_FILENO_listener=3
Class of Secure Transports (COST) Parameters
The class of secure transports (COST) parameters specify a list of transports that are
considered secure for administration and registration of a particular listener.
Configuring these parameters is optional. The COST parameters are:
■
SECURE_CONTROL_listener_name
■
SECURE_REGISTER_listener_name
■
SECURE_PROTOCOL_listener_name
■
DYNAMIC_REGISTRATION_listener_name
See Also: Oracle Database Net Services Administrator's Guide for more
information about COST parameters and listener security
SECURE_CONTROL_listener_name
Purpose
Use the SECURE_CONTROL_listener_name parameter to specify the transports on which
control commands are to be serviced.
Syntax
SECURE_CONTROL_listener_name =
[(]transport1[,transport2, ....,transportn)]
In the preceding example, transport1, transport2, and transportn are valid,
installed transport protocol names.
Configuration
If the SECURE_CONTROL_listener_name parameter is configured with the list of
transport names, the control commands will be serviced only if the connection is one
of the transports listed. The connections arriving by other transport protocols are
refused. For example:
SECURE_CONTROL_listener1 = (TCPS, IPC)
In the preceding example, administration requests are accepted only on TCPS and IPC
transports.
If no values are entered for this parameter, the listener accepts any connection on any
endpoint.
Example 7–2 SECURE_CONTROL_listener_name Parameter Configuration
LISTENER1=
(DESCRIPTION=
Oracle Net Listener Parameters (listener.ora)
7-21
Class of Secure Transports (COST) Parameters
(ADDRESS=(PROTOCOL=tcp)(HOST=sales-server)(PORT=1521))
(ADDRESS=(PROTOCOL=ipc)(KEY=extproc))
(ADDRESS=(PROTOCOL=tcps)(HOST=sales-server)(PORT=1522))
SECURE_CONTROL_LISTENER1=tcps
)
In Example 7–2, control commands are accepted only on the TCPS transport.
SECURE_REGISTER_listener_name
Purpose
Use the SECURE_REGISTER_listener_name parameter to specify the transports on
which registration requests are to be accepted.
Syntax
SECURE_REGISTER_listener_name =
[(]transport1[,transport2, ....,transportn)]
In the preceding example, transport1, transport2, and transportn are valid,
installed transport protocol names.
Configuration
If the SECURE_REGISTER_listener_name parameter is configured with the list of
transport names, only the connections arriving on the specified transports will be able
to register the service with the listener. The connections arriving by other transport
protocols are refused. For example:
SECURE_REGISTER_listener1 = (TCPS, IPC)
In the preceding example, registration requests are accepted only on TCPS and IPC
transports.
If no values are entered for this parameter, the listener accepts registration requests
from any transport.
If this parameter and SECURE_CONTROL_listener_name are configured, they
override the SECURE_PROTOCOL_listener_name parameter.
Example 7–3 SECURE_REGISTER_listener_name Parameter Configuration
LISTENER1=
(DESCRIPTION=
(ADDRESS=(PROTOCOL=tcp)(HOST=sales-server)(PORT=1521))
(ADDRESS=(PROTOCOL=ipc)(KEY=extproc))
(ADDRESS=(PROTOCOL=tcps)(HOST=sales-server)(PORT=1522))
SECURE_REGISTER_LISTENER1=tcps
)
In Example 7–3, service registrations are accepted only on the TCPS transport.
SECURE_PROTOCOL_listener_name
Purpose
Use the SECURE_PROTOCOL_listener_name parameter to specify the transports on
which administration and registration requests are to be accepted.
Syntax
SECURE_PROTOCOL_listener_name =
7-22
Oracle Database Net Services Reference
Class of Secure Transports (COST) Parameters
[(]transport1[,transport2, ....,transportn)]
In the preceding example, transport1, transport2, and transportn are valid,
installed transport protocol names.
Configuration
If this parameter is configured with the list of transport names, the control commands
and service registration can happen only if the connection belongs to the list of
transports configured.
If this parameter is not present and neither SECURE_CONTROL_listener_name nor
SECURE_REGISTER_listener_name are configured, all supported transports accept
control and registration requests.
If the SECURE_CONTROL_listener_name and SECURE_REGISTER_listener_name
parameters are configured, they override the SECURE_PROTOCOL_listener_name
parameter.
Example 7–4 SECURE_PROTOCOL_listener_name Parameter Configuration
LISTENER1=
(DESCRIPTION=
(ADDRESS=(PROTOCOL=tcp)(HOST=sales-server)(PORT=1521))
(ADDRESS=(PROTOCOL=ipc)(KEY=extproc))
(ADDRESS=(PROTOCOL=tcps)(HOST=sales-server)(PORT=1522))
SECURE_PROTOCOL_LISTENER1=tcps
)
In Example 7–4, both service registrations and control commands are accepted only on
the TCPS transport.
DYNAMIC_REGISTRATION_listener_name
Purpose
Use the DYNAMIC_REGISTRATION_listener_name parameter to enable or disable
dynamic registration. When set to on, the listener accepts dynamic registration; when
set to off, the listener refuses dynamic registration. Static registrations are not affected.
Syntax
DYNAMIC_REGISTRATION_listener_name={on|off}
Default
The default value is on. Unless this parameter is explicitly set to off, all registration
connections are accepted.
Using COST Parameters in Combination
COST parameters can also be used in combination to further control which transports
accept service registration and control commands.
Example 7–5 Combining COST Parameters
LISTENER1=
(DESCRIPTION=
(ADDRESS=(PROTOCOL=tcp)(HOST=sales-server)(PORT=1521))
(ADDRESS=(PROTOCOL=ipc)(KEY=extproc))
(ADDRESS=(PROTOCOL=tcps)(HOST=sales-server)(PORT=1522))
)
Oracle Net Listener Parameters (listener.ora)
7-23
Class of Secure Transports (COST) Parameters
SECURE_CONTROL_LISTENER1=(tcps,ipc)
SECURE_REGISTER_LISTENER1=ipc
In Example 7–5, control commands are accepted only on the IPC channel and the TCPS
transport, and service registrations are accepted only on an IPC channel.
Example 7–6 is another example of combining COST parameters.
Example 7–6 Combining COST Parameters
LISTENER1=
(DESCRIPTION=
(ADDRESS=(PROTOCOL=tcp)(HOST=sales-server)(PORT=1521))
(ADDRESS=(PROTOCOL=ipc)(KEY=extproc))
(ADDRESS=(PROTOCOL=tcps)(HOST=sales-server)(PORT=1522))
SECURE_CONTROL_LISTENER1=tcps
SECURE_PROTOCOL_LISTENER1=ipc
)
In Example 7–6, control commands are accepted only on the TCPS transport and
service registrations are accepted only on the IPC channel.
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Oracle Database Net Services Reference
8
8
Oracle Connection Manager Parameters
(cman.ora)
This chapter provides a complete listing of the cman.ora file configuration parameters.
This chapter contains these topics:
■
Overview of Oracle Connection Manager Configuration File
■
Oracle Connection Manager Parameters
■
Diagnostic Parameters for Oracle Connection Manager
Overview of Oracle Connection Manager Configuration File
Oracle Connection Manager configuration information, stored in the cman.ora file,
consists of the following elements:
■
Protocol address of the Oracle Connection Manager listener
■
Access control parameters
■
Performance parameters
By default, the cman.ora file is located in the $ORACLE_HOME/network/admin directory
on UNIX operating systems and in the %ORACLE_HOME%\network\admin directory on
Windows. cman.ora can also be stored the following locations:
■
■
The directory specified by the TNS_ADMIN environment variable or registry value
On UNIX operating systems, the global configuration directory. For example, on
the Solaris Operating System, this directory is /var/opt/oracle.
See Also:
Oracle operating system-specific documentation
Example 8–1 shows an example cman.ora file.
Example 8–1 Example cman.ora File
CMAN=
(CONFIGURATION=
(ADDRESS=(PROTOCOL=tcp)(HOST=proxysvr)(PORT=1521))
(RULE_LIST=
(RULE=(SRC=192.0.2.32/27)(DST=sales-server)(SRV=*)(ACT=accept))
(ACTION_LIST=(AUT=on)(MCT=120)(MIT=30)))
(RULE=(SRC=foo)(DST=foobar)(SRV=cmon)(ACT=accept)))
(PARAMETER_LIST=
(MAX_GATEWAY_PROCESSES=8)
(MIN_GATEWAY_PRCESSSES=3)
Oracle Connection Manager Parameters (cman.ora) 8-1
Overview of Oracle Connection Manager Configuration File
(REMOTE_ADMIN=YES)
(DIAG_ADR_ENABLED=ON)
(ADR_BASE=/oracle/log)))
The cman.ora configuration file consists of three distinct sections. The first section is
the listening address section, is preceded by ADDRESS=, and contains information
pertinent to the listener. The second section is the rule list section, is preceded by RULE_
LIST=, and contains rule information. The RULE parameter is listed in the rule list
section of the file.
The third section is the parameter list section, is preceded by PARAMETER_LIST=, and
contains all of the other parameters—including those listed in "Diagnostic Parameters
for Oracle Connection Manager" on page 8-8—you might include in the cman.ora file.
Following is a further discussion of the parameter list section.
Purpose
The parameter list section specifies the attributes for Oracle Connection Manager. To
override the default setting for a parameter, enter the parameter and its nondefault
value.
Default Parameters
ASO_AUTHENTICATION_FILTER=OFF
CONNECTION_STATISTICS=NO
EVENT_GROUP=none
IDLE_TIMEOUT=0
INBOUND_CONNECT_TIMEOUT=60
LOG_DIRECTORY= The $ORACLE_HOME/network/log directory on UNIX operating
systems and the %ORACLE_HOME%\network\log directory on Windows
LOG_LEVEL=SUPPORT
MAX_CMCTL_SESSIONS=4
MAX_CONNECTIONS=256
MAX_GATEWAY_PROCESSES=16
MIN_GATEWAY_PROCESSES=2
OUTBOUND_CONNECT_TIMEOUT=0
PASSWORD_instance_name= Value is the encrypted instance password, if one has been
set. Default is no value.
REMOTE_ADMIN=NO
SESSION_TIMEOUT=0
TRACE_DIRECTORY= The $ORACLE_HOME/network/trace directory on UNIX operating
systems and the %ORACLE_HOME%\network\trace directory on Windows
TRACE_FILELEN=0
TRACE_FILENO=0
TRACE_LEVEL=OFF
TRACE_TIMESTAMP=OFF
8-2
Oracle Database Net Services Reference
Overview of Oracle Connection Manager Configuration File
Allowed Values of Parameters
ASO_AUTHENTICATION_FILTER={off | on}
CONNECTION_STATISTICS={no | yes}
EVENT_GROUP={init_and_term | memory_ops | conn_hdlg | proc_mgmt | reg_and_
load | wake_up | timer | cmd_proc | relay}
IDLE_TIMEOUT=0 or greater
INBOUND_CONNECT_TIMEOUT=0 or greater
LOG_DIRECTORY=log_directory
LOG_LEVEL={off | user | admin | support}
MAX_CMCTL_SESSIONS= Any positive number
MAX_CONNECTIONS=[1 to 1024]
MAX_GATEWAY_PROCESSES= Any number greater than the minimum number of gateway
processes up to 64
MIN_GATEWAY_PROCESSES= Any positive number less than or equal to 64. Must be less
than or equal to the maximum number of gateway processes.
OUTBOUND_CONNECT_TIMEOUT=0 or greater
REMOTE_ADMIN={no | yes}
SESSION_TIMEOUT=0 or greater
TRACE_DIRECTORY=trace_directory
TRACE_FILELEN= Any positive number
TRACE_FILENO= Any positive number
TRACE_LEVEL={off | user | admin | support}
TRACE_TIMESTAMP={off | on}
Note:
The event group ALERT cannot be turned off.
Example
(PARAMETER_LIST=
(ASO_AUTHENTICATION_FILTER=ON)
(CONNECTION_STATISTICS=NO)
(EVENT_GROUP=INIT_AND_TERM,MEMORY_OPS,PROCESS_MGMT)
(IDLE_TIMEOUT=30)
(INBOUND_CONNECT_TIMEOUT=30)
(LOG_DIRECTORY=/home/user/network/admin/log)
(LOG_LEVEL=SUPPORT)
(MAX_CMCTL_SESSIONS=6)
(MAX_CONNECTIONS=512)
(MAX_GATEWAY_PROCESSES=10)
(MIN_GATEWAY_PROCESSES=4)
(OUTBOUND_CONNECT_TIMEOUT=30)
(REMOTE_ADMIN=YES)
(SESSION_TIMEOUT=60)
(TRACE_DIRECTORY=/home/user/network/admin/trace)
(TRACE_FILELEN=100)
(TRACE_FILENO=2)
(TRACE_LEVEL=SUPPORT)
Oracle Connection Manager Parameters (cman.ora) 8-3
Oracle Connection Manager Parameters
(TRACE_TIMESTAMP=ON))
Note: You cannot add the parameter PASSWORD_instance_name
directly to cman.ora. The parameter is added when you issue the
command SAVE_PASSWD.
Oracle Connection Manager Parameters
This section lists and describes the following cman.ora file parameters:
■
ADDRESS
■
ASO_AUTHENTICATION_FILTER
■
CONNECTION_STATISTICS
■
EVENT_GROUP
■
IDLE_TIMEOUT
■
INBOUND_CONNECT_TIMEOUT
■
MAX_CMCTL_SESSIONS
■
MAX_CONNECTIONS
■
MAX_GATEWAY_PROCESSES
■
MIN_GATEWAY_PROCESSES
■
OUTBOUND_CONNECT_TIMEOUT
■
PASSWORD_instance_name
■
REMOTE_ADMIN
■
RULE
■
SESSION_TIMEOUT
ADDRESS
Purpose
Use the ADDRESS listening endpoint parameter to specify the protocol address of Oracle
Connection Manager.
Syntax
(ADDRESS= ...)
Example (Default)
(ADDRESS=(PROTOCOL=tcp)(HOST=local_host)(PORT=1521))
ASO_AUTHENTICATION_FILTER
Use the ASO_AUTHENTICATION_LEVEL parameter to specify whether Oracle Advanced
Security authentication settings must be used by the client. The global setting can be
overridden by a rule-level setting in ACTION_LIST. This parameter accepts the
following values:
8-4
Oracle Database Net Services Reference
Oracle Connection Manager Parameters
■
■
on to instruct Oracle Connection Manager to reject connect requests that are not
using Secure Network Services (SNS). SNS is part of the Oracle Advanced
Security.
off (default) to instruct Oracle Connection Manager not to check for SNS between
the client and server
CONNECTION_STATISTICS
Use the CONNECTION_STATISTICS parameter to specify whether the SHOW_CONNECTIONS
command displays connection statistics. The global setting can be overridden by a
rule-level setting in ACTION_LIST. This parameter accepts the following values:
■
yes to display statistics
■
no (default) to not display statistics
EVENT_GROUP
Use the EVENT_GROUP parameter to specify which event groups are logged. Multiple
events may be designated using a comma-delimited list. This parameter accepts the
following values:
■
INIT_AND_TERM—initialization and termination
■
MEMORY_OPS—memory operations
■
CONN_HDLG—connection handling
■
PROC_MGMT—process management
■
REG_AND_LOAD—Registration and load update
■
WAKE_UP—events related to CMADMIN wakeup queue
■
TIMER—gateway timeouts
■
CMD_PROC—command processing
■
RELAY—events associated with connection control blocks
IDLE_TIMEOUT
Use the IDLE_TIMEOUT parameter to specify the amount of time that an established
connection can remain active without transmitting data. The global setting can be
overridden by a rule-level setting in ACTION_LIST. This parameter accepts the
following values:
0 (default) to disable the timeout
n>0 to enable the timeout, where n equals the timeout period in seconds
INBOUND_CONNECT_TIMEOUT
Use the INBOUND_CONNECT_TIMEOUT parameter to specify how long the Oracle
Connection Manager listener waits for a valid connection from a client or another
instance of Oracle Connection Manager. This parameter accepts the following values:
60 (default) to disable the timeout
n>0 to enable the timeout, where n equals the timeout period in seconds
Oracle Connection Manager Parameters (cman.ora) 8-5
Oracle Connection Manager Parameters
MAX_CMCTL_SESSIONS
Use the MAX_CMCTL_SESSIONS parameter to specify the maximum number of
concurrent local or remote sessions of the Oracle Connection Manager control utility
allowable for a given instance. One of these sessions must be a local session. Any
number of sessions can be designated.
MAX_CONNECTIONS
Use the MAX_CONNECTIONS parameter to specify the maximum number of connection
slots that a gateway process can handle.
This parameter accepts a range of:
1 to 1024
MAX_GATEWAY_PROCESSES
Use the MAX_GATEWAY_PROCESSES parameter to specify the maximum number of
gateway processes that an instance of Oracle Connection Manager supports. The
maximum is 64. The number designated must be greater than the minimum number of
gateway processes.
MIN_GATEWAY_PROCESSES
Use the MIN_GATEWAY_PROCESSES parameter to specify the minimum number of
gateway processes that an instance of Oracle Connection Manager must support. Any
number of sessions can be designated up to 64.
OUTBOUND_CONNECT_TIMEOUT
Use the OUTBOUND_CONNECT_TIMEOUT parameter to specify the length of time that the
Oracle Connection Manager instance waits for a valid connection to be established
with the database server or with another Oracle Connection Manager instance. This
parameter accepts the following values:
60 (default) to disable the timeout
n>0 to enable the timeout, where n equals the timeout period in seconds
PASSWORD_instance_name
Use the PASSWORD_instance_name parameter to specify the encrypted instance
password, if one has been set.
REMOTE_ADMIN
Use the parameter REMOTE_ADMIN to specify whether or not remote access to an Oracle
Connection Manager is allowed. This parameter accepts the following values:
■
■
yes to allow access from a remote Oracle Connection Manager Control utility
session to Oracle Connection Manager
no to allow only access to the local Oracle Connection Manager. This value
prevents a user running a remote Oracle Connection Manager Control utility from
accessing Oracle Connection Manager.
See Also:
"Distributed Operations" on page 2-2 for configuration
details
8-6
Oracle Database Net Services Reference
Oracle Connection Manager Parameters
RULE
Purpose
Use the RULE rule list parameter to specify an access control rule list to filter incoming
connections. A rule list specifies which connections are accepted, rejected, or dropped.
This parameter is listed in the rule list section of the cman.ora file preceded by RULE_
LIST=.
Syntax
(RULE_LIST=
(RULE=
(SRC=host)
(DST=host)
(SRV=service_name)
(ACT={accept|reject|drop})
(ACTION_LIST=AUT={on|off}
((CONN_STATS={yes|no})(MCT=time)(MIT=time)(MOCT=time)))
(RULE= ...))
Subparameters
The RULE parameter filters a connection or group of connections using the following
subparameters:
SRC: Specify the source host name or IP address in dot notation of the client.
DST: Specify the destination server host name or IP address in dot notation of the
database server.
SRV: Specify database service name of the Oracle Database 10g, Oracle9i, or Oracle8
database (obtained from the SERVICE_NAME parameter in the initialization parameter
file).
ACT: Specify accept to accept incoming requests or reject to reject incoming requests.
ACTION_LIST: Specify rule-level parameter settings for some parameters. These
parameters are as follows:
■
AUT—Oracle Advanced Security authentication on client side
■
CONN_STATS—log input and output statistics
■
MCT—maximum connect time
■
MIT—maximum idle timeout
■
MOCT—maximum outbound connect time
Rule-level parameters override their global counterparts.
Usage Notes
■
If no rules are specified, all connections are rejected.
■
■
■
The source and destination can be a host name, IP address, or subnet mask.
You must enter at least one rule for client connections and one rule for CMCTL
connections. Omitting one or the other results in the rejection of all connections for
the rule type omitted. The last rule in the example that follows is a CMCTL rule.
If the CMCTL connection is remote, the REMOTE_ADMIN parameter in cman.ora
must be set to on, regardless of the rules specified.
Oracle Connection Manager Parameters (cman.ora) 8-7
Diagnostic Parameters for Oracle Connection Manager
■
■
Oracle Connection Manager does not support wildcards for partial IP addresses. If
you use a wildcard, use it in place of a full IP address. The IP address of the client
may, for example, be (SRC=*).
Oracle Connection Manager supports only the /nn notation for subnet addresses.
In the first rule in the example, /27 represents a subnet mask that comprises 27
left-most bits.
Example
(RULE_LIST=
(RULE=
(SRC=client1-pc)
(DST=sales-server)
(SRV=sales.us.example.com)
(ACT=reject))
(RULE=
(SRC=192.0.2.45)
(DST=192.0.2.200)
(SRV=db1)
(ACT=accept))
(RULE=
(SRC=foo)
(DST=foobar)
(SRV=cmon)
(ACT=accept)))
SESSION_TIMEOUT
Use the SESSION_TIMEOUT parameter to specify the maximum time allowed for a user
session. The global setting can be overridden by a rule-level setting in ACTION_LIST.
This parameter accepts the following values:
0 (default) to disable the timeout
n>0 to enable the timeout, where n equals the timeout period in seconds
Diagnostic Parameters for Oracle Connection Manager
This section is divided into those parameters used when ADR is enabled (when DIAG_
ADR_ENABLED is set to on) and those used when ADR is disabled (when DIAG_ADR_
ENABLED is set to off). Non-ADR parameters listed in the cman.ora file are ignored
when ADR is enabled.
■
ADR Diagnostic Parameters in cman.ora
■
Non-ADR Diagnostic Parameters in cman.ora
ADR Diagnostic Parameters in cman.ora
This section lists the parameters used when ADR is enabled (when DIAG_ADR_ENABLED
is set to on):
8-8
■
ADR_BASE
■
DIAG_ADR_ENABLED
■
LOG_LEVEL
■
TRACE_LEVEL
■
TRACE_TIMESTAMP
Oracle Database Net Services Reference
Diagnostic Parameters for Oracle Connection Manager
ADR_BASE
Purpose
Use the ADR_BASE parameter to specify the base directory into which tracing and
logging incidents are stored when ADR is enabled.
Default
The default is $ORACLE_BASE, or $ORACLE_HOME/log if $ORACLE_BASE is not defined.
Values
Any valid directory path to a directory with write permission.
Example
ADR_BASE=/oracle/network/trace
DIAG_ADR_ENABLED
Purpose
The DIAG_ADR_ENABLED parameter indicates whether ADR tracing is enabled.
Usage
When the DIAG_ADR_ENABLED parameter is set to OFF, non-ADR file tracing is used.
Default
on or off
Example
DIAG_ADR_ENABLED=on
LOG_LEVEL
Purpose
Use the LOG_LEVEL parameter to specify the level of logging performed by Oracle
Connection Manager. This parameter is also applicable when non-ADR tracing is
used.
There are three kinds of log files: instance-name_pid.log for the listener,
instance-name_cmadmin_pid.log for CMADMIN, and instance-name_cmgw_pid.log
for the gateway processes. The log files are located in the $ORACLE_HOME/network/log
directory on UNIX operating systems and the %ORACLE_HOME%\network\log directory
on Windows.
Default
off or 0
Values
■
off or 0 for no trace output
■
user or 4 for user trace information
■
admin or 10 for administration trace information
■
support or 16 for Oracle Support Services trace information
Oracle Connection Manager Parameters (cman.ora) 8-9
Diagnostic Parameters for Oracle Connection Manager
Example
LOG_LEVEL=admin
TRACE_LEVEL
Purpose
Use the TRACE_LEVEL parameter to specify the trace level for the Oracle Connection
Manager instance. This parameter is also applicable when non-ADR tracing is used.
There are three kinds of trace files: instance-name_pid.trc for the listener,
instance-name_cmadmin_pid.trc for CMADMIN, and instance-name_cmgw_pid.trc
for the gateway processes. The log files are located in the $ORACLE_
HOME/network/trace directory on UNIX operating systems and the %ORACLE_
HOME%\network\trace directory on Windows.
Default
off
Values
■
off for no trace output
■
user for user trace information
■
admin for administration trace information
■
support for Oracle Support Services trace information
Example
TRACE_LEVEL=admin
TRACE_TIMESTAMP
Purpose
When the TRACE_LEVEL parameter is enabled, you can use the TRACE_TIMESTAMP
parameter to add a time stamp in the form of dd-mon-yyyy hh:mi:ss:mil to every
trace event in the trc files. This parameter is also applicable when non-ADR tracing is
used.
Default
on
Values
on or true | off or false
Example
TRACE_TIMESTAMP=true
Non-ADR Diagnostic Parameters in cman.ora
This section lists the parameters used when ADR is disabled (when DIAG_ADR_ENABLED
is set to off):
8-10
Oracle Database Net Services Reference
Diagnostic Parameters for Oracle Connection Manager
Notes:
■
The following parameters are used whether ADR is enabled or
not:
LOG_LEVEL
TRACE_LEVEL
TRACE_TIMESTAMP
■
The default value of DIAG_ADR_ENABLED is on. Therefore, the
DIAG_ADR_ENABLED parameter must explicitly be set to off in order
for non-ADR tracing to be used.
■
LOG_DIRECTORY
■
TRACE_DIRECTORY
■
TRACE_FILELEN
■
TRACE_FILENO
LOG_DIRECTORY
Purpose
Use the LOG_DIRECTORY parameter to specify the location of Oracle Connection
Manager log files. Use this parameter when ADR is not enabled.
Default
The $ORACLE_HOME/network/log directory on UNIX operating systems and the
%ORACLE_HOME%\network\log directory on Windows operating systems.
Values
Any valid directory path to a directory with write permission.
Example
LOG_DIRECTORY=
TRACE_DIRECTORY
Purpose
Use the TRACE_DIRECTORY parameter to specify the location of the Oracle Connection
Manager trace files. Use this parameter when ADR is not enabled.
Default
The $ORACLE_HOME/network/trace directory on UNIX operating systems and the
%ORACLE_HOME%\network\trace directory on Windows
Values
Any valid directory path to a directory with write permission.
Example
TRACE_DIRECTORY=/oracle/network/admin/trace
Oracle Connection Manager Parameters (cman.ora)
8-11
Diagnostic Parameters for Oracle Connection Manager
TRACE_FILELEN
Purpose
Use the TRACE_FILELEN parameter to specify the size, in kilobytes, of the trace file.
When the size is met, the trace information is written to the next file. The number of
files is specified with the TRACE_FILENO parameter. Any size can be designated. Use
this parameter when ADR is not enabled.
Default
Unlimited
Example
TRACE_FILELEN=100
TRACE_FILENO
Purpose
Use the TRACE_FILENO parameter to specify the number of trace files for Oracle
Connection Manager tracing. When this parameter is set along with the TRACE_
FILELEN parameter, trace files are used in a cyclical fashion. The first file is filled first,
then the second file, and so on. When the last file has been filled, the first file is reused,
and so on. Any number of files can be designated.
The trace file names are distinguished from one another by their sequence number. For
example, if this parameter is set to 3, the gateway trace files would be named
instance-name_cmgw1_pid.trc, instance_name_cmgw2_pid.trc and instance_name_
cmgw3_pid.trc.
In addition, trace events in the trace files are preceded by the sequence number of the
file. Use this parameter when ADR is not enabled.
Default
1
Example
TRACE_FILENO=3
8-12
Oracle Database Net Services Reference
9
9
Directory Usage Parameters (ldap.ora)
This chapter provides a complete listing of the ldap.ora file configuration parameters.
This chapter contains these topics:
■
Overview of Directory Server Usage File
■
Directory Usage Parameters
Overview of Directory Server Usage File
The ldap.ora file contains directory usage configuration parameters created by Oracle
Internet Directory Configuration Assistant or Oracle Net Configuration Assistant.
Do not modify these parameters or their settings.
When created with Oracle Internet Directory Configuration Assistant, ldap.ora is
located in the $ORACLE_HOME/ldap/admin directory on UNIX operating systems and
the %ORACLE_HOME%\ldap\admin directory on Windows operating systems. When
created with Oracle Net Configuration Assistant, ldap.ora is located in the $ORACLE_
HOME/network/admin directory on UNIX operating systems and the %ORACLE_
HOME%\network\admin directory on Windows operating systems. ldap.ora can also be
stored in the directory specified by the LDAP_ADMIN or TNS_ADMIN environment
variable.
Directory Usage Parameters
This section lists and describes the following ldap.ora file configuration parameters:
■
DIRECTORY_SERVERS
■
DIRECTORY_SERVER_TYPE
■
DEFAULT_ADMIN_CONTEXT
DIRECTORY_SERVERS
Purpose
Use the DIRECTORY_SERVERS parameter to list the host names and port number of the
primary and alternate LDAP directory servers.
Values
host:port[:sslport]
Directory Usage Parameters (ldap.ora)
9-1
Directory Usage Parameters
Example
DIRECTORY_SERVERS=(ldap-server:389, raffles:400:636)
DIRECTORY_SERVER_TYPE
Purpose
Use the DIRECTORY_SERVER_TYPE parameter to specify the type of directory server that
is being used.
Values
■
oid for Oracle Internet Directory
■
ad for Microsoft Active Directory
Example
DIRECTORY_SERVER_TYPE=oid
DEFAULT_ADMIN_CONTEXT
Purpose
Use the DEFAULT_ADMIN_CONTEXT parameter to specify the default directory entry that
contains an Oracle Context from which connect identifiers can be created, modified, or
looked up.
Values
Valid distinguished name (DN)
Example
DEFAULT_ADMIN_CONTEXT="o=OracleSoftware,c=US"
9-2
Oracle Database Net Services Reference
Part III
Part III
Appendixes
This part contains the following appendixes:
■
Appendix A, "Features Not Supported in This Release"
■
Appendix B, "Upgrade Considerations for Oracle Net Services"
■
Appendix C, "LDAP Schema for Oracle Net Services"
A
A
Features Not Supported in This Release
This appendix describes features no longer supported by Oracle Net Services.
This appendix contains these topics:
■
Overview of Unsupported Features
■
Unsupported Parameters
■
Unsupported Control Utility Commands
Overview of Unsupported Features
In an effort to streamline configuration decisions for the Internet, the following
subsections describe the features and the configuration file that are no longer being
supported:
■
Oracle Names
■
Identix and SecurID Authentication Methods
■
Novell Directory Services (NDS) External Naming and NDS Authentication
■
Net8 OPEN
■
protocol.ora File
■
Prespawned Dedicated Servers
■
Protocols
Oracle Names
Oracle Names is not supported as a naming method in Oracle Database 11g. You must
migrate to directory naming.
See Also: Oracle Net Services Administrator's Guide for information
about migrating to directory naming
Identix and SecurID Authentication Methods
If you are using Identix or SecurID authentication methods, provided by Oracle
Advanced Security, Oracle recommends migrating to one of the following
authentication methods:
■
RADIUS
■
Kerberos
■
SSL
Features Not Supported in This Release A-1
Overview of Unsupported Features
See Also:
Oracle Database Advanced Security Administrator's Guide
Novell Directory Services (NDS) External Naming and NDS Authentication
Support for NDS as an authentication method and as an external naming method is
no longer supported. If you are using NDS as an external naming method, Oracle
recommends using directory naming instead.
Net8 OPEN
Net8 OPEN, which provided an application program interface (API) that enabled
programmers to develop both database and non-database applications, is no longer
supported.
protocol.ora File
The protocol.ora file is no longer supported.
Parameters in the protocol.ora file have been merged into the sqlnet.ora file. These
parameters enable you to configure access control to the database, as well as no delays
in TCP/IP buffer flushing. These parameters include:
■
TCP.EXCLUDED_NODES
■
TCP.INVITED_NODES
■
TCP.NODELAY
■
TCP.VALIDNODE_CHECKING
See Also: Chapter 5, "Profile Parameters (sqlnet.ora)" for a
description of these parameters
If you have a protocol.ora file in the $ORACLE_HOME/network/admin directory on
UNIX, and the %ORACLE_HOME%\network\admin directory on Windows operating
systems, Oracle Net Manager, when first started, automatically merges the
protocol.ora parameters into the sqlnet.ora file.
There may be operating system-specific parameters in protocol.ora that are node
specific. For this reason, Oracle recommends not sharing sqlnet.ora with other nodes
after merging or adding these parameters.
Prespawned Dedicated Servers
Prespawned dedicated server processes are no longer supported. Instead, configure
shared server to improve scalability and system resource usage.
Protocols
Protocol addresses using the SPX or LU6.2 protocol must be replaced. Oracle Net
provides support for the following network protocols:
■
TCP/IP
■
TCP/IP with SSL
■
Named Pipes
■
SDP
"Protocol Parameters" on page 4-2 for protocol parameter
configuration
See Also:
A-2
Oracle Database Net Services Reference
Unsupported Control Utility Commands
Unsupported Parameters
Table A–1 describes the networking parameters no longer supported.
Table A–1
Unsupported Networking Parameters
Last
Supported
Release
File
Parameter
Description
tnsnames.ora
COMMUNITY
The parameter was a required part of all
network service addresses. Thus, it appears
anywhere you might find an address (for
example, local naming and listener
configuration files).
8.0
sqlnet.ora
AUTOMATIC_IPC
This parameter was used to force sessions
through IPC addresses. Due to performance
issues, this parameter has been removed.
Configure an IPC address instead.
8.0
sqlnet.ora
NAMES.DEFAULT_ZONE
This parameter used to be included in profiles
as slight variants of the NAMES.DEFAULT_
DOMAIN parameter.
8.0
sqlnet.ora
NAMES.NDS.NAME.CONTEXT
This parameter was used to configure naming
contexts for NDS external naming.
8.1
sqlnet.ora
OSS.SOURCE_MY_WALLET
This parameter's name has changed to
WALLET_LOCATION.
8.1
sqlnet.ora
SQLNET.CRYPTO_SEED
This parameter was used to seed a random
9.2
number generator for Oracle Advanced
Security. In 10i, Oracle Advanced Security uses
a random number generator that does not to
require a user-supplied seed value.
sqlnet.ora
SQLNET.IDENTIX_FINGERPRINT_
DATABASE
These parameters supported the Identix
authentication method.
8.1
SQLNET.IDENTIX_FINGERPRINT_
DATABASE_USER
SQLNET.IDENTIX_FINGERPRINT_
DATABASE_PASSWORD
SQLNET.IDENTIX_FINGERPRINT_
METHOD
listener.ora
CONNECT_TIMEOUT
This parameter specified the amount of time
that the listener waited for a client's request
after the transport connection had been
established. Use the INBOUND_CONNECT_
TIMEOUT_listener_name parameter.
8.1
listener.ora
PRESPAWN_DESC
These parameters were used for prespawned
dedicated server configuration. Prespawned
dedicated servers are no longer supported.
Use shared server instead.
8.1
PRESPAWN_LIST
PRESPAWN_MAX
listener.ora
USE_PLUG_AND_PLAY_listener_
name
This parameter instructed the listener to
register database information with an Oracle
Names server during startup.
8.1
names.ora
All parameters
Oracle Names is no longer supported.
9.2
Unsupported Control Utility Commands
Table A–2 describes the control utility commands not supported in release 9.0.
Features Not Supported in This Release A-3
Unsupported Control Utility Commands
Table A–2
Unsupported Network Control Utility Commands
Control Utility
Commands
Description
Last
Supported
Release
Oracle Names
Control Utility
All commands
Oracle Names is no longer supported.
9.2
Listener Control
Utility
DBSNMP_START
These commands controlled the Oracle 8.1
Intelligent Agent for use with Oracle
Enterprise Manager. You can now
control the Oracle Intelligent Agent
through the Oracle Enterprise
Manager Console.
DBSNMP_STATUS
DBSNAMP_STOP
Listener Control
Utility
SET CONNECT_TIMEOUT
Listener Control
Utility
SET USE_PLUGANDPLAY
A-4
SHOW CONNECT_TIMEOUT
SHOW USE_PLUGANDPLAY
Oracle Database Net Services Reference
These commands specified the amount 8.1
of time that the listener waited for a
client's request after the transport
connection had been established.
These commands instructed the
listener to register database
information with an Oracle Names
server.
8.1
B
B
Upgrade Considerations for Oracle Net
Services
This appendix describes coexistence and upgrade issues for Oracle Net Services. This
appendix covers the following topics:
■
Overview of Unsupported Oracle Net Services Features
■
Unsupported Parameters and Control Utility Commands
■
Client and Database Coexistence Issues
■
Using the Oracle Net Manager to Handle Compatibility Issues
■
Upgrading to Oracle Net Services
Overview of Unsupported Oracle Net Services Features
In an effort to streamline configuration decisions for the Internet, the following
subsections describe the features and the configuration file that are no longer being
supported:
■
Identix and SecurID Authentication Methods
■
NDS External Naming and NDS Authentication
■
Net8 OPEN
■
protocol.ora File
■
Prespawned Dedicated Servers
■
Protocols
Identix and SecurID Authentication Methods
If you are using Identix or SecurID authentication, provided by Oracle Advanced
Security, Oracle recommends upgrading to one of the following authentication
methods:
■
RADIUS
■
Kerberos
■
SSL
See Also:
Oracle Database Advanced Security Administrator's Guide
Upgrade Considerations for Oracle Net Services
B-1
Unsupported Parameters and Control Utility Commands
NDS External Naming and NDS Authentication
Support for Novell Directory Services (NDS) as an authentication method and as an
external naming method are no longer supported. If you are using NDS as an external
naming method, Oracle recommends using directory naming instead.
Net8 OPEN
Net8 OPEN, which provided an application program interface (API) that enabled
programmers to develop both database and non-database applications, is no longer
supported.
protocol.ora File
Parameters in the protocol.ora file have been merged into the sqlnet.ora file. These
parameters enable you to configure access control to the database, as well as no delays
in TCP/IP buffer flushing. These parameters include:
■
TCP.NODELAY
■
TCP.EXCLUDED_NODES
■
TCP.INVITED_NODES
■
TCP.VALIDNODE_CHECKING
See Also: Chapter 5, "Profile Parameters (sqlnet.ora)" for a
description of these parameters
If you have a protocol.ora file in $ORACLE_HOME/network/admin on UNIX and
%ORACLE_HOME%\network\admin on Windows, Oracle Net Manager, when first started,
will automatically merge its parameters into the sqlnet.ora file.
There may be operating system specific parameters in protocol.ora that are node
specific. For this reason, Oracle recommends not sharing sqlnet.ora with other nodes
after merging or adding these parameters.
Prespawned Dedicated Servers
Prespawned dedicated server processes are no longer supported. Instead, configure
shared server (formerly named multi-threaded server) to improve scalability and
system resource usage.
Protocols
Protocol addresses using the SPX or LU6.2 protocol must be replaced. Oracle Net
provides support for the following network protocols:
■
TCP/IP
■
TCP/IP with SSL
■
Named Pipes
See Also: Chapter 4, "Protocol Address Configuration" for protocol
parameter information
Unsupported Parameters and Control Utility Commands
Oracle Database Net Services Reference for further
information about unsupported configuration parameters and control
utility commands
See Also:
B-2
Oracle Database Net Services Reference
Client and Database Coexistence Issues
Client and Database Coexistence Issues
Clients and database servers require compatible releases of Oracle Net Services or
Net8. For example, an Oracle9i client requires an installation of Oracle Net Services,
and an Oracle9i database requires an installation of Oracle Net Services with the
Oracle Net Listener.
Consider the following client-to-database connection issues before you decide if
upgrading is appropriate for your environment:
■
Oracle9i Database Connections
■
Oracle8i or Oracle7 Database Connections
■
Oracle Names
Oracle9i Database Connections
Connect descriptors, created for connections to an Oracle9i or an Oracle8 database,
identify a database by its service name with the SERVICE_NAME parameter.
A connect descriptor to an Oracle9i or Oracle8 database uses the parameter SERVICE_
NAME, as shown in the following example:
sales=
(DESCRIPTION=
(ADDRESS=(PROTOCOL=tcp)(HOST=sales-server)(PORT=1521))
(CONNECT_DATA=
(SERVICE_NAME=sales.us.example.com)))
Connect descriptors that are currently configured with the SID parameter can remain.
However, to take advantage of new features, such as client load balancing and
connect-time failover, Oracle recommends replacing SID with SERVICE_NAME.
To modify a connect descriptor to use SERVICE_NAME, use the Oracle Net Manager's
compatibility mode, as described in "Using the Oracle Net Manager to Handle
Compatibility Issues" on page B-5.
See Also: Oracle Database Net Services Administrator's Guide for
information about database identification by SERVICE_NAME rather
than SID
Consider the following questions for an environment with release 8.0 clients
connecting to an Oracle9i database:
■
Will my third-party applications be able use features of Oracle Net Services?
No. You must rebuild or upgrade applications to work with Oracle Net libraries.
■
Do my clients require Oracle Net to connect to a remote Oracle9i database?
No. If a client must connect to a remote Oracle9i database, only Net8 Client release
8.0 must be configured on the client. However, new features of Oracle Net Services
are not available to these clients.
■
Do my clients require Oracle Net to connect to a local Oracle9i database?
No. The client requires an installation of Net8 Client release 8.0 in its Oracle home
and the Oracle9i requires an installation of Oracle Net and Oracle Net Listener in
its Oracle home.
Upgrade Considerations for Oracle Net Services
B-3
Client and Database Coexistence Issues
Oracle8i or Oracle7 Database Connections
A connect descriptor to an Oracle release 8.0 or Oracle7 database uses SID, as shown in
the following example:
sales=
(DESCRIPTION=
(ADDRESS=(PROTOCOL=tcp)(HOST=sales-server)(PORT=1521))
(CONNECT_DATA=
(SID=sales)))
In addition, the listener.ora file on the database server must be configured with the
description of the SID for the release 8.0 database. In the following example, the
listener is configured to listener for a database service called sales.us.example.com
that has a SID of sales:
SID_LIST_listener=
(SID_LIST=
(SID_DESC=
(GLOBAL_DBNAME=sales.us.example.com)
(SID_NAME=sales)))
See Also: Oracle Database Net Services Administrator's Guide for
information about database identification by SID
Consider the following questions for an environment with Oracle9i clients connecting
to a release 8.0 database.
■
Do my clients require Net8 Client release 8.0 to connect to a remote Oracle release 8.0
database?
No. If a client must connect to a remote release 8.0 database, only Net8 Client of a
compatible release must be configured on the client. The only limitation is that the
new features available with Oracle Net Services are unavailable with this
connection type.
■
Do my clients require Net8 Client release 8.0 to connect to a local release 8.0 database?
Yes. The client requires an installation of Oracle Net in its Oracle home and the
release 8.0 database requires an installation of Net8 Server in its Oracle home.
Oracle Names
If you upgrade all or part of your network to Oracle9i, you should upgrade all the
Oracle Names Servers in the region to version 9.
■
Can my release 8.0 clients use Oracle Names version 9 to resolve service names?
Yes.
■
Can my release 8.0 clients then use the connect descriptor returned from Oracle Names
version 9 to connect to an Oracle version 8 database?
Yes, if the connect descriptor was specified correctly when it was entered into
Oracle Names.
B-4
Oracle Database Net Services Reference
Upgrading to Oracle Net Services
Note: In future releases, Oracle Names will not be supported as a
centralized naming method. Because no new enhancements are being
added to Oracle Names, consider using directory naming or
upgrading an existing Oracle Names configuration to directory
naming, as described in the Oracle Database Net Services Administrator's
Guide.
Using the Oracle Net Manager to Handle Compatibility Issues
Because some parameters are enabled only for Oracle9i and release 8.1, Oracle Net
Manager offers two options that permit you to set the proper parameters in the
tnsnames.ora file for clients connecting to a particular release of the database. These
options are described in Table B–1.
Table B–1
Oracle Net Manager Options
Oracle Net Manager Option
Description
Use Options Compatible with Net8 8.0
Clients
Enables you to configure multiple addresses parameters for a
client.
If selected, enables the SOURCE_ROUTE parameter for pre-release
8.1 clients requiring Oracle Connection Manager connections.
If turned off, enables you to use the SOURCE_ROUTE, LOAD_BALANCE,
and FAILOVER parameters for Oracle9i and release 8.1 clients.
See Also: Oracle Database Net Services Administrator's Guide for
information about configuring address list parameters
Use Oracle8 Release 8.0 Compatible
Identification
Enables you to configure parameters specific to a database
release in the CONNECT_DATA section of a connect descriptor.
If turned on, enables you to enter the SID of the release 8.0 or
Oracle7 database.
If turned off, enables you to enter the Oracle9i or Oracle8
database service name (SERVICE_NAME).
Note: The Advanced Service Options dialog box, which is visible
when the Advanced button in the Service Identification group is
chosen, is also affected by whether this option is turned on or off.
Some settings are only available for connections to an Oracle9i or
Oracle8 database service.
See Also: Oracle Database Net Services Administrator's Guide for
information about configuring advanced connect data
parameters
Upgrading to Oracle Net Services
To upgrade from SQL*Net release 2.x to Oracle Net Services or upgrade from Net8
release 8.0 or 8.1, complete these tasks:
Step 1: Verify Service Name and Instance Name
Step 2: Perform Software Upgrade on the Database Server
Step 3: Perform Software Upgrade on the Client
Step 4: Perform Functional Upgrade
Upgrade Considerations for Oracle Net Services
B-5
Upgrading to Oracle Net Services
Step 1: Verify Service Name and Instance Name
If you want to identify a service and its instance in the tnsnames.ora file, ensure that
the SERVICE_NAMES and INSTANCE_NAMES initialization parameters are set in the
initialization parameter file.
Table B–2
Service Name Parameters
Parameter
Description
SERVICE_NAMES
Specifies one or more names for the database service to which this instance connects.
You can specify multiple services names in order to distinguish among different uses of
the same database. For example:
SERVICE_NAMES = sales.us.example.com, widgetsales.us.example.com
If you do not qualify the names in this parameter with a domain, Oracle qualifies them
with the value of the DB_DOMAIN parameter. If DB_DOMAIN is not specified, Oracle uses
the domain of your local database as it currently exists in the data dictionary.
Note: You can change the value of SERVICE_NAMES parameter dynamically with the SQL
ALTER SYSTEM when the database is running. See the Oracle Database Reference for
further information about this parameter
Specifies the unique name of this instance. Set the instance name to the value of the
Oracle System Identifier (SID).
INSTANCE_NAME
Step 2: Perform Software Upgrade on the Database Server
To perform a software upgrade on the database server, install the latest release of
Oracle Net and Oracle Net Listener from the Oracle Universal Installer to receive the
latest executables.
You are prompted to upgrade a database with the Database Upgrade Assistant if the
Oracle Universal Installer detects a pre-release 9.2 database on your system. If you do
not want to upgrade during the installation process, then you can choose to install this
assistant and use it later.
The Oracle Universal Installer automatically performs these tasks:
■
Stops older listener
■
Starts release 9.2 listener
Step 3: Perform Software Upgrade on the Client
To perform a software upgrade on the client, install the latest release of Oracle Net
Services from the Oracle Universal Installer to receive the latest executables.
Step 4: Perform Functional Upgrade
After the software is upgraded, it is not required to upgrade the configuration files
unless you want to use the Oracle9i features. To take advantage of new features,
review the following configuration files:
■
sqlnet.ora
■
tnsnames.ora
■
listener.ora
■
protocol.ora
Replace obsolete or renamed parameters.
B-6
Oracle Database Net Services Reference
Upgrading to Oracle Net Services
See Also: "Unsupported Parameters and Control Utility
Commands" on page B-2 for further information about unsupported
configuration parameters
tnsnames.ora
Replace the SID parameter with the SERVICE_NAME parameter to connect to a release 8.1
or higher service, as in the following example.
sales=
(DESCRIPTION=
(ADDRESS=(PROTOCOL=tcp)(HOST=sales-server)(PORT=1521))
(CONNECT_DATA=
(SERVICE_NAME=sales.us.example.com)))
If you have multiple addresses, you can configure client load balancing and
connect-time failover features, as in the following example.
sales=
(DESCRIPTION=
(ADDRESS_LIST=
(FAILOVER=on)
(LOAD_BALANCE=on)
(ADDRESS=(PROTOCOL=tcp)(HOST=sales1-server)(PORT=1521)
(ADDRESS=(PROTOCOL=tcp)(HOST=sales2-server)(PORT=1521))
(CONNECT_DATA=
(SERVICE_NAME=sales.us.example.com)))
See Also:
■
■
"Using the Oracle Net Manager to Handle Compatibility Issues"
on page B-5 for information about configuring the service name
and multiple address features
Oracle Database Net Services Administrator's Guide for information
about multiple addresses
listener.ora
Because instance information is registered with the listener in Oracle9i, it is no longer
necessary to include the instance information with the SID_LIST_listener_name
section of the listener.ora file.
However, Oracle Enterprise Manager still requires static information in the
listener.ora file. If you are using Oracle Enterprise Manager to manage database
objects, the listener.ora file must be configured with information about the database
in the following manner:
SID_LIST_listener_name=
(SID_LIST=
(SID_DESC=
(GLOBAL_DBNAME=global_database_name)
(ORACLE_HOME=oracle_home)
(SID_NAME=sid)))
Table B–3
listener.ora Parameters
Parameter
Description
SID_NAME
The Oracle System Identifier (SID) identifies the instance. You
can obtain the SID value from the INSTANCE_NAME parameter in
the initialization parameter file.
Upgrade Considerations for Oracle Net Services
B-7
Upgrading to Oracle Net Services
Table B–3 (Cont.) listener.ora Parameters
Parameter
Description
GLOBAL_DBNAME
The global database name is comprised of the database name
and database domain name. You can obtain the GLOBAL_DBNAME
value from the SERVICE_NAMES parameter, or from the DB_NAME
and DB_DOMAIN parameters in the initialization parameter file.
ORACLE_HOME
Identifies the Oracle home location of the database that you are
specifying
Note: This setting is required on UNIX.
Important: If you are using connect-time failover or Transparent
Application Failover, such as in a Oracle Real Application Clusters
environment, Oracle recommends not setting the GLOBAL_DBNAME
parameter.
See Also: Oracle Database Net Services Administrator's Guide for
information about configuring service information and connect-time
failover and Transparent Application Failover (TAF)
B-8
Oracle Database Net Services Reference
C
C
LDAP Schema for Oracle Net Services
This appendix describes the Oracle schema object classes and attributes defined in
the directory server for Oracle Net Services objects. It does not describe object classes
and attributes reserved for future functionality or used by other Oracle products.
This appendix contains these topics:
■
Structural Object Classes
■
Attributes
Structural Object Classes
The Oracle schema supports the following structural object classes for Oracle Net
directory naming lookups:
■
orclDBServer
■
orclNetService
■
orclNetServiceAlias
■
orclNetDescription
■
orclNetDescriptionList
■
orclNetAddress
■
orclNetAddressList
■
orclNetDescriptionAux1
■
orclNetAddressAux1
orclDBServer
Description
Defines the attributes for database service entries
Attributes
orclNetDescName
orclVersion
LDAP Schema for Oracle Net Services
C-1
Structural Object Classes
orclNetService
Description
Defines the attributes for net service name entries
Attributes
orclNetDescName
orclVersion
orclNetServiceAlias
Description
Defines the attributes for net service alias entries
Attributes
orclNetDescName
orclVersion
orclNetDescription
Description
Specifies a connect descriptor containing the protocol address of the listener and the
connect information to the service
Attributes
■
orclNetAddrList
■
orclNetInstanceName
■
orclNetConnParamList
■
orclNetFailover
■
orclNetLoadBalance
■
orclNetSdu
■
orclNetServiceName
■
orclNetSourceRoute
■
orclSid
■
orclVersion
orclNetDescriptionList
Description
Specifies a list of connect descriptors
Attributes
C-2
■
orclNetDescList
■
orclVersion
Oracle Database Net Services Reference
Attributes
orclNetAddress
Description
Specifies a listener protocol address
Attributes
■
orclNetAddressString
■
orclNetProtocol
■
orclVersion
orclNetAddressList
Description
Specifies a list of protocol addresses
Attributes
■
orclNetAddrList
■
orclNetFailover
■
orclNetLoadBalance
■
orclNetSourceRoute
■
orclVersion
orclNetDescriptionAux1
Attributes
orclNetSendBufSize
orclNetReceiveBufSize
orclNetFailoverModeString
orclNetInstanceRole
orclNetAddressAux1
Attributes
orclNetHostname
Attributes
Table C–1 lists the attributes used for the object classes. This list is subject to change.
LDAP Schema for Oracle Net Services
C-3
Attributes
Table C–1
LDAP Schema Attributes for Oracle Net Services
Attribute
Description
orclCommonContextMap
Allows the mapping of more than one default oracleContext in the
directory server.
orclNetAddrList
Identifies one or more listener protocol addresses
orclNetAddressString
Defines a listener protocol address
orclNetConnParamList
Placeholder for future connect data parameters
orclNetDescList
Identifies one or more connect descriptors
orclNetDescName
Identifies a connect descriptor or a list of connect descriptors
orclNetFailover
Turns connect-time failover on for a protocol address list
orclNetFailoverModeString
orclNetHostname
orclNetInstanceName
Specifies the instance name to access
orclNetInstanceRole
Specifies a connection to the primary or secondary instance of aRAC
configuration
orclNetLoadBalance
Turns client load balancing on for a protocol address list
orclNetProtocol
Identifies the protocol used in the orclAddressString attribute
orclNetReceiveBufSize
Specifies the buffer space limit for receive operations of sessions.
orclNetSdu
Specifies the session data unit (SDU) size
orclNetSendBufSize
Specifies the buffer space limit for send operations of sessions.
orclNetServiceName
Specifies the database service name in the CONNECT_DATA portion
orclNetSourceRoute
Instructs Oracle Net to use each address in order until the destination is
reached
orclSid
Specifies the Oracle System Identifier (SID) in the CONNECT_DATA portion of
a connection descriptor
orclVersion
Specifies the version of software used to create the entry
C-4
Oracle Database Net Services Reference
Glossary
access control
A feature of Oracle Connection Manager that sets rules for denying or allowing certain
clients to access designated servers.
access control list (ACL)
The group of access directives that you define. The directives grant levels of access to
specific data for specific clients or groups of clients.
ACL
See access control list (ACL).
ADR
See automatic diagnostic repository
address
See protocol address.
alias
An alternative name for a network object in an Oracle Names server. An alias stores
the name of the object is referencing. When a client requests a lookup of an alias,
Oracle completes the lookup as if it is the referenced object.
application gateway
A host computer that runs the Oracle Net Firewall Proxy. An application gateway
looks and acts like a real server from the client's point of view, and a real client from
the server's point of view. An application gateway sits between the Internet and
company's internal network and provides middleman services (or proxy services) to
users on either side.
ASCII character set
American Standard Code for Information Interchange character set, a convention for
representing alphanumeric information using digital data. The collation sequence used
by most computers with the exception of IBM and IBM-compatible computers.
attribute
A piece of information that describes some aspect of a directory entry. An entry
comprises a set of attributes, each of which belongs to an object class. Moreover, each
attribute has both a type—which describes the kind of information in the
attribute—and a value—which contains the actual data.
Glossary-1
authentication method
authentication method
A security method that enables you to have high confidence in the identity of users,
clients, and servers in distributed environments. Network authentication methods can
also provide the benefit of single sign-on for users. The following authentication
methods are supported in Oracle9i, depending on whether or not Oracle Advanced
Security is installed:
■
RADIUS
■
Kerberos
■
SSL
■
Windows NT native authentication
automatic diagnostic repository
The automatic diagnostic repository (ADR) is a systemwide tracing and logging
central repository. The repository is a file-based hierarchical datastore for depositing
diagnostic information, including network tracing and logging information.
cache
Memory that stores recently-accessed data to so that subsequent requests to access the
same data can be processed quickly.
CDS
See Cell Directory Services (CDS).
Cell Directory Services (CDS)
An external naming method that enables users to use Oracle tools transparently and
applications to access Oracle databases in a Distributed Computing Environment
(DCE) environment.
client
A user, software application, or computer that requests the services, data, or
processing of another application or computer. The client is the user process. In a
network environment, the client is the local user process and the server may be local or
remote.
client load balancing
Load balancing, whereby if more than one listener services a single database, a client
can randomly choose between the listeners for its connect requests. This
randomization enables all listeners to share the burden of servicing incoming connect
requests.
client profile
The properties of a client, which may include the preferred order of naming methods,
client and server logging and tracing, the domain from which to request names, and
other client options for Oracle Advanced Security.
client/server architecture
Software architecture based on a separation of processing between two CPUs. One
CPU acts as the client in the transaction, requesting and receiving services. The other
acts as the server that provides the requests.
Glossary-2
connect-time failover
cman.ora file
A configuration file that specifies protocol addresses for incoming requests and
administrative commands, as well as Oracle Connection Manager parameters and
access control rules.
CMADMIN (Connection Manager Administration)
An Oracle Connection Manager process that monitors the health of the listener and
Oracle Connection Manager gateway processes, shutting down and starting processes
as needed. CMADMIN registers information about gateway processes with the
listener and processes commands executed with the Oracle Connection Manager
Control utility.
CMGW (Connection Manager gateway)
An Oracle Connection Manager process that receives client connections screened and
forwarded by the listener located at the Oracle Connection Manager instance. The
gateway process forwards the requests to the database server. In addition, it can
multiplex or funnel multiple client connections through a single protocol connection.
connect data
A portion of the connect descriptor that defines the destination database service name
or Oracle System Identifier (SID). In the following example, SERVICE_NAME defines a
database service called sales.us.example.com:
(DESCRIPTION=
(ADDRESS=(PROTOCOL=tcp)(HOST=sales-server)(PORT=1521)
(CONNECT_DATA=
(SERVICE_NAME=sales.us.example.com)))
connect descriptor
A specially formatted description of the destination for a network connection. A
connect descriptor contains destination service and network route information.
The destination service is indicated by using its service name for Oracle9i or Oracle8i
databases or its Oracle System Identifier (SID) for Oracle release 8.0 databases. The
network route provides, at a minimum, the location of the listener through use of a
network address.
connect identifier
A connect descriptor or a name that maps to a connect descriptor. A connect identifier
can be a net service name, database service name, or net service alias. Users initiate a
connect request by passing a user name and password along with a connect identifier
in a connect string for the service to which they want to connect:
CONNECT username@connect_identifier
connect string
Information the user passes to a service to connect, such as user name, password, and
connect identifier:
CONNECT username@net_service_name
connect-time failover
A client connect request is forwarded to a another listener if a listener is not
responding. Connect-time failover is enabled by service registration, because the
listener knows if an instance is running to attempting a connection.
Glossary-3
connection
connection
An interaction between two processes on a network. Connections are originated by an
initiator (client) that requests a connection with a destination (server).
connection load balancing
Load balancing, whereby the number of active connections among various instances
and dispatchers for the same service are balanced. This enables listeners to make their
routing decisions based on how many connections each dispatcher has and on how
loaded the nodes that the instances run.
connection pooling
A resource utilization and user scalability feature that enables you to maximize the
number of sessions over a limited number of protocol connections to a shared server.
connection request
A notification sent by an initiator and received by a listener that indicates that the
initiator wants to start a connection.
data packet
See packet.
database administrator
(1) A person responsible for operating and maintaining an Oracle Server or a database
application. (2) An Oracle user name that has been given DBA privileges and can
perform database administration functions. Usually the two meanings coincide. Many
sites have multiple DBAs.
Database Configuration Assistant
A tool that enables you to create, delete, and modify a database.
database link
A pointer that defines a one-way communication path from an Oracle database server
to another database server. The link pointer is actually defined as an entry in a data
dictionary table. To access the link, you must be connected to the local database that
contains the data dictionary entry.
A database link connection is one-way in the sense that a client connected to local
database A can use a link stored in database A to access information in remote
database B, but users connected to database B cannot use the same link to access data
in database A. If local users on database B want to access data on database A, then
they must define a link that is stored in the data dictionary of database B.
The following database links types are supported:
■
■
A private database link in a specific schema of a database. Only the owner of a
private database link can use it.
A public database link for a database. All users in the database can use it.
DBA
See database administrator
dedicated server
A server process that is dedicated to one client connection. Contrast with shared
server.
Glossary-4
Domain Name System (DNS)
default domain
The domain within which most client requests take place. It could be the domain
where the client resides, or it could be a domain from which the client requests
network services often. Default domain is also the client configuration parameter that
determines what domain should be appended to unqualified network name requests.
A name request is unqualified if it does not have a "." character within it.
directory information tree (DIT)
A hierarchical tree-like structure in a directory server of the distinguished names
(DNs) of the entries.
directory naming
A naming method that resolves a database service, net service name, or net service
alias to a connect descriptor stored in a central directory server. A directory server
provides central administration of directory naming objects, reducing the work effort
associated with adding or relocating services.
directory server
A directory server that is accessed with the Lightweight Directory Access Protocol
(LDAP). Support of LDAP-compliant directory servers provides a centralized vehicle
for managing and configuring a distributed Oracle network. The directory server can
replace client-side and server-side localized tnsnames.ora files.
dispatcher
A process that enables many clients to connect to the same server without the need for
a dedicated server process for each client. A dispatcher handles and directs multiple
incoming network session requests to shared server processes. See also shared server.
distinguished name (DN)
Name of entry in a directory server. The DN specifies where the entry resides in the
LDAP directory hierarchy, much the way a directory path specifies the exact location
of a file.
distributed processing
Division of front-end and back-end processing to different computers. Oracle Network
Services support distributed processing by transparently connecting applications to
remote databases.
domain
Any tree or subtree within the Domain Name System (DNS) namespace. Domain
most commonly refers to a group of computers whose host names share a common
suffix, the domain name.
domain hint
A NAMES.DOMAIN_HINTS parameter in the names.ora file that contains the name of the
domain and at least one address of an Oracle server in that domain. This enables an
Oracle server to forward the client requests to a specific address, reducing network
traffic.
Domain Name System (DNS)
A system for naming computers and network services that is organized into a
hierarchy of domains. DNS is used in TCP/IP networks to locate computers through
Glossary-5
DNS
user-friendly names. DNS resolves a friendly name into an IP address, which is
understood by computers.
For Oracle Network Services, DNS translates the host name in a TCP/IP address into
an IP address.
DNS
Domain Name System. See Domain Name System (DNS).
enterprise role
An enterprise role is analogous to a regular database role, except that it spans
authorization on multiple databases. An enterprise role is a category of roles that
define privileges on a particular database. An enterprise role is created the database
administrator of a particular database. An enterprise role can be granted to or revoked
to one or more enterprise users. The information for granting and revoking these roles
is stored in the directory server.
enterprise user
A user that has a unique identity across an enterprise. Enterprise users connect to
individual databases through a schema. Enterprise users are assigned enterprise roles
that determine their access privileges on databases.
entry
The building block of a directory server, it contains information about an object of
interest to directory users.
external naming
A naming method that uses a third-party naming service, such as NIS or CDS.
external procedure
Function or procedure written in a third-generation language (3GL) that can be called
from PL/SQL code. Only C is supported for external procedures.
failover
See connect-time failover.
firewall support
See access control.
foreign domains
The set of domains not managed within a given administrative region. Domains are
foreign only in relation to a region; they are not foreign in any absolute sense. A
network administrator typically defines foreign domains relative to a particular region
to optimize caching performance.
FTP protocol
File Transfer Protocol. A client/server protocol which allows a user on one computer
to transfer files to and from another computer over a TCP/IP network.
global database name
The full name of the database which uniquely identifies it from any other database.
The global database name is of the form "database_name.database_domain," for
example, sales.us.example.com.
Glossary-6
instance name
The database name portion, sales, is a simple name you want to call your database.
The database domain portion, us.example.com, specifies the database domain in
which the database is located, making the global database name unique. When
possible, Oracle recommends that your database domain mirror the network domain.
The global database name is the default service name of the database, as specified by
the SERVICE_NAMES parameter in the initialization parameter file.
Heterogeneous Services
An integrated component that provides the generic technology for accessing
non-Oracle systems from the Oracle database server. Heterogeneous Services enables
you to:
■
■
Use Oracle SQL to transparently access data stored in non-Oracle systems as if the
data resides within an Oracle server.
Use Oracle procedure calls to transparently access non-Oracle systems, services, or
application programming interfaces (APIs), from your Oracle distributed
environment.
hierarchical naming model
An infrastructure in which names are divided into multiple hierarchically-related
domains. For Oracle Names, hierarchical naming model can be used with either
central or delegated administration.
host naming
A naming method resolution that enables users in a TCP/IP environment to resolve
names through their existing name resolution service. This name resolution service
might be Domain Name System (DNS), Network Information Service (NIS), or
simply a centrally-maintained set of /etc/hosts files. Host Naming enables users to
connect to an Oracle database server by simply providing the server computer's host
name or host name alias. No client configuration is required to take advantage of this
feature. This method is recommended for simple TCP/IP environments.
HTTP protocol
Hypertext Transfer Protocol. A protocol that provides the language that enables Web
browsers and application Web servers to communicate.
identity management realm
A collection of identities, all of which are governed by the same administrative
policies. In an enterprise, all employees having access to the intranet may belong to
one realm, while all external users who access the public applications of the enterprise
may belong to another realm. An identity management realm is represented in the
directory by a specific entry with a special object class associated with it.
instance
The combination of the System Global Area (SGA) and the Oracle background
processes. When a database is started on a database server (regardless of the type of
computer), Oracle allocates a memory area called the SGA and starts one or more
Oracle processes. The memory and processes of an instance efficiently manage the
associated database's data and serve the database users. You can connect to any
instance to access information within a cluster database.
instance name
A name of an Oracle database instance. The instance name is identified by the
INSTANCE_NAME parameter in the database initialization parameter file. INSTANCE_NAME
Glossary-7
Interprocess Communication
corresponds to the Oracle System Identifier (SID) of the instance. Clients can connect
to a specific instance by specifying the INSTANCE_NAME parameter in the connect
descriptor.
The instance name is included in the connect data part of the connect descriptor.
Interprocess Communication
A protocol used by client applications that resides on the same node as the listener to
communicate with the database. IPC can provide a faster local connection than
TCP/IP.
IP address
Used to identify a node on a network. Each computer on the network is assigned a
unique IP address, which is made up of the network ID, and a unique host ID. This
address is typically represented in dotted-decimal notation, with the decimal value of
each octet separated by a period, for example 192.0.2.22.
IPC
See Interprocess Communication.
Java Database Connectivity (JDBC) Driver
A driver that provides Java applications and applets access to an Oracle database.
JDBC OCI Driver
A Type II driver for use with client/server Java applications. This driver requires an
Oracle client installation.
JDBC Thin Driver
A Type IV driver for Oracle JDBC applets and applications. Because it is written
entirely in Java, this driver is platform-independent. It does not require any additional
Oracle software on the client side. The Thin driver communicates with the server
using Two-Task Common (TTC), a protocol developed by Oracle to access the
database server.
keyword-value pair
The combination of a keyword and a value, used as the standard unit of information in
connect descriptors and many configuration files. Keyword-value pairs may be nested;
that is, a keyword may have another keyword-value pair as its value.
latency
Networking round-trip time.
Lightweight Directory Access Protocol (LDAP)
A standard, extensible directory access protocol. It is a common language that LDAP
clients and servers use to communicate. The framework of design conventions
supporting industry-standard directory servers.
LDAP Data Interchange Format (LDIF)
The set of standards for formatting an input file for any of the LDAP command line
utilities.
Glossary-8
load balancing
ldap.ora file
A file created by Oracle Internet Directory Configuration Assistant or Oracle Net
Configuration Assistant that contains the following directory server access
information:
■
Type of directory server
■
Location of the directory server
■
Default Oracle Context that the client or server will use to look up or configure
connect identifiers for connections to database services
When created with Oracle Internet Directory Configuration Assistant, ldap.ora is
located in the $ORACLE_HOME/ldap/admin directory on UNIX operating systems and
the %ORACLE_HOME%\ldap\admin directory on Windows operating systems. When
created with Oracle Net Configuration Assistant, ldap.ora is located in the $ORACLE_
HOME/network/admin directory on UNIX operating systems and the %ORACLE_
HOME%\network\admin directory on Windows operating systems.
link qualifier
A qualifier appended to a global database link to provide alternate settings for the
database user name and password credentials. For example, a link qualifier of
fieldrep can be appended to a global database link of sales.us.example.com.
SQL> SELECT * FROM emp@sales.us.example.com@fieldrep
listener
A process that resides on the server whose responsibility is to listen for incoming client
connection requests and manage the traffic to the server.
When a client requests a network session with a database server, a listener receives the
actual request. If the client information matches the listener information, then the
listener grants a connection to the database server.
listener.ora file
A configuration file for the listener that identifies the following for a listener:
■
Unique name
■
Protocol addresses that it is accepting connection requests on
■
Services it is listening for
The listener.ora file typically resides in $ORACLE_HOME/network/admin on UNIX
platforms and %ORACLE_HOME%\network\admin on Windows.
Oracle9i does not require identification of the database service because of service
registration. However, static service configuration is required for if you plan to use
Oracle Enterprise Manager.
Listener Control utility
A utility included with Oracle Network Services to control various listener functions,
such as to starting, stopping, and getting the status of the listener.
load balancing
A feature by which client connections are distributed evenly among multiple listeners,
dispatchers, instances, and nodes so that no single component is overloaded.
Glossary-9
local naming
Oracle Network Services support client load balancing and connection load
balancing.
local naming
A naming method that locates network addresses by using information configured
and stored on each individual client's tnsnames.ora file. Local naming is most
appropriate for simple distributed networks with a small number of services that
change infrequently.
location transparency
A distributed database characteristic that enables applications to access data tables
without knowing where they reside. All data tables appear to be in a single database,
and the system determines the actual data location based on the table name. The user
can reference data on multiple nodes in a single statement, and the system
automatically and transparently routes (parts of) SQL statements to remote nodes for
execution if needed. The data can move among nodes with no impact on the user or
application.
logging
A feature in which errors, service activity, and statistics are written to a log file. The log
file provides additional information for an administrator when the error message on
the screen is inadequate to understand the failure. The log file, by way of the error
stack, shows the state of the software at various layers.
See also tracing.
loopback test
A connection from the server back to itself. Performing a successful loopback verifies
that Oracle Net is functioning on the database server.
map
Files used by the Network Information Service (NIS) ypserv program to handle name
requests.
Microsoft Active Directory
An LDAP-compliant directory server included with the Windows 2000 Server. It stores
information about objects on the network, and makes this information available to
users and network administrators. Active Directory also provides access to resources
on the network using a single logon process.
Active Directory can be configured as a directory naming method to store service
information that clients can access.
names.ora file
A configuration file that contains parameter settings for an Oracle Names server.
Named Pipes protocol
A high-level interface protocol providing interprocess communications between
clients and servers using distributed applications. Named Pipes enables client/server
conversation over a network using Named Pipes.
naming context
A subtree that resides entirely on one directory server. It is a contiguous subtree, that
is, it must begin at an entry that serves as the top of the subtree, and extend downward
Glossary-10
network character set
to either leaf entries or references to subordinate naming contexts. It can range in size
from a single entry to the entire directory information tree (DIT).
An Oracle Context can be created under a naming context.
naming method
The resolution method used by a client application to resolve a connect identifier to a
connect descriptor when attempting to connect to a database service. Oracle Net
provides four naming methods:
■
Domain Name System (DNS)
■
directory naming
■
easy connect naming
■
external naming
net service alias
An alternative name for a directory naming object in a directory server. A directory
server stores net service aliases for any defined net service name or database service.
A net service alias entry does not have connect descriptor information. Instead, it only
references the location of the object for which it is an alias. When a client requests a
directory lookup of a net service alias, the directory determines that the entry is a net
service alias and completes the lookup as if it was actually the entry it is referencing.
net service name
A simple name for a service that resolves to a connect descriptor. Users initiate a
connect request by passing a user name and password along with a net service name
in a connect string for the service to which they want to connect:
CONNECT username@net_service_name
Depending on your needs, net service names can be stored in a variety of places,
including:
■
Local configuration file, tnsnames.ora, on each client
■
Directory server
■
External naming service, such as NIS or CDS
network
A group of two or more computers linked together through hardware and software to
allow the sharing of data and peripherals.
network administrator
The person who performs network management tasks such as installing, configuring,
and testing network components. The administrator typically maintains the
configuration files, connect descriptors and service names, aliases, and public and
global database links.
network character set
As defined by Oracle, the set of characters acceptable for use as values in
keyword-value pairs (that is, in connect descriptors and configuration files). The set
includes alphanumeric upper- and lowercase, and some special characters.
Glossary-11
Network Information Service (NIS)
Network Information Service (NIS)
Sun Microsystems' Yellow Pages (yp) client/server protocol for distributing system
configuration data such as user and host names between computers on a network.
Network Interface (NI)
A network layer that provides a generic interface for Oracle clients, servers, or external
processes to access Oracle Net functions. The NI layer handles the "break" and "reset"
requests for a connection.
network listener
See listener.
network object
Any service that can be directly addressed on a network; for example, a listener.
network protocol
See Oracle protocol support.
Network Program Interface (NPI)
An interface for server-to-server interactions that performs all of the functions that the
OCI does for clients, allowing a coordinating server to construct SQL requests for
additional servers.
Network Session (NS)
A session layer that is used in typical Oracle Net connections to establish and
maintain the connection between a client application and a database server.
NI
Network Interface
NIS
See Network Information Service (NIS).
node
A computer or terminal that is part of a network
NPI
See Network Program Interface (NPI).
NR
Network Routing
NS
Network Session. See Network Session (NS).
NT
Network Transport. See transport.
object class
In a directory server, a named group of attributes. When you want to assign attributes
to an entry, you do so by assigning to that entry the object classes that hold those
attributes.
Glossary-12
Oracle Connection Manager Control utility
All objects associated with the same object class share the attributes of that object class.
OCI
Oracle Call Interface. See Oracle Call Interface (OCI).
OPI
See Oracle Program Interface (OPI).
Open Systems Interconnection (OSI)
A model of network architecture developed by ISO as a framework for international
standards in heterogeneous computer network architecture.
The OSI architecture is split between seven layers, from lowest to highest:
1. Physical layer
2. Data link layer
3. Network layer
4. Transport layer
5. Session layer
6. Presentation layer
7. Application layer
Each layer uses the layer immediately following it and provides a service to the layer
preceding.
Oracle Advanced Security
A product that provides a comprehensive suite of security features to protect
enterprise networks and securely extends corporate networks to the Internet. Oracle
Advanced Security provides a single source of integration with network encryption
and authentication solutions, single sign-on services, and security protocols. By
integrating industry standards, it delivers unparalleled security to the network.
Oracle Call Interface (OCI)
An application programming interface (API) that enables you to create applications
that use the native procedures or function calls of a third-generation language to
access an Oracle database server and control all phases of SQL statement execution.
OCI supports the data types, calling conventions, syntax, and semantics of a number
of third-generation languages including C, C++, COBOL and FORTRAN.
Oracle Connection Manager
A router through which a client connection request may be sent either to its next hop
or directly to the database server. Clients who route their connection requests through
an Oracle Connection Manager can then take advantage of the session multiplexing,
access control, or protocol conversion features configured on that Oracle Connection
Manager.
Oracle Connection Manager Control utility
A utility included with Oracle Network Services to control various functions, such as
starting, stopping, and getting the status of the Oracle Connection Manager.
Glossary-13
Oracle Context
Oracle Context
A RDN of cn=OracleContext in a directory information tree (DIT) that is located
under a naming context or an unpublished directory entry. An Oracle Context
contains entries for use with Oracle features, such as Oracle Net directory naming and
Oracle Advanced Security enterprise user security. There can be one or more Oracle
Contexts in a directory server. Oracle Internet Directory automatically creates an
Oracle Context at the root of the DIT structure. This root Oracle Context has a DN of
dn:cn=OracleContext.
Oracle Enterprise Manager
A separate Oracle product that combines a graphical console, agents, common
services, and tools to provide an integrated and comprehensive systems management
platform for managing Oracle products.
Oracle Identity Management
An infrastructure enabling deployments to manage centrally and securely all
enterprise identities and their access to various applications in the enterprise.
Oracle Internet Directory
A directory server implemented as an application on the Oracle database. It enables
retrieval of information about dispersed users and network resources. It combines
Lightweight Directory Access Protocol (LDAP) Version 3, the open Internet standard
directory server access protocol, with the high performance, scalability, robustness,
and availability of the Oracle database.
Oracle Net
Communication software that enables a network session from a client application to an
Oracle database server. Once a network session is established, Oracle Net acts as a data
courier for the client application and the database server. It is responsible for
establishing and maintaining the connection between the client application and
database server, as well as exchanging messages between them. Oracle Net is able to
perform these jobs because it is located on each computer in the network.
Oracle Net Configuration Assistant
A postinstallation tool that configures basic network components after installation,
including:
■
Listener names and protocol addresses
■
Naming methods the client will use to resolve connect identifiers
■
Net service names in a tnsnames.ora file
■
Directory server usage
Oracle Net Firewall Proxy
Product offered by some firewall vendors that supplies Oracle Connection Manager
functionality.
Oracle Net foundation layer
A networking communication layer that is responsible for establishing and
maintaining the connection between the client application and server, as well as
exchanging messages between them.
Oracle Net listener
See listener.
Glossary-14
Oracle XML DB
Oracle Net Manager
A tool that combines configuration abilities with component control to provide an
integrated environment for configuring and managing Oracle Net Services.
You can use Oracle Net Manager to configure the following network components:
■
Naming
Define connect identifiers and map them to connect descriptors to identify the
network location and identification of a service. Oracle Net Manager supports
configuration of connect descriptors in a local tnsnames.ora file or directory
server.
■
Naming Methods
Configure the different ways in which connect identifiers are resolved into connect
descriptors.
■
Listeners
Create and configure listeners to receive client connections.
Oracle Net Services
A suite of networking components that provide enterprise-wide connectivity solutions
in distributed, heterogeneous computing environments. Oracle Net Services is
comprised of Oracle Net, listener, Oracle Connection Manager, Oracle Net
Configuration Assistant, and Oracle Net Manager.
Oracle Program Interface (OPI)
A networking layer responsible for responding to each of the possible messages sent
by OCI. For example, an OCI request to fetch 25 rows would have an OPI response to
return the 25 rows once they have been fetched.
Oracle protocol support
A software layer responsible for mapping Transparent Network Substrate (TNS)
functionality to industry-standard protocols used in the client/server connection.
Oracle Rdb
A database for Digital's 64-bit platforms. Because Oracle Rdb has its own listener, the
client interacts with Rdb in the same manner as it does with an Oracle database.
Oracle schema
A set of rules that determine what can be stored in a directory server. Oracle has its
own schema that is applied to many types of Oracle entries, including Oracle Net
Services entries. The Oracle schema for Oracle Net Services' entries includes the
attributes the entries may contain.
Oracle System Identifier (SID)
A name that identifies a specific instance of a running pre-release 8.1 Oracle database.
For any database, there is at least one instance referencing the database.
For pre-release 8.1 databases, SID is used to identify the database. The SID is included
in the connect descriptor of a tnsnames.ora file and in the definition of the listener in
the listener.ora file.
Oracle XML DB
A high-performance XML storage and retrieval technology provided with Oracle
database server. It is based on the W3C XML data model.
Glossary-15
Oracle Real Application Clusters
Oracle Real Application Clusters
An architecture that allows multiple instances to access a shared database of datafiles.
Oracle Real Application Clusters is also a software component that provides the
necessary cluster database scripts, initialization files, and datafiles needed for the
Oracle Enterprise Edition and Oracle Real Application Clusters.
ORACLE_HOME
An alternate name for the top directory in the Oracle directory hierarchy on some
directory-based operating systems.
OSI
See Open Systems Interconnection (OSI).
packet
A block of information sent over the network each time a connection or data transfer is
requested. The information contained in packets depends on the type of packet:
connect, accept, redirect, data, and so on. Packet information can be useful in
troubleshooting.
PMON process
A process monitor database process that performs process recovery when a user
process fails. PMON is responsible for cleaning up the cache and freeing resources that
the process was using. PMON also checks on dispatcher and server processes and
restarts them if they have failed. As a part of service registration, PMON registers
instance information with the listener.
presentation layer
A networking communication layer that manages the representation of information
that application layer entities either communicate or reference in their communication.
Two-Task Common (TTC) is an example of presentation layer.
private database link
A database link created by one user for his or her exclusive use.
See also database link and public database link.
profile
A collection of parameters that specifies preferences for enabling and configuring
Oracle Net Services' features on the client or server. A profile is stored and
implemented through the sqlnet.ora file.
protocol
A set of rules that defines how data is transported across the network.
protocol address
An address that identifies the network address of a network object.
When a connection is made, the client and the receiver of the request, such as the
listener or Oracle Connection Manager, are configured with identical protocol
addresses. The client uses this address to send the connection request to a particular
network object location, and the recipient "listens" for requests on this address. It is
important to install the same protocols for the client and the connection recipient, as
well as to configure the same addresses.
Glossary-16
RPC
protocol conversion
A feature of Oracle Connection Manager that enables a client and server with different
networking protocols to communicate with each other. This feature replaces
functionality previously provided by the Oracle Multi-Protocol Interchange with
SQL*Net version 2.
protocol stack
Designates a particular presentation layer and session layer combination.
proxy server
A server that substitutes for the real server, forwarding client connection requests to
the real server or to other proxy servers. Proxy servers provide access control, data and
system security, monitoring, and caching.
public database link
A database link created by a DBA on a local database that is accessible to all users on
that database.
See also database link and private database link.
RDBMS
Relational Database Management System
RDN
See relative distinguished name (RDN).
realm Oracle Context
An Oracle Context contained in each identity management realm. It stores the
following information:
■
User naming policy of the identity management realm—that is, how users are
named and located
■
Mandatory authentication attributes
■
Location of groups in the identity management realm
■
■
Privilege assignments for the identity management realm—for example: who has
privileges to add more users to the realm.
Application specific data for that Realm including authorizations
relative distinguished name (RDN)
The local, most granular level entry name. It has no other qualifying entry names that
would serve to address the entry uniquely. In the example,
cn=sales,dc=us,dc=example,dc=com, cn=sales is the RDN.
root Oracle Context
In the Oracle Identity Management infrastructure, the The root Oracle Context is an
entry in Product_Name containing a pointer to the default identity management
realm in the infrastructure. It also contains information on how to locate an identity
management realm given a simple name of the realm.
RPC
Remote Procedure Call
Glossary-17
SDP protocol
SDP protocol
Sockets Direct Protocol (SDP).
Secure Sockets Layer (SSL)
An industry standard protocol designed by Netscape Communications Corporation
for securing network connections. SSL provides authentication, encryption, and data
integrity using public key infrastructure (PKI).
server process
Database processes that handle a client request on behalf of a database.
service
Work done for others. The database is a service that stores and retrieves data for
clients.
service handler
A process that acts a connection point from the listener to the database server. A
service handler can be a dispatcher or dedicated server.
service name
A logical representation of a database, which is the way a database is presented to
clients. A database can be presented as multiple services and a service can be
implemented as multiple database instances. The service name is a string that is the
global database name, that is, a name comprising the database name and domain
name, entered during installation or database creation. If you are not sure what the
global database name is, you can obtain it from the value of the SERVICE_NAMES
parameter in the initialization parameter file.
The service name is included in the connect data part of the connect descriptor.
service registration
A feature by which the PMON process automatically registers information with a
listener. Because this information is registered with the listener, the listener.ora file
does not need to be configured with this static information.
Service registration provides the listener with information about:
■
Service names for each running instance of the database
■
Instance names of the database
■
Service handlers (dispatcher or dedicated server) available for each instance
These enable the listener to direct a client request appropriately.
■
Dispatcher, instance, and node load information
This load information enables the listener to determine which dispatcher can best
handle a client connection request. If all dispatchers are blocked, the listener can
spawn a dedicated server for the connection.
session data unit (SDU)
A buffer that Oracle Net uses to place data before transmitting it across the network.
Oracle Net sends the data in the buffer either when requested or when it is full.
session layer
A network layer that provides the services needed by the protocol address entities
that enable them to organize and synchronize their dialogue and manage their data
Glossary-18
System Global Area (SGA)
exchange. This layer establishes, manages, and terminates network sessions between
the client and server. An example of a session layer is Network Session (NS).
session multiplexing
Combining multiple sessions for transmission over a single network connection in
order to conserve the operating system's resources.
shared server
A database server that is configured to allow many user processes to share very few
server processes, so the number of users that can be supported is increased. With
shared server configuration, many user processes connect to a dispatcher. The
dispatcher directs multiple incoming network session requests to a common queue.
An idle shared server process from a shared pool of server processes picks up a
request from the queue. This means that a small pool of server processes can serve a
large number of clients. Contrast with dedicated server.
shared server process
A process type used with shared server configuration.
SID
See Oracle System Identifier (SID).
SID_LIST_listener_name
A section of the listener.ora file that defines the Oracle System Identifier (SID) of
the database served by the listener. This section is valid only for version 8.0 Oracle
databases, as information for Oracle8i or later instances is automatically registered
with the listener. Static configuration is also required for other services, such as
external procedure calls and Heterogeneous Services.
single sign-on
The ability for a user to log in to different servers using a single password. This
permits the user to authenticate to all servers the user is authorized to access.
sqlnet.ora file
A configuration file for the client or server that specifies:
■
Client domain to append to unqualified service names or net service names
■
Order of naming methods the client should use when resolving a name
■
Logging and tracing features to use
■
Route of connections
■
External naming parameters
■
Oracle Advanced Security parameters
The sqlnet.ora file typically resides in $ORACLE_HOME/network/admin on UNIX
platforms and %ORACLE_HOME%\network\admin on Windows operating systems.
SSL
See Secure Sockets Layer (SSL).
System Global Area (SGA)
A group of shared memory structures that contain data and control information for an
Oracle instance.
Glossary-19
TCP/IP protocol
TCP/IP protocol
Transmission Control Protocol/Internet Protocol. The de facto standard
communication protocol used for client/server conversation over a network.
TCP/IP with SSL protocol
A protocol that enables an Oracle application on a client to communicate with remote
Oracle databases through the TCP/IP protocol and Secure Sockets Layer (SSL).
Thin JDBC Driver
Thin JDBC driver is Oracle's Type 4 driver designed for Java applet and Java
application developers. The JDBC driver establishes a direct connection to the Oracle
database server over Java sockets. Access to the database is assisted with a lightweight
implementation of Oracle Net and Two-Task Common (TTC).
tick
The amount of time it takes for a message to be sent and processed from the client to
the server or from the server to the client
TNS
See Transparent Network Substrate (TNS).
tnsnames.ora file
A configuration file that contains maps net service names to connect descriptors. This
file is used for the local naming method. The tnsnames.ora file typically resides in
$ORACLE_HOME/network/admin on UNIX platforms and %ORACLE_
HOME%\network\admin.
tracing
A facility that writes detailed information about an operation to an output file. The
trace facility produces a detailed sequence of statements that describe the events of an
operation as they are executed. Administrators use the trace facility for diagnosing an
abnormal condition; it is not normally turned on.
See also logging.
Transparent Application Failover (TAF)
A run-time failover for high-availability environments, such as Oracle Real
Application Clusters and Oracle Fail Safe, that refers to the failover and
re-establishment of application-to-service connections. It enables client applications to
automatically reconnect to the database if the connection fails, and, optionally, resume
a SELECT statement that was in progress. This reconnect happens automatically from
within the Oracle Call Interface (OCI) library.
Transparent Network Substrate (TNS)
A foundation technology, built into the Oracle Net foundation layer that works with
any standard network transport protocol.
transport
A networking layer that maintains end-to-end reliability through data flow control
and error recovery methods. The Oracle Net foundation layer uses Oracle protocol
support for the transport layer.
TTC
See Two-Task Common (TTC).
Glossary-20
Windows NT native authentication
Two-Task Common (TTC)
A presentation layer type that is used in a typical Oracle Net connection to provide
character set and data type conversion between different character sets or formats on
the client and server.
UPI
User Program Interface
virtual circuit
A piece of shared memory used by the dispatcher for client database connection
requests and replies. The dispatcher places a virtual circuit on a common queue when
a request arrives. An idle shared server picks up the virtual circuit from the common
queue, services the request, and relinquishes the virtual circuit before attempting to
retrieve another virtual circuit from the common queue.
WebDAV protocol
World Wide Web Distributed Authoring and Versioning. A protocol with a set of
extensions to the HTTP protocol which allows users to manage files on remote Web
servers.
Windows NT native authentication
An authentication method that enables a client single login access to a Windows NT
server and a database running on the server.
Glossary-21
Windows NT native authentication
Glossary-22
Index
Symbols
# (quotation mark) symbol
reserved in configuration files, 3-2
( ) (parenthesis) symbol
reserved in configuration files, 3-2
= (equals sign) symbol
reserved in configuration files, 3-2
Numerics
1024 port,
1521 port,
1575 port,
1630 port,
1646 port,
1830 port,
2482 port,
2484 port,
4-3
4-3
4-3
4-3
5-23
4-3
4-3
4-3
A
ACT networking parameter, 8-7
ADDRESS networking parameter, 4-1, 6-5, 7-3, 8-4
ADDRESS_LIST networking parameter, 4-2, 6-6
ADMIN_RESTRICTIONS_listener_name control
parameter, 7-11
ADMINISTER command, 2-4
ADR
described, 5-33
ADR diagnostic parameters
cman.ora
ADR_BASE, 8-9
DIAG_ADR_ENABLED, 8-9
listener.ora
ADR_BASE_listener_name, 7-17
DIAG_ADR_ENABLED_listener_name, 7-17
sqlnet.ora
ADR_BASE, 5-34
DIAG_ADR_ENABLED, 5-34
ADR_BASE diagnostic parameter, 5-34, 8-9
ADR_BASE_listener_name diagnostic
parameter, 7-17
ASO_AUTHENTICATION_FILTER networking
parameter, 8-4
ASO_AUTHENTICATION_LEVEL, 8-4
attributes
orclCommonContextMap, C-4
orclDescList, C-4
orclDescName, C-4
orclLoadBalance, C-4
orclNetAddrList, C-4
orclNetAddrString, C-4
orclNetConnParamList, C-4
orclNetFailover, C-4
orclNetFailoverModeString, C-4
orclNetHostname, C-4
orclNetInstanceName, C-4
orclNetInstanceRole, C-4
orclNetProtocol, C-4
orclNetReceiveBufSize, C-4
orclNetSdu, C-4
orclNetSendBufSize, C-4
orclNetServiceName, C-4
orclNetSourceRoute, C-4
orclSid, C-4
orclVersion, C-4
authentication ability, 5-10
automatic diagnostic repository
described, 5-33
See ADR
AUTOMATIC_IPC networking parameter, A-3
B
BACKUP networking parameter, 6-12
BEQUEATH_DETACH networking parameter, 5-3
C
CDS. See Cell Directory Services (CDS)
Cell Directory Services (CDS) external naming
configuring, 5-6
CHANGE_PASSWORD command, 1-3, 1-4
character sets
for net service name, 3-3
network, for keyword values, 3-2
class of secure transports parameters
See COST parameters
client load balancing
configuring, 6-7
with Oracle Connection Manager, 6-3
Index-1
CLOSE CONNECTIONS command, 2-4
cman.ora file
default values of parameters, 8-2
diagnostic parameters
ADR_BASE, 8-9
DIAG_ADR_ENABLED, 8-9
LOG_DIRECTORY, 8-11
LOG_LEVEL, 8-9
TRACE_DIRECTORY, 8-11
TRACE_FILELEN, 8-12
TRACE_FILENO, 8-12
TRACE_LEVEL, 8-10
TRACE_TIMESTAMP, 8-10
example, 8-1
listening address section, 8-2
parameter list section, 8-2
parameters
ACT, 8-7
ADDRESS, 8-4
ASO_AUTHENTICATION_FILTER, 8-4
CONNECTION_STATISTICS, 8-5
DST, 8-7
EVENT_GROUP, 8-5
IDLE_TIMEOUT, 8-5
INBOUND_CONNECT_TIMEOUT, 8-5
MAX_CMCTL_SESSIONS, 8-6
MAX_CONNECTIONS, 8-6
MAX_GATEWAY_PROCESSES, 8-6
MIN_GATEWAY_PROCESSES, 8-6
OUTBOUND_CONNECT_TIMEOUT, 8-6
PARAMETER_LIST, 8-2 to 8-4
PASSWORD_instance_name, 8-6
REMOTE_ADMIN, 8-6
RULE, 8-7
SESSION_TIMEOUT, 8-8
SRC, 8-7
SRV, 8-7
rule list section, 8-2
cman.ora file parameters, 8-4
comments in configuration files, 3-2
COMMUNITY networking parameter, A-3
configuration parameters
listener.ora
CONNECTION_RATE_listener_name, 7-10
RATE_LIMIT, 7-10
connect descriptors, 6-1
CONNECT_DATA networking parameter, 6-11
CONNECT_TIMEOUT_listener_name networking
parameter, A-3
connection rate limiter, 7-9
CONNECTION_RATE_listener_name configuration
parameter, 7-10
CONNECTION_STATISTICS, 8-5
CONNECTION_STATISTICS networking
parameter, 8-5
connections
adjusting listener queue size to avoid errors, 7-4
connect-time failover
configuring, 6-7
GLOBAL_DBNAME networking parameter in
Index-2
listener.ora, B-8
with Oracle Connection Manager, 6-3
control parameters
listener.ora
ADMIN_RESTRICTIONS_listener_name, 7-11
CRS_NOTIFICATION_listener_name, 7-12
DEFAULT_SERVICE_listener_name, 7-12
INBOUND_CONNECT_TIMEOUT_listener_
name, 7-12
PASSWORDS_listener_name, 7-13
SAVE_CONFIG_ON_STOP_listener_
name, 7-13
SSL_CLIENT_AUTHENTICATION, 7-14
STARTUP_WAIT_TIME_listener_name, 7-14
SUBSCRIBE_NODE_DOWN_EVENT_listener_
name, 7-14
WALLET_LOCATION, 7-15
control utilities
Listener Control utility, 1-4 to 1-24
Oracle Connection Manager Control
utility, 2-2 to 2-25
COST parameters, 7-21
DYNAMIC_REGISTRATION_listener_name, 7-23
SECURE_CONTROL_listener_name, 7-21
SECURE_PROTOCOL_listener_name, 7-22
SECURE_REGISTER_listener_name, 7-22
CRS_NOTIFICATION_listener_name control
parameter, 7-12
D
database resident connection pooling, 6-14
DB_DOMAIN initialization parameter, B-8
DB_NAME initialization parameter, B-8
DBSNMP_START command, A-4
DBSNMP_STATUS command, A-4
DBSNMP_STOP command, A-4
DEFAULT_ADMIN_CONTEXT networking
parameter, 9-2
DEFAULT_SDU_SIZE networking parameter, 5-4
DEFAULT_SERVICE_listener_name control
parameter, 7-12
DELAY networking parameter, 6-12
DESCRIPTION networking parameter, 6-4, 7-3
DESCRIPTION_LIST networking parameter, 6-5
DIAG_ADR_ENABLED diagnostic parameter, 5-34,
8-9
DIAG_ADR_ENABLED_listener_name diagnostic
parameter, 7-17
diagnostic parameters
cman.ora
ADR_BASE, 8-9
DIAG_ADR_ENABLED, 8-9
LOG_DIRECTORY, 8-11
LOG_LEVEL, 8-9
TRACE_DIRECTORY, 8-11
TRACE_FILELEN, 8-12
TRACE_FILENO, 8-12
TRACE_LEVEL, 8-10
TRACE_TIMESTAMP, 8-10
listener.ora
ADR_BASE_listener_name, 7-17
DIAG_ADR_ENABLED_listener_name, 7-17
LOG_DIRECTORY_listener_name, 7-19
LOG_FILE_listener_name, 7-19
LOGGING_listener_name, 7-18
TRACE_DIRECTORY_listener_name, 7-20
TRACE_FILE_listener_name, 7-20
TRACE_FILEN_listener_name, 7-20
TRACE_FILENO_listener_name, 7-20
TRACE_LEVEL_listener_name, 7-18
TRACE_TIMESTAMP_listener_name, 7-18
sqlnet.ora
ADR_BASE, 5-34
DIAG_ADR_ENABLED, 5-34
LOG_DIRECTORY_CLIENT, 5-37
LOG_DIRECTORY_SERVER, 5-37
LOG_FILE_CLIENT, 5-37
LOG_FILE_SERVER, 5-38
TRACE_DIRECTORY_CLIENT, 5-38
TRACE_DIRECTORY_SERVER, 5-38
TRACE_FILE_CLIENT, 5-39
TRACE_FILE_SERVER, 5-39
TRACE_FILELEN_CLIENT, 5-39
TRACE_FILELEN_SERVER, 5-39
TRACE_FILENO_CLIENT, 5-40
TRACE_FILENO_SERVER, 5-40
TRACE_LEVEL_CLIENT, 5-35
TRACE_LEVEL_SERVER, 5-35
TRACE_TIMESTAMP_CLIENT, 5-35
TRACE_TIMESTAMP_SERVER, 5-36
TRACE_UNIQUE_CLIENT, 5-40
directory naming
configuring, 5-5
DIRECTORY_SERVER_TYPE networking
parameter, 9-2
DIRECTORY_SERVERS, 9-1
DISABLE_OOB networking parameter, 5-4
DST networking parameter, 8-7
DYNAMIC_REGISTRATION_listener_name
COST parameter, 7-23
E
ENABLE networking parameter, 6-6
ENVS networking parameter, 7-6
error messages
ORA-12170, 5-17
ORA-12525, 1-12, 7-13
ORA-12535, 5-24
ORA-12547, 5-17
ORA-12608, 5-23, 5-24
EVENT_GROUP, 8-5
EVENT_GROUP networking parameter, 8-5
EXIT command
of Listener Control utility, 1-6
of Oracle Connection Manager Control
utility, 2-6
external naming
Cell Directory Services (CDS), 5-6
Network Information Service (NIS), 5-6
F
failover
connect-time, 6-7
Transparent Application Failover
FAILOVER networking parameter, 6-7, B-5
FAILOVER_MODE networking parameter, 6-12
G
global database name, B-8
GLOBAL_DBNAME networking parameter, 7-7, B-8
GLOBAL_NAME networking parameter, 6-13
H
HELP command
of Listener Control utility, 1-6
of Oracle Connection Manager Control
utility, 2-6
HOST networking parameter, 4-2, 4-3
HS networking parameter, 6-13
I
Identix authentication, A-1, B-1
IDLE_TIMEOUT, 8-5
IDLE_TIMEOUT networking parameter, 8-5
INBOUND_CONNECT_TIMEOUT, 8-5
INBOUND_CONNECT_TIMEOUT networking
parameter, 8-5
INBOUND_CONNECT_TIMEOUT_listener_name
control parameter, 7-12
INBOUND_CONNECT_TIMEPUT_listener_name
networking parameter, 7-12
INSTANCE_NAME initialization parameter, B-6
INSTANCE_NAME networking parameter, 6-13
IP networking parameter, 7-3
IPC protocol
KEY parameter, 4-2
PROTOCOL parameter, 4-2
IPC, parameters for addresses, 4-2
K
keepalive feature, 6-6
KEY networking parameter, 4-2
keyword syntax rules, for configuration files, 3-2
keyword values, network character sets for, 3-2
L
LDAP schema
attributes, C-1 to C-4
object classes, C-1 to C-4
ldap.ora file
DEFAULT_ADMIN_CONTEXT parameter, 9-2
DIRECTORY_SERVER_TYPE parameter, 9-2
Listener Control utility, 1-3
Index-3
command reference, 1-4 to 1-24
commands
CHANGE_PASSWORD, 1-4
EXIT, 1-6
HELP, 1-6
QUIT, 1-7, 1-8
RELOAD, 1-8
SAVE_CONFIG, 1-8
SERVICES, 1-9
SET, 1-10
SET CONNECT_TIMEOUT, 1-11
SET CURRENT_LISTENER, 1-11
SET DISPLAYMODE, 1-12
SET INBOUND_CONNECT_TIMEOUT, 1-12
SET LOG_DIRECTORY, 1-13
SET LOG_FILE, 1-13
SET LOG_STATUS, 1-14
SET PASSWORD, 1-15
SET STARTUP_WAITTIME, 1-16
SET TRC_DIRECTORY, 1-16
SET TRC_FILE, 1-17
SET TRC_LEVEL, 1-18
SET USE_PLUGANDPLAY, 1-18
SHOW, 1-18
SHOW CURRENT_LISTENER, 1-19
SHOW DISPLAYMODE, 1-19
SHOW INBOUND_CONNECT_
TIMEOUT, 1-19
SHOW LOG_DIRECTORY, 1-19
SHOW LOG_FILE, 1-19
SHOW LOG_STATUS, 1-19
SHOW RAWMODE, 1-19
SHOW SAVE_CONFIG_ON_STOP, 1-19
SHOW STARTUP_WAITTIME, 1-19
SHOW TRC_DIRECTORY, 1-19
SHOW TRC_FILE, 1-19
SHOW TRC_LEVEL, 1-19
SPAWN, 1-19
START, 1-20
STATUS, 1-21
STOP, 1-22
TRACE, 1-23
VERSION, 1-24
distributed operation, 1-2
function of and syntax format, 1-1
remote administration, 1-2
SET commands, 1-2
SET CONNECT_TIMEOUT, A-4
SHOW commands, 1-2
SHOW CONNECT_TIMEOUT, A-4
unsupported commands
DBSNMP_START, A-4
DBSNMP_STATUS, A-4
DBSNMP_STOP, A-4
SET USE_PLUGANDPLAY, A-4
SHOW USE_PLUGANDPLAY, A-4
listener.ora file
configuration parameter reference, 7-2 to 7-16
configuration parameters
CONNECTION_RATE_listener_name, 7-10
Index-4
RATE_LIMIT, 7-10
control parameters
ADMIN_RESTRICTIONS_listener_name, 7-11
CRS_NOTIFICATION_listener_name, 7-12
DEFAULT_SERVICE_listener_name, 7-12
INBOUND_CONNECT_TIMEOUT_listener_
name, 7-12
PASSWORDS_listener_name, 7-13
SAVE_CONFIG_ON_STOP_listener_
name, 7-13
SSL_CLIENT_AUTHENTICATION, 7-14
STARTUP_WAIT_TIME_listener_name, 7-14
SUBSCRIBE_NODE_DOWN_EVENT_listener_
name, 7-14
WALLET_LOCATION, 7-15
COST parameters, 7-21
diagnostic parameters
ADR_BASE_listener_name, 7-17
DIAG_ADR_ENABLED_listener_name, 7-17
LOG_DIRECTORY_listener_name, 7-19
LOG_FILE_listener_name, 7-19
LOGGING_listener_name, 7-18
TRACE_DIRECTORY_listener_name, 7-20
TRACE_FILE_listener_name, 7-20
TRACE_FILEN_listener_name, 7-20
TRACE_FILENO_listener_name, 7-20
TRACE_LEVEL_listener_name, 7-18
TRACE_TIMESTAMP_listener_name, 7-18
migrating, B-7
parameters
ADDRESS, 7-3
DESCRIPTION, 7-3
ENVS, 7-6
GLOBAL_DBNAME, 7-7, B-8
INBOUND_CONNECT_TIMEOUT_listener_
name, 7-12
IP, 7-3
ORACLE_HOME, 7-7, B-8
PASSWORDS_listener_name, 1-3
PRESPAWN_DESC, 7-11
PRESPAWN_MAX, 7-11
PROGRAM, 7-8
QUEUESIZE, 7-3
RECV_BUF_SIZE, 7-4
SDU, 7-9
SEND_BUF_SIZE, 7-5
SID_DESC, 7-8
SID_LIST_listener_name, 7-5, 7-11
SID_NAME, 7-9, B-7
unsupported parameters
CONNECT_TIMEOUT_listener_name, A-3
PRESPAWN_DESC, A-3
PRESPAWN_LIST, A-3
PRESPAWN_MAX, A-3
USE_PLUG_AND_PLAY_listener_name, A-3
upgrading, B-7
listeners
adjusting queue size for, 7-4
configuring for Oracle Enterprise Manager, B-7
connect-request timeouts, 7-12
global database name, B-8
multiple, 7-1
Oracle System Identifier, B-7
SID, B-7
load balancing
client, 6-7
LOAD_BALANCE networking parameter, 6-7, B-5
local naming
configuring, 5-5
LOG_DIRECTORY diagnostic parameter, 8-11
LOG_DIRECTORY_CLIENT diagnostic
parameter, 5-37
LOG_DIRECTORY_listener_name diagnostic
parameter, 7-19
LOG_DIRECTORY_SERVER diagnostic
parameter, 5-37
LOG_FILE_CLIENT diagnostic parameter, 5-37
LOG_FILE_listener_name diagnostic parameter, 7-19
LOG_FILE_SERVER diagnostic parameter, 5-38
LOG_LEVEL diagnostic parameter, 8-9
LOGGING_listener_name diagnostic parameter, 7-18
LU6.2 protocol, A-2, B-2
M
MAX_CMCTL_SESSIONS, 8-6
MAX_CMCTL_SESSIONS networking
parameter, 8-6
MAX_CONNECTIONS, 8-6
MAX_CONNECTIONS networking parameter, 8-6
MAX_GATEWAY_PROCESSES, 8-6
MAX_GATEWAY_PROCESSES networking
parameter, 8-6
METHOD networking parameter, 6-12
MIN_GATEWAY_PROCESSES, 8-6
MIN_GATEWAY_PROCESSES networking
parameter, 8-6
multiple listeners, 7-1
N
Named Pipes protocol
parameters for addresses, 4-2
PIPE parameter, 4-2
PROTOCOL parameter, 4-2
SERVER parameter, 4-2
NAMES.CONNECT_TIMEOUT networking
parameter, 5-4
NAMESCTL.TRACE_UNIQUE networking
parameter, 5-7
NAMES.DCE.PREFIX networking parameter,
NAMES.DEFAULT_DOMAIN networking
parameter, A-3
NAMES.DEFAULT_ZONE networking
parameter, A-3
NAMES.DEFAULT.DOMAIN networking
parameter, 5-5
NAMES.DIRECTORY_PATH networking
parameter, 5-5
cds, 5-6
5-4
ezconnect, 5-5
hostname, 5-5
ldap, 5-5
nis, 5-6
tnsnames, 5-5
NAMES.LADP_AUTHENTICATE_BIND networking
parameter, 5-6
NAMES.LDAP_PERSISTENT_SESSION networking
parameter, 5-6
NAMES.NDS.NAME.CONTEXT networking
parameter, A-3
NAMES.NIS.META_MAP networking
parameter, 5-7
Net8
coexistence issues, B-3 to B-4
Oracle9i databases, B-3
using SERVICE_NAME networking
parameter, B-3
using SID networking parameter, B-4
SID networking parameter, B-4
upgrading to Oracle Net Services, B-5 to B-8
configuration files, B-6
listener.ora file, B-7
software on client, B-6
software on server, B-6
tnsnames.ora file, B-7
Net8 OPEN, A-2, B-2
network character sets, keyword values, 3-2
network configuration files
listener.ora, 7-2 to 7-16
sqlnet.ora, 5-1 to 5-32
syntax rules, 3-1
tnsnames.ora, 6-4 to 6-16
Network Information Service external naming
configuring, 5-6
network performance, improving
client load balancing, 6-7
networking parameters
listener.ora configuration reference, 7-2 to 7-16
sqlnet.ora configuration reference, 5-1 to 5-32
tnsnames.ora configuration reference, 6-4 to 6-16
Novell Directory Service, A-2
Novell Directory Services (NDS)
authentication, B-2
external naming, B-2
Novell Directory Services (NDS) authentication, A-2
Novell Directory Services (NDS) external
naming, A-2
O
object classes
orclDBServer, C-1
orclNetAddress, C-3
orclNetAddressList, C-3
orclNetDescription, C-2
orclNetDescriptionList, C-2
orclNetService, C-2
orclNetServiceAlias, C-2
obsolete parameters, A-3
Index-5
ORA-12170 error message, 5-17
ORA-12525 error message, 1-12, 7-13
ORA-12535 error message, 5-23, 5-24
ORA-12547 error message, 5-17
Oracle Connection Manager
client load balancing, 6-3
connect-time failover, 6-3
diagnostic parameters
TRACE_DIRECTORY, 8-11
TRACE_FILELEN, 8-12
TRACE_FILENO, 8-12
TRACE_LEVEL, 8-10
TRACE_TIMESTAMP, 8-10
SOURCE_ROUTE networking parameter, 6-10
Oracle Connection Manager Control utility
command reference, 2-2 to 2-25
commands
ADMINISTER, 2-4
CLOSE CONNECTIONS, 2-4
EXIT, 2-6
HELP, 2-6
QUIT, 2-7
RELOAD, 2-7
RESUME GATEWAYS, 2-8
SAVE_PASSWD, 2-8
SET, 2-9
SET ASO_AUTHENTICATION_FILTER, 2-10
SET CONNECTION_STATISTICS, 2-10
SET EVENT, 2-11
SET IDLE_TIMEOUT, 2-11
SET INBOUND_CONNECT_TIMEOUT, 2-12
SET LOG_DIRECTORY, 2-12
SET LOG_LEVEL, 2-13, 2-16
SET OUTBOUND_CONNECT_
TIMEOUT, 2-14
SET PASSWORD, 2-14
SET SESSION_TIMEOUT, 2-15
SET TRACE_DIRECTORY, 2-16
SET TRACE_LEVEL, 2-16
SHOW, 2-17
SHOW ALL, 2-18
SHOW CONNECTIONS, 2-19
SHOW DEFAULTS, 2-20
SHOW EVENTS, 2-21
SHOW GATEWAYS, 2-21
SHOW PARAMETERS, 2-22
SHOW RULES, 2-23
SHOW SERVICES, 2-24
SHOW STATUS, 2-25
SHOW VERSION, 2-25
SHUTDOWN, 2-26
STARTUP, 2-27
SUSPEND GATEWAY, 2-27
Oracle Connection Manager parameters
ASO_AUTHENTICATION_LEVEL, 8-4
CONNECTION_STATISTICS, 8-5
EVENT_GROUP, 8-5
IDLE_TIMEOUT, 8-5
INBOUND_CONNECT_TIMEOUT, 8-5
MAX_CMCTL_SESSIONS, 8-6
Index-6
MAX_CONNECTIONS, 8-6
MAX_GATEWAY_PROCESSES, 8-6
MIN_GATEWAY_PROCESSES, 8-6
OUTBOUND_CONNECT_TIMEOUT, 8-6
PASSWORD_instance_name, 8-6
REMOTE_ADMIN, 8-6
SESSION_TIMEOUT, 8-8
Oracle Enterprise Manager
static service information in listener.ora file, B-7
Oracle Names
coexistence issues, B-4
Oracle Names support, A-1
Oracle Net Services
coexistence issues, B-3 to B-4
Oracle release 8.0 clients, B-3
Oracle release 8.0 databases, B-4
third-party applications, B-3
using Oracle Net Manager, B-5
using SERVICE_NAME networking
parameter, B-3
using SID networking parameter, B-3
FAILOVER networking parameter, B-5
listener.ora file with Oracle Enterprise
Manager, B-7
LOAD_BALANCE networking parameter, B-5
Oracle Net Manager
Use Options Compatible with Net8 8.0 Clients
option, B-5
Use Oracle8 Release 8.0 Compatible
Identification option, B-5
SERVICE_NAME parameter, B-3
SOURCE_ROUTE parameter, B-5
unsupported features
Identix authentication, B-1
LU6.2, B-2
Net8 OPEN, B-2
Novell Directory Services (NDS)
authentication, B-2
Novell Directory Services (NDS) external
naming, B-2
prespawned dedicated servers, B-2
protocol.ora file, B-2
SecurID authentication, B-1
SPX, B-2
Oracle protocol support
configuring addresses, 4-2
IPC, 4-2
Named Pipes, 4-2
SDP, 4-2
TCP/IP, 4-3
TCP/IP with SSL, 4-3
Oracle Real Application Clusters
connect-time failover, 6-7
FAILOVER networking parameter, 6-7
FAILOVER_MODE networking parameter, 6-12
INSTANCE_NAME networking parameter, 6-14
LOAD_BALANCE networking parameter, 6-7
Oracle schema
attributes, C-1 to C-4
object classes, C-1 to C-4
Oracle System Identifier, configuring on the
listener, B-7
ORACLE_HOME initialization parameter, B-8
ORACLE_HOME networking parameter, 7-7
orclCommonContextMap attribute, C-4
orclDBServer object class, C-1
orclDescList attribute, C-4
orclDescName attribute, C-4
orclLoadBalance attribute, C-4
orclNetAddress object class, C-3
orclNetAddressList object class, C-3
orclNetAddrList attribute, C-4
orclNetAddrString attribute, C-4
orclNetConnParamList attribute, C-4
orclNetDescription object class, C-2
orclNetDescriptionList object class, C-2
orclNetFailover attribute, C-4
orclNetFailoverModeString attribute, C-4
orclNetHostname attribute, C-4
orclNetInstanceName attribute, C-4
orclNetInstanceRole attribute, C-4
orclNetReceiveBufSize attribute, C-4
orclNetSdu attribute, C-4
orclNetSendBufSize attribute, C-4
orclNetService object class, C-2
orclNetServiceAlias object class, C-2
orclNetServiceName attribute, C-4
orclNetSourceRoute attribute, C-4
orclProtocol attribute, C-4
orclSid attribute, C-4
orclVersion attribute, C-4
OSS.MY.WALLET networking parameter, A-3
outbound connect timeout interval, 5-19
OUTBOUND_CONNECT_TIMEOUT, 8-6
OUTBOUND_CONNECT_TIMEOUT networking
parameter, 8-6
P
PARAMETER_LIST networking
parameter, 8-2 to 8-4
PASSWORD_instance_name, 8-6
PASSWORD_instance_namenetworking
parameter, 8-6
passwords
Listener Control utility access, 1-3
PASSWORDS_listener_name control parameter,
PASSWORDS_listener_name parameter, 1-3
PIPE networking parameter, 4-2
port 1024, 4-3
port 1521, 4-3
port 1575, 4-3
port 1630, 4-3
port 1646, 5-23
port 1830, 4-3
port 2483, 4-3
port 2484, 4-3
PORT networking parameter, 4-2, 4-3
port numbers, allowed, 4-3
ports
7-13
privileged, 4-3
PRESPAWN_DESC networking parameter, 7-11,
A-3
PRESPAWN_LIST networking parameter, A-3
PRESPAWN_MAX networking parameter, 7-11, A-3
prespawned dedicated servers, A-2, B-2
privileged ports, 4-3
PROGRAM networking parameter, 7-8
PROTOCOL networking parameter, 4-2, 4-3
protocol.ora file, A-2, B-2
protocols, 4-2, 4-3
authentication ability, 5-10
configuring addresses, 4-2
IPC, 4-2
Named Pipes, 4-2
parameters, 4-2
SDP, 4-2
TCP/IP, 4-3
TCP/IP with SSL, 4-3
Q
QUEUESIZE networking parameter, 7-3
QUEUESIZE parameter
for adjusting listener queue size, 7-4
QUIT command
of Listener Control utility, 1-7, 1-8
of Oracle Connection Manager Control
utility, 2-7
R
randomizing requests among listeners, 6-7
RATE_LIMIT configuration parameter, 7-10
RDB_DATABASE networking parameter, 6-14
RECV_BUF_SIZE networking parameter, 5-7, 6-8,
7-4
reference
for Listener Control utility commands, 1-4 to 1-24
for listener.ora, 7-2 to 7-16
for Oracle Connection Manager Control utility
commands, 2-2 to 2-25
for sqlnet.ora, 5-1 to 5-32
for tnsnames.ora, 6-4 to 6-16
RELOAD command, 2-7
of Listener Control utility, 1-8
REMOTE_ADMIN, 8-6
REMOTE_ADMIN networking parameter, 8-6
RESUME GATEWAYS command, 2-8
RETRIES networking parameter, 6-12
RULE networking parameter, 8-7
rules, syntax for network configuration files, 3-1
S
SAVE_CONFIG command
of Listener Control utility, 1-8
SAVE_CONFIG_ON_STOP_listener_name control
parameter, 7-13
SAVE_PASSWD command, 2-8
SDP protocol
Index-7
parameters for addresses, 4-2
SDP.PF_INET_SDP networking parameter, 5-7
SDU, 5-4
SDU networking parameter, 6-9, 7-9
SEC_USER_AUDIT_ACTION_BANNER networking
parameter, 5-8
SEC_USER_UNAUTHORIZED_ACCESS_BANNER
networking parameter, 5-8
SECURE_CONTROL_listener_name
COST parameter, 7-21
SECURE_PROTOCOL_listener_name
COST parameter, 7-22
SECURE_REGISTER_listener_name
COST parameter, 7-22
SecurID authentication, A-1, B-1
security, 1-3
database server
client network timeouts, 5-23, 5-24
connect-request timeouts, 5-7, 5-9
listeners
connect-request timeouts, 7-12
password usage, 1-3
restricting run-time administration, 7-11
SECURITY networking parameter, 6-16
SEND_BUF_SIZE networking parameter, 5-9, 6-9,
7-5
SERVER networking parameter, 4-2, 6-14
server type
dedicated, 6-14
pooled, 6-14
shared, 6-14
service name
character set keyword values, 3-3
SERVICE_NAME networking parameter, 6-15
SERVICE_NAME parameter, B-3
SERVICE_NAMES initialization parameter, B-6
SERVICES command, 1-9
SESSION_TIMEOUT, 8-8
SESSION_TIMEOUT networking parameter, 8-8
SET ASO_AUTHENTICATION_FILTER
command, 2-10
SET command
of Listener Control utility, 1-10
of Oracle Connection Manager Control
utility, 2-9
SET CONNECT_TIMEOUT command, 1-11, A-4
SET CONNECTION_STATISTICS command, 2-10
SET CURRENT_LISTENER command, 1-11
SET DISPLAYMODE command
of Listener Control utility, 1-12
SET EVENT command, 2-11
SET IDLE_TIMEOUT command, 2-11
SET INBOUND_CONNECT_TIMEOUT command
of Listener Control utility, 1-12
SET INBOUND_CONNECT_TIMEOUT command, of
Oracle Connection Manager Control
utility, 2-12
SET LOG_DIRECTORY command
of Listener Control utility, 1-13
of Oracle Connection Manager Control
Index-8
Utility, 2-12
SET LOG_FILE command, 1-13
SET LOG_LEVEL command, 2-13, 2-16
SET LOG_STATUS command, 1-14
SET OUTBOUND_CONNECT_TIMEOUT
command, 2-14
SET PASSWORD command
of Listener Control utility, 1-15
of Oracle Connection Manager Control
utility, 2-14
SET SAVE_CONFIG_ON_STOP command, 1-15
of Listener Control utility, 1-15
SET SESSION_TIMEOUT command, 2-15
SET STARTUP_WAITTIME command, 1-16
SET TRACE_DIRECTORY command, 2-16
SET TRACE_LEVEL command, 2-16
SET TRC_DIRECTORY command, 1-16
SET TRC_FILE command, 1-17
SET TRC_LEVEL command, 1-18
SET USE_PLUGANDPLAY command, 1-18, A-4
SHOW ALL command, 2-18
SHOW command
of Listener Control utility, 1-18
of Oracle Connection Manager Control
utility, 2-17
SHOW CONNECT_TIMEOUT command, A-4
SHOW CONNECTIONS command, 2-19
SHOW CURRENT_LISTENER command, 1-19
SHOW DEFAULTS command, 2-20
SHOW DISPLAYMODE command
of Listener Control utility, 1-19
SHOW EVENTS command, 2-21
SHOW GATEWAYS command, 2-21
SHOW INBOUND_CONNECT_TIMEOUT
command, 1-19
SHOW LOG_DIRECTORY command, 1-19
SHOW LOG_FILE command, 1-19
SHOW LOG_STATUS command, 1-19
SHOW PARAMETERS command, 2-22
SHOW RAWMODE command, 1-19
SHOW RULES command, 2-23
SHOW SAVE_CONFIG_ON_STOP command, 1-19
SHOW SERVICES command, 2-24
SHOW STARTUP_WAITTIME command, 1-19
SHOW STATUS command, 2-25
SHOW TRC_DIRECTORY command, 1-19
SHOW TRC_FILE command, 1-19
SHOW TRC_LEVEL command, 1-19
SHOW VERSION command, 2-25
SHUTDOWN command, 2-26
SID networking parameter, 6-15, B-4
SID, configuring on the listener, B-7
SID_DESC networking parameter, 7-8
SID_LIST_listener_name networking parameter, 7-11
Oracle Enterprise Manager requirements, 7-5
SID_NAME networking parameter, 7-9
SID_NAME parameter, B-7
SOURCE_ROUTE networking parameter, 6-10
SOURCE_ROUTE parameter, B-5
SPAWN command, 1-19
SPX protocol, A-2, B-2
SQL*Net
coexistence issues, B-3 to B-4
Oracle9i databases, B-3
using SERVICE_NAME networking
parameter, B-3
using SID networking parameter, B-4
migrating to Oracle Net Services, B-5 to B-8
configuration files, B-6
listener.ora file, B-7
software on client, B-6
software on server, B-6
tnsnames.ora file, B-7
verifying service name and instance name, B-6
SID networking parameter, B-4
SQLNET.ALLOWED_LOGON_VERSION
networking parameter, 5-9
SQLNET.ALTERNATE_PORT networking
parameter, 5-20
SQLNET.AUTHENTICATION_KERBEROS5_
SERVICE networking parameter, 5-7
SQLNET.AUTHENTICATION_SERVICES
networking parameter, 5-11
SQLNET.CLIENT_REGISTRATION networking
parameter, 5-12
SQLNET.CRYPTO_CHECKSUM_CLIENT
networking parameter, 5-12
SQLNET.CRYPTO_CHECKSUM_SERVER
networking parameter, 5-13
SQLNET.CRYPTO_CHECKSUM_TYPE_CLIENT
networking parameter, 5-13
SQLNET.CRYPTO_CHECKSUM_TYPE_SERVER
networking parameter, 5-14
SQLNET.CRYPTO_SEED networking
parameter, 5-14, A-3
SQLNET.ENCRYPTION_CLIENT networking
parameter, 5-14
SQLNET.ENCRYPTION_SERVER networking
parameter, 5-15
SQLNET.ENCRYPTION_TYPES_CLIENT networking
parameter, 5-15
SQLNET.ENCRYPTION_TYPES_SERVER
networking parameter, 5-16
SQLNET.EXPIRE_TIME networking parameter, 5-16
SQLNET.IDENTIX_FINGERPRINT_DATABASE
networking parameter, A-3
SQLNET.IDENTIX_FINGERPRINT_DATABASE_
PASSWORD networking parameter, A-3
SQLNET.IDENTIX_FINGERPRINT_DATABASE_
USER networking parameter, A-3
SQLNET.IDENTIX_FINGERPRINT_METHOD
networking parameter, A-3
SQLNET.INBOUND_CONNECT_TIMEOUT
networking parameter, 5-7
SQLNET.KERBEROS5_CC_NAME networking
parameter, 5-18
SQLNET.KERBEROS5_CLOCKSKEW networking
parameter, 5-18
SQLNET.KERBEROS5_CONF networking
parameter, 5-18
SQLNET.KERBEROS5_KEYTAB networking
parameter, 5-19
SQLNET.KERBEROS5_REALMS networking
parameter, 5-19
sqlnet.ora file
configuration parameter reference, 5-1 to 5-32
diagnostic parameters
ADR_BASE, 5-34
DIAG_ADR_ENABLED, 5-34
LOG_DIRECTORY_CLIENT, 5-37
LOG_DIRECTORY_SERVER, 5-37
LOG_FILE_CLIENT, 5-37
LOG_FILE_SERVER, 5-38
TRACE_DIRECTORY_CLIENT, 5-38
TRACE_DIRECTORY_SERVER, 5-38
TRACE_FILE_CLIENT, 5-39
TRACE_FILE_SERVER, 5-39
TRACE_FILELEN_CLIENT, 5-39
TRACE_FILELEN_SERVER, 5-39
TRACE_FILENO_CLIENT, 5-40
TRACE_FILENO_SERVER, 5-40
TRACE_LEVEL_CLIENT, 5-35
TRACE_LEVEL_SERVER, 5-35
TRACE_TIMESTAMP_CLIENT, 5-35
TRACE_TIMESTAMP_SERVER, 5-36
TRACE_UNIQUE_CLIENT, 5-40
parameters
BEQUEATH_DETACH, 5-3
DEFAULT_SDU_SIZE, 5-4
DISABLE_OOB, 5-4
NAMES_DIRECTORY_PATH, 5-5
NAMES.CONNECT_TIMEOUT, 5-4
NAMESCTL.TRACE_UNIQUE, 5-7
NAMES.DCE_PREFIX, 5-4
NAMES.DEFAULT_DOMAIN, 5-5, A-3
NAMES.LADP_AUTHENTICATE_BIND, 5-6
NAMES.LDAP_PERSISTENT_SESSION, 5-6
NAMES.NIS.META_MAP, 5-7
RECV_BUF_SIZE, 5-7
SDP.PF_INET_SDP, 5-7
SEC_USER_AUDIT_ACTION_BANNER, 5-8
SEC_USER_UNAUTHORIZED_ACCESS_
BANNER, 5-8
SEND_BUF_SIZE, 5-9
SQLNET.ALLOWED_LOGON_VERSION, 5-9
SQLNET.ALTERNATE_PORT, 5-20
SQLNET.AUTHENTICATION_KERBEROS5_
SERVICE, 5-7
SQLNET.AUTHENTICATION_
SERVICES, 5-11
SQLNET.CLIENT_REGISTRATION, 5-12
SQLNET.CRYPTO_CHECKSUM_
CLIENT, 5-12
SQLNET.CRYPTO_CHECKSUM_
SERVER, 5-13
SQLNET.CRYPTO_CHECKSUM_TYPE_
CLIENT, 5-13
SQLNET.CRYPTO_CHECKSUM_TYPE_
SERVER, 5-14
SQLNET.CRYPTO_SEED, 5-14
Index-9
SQLNET.ENCRYPTION_SERVER, 5-15
SQLNET.ENCRYPTION_TYPES_
CLIENT, 5-15
SQLNET.ENCRYPTION_TYPES_
SERVER, 5-16
SQLNET.ENCYRPTION_CLIENT, 5-14
SQLNET.EXPIRE_TIME, 5-16
SQLNET.IDENTIX_FINGERPRINT_
DATABASE_PASSWORD, A-3
SQLNET.INBOUND_CONNECT_
TIMEOUT, 5-7
SQLNET.KERBEROS5_CC_NAME, 5-18
SQLNET.KERBEROS5_CLOCKSKEW, 5-18
SQLNET.KERBEROS5_CONF, 5-18
SQLNET.KERBEROS5_KEYTAB, 5-19
SQLNET.KERBEROS5_REALMS, 5-19
SQLNET.OUTBOUND_CONNECT_
TIMEOUT, 5-19
SQLNET.RADIUS_ALTERNATE, 5-20
SQLNET.RADIUS_ALTERNATE_
RETRIES, 5-20
SQLNET.RADIUS_AUTHENTICATION, 5-21
SQLNET.RADIUS_AUTHENTICATION_
INTERFACE, 5-21
SQLNET.RADIUS_AUTHENTICATION_
PORT, 5-21
SQLNET.RADIUS_AUTHENTICATION_
RETRIES, 5-22
SQLNET.RADIUS_AUTHENTICATION_
TIMEOUT, 5-22
SQLNET.RADIUS_CHALLENGE_
RESPONSE, 5-22
SQLNET.RADIUS_SECRET, 5-22
SQLNET.RADIUS_SEND_
ACCOUNTING, 5-23
SQLNET.RECV_TIMEOUT, 5-23
SQLNET.SEND_TIMEOUT, 5-24
SSL_CERT_FILE, 5-25
SSL_CERT_PATH, 5-25
SSL_CERT_REVOCATION, 5-24
SSL_CIPHER_SUITES, 5-25
SSL_SERVER_DN_MATCH, 5-26
SSL_VERSION, 5-27
SSL.CLIENT_AUTHENTICATION, 5-26
TCP.CONNECT_TIMEOUT, 5-27
TCP.EXCLUDED_NODES, 5-27
TCP.INVITED_NODES, 5-28
TCP.NODELAY, 5-28
TCP.VALIDNODE_CHECKING, 5-28
TNSPING.TRACE_DIRECTORY, 5-29
TNSPING.TRACE_LEVEL, 5-29
USE_DEDICATED_SERVER, 5-30
WALLET_LOCATION, 5-31, A-3
unsupported parameters
AUTOMATIC_IPC, A-3
NAMES.DEFAULT_ZONE, A-3
NAMES.NDS.NAME.CONTEXT, A-3
OSS.MY.WALLET, A-3
SQLNET.CRYPTO_SEED, A-3
SQLNET.IDENTIX_FINGERPRINT_
Index-10
DATABASE, A-3
SQLNET.IDENTIX_FINGERPRINT_
DATABASE_PASSWORD, A-3
SQLNET.IDENTIX_FINGERPRINT_
DATABASE_USER, A-3
SQLNET.IDENTIX_FINGERPRINT_
METHOD, A-3
SQLNET.OUTBOUND_CONNECT_TIMEOUT
networking parameter, 5-19
SQLNET.RADIUS_ALTERNATE networking
parameter, 5-20
SQLNET.RADIUS_ALTERNATE_RETRIES
networking parameter, 5-20
SQLNET.RADIUS_AUTHENTICATION networking
parameter, 5-21
SQLNET.RADIUS_AUTHENTICATION_
INTERFACE networking parameter, 5-21
SQLNET.RADIUS_AUTHENTICATION_PORT
networking parameter, 5-21
SQLNET.RADIUS_AUTHENTICATION_RETRIES
networking parameter, 5-22
SQLNET.RADIUS_AUTHENTICATION_TIMEOUT
networking parameter, 5-22
SQLNET.RADIUS_CHALLENGE_RESPONSE
networking parameter, 5-22
SQLNET.RADIUS_SECRET networking
parameter, 5-22
SQLNET.RADIUS_SEND_ACCOUNTING
networking parameter, 5-23
SQLNET.RECV_TIMEOUT networking
parameter, 5-23
SQLNET.SEND_TIMEOUT networking
parameter, 5-24
SRC networking parameter, 8-7
SRV networking parameter, 8-7
SSL_CERT_FILE networking parameter, 5-25
SSL_CERT_PATH networking parameter, 5-25
SSL_CERT_REVOCATION networking
parameter, 5-24
SSL_CIPHER_SUITES networking parameter, 5-25
SSL_CLIENT_AUTHENTICATION control
parameter, 7-14
SSL_SERVER_CERT_DN networking
parameter, 6-16
SSL_SERVER_DN_MATCH networking
parameter, 5-26
SSL_VERSION networking parameter, 5-27
SSL.CLIENT_AUTHENTICATION networking
parameter, 5-26
START command
of Listener Control utility, 1-20
STARTUP command, 2-27
STARTUP_WAIT_TIME_listener_name control
parameter, 7-14
STATUS command
of Listener Control utility, 1-21
STOP command
of Listener Control utility, 1-22
SUBSCRIBE_NODE_DOWN_EVENT_listener_name
control parameter, 7-14
SUSPEND GATEWAY command, 2-27
syntax
rules for network configuration files, 3-1
T
TAF
see Transparent Application Failover (TAF)
TCP.CONNECT_TIMEOUT networking
parameter, 5-27
TCP.EXCLUDED_NODES networking
parameter, 5-27
TCP.INVITED_NODES networking parameter, 5-28
TCP/IP protocol
HOST parameter, 4-2, 4-3
parameters for addresses, 4-3
PORT parameter, 4-2, 4-3
PROTOCOL parameter, 4-2, 4-3
TCP/IP with SSL protocol
HOST parameter, 4-3
parameters for addresses, 4-3
PORT parameter, 4-3
PROTOCOL parameter, 4-3
TCP.NODELAY networking parameter, 5-28
TCP.VALIDNODE_CHECKING networking
parameter, 5-28
terminated connection detection
limitations, 5-17
SQLNET.EXPIRE_TIME parameter, 5-16
time-stamping
client trace files, 5-35
database server trace files, 5-36
listener trace files, 7-18
tnsnames.ora file
configuration parameter reference, 6-4 to 6-16
migrating, B-7
parameters
ADDRESS, 6-5
ADDRESS_LIST, 6-6
BACKUP, 6-12
CONNECT_DATA, 6-11
DELAY, 6-12
DESCRIPTION, 6-4
DESCRIPTION_LIST, 6-5
ENABLE, 6-6
FAILOVER, 6-7, B-5
FAILOVER_MODE, 6-12
GLOBAL_NAME, 6-13
HS, 6-13
INSTANCE_NAME, 6-13
LOAD_BALANCE, 6-7, B-5
METHOD, 6-12
RDB_DATABASE, 6-14
RECV_BUF_SIZE, 6-8
RETRIES, 6-12
SDU, 6-9
SECURITY, 6-16
SEND_BUF_SIZE, 6-9
SERVER, 6-14
SERVICE_NAME, 6-15, B-3
SID, 6-15, B-4
SOURCE_ROUTE, 6-10, B-5
SSL_SERVER_CERT_DN, 6-16
TYPE, 6-12
TYPE_OF_SERVICE, 6-11
unsupported parameters
COMMUNITY, A-3
upgrading, B-7
TNSPING.TRACE_DIRECTORY networking
parameter, 5-29
TNSPING.TRACE_LEVEL networking
parameter, 5-29
TRACE command, 1-23
trace files
cycling
client, 5-40
database server, 5-40
time-stamping
client, 5-35
database server, 5-36
listener, 7-18
TRACE_DIRECTORY diagnostic parameter, 8-11
TRACE_DIRECTORY_CLIENT diagnostic
parameter, 5-38
TRACE_DIRECTORY_listener_name diagnostic
parameter, 7-20
TRACE_DIRECTORY_SERVER diagnostic
parameter, 5-38
TRACE_FILE_CLIENT diagnostic parameter, 5-39
TRACE_FILE_listener_name diagnostic
parameter, 7-20
TRACE_FILE_SERVER diagnostic parameter, 5-39
TRACE_FILELEN diagnostic parameter, 8-12
TRACE_FILELEN_CLIENT diagnostic
parameter, 5-39
TRACE_FILELEN_SERVER diagnostic
parameter, 5-39
TRACE_FILEN_listener_name diagnostic
parameter, 7-20
TRACE_FILENO diagnostic parameter, 8-12
TRACE_FILENO_CLIENT diagnostic
parameter, 5-40
TRACE_FILENO_listener_name diagnostic
parameter, 7-20
TRACE_FILENO_SERVER diagnostic
parameter, 5-40
TRACE_LEVEL diagnostic parameter, 8-10
TRACE_LEVEL_CLIENT diagnostic parameter, 5-35
TRACE_LEVEL_listener_name diagnostic
parameter, 7-18
TRACE_LEVEL_SERVER diagnostic
parameter, 5-35
TRACE_TIMESTAMP diagnostic parameter, 8-10
TRACE_TIMESTAMP_CLIENT diagnostic
parameter, 5-35
TRACE_TIMESTAMP_listener_name diagnostic
parameter, 7-18
TRACE_TIMESTAMP_SERVER diagnostic
parameter, 5-36
TRACE_UNIQUE_CLIENT diagnostic
Index-11
parameter, 5-40
tracing
cycling files
client, 5-40
database server, 5-40
time-stamping
client trace files, 5-35
database server trace files, 5-36
listener trace files, 7-18
Transparent Application Failover (TAF)
GLOBAL_DBNAME networking parameter in
listener.ora, B-8
parameters
TYPE networking parameter, 6-12
TYPE_OF_SERVICE networking parameter, 6-11
U
Use Options Compatible with Net8 8.0 Clients
option, B-5
Use Oracle8 Release 8.0 Compatible Identification
option, B-5
USE_DEDICATED_SERVER networking
parameter, 5-30
USE_PLUG_AND_PLAY_listener_name
parameter, A-3
V
VERSION command
of Listener Control utility, 1-24
W
WALLET_LOCATION control parameter, 7-15
WALLET_LOCATION networking parameter, 5-31,
A-3
WALLET_OVERRIDE, 5-32
Index-12
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