Model EX171M01 Charge Output Pressure

Model EX171M01 Charge Output Pressure
Model EX171M01
Charge Output Pressure Sensor
Installation and Operating Manual
For assistance with the operation of this product,
contact PCB Piezotronics, Inc.
Toll-free: 800-828-8840
24-hour SensorLine: 716-684-0001
Fax: 716-684-0987
E-mail: info@pcb.com
Web: www.pcb.com
Service, Repair, and Return
Policies and Instructions
The information contained in this document supersedes all similar information that
may be found elsewhere in this manual.
Service – Due to the sophisticated
nature of the sensors and associated
instrumentation provided by PCB
Piezotronics, user servicing or repair is
not recommended and, if attempted,
may void the factory warranty. Routine
maintenance, such as the cleaning of
electrical connectors, housings, and
mounting surfaces with solutions and
techniques that will not harm the
physical material of construction, is
acceptable. Caution should be observed
to ensure that liquids are not permitted
to migrate into devices that are not
hermetically sealed. Such devices
should only be wiped with a dampened
cloth and never submerged or have
liquids poured upon them.
Repair – In the event that equipment
becomes damaged or ceases to
operate, arrangements should be made
to return the equipment to PCB
Piezotronics for repair. User servicing or
repair is not recommended and, if
attempted, may void the factory
warranty.
Calibration – Routine calibration of
sensors and associated instrumentation
is recommended as this helps build
confidence in measurement accuracy
and
acquired
data.
Equipment
calibration
cycles
are
typically
established by the users own quality
regimen. When in doubt about a
calibration cycle, a good “rule of thumb”
is to recalibrate on an annual basis. It is
also good practice to recalibrate after
exposure to any severe temperature
extreme, shock, load, or other
environmental influence, or prior to any
critical test.
PCB Piezotronics maintains an ISO9001 certified metrology laboratory and
offers calibration services, which are
accredited by A2LA to ISO/IEC 17025,
with full traceability to SI through
N.I.S.T. In addition to the normally
supplied calibration, special testing is
also available, such as: sensitivity at
elevated or cryogenic temperatures,
phase response, extended high or low
frequency response, extended range,
leak testing, hydrostatic pressure
testing, and others. For information on
standard recalibration services or
special testing, contact your local PCB
Piezotronics
distributor,
sales
representative, or factory customer
service representative.
Returning Equipment – Following
these procedures will ensure that your
returned materials are handled in the
most
expedient
manner.
Before
returning any equipment to PCB
Piezotronics,
contact
your
local
distributor, sales representative, or
factory customer service representative
to obtain a Return Warranty, Service,
Repair, and Return Policies and
Instructions Materials Authorization
(RMA) Number. This RMA number
should be clearly marked on the outside
of all package(s) and on the packing
list(s) accompanying the shipment. A
detailed account of the nature of the
problem(s) being experienced with the
equipment should also be included
inside the package(s) containing any
returned materials.
A Purchase Order, included with the
returned materials, will expedite the
turn-around of serviced equipment. It is
recommended to include authorization
on the Purchase Order for PCB to
proceed with any repairs, as long as
they do not exceed 50% of the
replacement cost of the returned
item(s). PCB will provide a price
quotation
or
replacement
recommendation for any item whose
repair costs would exceed 50% of
replacement cost, or any item that is not
economically feasible to repair. For
routine
calibration
services,
the
Purchase
Order
should
include
authorization to proceed and return at
current pricing, which can be obtained
from a factory customer service
representative.
Contact Information – International
customers should direct all inquiries to
their local distributor or sales office. A
complete list of distributors and offices
can be found at www.pcb.com.
Customers within the United States may
contact their local sales representative
or
a
factory
customer
service
representative. A complete list of sales
representatives can be found at
www.pcb.com.
Toll-free
telephone
numbers for a factory customer service
representative,
in
the
division
responsible for this product, can be
found on the title page at the front of this
manual. Our ship to address and
general contact numbers are:
PCB Piezotronics, Inc.
3425 Walden Ave.
Depew, NY14043 USA
Toll-free: (800) 828-8840
24-hour SensorLineSM: (716) 684-0001
Website: www.pcb.com
E-mail: info@pcb.com
PCB工业监视和测量设备 - 中国RoHS2公布表
PCB Industrial Monitoring and Measuring Equipment - China RoHS 2 Disclosure Table
有害物质
镉
汞
铅 (Pb)
六价铬 (Cr(VI))
多溴联苯 (PBB)
多溴二苯醚 (PBDE)
部件名称
(Hg)
(Cd)
O
O
O
O
O
O
住房
X
O
O
O
O
O
PCB板
O
O
O
O
O
O
电气连接器
X
O
O
O
O
O
压电晶体
O
O
O
O
O
O
环氧
O
O
O
O
O
O
铁氟龙
O
O
O
O
O
O
电子
O
O
X
O
O
O
厚膜基板
O
O
O
O
O
O
电线
X
O
O
O
O
O
电缆
O
O
O
O
O
O
塑料
X
O
O
O
O
O
焊接
X
O
O
O
O
O
铜合金/黄铜
本表格依据 SJ/T 11364 的规定编制。
O: 表示该有害物质在该部件所有均质材料中的含量均在 GB/T 26572 规定的限量要求以下。
X: 表示该有害物质至少在该部件的某一均质材料中的含量超出 GB/T 26572 规定的限量要求。
铅是欧洲RoHS指令2011/65/ EU附件三和附件四目前由于允许的豁免。
CHINA RoHS COMPLIANCE
Component Name
Hazardous Substances
Lead
(Pb)
Mercury
(Hg)
Cadmium
(Cd)
Chromium VI
Compounds
(Cr(VI))
Housing
O
O
O
PCB Board
X
O
O
Electrical
O
O
O
Connectors
Piezoelectric
X
O
O
Crystals
Epoxy
O
O
O
Teflon
O
O
O
Electronics
O
O
O
Thick Film
O
O
X
Substrate
Wires
O
O
O
Cables
X
O
O
Plastic
O
O
O
Solder
X
O
O
Copper Alloy/Brass
X
O
O
This table is prepared in accordance with the provisions of SJ/T 11364.
Polybrominated
Biphenyls
(PBB)
Polybrominated
Diphenyl
Ethers (PBDE)
O
O
O
O
O
O
O
O
O
O
O
O
O
O
O
O
O
O
O
O
O
O
O
O
O
O
O
O
O
O
O
O
O
O
O
O
O
O
O
O: Indicates that said hazardous substance contained in all of the homogeneous materials for this part is below the limit
requirement of GB/T 26572.
X: Indicates that said hazardous substance contained in at least one of the homogeneous materials for this part is above
the limit requirement of GB/T 26572.
Lead is present due to allowed exemption in Annex III or Annex IV of the European RoHS Directive 2011/65/EU.
DOCUMENT NUMBER: 21354
DOCUMENT REVISION: D
ECN: 46162
PIEZOELECTRIC CHARGE MODE PRESSURE SENSOR GENERAL OPERATION MANUAL
1.0
INTRODUCTION
Quartz charge mode pressure sensors offer high
performance for precise pressure measurements over a
wide range of near-static and dynamic pressures. The
sensors use the piezoelectric properties of quartz to
convert an applied pressure into an analogous electrical
charge.
The internal design of a sensor incorporates a quartz
sensing element that provides high sensitivity over a
wide range of pressures. As pressure is applied to the
diaphragm of the sensor, a charge is generated in the
quartz crystals. The high-impedance electrostatic charge
is then conditioned externally by either a laboratorystyle charge amplifier or in-line charge converter prior to
being sent to a readout or recording device.
2.0
2.1
1
DESCRIPTION
Series 111A General Purpose
Miniature Sensor
The Series 111A General Purpose Miniature Sensor is a
high-precision, charge mode pressure sensor used for
dynamic measurement of compression, combustion,
explosion, pulsation, cavitation, blast, pneumatic,
hydraulic, fluid and other similar types of dynamic
pressure. The series consists of the Models 111A,
111A02, and 111A03 (along with special versions),
having pressure ranges of 3 000, 100, and 10 000 psi
(20684, 689, and 68947 kPa), respectively. See Figure
2.1.
Charge mode sensors are ideally suited for applications
where wide dynamic range, high frequency response,
and/or high shock phenomena are a consideration. Such
applications include compressors, engines, blast,
ballistic, pneumatic, hydraulic, and fluid pressures.
Enclosed is a Specification Sheet that lists the complete
performance characteristics of the sensor purchased.
In addition to the standard features offered with the
sensor, a variety of options are also available on some
sensor models. When listed before the model number,
the following prefix letters indicate that the sensor is
supplied with optional features:
A option
E option
H option
J option
M option
P option
V option
W option
Ablative thermal barrier
Emralon coating
Hermetic seal
Electrical isolation (mounting adaptor
required)
Metric thread
Positive polarity output (for use with
non-inverting amplifiers)
Special attached cable (length/type)
Waterproof cable connection
Other prefix letters, such as K, KR, GK, GKR, KL and
GKL indicate that the sensor is ordered in kit form,
which includes cabling, power supplies and accessory
mounting hardware. See the enclosed Prefix Sheet for
additional details.
Drawing Number: 21067
Revision: A
This rugged instrument measures transient or repetitive
phenomena, relative to the initial or average level, over a
wide amplitude and frequency range. It comfortably
tolerates adverse environmental conditions. The sensor
follows transient events up to a few percent of the
system time constant, which, depending on the system,
may be sufficient for static calibration by conventional
methods. The sensor’s internal design consists of a rigid,
multi-plate, compression mode quartz element.
PIEZOELECTRIC CHARGE MODE PRESSURE SENSOR GENERAL OPERATION MANUAL
2.2
Series 112A High Sensitivity
Miniature Sensor
The Series 112A High Sensitivity Miniature Sensor is a
high-precision charge mode pressure sensor designed for
higher charge sensitivities necessary when measuring
compression,
combustion,
explosion,
pulsation,
actuation, cavitation, fluid, blast, turbulence and sound
pressures. The series consists of the Models 112A,
112A02, and 112A03 (along with special versions), with
pressure ranges of 3 000, 100, and 10 000 psi (20684,
689, and 68947 kPa), respectively. See Figure 2.1.
This quartz sensor measures near-static and dynamic
pressures from full vacuum to 3 000 psi (15 000 psi
optional). It measures transient or repetitive phenomena,
relative to the initial or average pressure level, over wide
amplitude and frequency ranges and under the most
adverse environmental conditions.
System voltage
sensitivities range from 0.01 mV/psi to 1.0 volt/psi,
depending on the charge amplifier involved.
The Series 112A High Sensitivity Sensor contains a
rigid multi-plate sensing element with an integral
compensating accelerometer to minimize vibration
sensitivity. It is housed in all-welded stainless steel.
2.3
Models 112A04 and 112A05 High
Temperature Miniature Sensor
The Model 112A04/112A05 High Temperature
Miniature Sensor is a high-precision, charge mode
pressure sensor designed specifically for use in
compressors, engines, turbines, heat exchanger
combustion chambers and bombs, at moderate and high
temperatures. The Models 112A04 and 112A05 operate
to a maximum temperature of 600°F ( 315°C). See
Figure 2.1.
The all-welded, hermetic stainless steel construction of
this sensor ensures reliable operation in hightemperature environments. It is constructed with a rigid,
multi-plate sensing element and integral compensating
accelerometer to minimize vibration sensitivity.
Drawing Number: 21067
Revision: A
2.4
2
Series 113A High Frequency
Miniature Sensor
The Series 113A High Frequency Miniature Sensor is a
charge mode pressure sensor designed to measure shock
wave, blast, explosion, ultrasonic and dynamic
combustion pressures requiring ultra-fast response times.
The Series 113A consists of the Models 113A, 113A02,
and 113A03, having pressure ranges of 3 000, 100, and
15 000 psi (20684, 689, and 103420 kPa), respectively.
All are acceleration compensated. See Figure 2.1.
This sensor measures transient or repetitive phenomena
relative to the initial or average pressure level, over wide
amplitude and frequency ranges and under the most
adverse environmental conditions.
This stainless steel instrument contains an extremely
rigid compression-mode quartz element with an integral
compensating accelerometer to reduce vibration
sensitivity and partially suppress internal resonance
effects. This results in an accurate, dynamic highfrequency response from the sensor.
2.5
Series 116 High Sensitivity Sensor
The Series 116 High Sensitivity Sensor is a specialpurpose high temperature charge mode pressure sensor
designed specifically to measure low-level pressures in
severe environments. The unit is most frequently used
in engines, hydraulic and pneumatic devices,
compressors and turbines. Ideal for sound pressure
measurements, microphones and small pressure
agitations, its maximum dynamic pressure range is 100
psi (689 kPa). It is acceleration compensated to
minimize vibration sensitivity and is capable of a fivemicrosecond rise time. See Figure 2.2.
This sensor measures transient or repetitive phenomena
relative to the initial or average pressure level, over a
wide amplitude range and a usable frequency range near
DC to between 20 000 and 30 000 Hz; the resonant
frequency is 60 000 Hz, except for the Model 116A,
which has a resonant frequency of 130 kHz. The Model
116 is extremely sensitive, with a nominal pressure
response of 10 pC/psi. The operating temperature for the
Series 116A ranges from -400°F to 400°F (-240°C to
204°C). The operating temperature for the Series 116B
and 116C ranges from -400°F to 650°F (-240°C to
343°C).
PIEZOELECTRIC CHARGE MODE PRESSURE SENSOR GENERAL OPERATION MANUAL
3
This hermetically sealed stainless steel sensor contains
extremely rigid compression-mode quartz crystals with
an integral acceleration compensating crystal to reduce
vibration sensitivity and partially suppress internal
resonance effects.
3.0
3.1
2.6
Series 171 High Sensitivity Sensor
The Series 171 High Sensitivity Sensor is a specialpurpose high temperature charge mode pressure sensor
designed specifically to measure low-level pressures in
severe environments. The unit is most frequently used
in acoustic devices, compressors and turbines. Ideal for
sound pressure measurements, microphones and small
pressure agitations, its maximum dynamic pressure
range is 600 psi (4136 kPa). See Figure 2.3.
This sensor measures transient or repetitive phenomena
relative to the initial or average pressure level, over a
wide amplitude range and a usable frequency range near
DC to between 5 000 and 10 000 Hz; the resonant
frequency is 25 000 Hz. The Model 171 is extremely
sensitive, with a nominal pressure response of 1100
pC/psi. The operating temperature for the Series 171
ranges from 0°F to 500°F (-18°C to 260°C).
Drawing Number: 21067
Revision: A
INSTALLATION
Overview
When choosing an installation method, the advantages
and disadvantages of each method must be carefully
weighed. Characteristics like location, ruggedness,
amplitude range, accessibility, temperature and
portability may be greatly affected by the installation
configuration and technique. Often, the most important
and overlooked consideration is the affect the mounting
technique has on the frequency of the pressure being
measured by the sensor.
Two basic mounting techniques are recommended for
pressure sensors: the recess mount and the flush mount.
The technique used is determined by the specifics of the
individual application. See the Installation Drawing in
this manual for additional details on the individual
sensor series.
PIEZOELECTRIC CHARGE MODE PRESSURE SENSOR GENERAL OPERATION MANUAL
Passage
length
(inches)
Passage
resonance
(kHz)
Approx. fastest
pulse rise time
(microseconds)
.050
.100
.200
.50
1.0
66
33
16.5
6.6
3.3
5
10
20
50
100
3.2
Fr =
4
3300
L
Where: L = passage length (inches)
The natural frequency and approximately fastest
pressure step rise time for various length passages are
shown in the following chart, using a medium of air at
77°F (25°C).
Recess Mount
Selected Values for 77°F (25°C)
A recess mount protects the sensor diaphragm from the
effect of high flash temperature and particle
impingement. This method is often selected because it
can prolong sensor life and increase data integrity by
reducing thermal effects. See Figure 3.1.
Measured resonant frequencies may differ slightly from
the chart values due to variations in the velocity of
sound in the air from changes in temperature and
pressure of the air in the passage.
To ensure diaphragm integrity, maintain .006 inches
(.153 mm) of clearance ahead of the diaphragm using
seal sleeve Model 065A05, shown in Figure 3.1.
3.3
Flush Mount
In a flush mount installation, there is no reduced area
passage from the sensor diaphragm to the test chamber.
Instead, the sensor diaphragm is mounted flush with, or
slightly recessed from, the inside surface of the test
chamber. See Figure 3.2.
When using a recess mount, note that the length of the
passage may limit the frequency range of the measurement. The effect the passage has is similar to that of an
under-damped second order system, with the resonant
frequency determined by passage length. The passage
length thus limits pressure pulse rise time and may also
cause passage ringing.
The function is described by the following equation:
Fr =
Where: Fr =
V =
L =
V
4L
resonant frequency passage (Hz)
velocity of sound in air (feet/second)
length of column (feet)
For air at room temperature, the equation becomes:
Drawing Number: 21067
Revision: A
PIEZOELECTRIC CHARGE MODE PRESSURE SENSOR GENERAL OPERATION MANUAL
If thermal transients or diaphragm impingement are
concerns, use the flush mount technique only when
space or frequency response considerations preclude the
use of the recess mount installation.
In severe or pyrotechnic environments, sensor life may
be seriously curtailed when using this mounting method.
3.4
Flash Thermal Protection
Several additional steps may be taken to provide
protection from flash thermal effects. The sensor
diaphragm may be thermally insulated at the factory,
using a thin (.010 inches / 0.254 mm) coating of ablative
silicone rubber, G.E. type 580 (“A” option). Before the
insulation is applied, the surface of the diaphragm is
treated with SS4004 primer.
3.6
5
Cabling
Care and attention to cable attachment is essential, as the
reliability and accuracy of your system is no better than
that of the output cable. First, check that you have
ordered the correct cable type. As with sensors, no
cable can satisfy all applications. Special low-noise
cabling should be used (e.g., PCB Series 003) with highimpedance, charge output devices.
Connect the cable to the pressure sensor. A small
amount of thread locking compound placed on the
connector prior to attachment helps secure the cable
during testing. For additional protection in harsh
environments, the connection may be sealed with
protective materials, such as silicon rubber, O-rings and
flexible heat-shrink tubing (optional).
If more protection is required, the recess mount may be
filled with DC-4 silicone grease or its equivalent. In
place of the silicone rubber, one or more layers of black
vinyl electrical tape on the diaphragm may provide
sufficient insulation.
3.5
Miscellaneous Installation Notes
Thread adaptors, such as the Series #61, 3/8-24 or Series
#62, 1/8 NPT, provide quick installation where
mounting port diameter is not limited. Other adaptors
include Series #63 Needle Probe, and Series #64 WaterCooled. Adaptor use simplifies mounting procedures
and improves troubleshooting by reducing the incorrect
data that can result from improper mounting. See the
PCB General Catalog for details.
A floating clamp nut, Model 060A03 (Model 060A05
for metric), 1/4 hex, facilitates mounting and removal of
the sensor by clamping the sensor in place without
placing undue stress on the quartz element. The clamp
nut is provided with either standard (5/16-24) or metric
(M7 x 0.75) threads and is supplied along with three seal
rings.
Model 008A Hardline Cable is recommended for
operating temperatures above 500°F. This cable is
supplied in lengths up to 40 feet (12,19 m).
Drawing Number: 21067
Revision: A
Plug the male connector on the cable into the mating
female connector on the sensor. Then, holding the
sensor stationary, secure the connector in place by
tightening down the attached cable sleeve. See Figure
3.3.
Route the cable to a charge amplifier or in-line charge
converter, making certain to strain relieve the
sensor/cable connection and minimize motion by
clamping the cable at regular intervals. Common sense
must be used to avoid physical damage and minimize
electrical noise. Avoid routing cables near high voltage
wires. Do not route cables along floors or walkways
where they may be stepped on or become contaminated.
Shielded cable should have the shield grounded at one
end only.
To dissipate any charge that may have accumulated in
the cable, short the signal to ground prior to attachment
to the charge amplifier or charge converter.
PIEZOELECTRIC CHARGE MODE PRESSURE SENSOR GENERAL OPERATION MANUAL
4.0
6
CALIBRATION
These sensors may be calibrated using static hydraulic
techniques, such as dead-weight testers, or by comparison with a reference gage.
When calibrating with a laboratory-style charge
amplifier, set the charge amplifier to LONG, for the time
constant setting, and allow the sensor to stabilize before
applying pressure. If slow drift is apparent, apply the
pressure to the desired level, and immediately take a
reading. Release the pressure and take another reading
at zero pressure to obtain the difference between the
readings at the desired present level and zero pressure.
If the drift is too fast to take a reading, clean the cable
connections according to the procedures out-lined in
Section 7.0, Maintenance.
NOTE: Do not attempt to use a charge amplifier which,
in the long time constant position, has less than a 5 000second time constant for quasi-static calibration of
charge sensors. Any drift may cause error.
Several charge amplifiers are designed especially for use
with ceramic sensors, for higher low-frequency
measurements. In general, these types are unsuitable for
calibration of quartz pressure sensors by quasi-static
means.
A factory-supplied, NIST-traceable calibration graph is
provided with each sensor, certifying its charge
sensitivity in pC/psi, or when used with an in-line
voltage amplifier, in mV/psi.
5.0
NORMAL OPERATION
The high impedance signal generated by a charge output
sensor is usually conditioned with a laboratory-style
charge amplifier, such as the PCB Model 462A. The
charge amplifier converts the high-impedance charge
signal generated by the sensor into a low-impedance
voltage signal. This signal may then be transmitted to a
readout or recording device for analysis. See Figure 5.1
for a drawing of a typical system connection.
NOTE: When using charge-amplified systems, the noise
floor of the system is dependent on the input capacitance
to the charge amplifier. To minimize noise, keep the
cable length between the pressure sensor and the charge
amplifier to a minimum. Cable length does not affect
the system sensitivity.
Drawing Number: 21067
Revision: A
Before connecting the low-noise cable from the pressure
sensor to the charge amplifier, be certain to ground the
charge amplifier. This ensures that any excessive
accumulated static charges across the sensor/cable
combination are harmlessly discharged.
If this
precaution is not observed, the input FET of certain
amplifiers may be destroyed. Press the ground button of
the charge amplifier and adjust electrical zero if
necessary.
Once system components are connected, wait a few
minutes for the system to thermally stabilize. Place the
switch in the OPR (operate) position and proceed with
the measurement. Refer to the charge amplifier operating manual for further operating details.
For fixed sensitivity in-line charge amplifiers, such as
the PCB Series 422, the system sensitivity (mV/psi) is
determined as the product of the charge amplifier
sensitivity (mV/pC) and the sensor sensitivity (pC/psi).
With in-line voltage amplifiers, the system sensitivity is
a function of the sensor, cable, and the in-line voltage
amplifier.
5.1
Polarity
When subjected to increasing pressure, these pressure
sensors have a standard negative-going charge output.
Because most charge amplifiers are signal-inverting, the
resultant signal is positive-going. Reverse-polarity
sensors, for use with non-inverting source follower
amplifiers, are available upon request (“P” option).
PIEZOELECTRIC CHARGE MODE PRESSURE SENSOR GENERAL OPERATION MANUAL
6.0
HIGH-TEMPERATURE
OPERATION
6.1
Introduction
When subjected to elevated temperature, all
piezoelectric sensors/hardline cable systems exhibit
decreased insulation resistance, due in part to the
piezoelectric element, but due mostly to the hardline
cable necessary to withstand the high temperatures. This
situation can cause serious voltage offset problems in
direct-coupled charge amplifiers, such as PCB Models
462, 463, and 464, as well as with the miniature Series
422. To solve this problem, the user must AC couple
(capacitor) the charge amplifier to the sensor/cable
system.
See Section 6.3, Solution to Reduced
Resistance, for complete details.
6.2
Reduced Resistance at Charge
Amplifier Input
Figure 6.1 illustrates a simplified schematic of a typical
direct-coupled charge amplifier where:
Rf
= Feedback resistor (ohms)
Ri
= Input leakage resistance (ohms)
Eo
= Steady-state output voltage (volts)
ei
= Offset voltage: FET leakage (volts)
Cf
= Feedback capacitor (farads)
The feedback capacitor Cf comes into play only in the
dynamic situation and its influence does not affect the
steady-state situation. The voltage ei is a DC offset
voltage, usually very tiny (microvolts), that exists at the
input gate of the MOSFET circuit. This minute leakage
current exists in all real devices.As demonstrated in
Equation 1, the steady-state (DC) output voltage Eo is:
Drawing Number: 21067
Revision: A
7
Equation 1
 R 
Eo = ei 1 + f 
Ri 

This equation shows that if the input (leakage) resistance
at the charge amplifier is extremely high (approaching
infinity), the output DC voltage approaches ei, usually a
very tiny voltage. However, as Ri decreases, the term
1+
Rf
Ri
increases, such that the output voltage can, with large
ratios of Rf / Ri, become large enough to result in a large
Eo, perhaps large enough to be outside the normal output
voltage range of the charge amplifier.
Because of the feedback capacitor Cf, this output voltage
change usually does not occur rapidly but rather, it
manifests itself as a slow drift in the output voltage
level. If Ri is low enough with respect to Rf, the voltage
drift may continue until saturation of the charge
amplifier occurs.
6.3
Solution to Reduced Resistance
Since the drift or offset problem is caused by a static or
steady-state imbalance at the input of the charge
amplifier, the solution involves blocking this steadystate effect while allowing the desired dynamic
phenomena to pass. This may be accomplished by
installing a series capacitor at the input of the charge
amplifier, between the offending sensor (or lowimpedance hardline) and the input.
PIEZOELECTRIC CHARGE MODE PRESSURE SENSOR GENERAL OPERATION MANUAL
fo =
8
.16
R f Cf
where:
fo =
Rf =
Ct =
-3 dB Frequency (Hz)
Feedback resistor (ohms)
Feedback capacitor (farads)
However, after the addition of the series blocking
capacitor Cs, the system becomes the equivalent of two
high-pass filters in series, one as previously mentioned
and one comprised of series capacitor Cs and total
equivalent shunt resistance Ri.
This new cutoff
frequency is:
Equation 3
Figure 6.2 illustrates a block diagram of the piezoelectric system where:
Ct
= Shunt capacitor
= Series blocking capacitor
Cs
With the series blocking capacitor Cs in place as shown,
the dynamic charge (Q) generated by the sensor element
is distributed across the two capacitors, Ct and Cs, in
proportion to the size (capacitance) of each. If Cs, for
example, is equal to 100 times Ct, 99% of the charge
appears at the input of the charge amplifier, while 1% is
across the shunt capacitor Ct. This results in a 1%
decrease in apparent sensitivity of the system.
This therefore demonstrates the importance of selecting
the series blocking capacitor at least two orders of
magnitude higher than the total shunt capacitance Ct
across the input of the charge amplifier.
It is also important that this capacitor be of high quality,
with a leakage resistance of greater that 1012 ohms, to
avoid the DC offset discussed previously in 6.1,
Introduction.
6.4
Low-Frequency Response
Limitations
In a normal charge amplifier, the low-frequency
response is set by the RC time constant, as established
by the product of Cf and Rf. The system acts like a highpass first order RC filter with a -3 dB frequency
established by the relationship:
Equation 2
Drawing Number: 21067
Revision: A
fo =
.16
R i Cs
To avoid compromise of the low-frequency response
established by the charge amplifier parameters and
illustrated by Equation 2, the product of RiCs should be
several orders of magnitude higher than RfCf.
The approximate final system discharge time constant
becomes:
Equation 4a
TC =
1
1
1
+
R i Cs R f Cf
seconds
If the input coupling time constant (RiCs) is very much
greater than the discharge time constant of the charge
amplifier (RfCf), Equation 4a then becomes:
Equation 4b
1
⇒ 0 Seconds
R iCs
Equation 5
TC =
RfCf
PIEZOELECTRIC CHARGE MODE PRESSURE SENSOR GENERAL OPERATION MANUAL
With the product RiCs chosen to be > than RfCf , the
system discharge time constant is simply RfCf (seconds).
The feedback parameters of the charge amplifier
establish the low frequency characteristics of the system,
unaffected by the degraded input resistance parameters
of the test sensor and/or cable.
The solution to most low-frequency response limitations
lies in the selection of a high-quality coupling capacitor
of sufficient size (capacitance) to allow a drastic
reduction in insulation resistance of the sensor/cable,
with little or no performance degradation. The PCB
Model 072A coupling capacitor can solve many such
problems; while optional, it is recommended for use
with many high-temperature systems. It consists of a 10
000 pF high-quality polystyrene capacitor in a housing
convenient for threading directly onto most hardline
cable assemblies. See Figures 5.1 (system placement)
and 6.3 (coupling capacitor drawing). The Model 072A
is configured with a 10-32 micro-connector at each end,
one end with the female jack and the other end with a
male plug.
6.5
Other Precautions
Always remember to keep the OPR-GND switch on the
charge amplifier in the GND position while connecting
or disconnecting sensors, cable, or capacitor to the input
connector. Stray or accumulated electrostatic charges
may build to the point that they may saturate or even
damage the input circuitry of the charge amplifier.
Operate the charge amplifier in the SHORT time
constant while the sensor is subject to elevated or
changing temperatures. If it is not necessary to procure
data during the transition from room temperature to
operating temperature, place the OPR-GND switch in
Drawing Number: 21067
Revision: A
9
the GND position to keep spurious, thermally generated
charges grounded.
It is prudent to momentarily switch to the GND position
even during the measurement period to ensure that
excess charges do not accumulate at the input of the
charge amplifier.
7.0
MAINTENANCE
The only maintenance required on the pressure sensor is
to keep the connector clean. If it is operating in a dirty
environment, protect the cable connections with heatshrink tubing or similar material.
In the event that the electrical connection of the pressure
sensor becomes contaminated with dirt or moisture, the
insulation resistance degrades. This may cause a
reduction of sensitivity or excessive drifting when
connected to the charge amplifier. If this happens, brush
off the connector with no-residue solvent or other
approved cleaning solutions. To restore insulation, bake
the sensor in a vacuum oven at 250°F for about four
hours. If the condition persists even after cleaning
and/or baking, please contact a PCB applications
engineer for further assistance.
The sensor is
hermetically sealed; it must therefore be returned to the
factory if the aforementioned measures fail to restore
performance.
Model Number
Revision: A
ECN #: 45466
CHARGE OUTPUT PRESSURE SENSOR
EX171M01
OPTIONAL VERSIONS
Performance
ENGLISH
SI
Sensitivity(± 20 %)
Measurement Range
Maximum Pressure(static)
Resonant Frequency
Rise Time(Reflected)
Non-Linearity
1100 pC/psi
10 psi
600 psi
≥ 25 kHz
≤ 10 µ sec
≤ 1.0 % FS
160 pC/kPa
68.9 kPa
4136 kPa
≥ 25 kHz
≤ 10 µ sec
≤ 1.0 % FS
[4]
<0.01 psi/g
0 to 500 °F
≤ 0.08 %/°F
1000 g pk
Ex ia IIC T6 Ga (Tamb ≤80°C)
Ex ia IIC T5 Ga (Tamb ≤95°C)
Ex ia IIC T4 Ga (Tamb ≤130°C)
Ex ia IIC T3 Ga (Tamb ≤190°C)
Ex ia IIC T2 Ga (Tamb ≤260°C)
Ex nA IIC T2 Gc (Tamb ≤260°C)
<0.007 kPa/(m/s²)
-18 to 260 °C
≤ 0.144 %/°C
1000 g pk
Ex ia IIC T6 Ga (Tamb ≤80°C)
Ex ia IIC T5 Ga (Tamb ≤95°C)
Ex ia IIC T4 Ga (Tamb ≤130°C)
Ex ia IIC T3 Ga (Tamb ≤190°C)
Ex ia IIC T2 Ga (Tamb ≤260°C)
Ex nA IIC T2 Gc (Tamb ≤260°C)
[2][3]
[2][3]
[2][3]
[2][3]
[2][3]
[2][3]
Differential
12,000 pF
≥ 108 Ohm
≥ 1 GOhm
≥ 500 kohm
Differential
12,000 pF
≥ 108 Ohm
≥ 1 GOhm
≥ 500 kohm
Compression
316L Stainless Steel
316L Stainless Steel
Welded Hermetic
2-Pin MIL-C-5015
6.5 oz
Compression
316L Stainless Steel
316L Stainless Steel
Welded Hermetic
2-Pin MIL-C-5015
185 gm
Optional versions have identical specifications and accessories as listed for the standard
model except where noted below. More than one option may be used.
Environmental
Acceleration Sensitivity
Temperature Range(Operating)
Temperature Coefficient of Sensitivity
Maximum Shock
Hazardous Area Approval
Hazardous Area Approval
Hazardous Area Approval
Hazardous Area Approval
Hazardous Area Approval
Hazardous Area Approval
Electrical
Output Polarity
Capacitance
Electrical Isolation
Internal Resistance(room temp)
Internal Resistance(@500F)
NOTES:
[1]Typical.
[2]ATEX
[3]IECEx
[4]Zero-based, least-squares, straight line method.
[5]See PCB Declaration of Conformance PS132 for details.
[1]
Physical
Sensing Geometry
Housing Material
Diaphragm
Sealing
Electrical Connector
Weight
[5]
All specifications are at room temperature unless otherwise specified.
In the interest of constant product improvement, we reserve the right to change specifications without notice.
ICP® is a registered trademark of PCB Group, Inc.
[1]
SUPPLIED ACCESSORIES:
Model 31061-01 SEAL, 1.370" OD x 1.130" ID x.030", BRASS (2)
Entered: LK
Engineer: BAM
Sales: MC
Approved: BAM
Spec Number:
Date: 5/10/2016
Date: 5/10/2016
Date: 5/10/2016
Date: 5/10/2016
61450
3425 Walden Avenue, Depew, NY 14043
Phone: 716-684-0001
Fax: 716-684-0987
E-Mail: info@pcb.com
2
1
REVISIONS
33819
PCB Piezotronics Inc. claims proprietary rights in
the information disclosed hereon. Neither it nor any
reproduction thereof will be disclosed to others
without the written consent of PCB Piezotronics Inc.
RELATED DRAWING
REV
DESCRIPTION
DIN
B
UPDATED TITLE
44106
NO MODIFICATIONS PERMITTED
WITHOUT THE APPROVAL OF
THE AUTHORIZED PERSON
POSITIVE
NEGATIVE
PIN OUT
SCALE 1.5X
B
B
1-3/8 HEX
2.60
1.01
1-1/8-12 UNF-2A
BRASS SEAL
SUPPLIED
Ø1.046 THRU
1 1/8-12 UNF - 2B THRU
 1.375  .020
1.00
A
A
1.) RECOMMENDED MOUNTING TORQUE ON A 1-3/8 HEX IS: 55-60 FT/LBS [74.6-81.4 Nm]
UNLESS OTHERWISE SPECIFIED TOLERANCES ARE:
DIMENSIONS IN INCHES
DECIMALS
XX ±.01
XXX ±.005
DIMENSIONS IN MILLIMETERS
[ IN BRACKETS ]
DECIMALS
X
XX
± 0.3
± 0.13
ANGLES  2 DEGREES
ANGLES  2 DEGREES
FILLETS AND RADII
.003 - .005
FILLETS AND RADII
0.07 - 0.13
2
DRAWN
BB
4/28/15
CHECKED
ECB
4/28/15
ENGINEER
GGS
TITLE
INSTALLATION DRAWING
MODEL 171XYYY SERIES
4/28/15
3425 WALDEN AVE. DEPEW, NY 14043
(716) 684-0001 E-MAIL: sales@pcb.com
DWG. NO.
CODE
IDENT. NO.
52681
FULL
SCALE:
1
33819
SHEET
1 OF 1
4
3
2
1
REVISIONS
60674
PCB Piezotronics Inc. claims proprietary rights in
the information disclosed hereon. Neither it nor any
reproduction thereof will be disclosed to others
without the written consent of PCB Piezotronics Inc.
SCHEDULE DRAWING
REV
DESCRIPTION
DIN
NR
RELEASED TO DRAFTING
43149
NO MODIFICATIONS PERMITTED
WITHOUT REFERENCE TO THE
NOTIFIED BODY
B
B
NON-HAZARDOUS / SAFE AREA
BARRIER
AMPLIFIER
HAZARDOUS AREA
DIV 1
ZONE 0
CABLE
TRANSDUCER
PN EX171XYYY
3
4.)
SHIELDS TO BE EARTHED AT BARRIER ENDS.
3
BARRIER WILL BE MOUNTED IN AN ENCLOSURE THE SUITABILITY
OF WHICH WILL BE DETERMINED BY LOCAL AUTHORITIES.
2
+
SHIELD
ENTITY APPLICATION:
BARRIER
Voc/Uo
Isc/Io
Ca/Co
La/Lo
Po
<
<
>
>
<
+
+
-
-
I.S. APPARATUS
VMAX/Ui
IMAX/li
Ci + C CABLE
Li + L CABLE
Pi (CENELEC ONLY)
2
BARRIERS WITHIN THE SPECIFIED LIMITATIONS ARE PERMITTED.
ENTITY PARAMETERS:
Ui = 30 V
Ii = 100 mA
Pi = 0.7W
Ci = 12nF
Li = 0
A
CERTIFIED BY THE APPROPRIATE APPROVAL
AUTHORITY FOR CONNECTION TO THE FOLLOWING AREAS:
ZONE 0
Exia IIC
AExia IIC
Ex ia IIC T6 TO T2 Ga
1.)
UNLESS OTHERWISE SPECIFIED
DIMENSIONS ARE IN INCHES
DECIMALS
X  .05
XX  .01
XXX  .005
XXXX  .0005
ANGLES ± 2 DEGREES
FILLETS AND RADII .003 - .005
JDM
INTERNAL THREAD DEPTH MIN.
REMOVE ALL BURRS
SHARP = R.000 - R.003
3
1/20/15
CHECKED
JDM
1/20/15
ENGINEER
GGS
1/20/15
TITLE
HEX DIMENSIONS ARE:
≤ .5 + .000 / - .003
> .5 + .000 / - .005
PART NO IS EX171XYYY
4
DRAWN
CAUTION
ELECTROSTATIC
DISCHARGE SENSITIVE
2
EX171XYYY
INTERCONNECTION
3425 WALDEN AVE. DEPEW, NY 14043
(716) 684-0002 E-MAIL: sales@pcb.com
DWG. NO.
CODE
IDENT. NO.
52681
NONE
SCALE:
1
60674
SHEET
1 OF 2
jmorawski 15:04 2/20/2015
A
4
3
2
1
REVISIONS
60674
PCB Piezotronics Inc. claims proprietary rights in
the information disclosed hereon. Neither it nor any
reproduction thereof will be disclosed to others
without the written consent of PCB Piezotronics Inc.
REV
DESCRIPTION
DIN
-SEE SHEET 1-
SCHEDULE DRAWING
NO MODIFICATIONS PERMITTED
WITHOUT REFERENCE TO THE
NOTIFIED BODY
NON-HAZARDOUS / SAFE AREA
OR DIV 2 / ZONE 2
B
CABLE
AMPLIFIER
+
SHIELD
B
TRANSDUCER
PN EX171XYYY
+
SHIELD
WARNING - EXPLOSION HAZARD
DO NOT DISCONNECT EQUIPMENT UNLESS
POWER HAS BEEN SWITCHED OFF OR THE AREA
IS KNOWN TO BE NON-HAZARDOUS
3.)
FOR GUIDANCE ON CANADIAN INSTALLATION, REFER TO CEC PART I.
FOR GUIDANCE ON U.S. INSTALLATION, INSTALL IN ACCORDANCE WITH NEC [ANSI/NFPA70]
AND [ANSI/ISA RP12.6].
2.)
CERTIFIED BY THE APPROPRIATE APPROVAL AUTHORITY FOR CONNECTION
TO THE FOLLOWING AREAS:
ZONE 2
ExnA IIC
AExnA IIC
Ex nA IIC T6 TO T2 GC
1.)
UNLESS OTHERWISE SPECIFIED
DIMENSIONS ARE IN INCHES
DECIMALS
X  .05
XX  .01
XXX  .005
XXXX  .0005
ANGLES ± 2 DEGREES
FILLETS AND RADII .003 - .005
DRAWN
JDM
INTERNAL THREAD DEPTH MIN.
REMOVE ALL BURRS
SHARP = R.000 - R.003
3
1/20/15
CHECKED
JDM
1/20/15
ENGINEER
GGS
1/20/15
TITLE
HEX DIMENSIONS ARE:
≤ .5 + .000 / - .003
> .5 + .000 / - .005
PART NO. IS EX171XYYY
4
A
CAUTION
ELECTROSTATIC
DISCHARGE SENSITIVE
2
EX171M01
INTERCONNECTION
3425 WALDEN AVE. DEPEW, NY 14043
(716) 684-0002 E-MAIL: sales@pcb.com
DWG. NO.
CODE
IDENT. NO.
52681
NONE
SCALE:
1
60674
SHEET
2 OF 2
jmorawski 15:04 2/20/2015
A
DOC #: 61299
REV: NR
ECO #: 43149
DOC #: 61300
REV: NR
ECO #: 43149
DOC #: 61301
REV: NR
ECO #: 43149
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