Understanding stability boundary conditions charts in TL431, TL432

Understanding stability boundary conditions charts in TL431, TL432
Application Report
SLVA482A – September 2011 – Revised January 2014
Understanding Stability Boundary Conditions Charts in
TL431, TL432 Data Sheet
Ronald Michallick........................................................................................... Standard Linear and Logic
ABSTRACT
The stability boundary conditions charts in the TL431, TL432 data sheet (SLVS543) are often
misinterpreted leading to designs with occasional problems with oscillation. This application note gives
design guidance.
Choosing a Shunt Capacitor
The TL431, TL432 family of shunt regulators were designed to have wide bandwidth while ensuring
stability without any external frequency compensation. This makes the device very useful in a control loop
application and as a reference voltage generator without external capacitance.
Adding an external capacitor across cathode to anode (ground) when used as a reference generator will
create an output pole. This pole will reduce the phase margin and potentially cause oscillation. The
acceptable range for load capacitance can be determined from the typical stability boundary conditions in
the TL431, TL432 data sheet. The first step is to determine which of the two charts to use. There are two
stability charts in the typical characteristics section of the data sheet because the two die designs have
different stability boundaries. The chart titles list the devices covered by the chart.
The application cathode voltage determines which chart series to use. The series are Vref, 5V, 10V, and
15V and labeled as A, B, C, and D respectively. Other application voltages can be visually interpolated
between the other series. The point where the application cathode current (Y axis) intersects the VKA
series has a corresponding capacitance value on the X axis.
Figure 1. Stability Boundary Conditions For all TL431 and TL431A Devices
(Except for SOT23-3, SC-70, and Q-Temp Devices)
SLVA482A – September 2011 – Revised January 2014
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Understanding Stability Boundary Conditions Charts in TL431, TL432 Data
Sheet
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1
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Figure 1 Series “A” is needed because VKA = Vref . The 10 mA cathode current line intersects series “A”
close to 0.01 µF (red dot) and a second time at 2.2 µF (green dot). This means the capacitance range
between 0.01 µF and 2.2 µF would cause a typical device to oscillate. Using capacitance less than 0.01
µF or greater than 2.2 µF would not oscillate with a typical device.
However, this chart represents a typical device and no phase margin. As a point of reference, figure 2
shows stability with 30° phase margin. A robust design must have a significant phase margin for all
devices to prevent oscillation or ringing on transients.
STABILITY BOUNDARY CONDITIONS WITH 30ƒ PHASE MARGIN
FOR ALL TL431B, TL432, SOT23-3, SC-70, AND Q-TEMP DEVICES
IKA - Cathode Current - mA
100
A 2.5V
10
B 5V
C 10V
D 15V
1
0.001
0.010
0.100
1.000
CL - Load capacitiance - uF
10.000
Figure 2. Stability Boundary Conditions For all TL431B and TL432 Devices
Using a value ½ the capacitance 0.01 µF does not provide enough design margin. A randomly chosen
TL431AILP sample had a low level oscillation using a 5 nF capacitor. The oscilloscope capture shows the
cathode voltage that is initially has 12 mA of cathode current. At 1 µS (one division), the cathode current is
lowered to 10 mA. The cathode begins to oscillate at an amplitude of approximately 35 mV peak-to-peak.
Figure 3.
2
Understanding Stability Boundary Conditions Charts in TL431, TL432 Data
Sheet
SLVA482A – September 2011 – Revised January 2014
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Copyright © 2011–2014, Texas Instruments Incorporated
Output capacitor zero as a solution
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Robust protection from oscillation requires phase margin for all samples across temperature so the
recommend capacitance is less than 1/10 of the left boundary line or greater than 10 times the right
boundary line. For the example, the recommended range is less than 1 nF or greater than 22 µF. The
cathode waveform using 1 nF on the randomly selected sample with a 1 nF capacitor is in Figure 4.
Figure 4.
With 1 nF capacitive load, the output is stable and the transient ringing falls into the noise floor.
1
Output capacitor zero as a solution
The output capacitor pole greatly limits the capacitors that can be used. However, any capacitor could be
used if a series resistor was added that created an output zero at a low enough frequency. The zero can
cancel most of phase lag of the output pole at the unity gain bandwidth frequency of the loop.
The charts in figures 5 through 8 show the series resistance that needs to be added to create an output
zero at ½ the typical unity gain frequency of the shunt when loaded with the capacitance directly (no
series resistance) and a low cathode current of 1mA. Adding the resistor or increasing cathode current will
increase the loop unity gain frequency a little and device variance could reduce the bandwidth a little. The
2:1 bandwidth to zero ratio will provide good phase margin relief to make a stable reference generator.
Figures 5 through 8 show the minimum recommended series resistance to add for desired output
capacitance. There is no limit to the maximum resistance.
Recommended ESR for Vka=2.5V
Minimum Series Resitance ESR - Ohms
1000
100
2.5V >=10mA
10
2.5V 3.2mA
2.5V 1.6mA
2.5V 1mA
1
0.1
0.001
0.01
0.1
CL Load Capacitance - uF
1
10
Figure 5. ESRs @ Vka=2.5V
SLVA482A – September 2011 – Revised January 2014
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Output capacitor zero as a solution
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Recommended ESR for Vka=5V
Minimum Series Resitance ESR - Ohms
1000
100
5V >=10mA
10
5V 3.2mA
5V 1.6mA
5V 1mA
1
0.1
0.001
0.01
0.1
CL Load Capacitance - uF
1
10
Figure 6. ESRs @ Vka=5V
Recommended ESR for Vka=10V
Minimum Series Resitance ESR - Ohms
1000
100
10V >=10mA
10
10V 3.2mA
10V 1.6mA
10V 1mA
1
0.1
0.001
0.01
0.1
CL Load Capacitance - uF
1
10
Figure 7. ESRs @ Vka=10V
Recommended ESR for Vka=15V
Minimum Series Resitance ESR - Ohms
1000
100
15V >=10mA
10
15V 3.2mA
15V 1.6mA
15V 1mA
1
0.1
0.001
0.01
0.1
CL Load Capacitance - uF
1
10
Figure 8. ESRs @ Vka=15V
4
Understanding Stability Boundary Conditions Charts in TL431, TL432 Data
Sheet
SLVA482A – September 2011 – Revised January 2014
Submit Documentation Feedback
Copyright © 2011–2014, Texas Instruments Incorporated
Output capacitor zero as a solution
www.ti.com
SLVA482A – September 2011 – Revised January 2014
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Understanding Stability Boundary Conditions Charts in TL431, TL432 Data
Sheet
Copyright © 2011–2014, Texas Instruments Incorporated
5
Revision History
www.ti.com
Revision History
Changes from Original (September 2011) to A Revision ............................................................................................... Page
•
•
Added Stability Boundary Conditions graph. .......................................................................................... 2
Added ESR section and graphs ........................................................................................................ 3
NOTE: Page numbers for previous revisions may differ from page numbers in the current version.
6
Revision History
SLVA482A – September 2011 – Revised January 2014
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Copyright © 2011–2014, Texas Instruments Incorporated
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which have not been so designated is solely at the Buyer's risk, and that Buyer is solely responsible for compliance with all legal and
regulatory requirements in connection with such use.
TI has specifically designated certain components as meeting ISO/TS16949 requirements, mainly for automotive use. In any case of use of
non-designated products, TI will not be responsible for any failure to meet ISO/TS16949.
Products
Applications
Audio
www.ti.com/audio
Automotive and Transportation
www.ti.com/automotive
Amplifiers
amplifier.ti.com
Communications and Telecom
www.ti.com/communications
Data Converters
dataconverter.ti.com
Computers and Peripherals
www.ti.com/computers
DLP® Products
www.dlp.com
Consumer Electronics
www.ti.com/consumer-apps
DSP
dsp.ti.com
Energy and Lighting
www.ti.com/energy
Clocks and Timers
www.ti.com/clocks
Industrial
www.ti.com/industrial
Interface
interface.ti.com
Medical
www.ti.com/medical
Logic
logic.ti.com
Security
www.ti.com/security
Power Mgmt
power.ti.com
Space, Avionics and Defense
www.ti.com/space-avionics-defense
Microcontrollers
microcontroller.ti.com
Video and Imaging
www.ti.com/video
RFID
www.ti-rfid.com
OMAP Applications Processors
www.ti.com/omap
TI E2E Community
e2e.ti.com
Wireless Connectivity
www.ti.com/wirelessconnectivity
Mailing Address: Texas Instruments, Post Office Box 655303, Dallas, Texas 75265
Copyright © 2015, Texas Instruments Incorporated
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