DESIGN, CONSTRUCTION AND PERFORMANCE

DESIGN, CONSTRUCTION AND PERFORMANCE
International Journal of Scientific & Engineering Research, Volume 6, Issue 3, March-2015
ISSN 2229-5518
1288
DESIGN, CONSTRUCTION AND PERFORMANCE
EVALUATION OF 1kVA PURE SINE WAVE POWER
INVERTER
Sheu Akeem Lawal.1 and Alade Olusope Michael2
1
Department of Physics, School of Science,
Emmanuel Alayande College of Education, P.M.B. 1010, Oyo, Oyo State, Nigeria.
www.sheuakeemlawal73@gmail.com
2
Department of Pure and Applied Physics, Ladoke Akintola University of Technology, P.M.B.
4000, Ogbomoso, Oyo State, Nigeria.
Abstract
An inverter is a device that takes a direct current input and produces a sinusoidal alternating current
output. It maintains a continuous supply of electric power to connected equipments or load by supplying
power from a separate source, like battery, when utility power is not available. It is inserted between the
source of power and the load is protecting. In this research, the design, construction and performance
evaluation of 1kVA pure sine wave power inverter is presented. The methods implemented for the design were DCDC converter and DC-AC inverter topologies. The DC-DC converter in the design made use of a high switching
frequency transformer, enabling the reduction of size of the parts and to meet the efficiency constraint, while the
DC-AC inverter circuit made use of a microprocessor to digitally pulse the transistors on the inverter side of the
circuit. The project was broken down into smaller components and tested individually at every different
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stage of the design by the oscilloscope and digital multi-meter for their unique specifications. After
component tests, they were incorporated for final assembly and integration. The results of the
oscilloscope and digital multi-meter tests showed that half-bridge converter produced square wave output
waveforms, sinusoidal pulse width modulated controller circuit yielded modified sine wave. After
filtering, the full bridge inverter gave clean sinusoidal sine wave. The inverter was successfully converted
12VDC into 120VAC at 50Hz frequency and 1000W output power for a special laboratory equipment.
Key Words: Inverter, Transformer, Microprocessor, Converter, Direct Current, Alternating Current.
1. Introduction
Power electronic systems are used widely to convert electric energy from one form to other using
electronic devices. Four basic power electronics functions are AC to DC conversion, DC to AC
conversion, DC to DC conversion and AC to AC conversion. These basic functions are used to build
power supplies, DC transmission systems, electric drives and others [11].
Mobility and versatility have become a must for the fast-paced society today. People can no longer afford
to be tied down to a fixed power source location when using their equipments. Overcoming the obstacle
of fixed power has led to the invention of a DC/AC power inverter [5].
Companies, Industries, Organizations, Homes among the others are posed with a major problem of power
shortage especially here in Nigeria. Although in developing countries, shortage of power is a problem
commercially and domestically. New offices have tremendous load on already existing power generation
sources. When added to rapidly increasing private and domestic demand, the situation, especially in
certain urban areas becomes devastating. Simply stated, our ability to consume power is growing faster
than our ability to supply power. Under such conditions, failure will occur unpredictably and without any
warning due to stresses on the inadequate sources of power. Hence, there is need for the alternative source
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of power which could fill in the gap and cover the lapses of shortage in power supply. Overcoming this
obstacle led to the invention of DC/AC power inverters.
At the early stage, sun was the source of energy for generating power. Due to the inadequacy of the power
generated through this source, there was a need to find other ways to improve the power supply when the
generating station could not meet the demand of the people.
As the technology advances, the hydroelectric generation was developed, gas firing generating station,
and wired tubing methods of generating power supply were developed. In spite of all these developments,
there was still failure in electrical power generation as a result of obsolete
equipment at the generating stations. There was still need to find alternative for solving the problem. As a
result of this, some options like alternators, inverters and others were developed [4].
Power inverter is an electronic device that has the ability to convert the direct current (DC) from the
battery or solar cells (panels) into an alternating current (AC) which is the conventional form that powers
many electrical appliances. It maintains a continuous supply of electric power to the connected loads or
equipments when the utility power is not available.
Inverters are generally used in a host of applications that include variable speed drive, uninterruptible
power supplies, flexible AC transmission systems, (FACTA), high voltage DC transmission systems
(HVDC), active filters among the others [6].
An inverter is a device which maintains a continuous supply of electric power to connected equipments
or load by supplying power from a separate source, like battery, when utility power is not available. It is
inserted between the source of power (typically commercially utility power) and the load is protecting.
For alternative energy systems, inverters are the essential step between a battery's DC power and the AC
power needed by standard household electrical systems. In a grid connected home, an inverter/charger
connected to a battery bank can provide an uninterruptible source of backup power in the event of power
failures, or can be used to sell extra alternative energy power back to the utility company. Batteries
produce power in direct current (DC) form, which can run at very low voltages but cannot be used to run
most modern household appliances. Utility companies and generators produce sine wave alternating
current (AC) power, which is used by most commonly available appliances today. Inverters take the DC
power supplied by a storage battery bank and electronically convert it to AC power.
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An inverter used for backup power in a grid connected home will use grid power to keep the batteries
charged, and when grid power fails, it will switch to drawing power from the batteries and supplying it to
the building electrical system. For a business home or office, a reliable power source is invaluable for
preventing lost data on computer systems. Most modern inverters also include overvoltage and under
voltage protection, protecting sensitive equipment from dangerous power surges as well [3].
An inverter is a device that takes a direct current input and produces a sinusoidal alternating current
output. An inverter needs to be designed to handle the requirements of an energy hungry household yet
remain efficient during periods of low demand. The efficiency of inverter is highly is dependent on the
switching device, topology and switching frequency of the inverter [11].
Alternating current (AC) power is used as a power source as well for transmission purpose because it can
be generated and also converted from one voltage to another. Transmission of AC power over long
distance is still used until now, however it results in relatively high transmission loses. The types of loses
are transient stability problem and operational requirements such as dynamic damping of electrical system
may also arise along the transmission line. Direct Current (DC) transmission is an alternative which
overcomes most of this problem. Besides that, it is more economically feasible only when the
transmission distance exceed 500 to 600 km, underwater cables for the case in a small distance
transmission. At the receiving end HVDC is converted back to HVAC or LVAC. The design of an
inverter is referring to the requirement of point distribution and economical aspect [10].
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Power inverters come in all shapes and sizes, from low power functions such as powering a car radio to
that of backing up a building in case of power outage. Inverters may come in different varieties, differing
in price, power, efficiency and purpose. Power inverters are used today for many tasks like powering
appliances in a car such as cell phones, radios and televisions. They also come in handy for consumers
who own camping vehicles, boats and at the construction sites where an electric grid may not be as
accessible to hook into [7].
Inverters, besides coming in a wide variety of power capacities, are distinguished primarily by the shape
of the alternating current wave they produce. The three major waveforms are square-wave, modified sinewave and true sine-wave. Square wave inverters are largely obsolete, as the waveform shape is not well
suited for running most modern appliances, and prices have come down considerably for the superior
modified sine wave and true sine wave types [3].
An inverter with the use of many batteries is capable of generating power for hour’s even days depending
on the capacity of the battery and the load connected to it, and this power could be very crucial since in
some office set-up, a failure of about one minute could cause losses that could run into millions. The
ability of the inverter to change over automatically gives it an advantage over some UPS and they find
applications in the following areas;
─ The computer field: An unpredictable power failure can wipe out the information stored in the memory
bank of the complete data base system.
─ Air traffic system: Radar and essential aircraft information are on constant display in air traffic control
system, and mains failure could cause a break out of radar and lead to unprecedented disaster.
─ Other processes like boilers, flame detectors, etc.
─ Domestic uses include items like TVS, CD players, Fans, Light points, boilers, etc.
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2. Design and Methodology
2.1 Design Requirements
Power electronic systems are used widely to convert electric energy from one form to other using
electronic devices. Four basic power electronics functions are AC to DC conversion, DC to AC
conversion, DC to DC conversion and AC to AC conversion. These basic functions are used to build
power supplies, DC transmission systems, electric drives and others [10].
The design that will be implementing will solve the problem associated with modified sine wave inverters
by using a microprocessor to obtain a more efficient and smooth means of switching the inverter’s
transistors. This will reflect in the overall design a greater efficiency, less power loss to heat, the ability to
power even the most sensitive digital devices, minimize the size of the final product, and make it a more
versatile product in the global economy.
There are several factors involving power that can be easily overlooked by the average person. These
issues deal primarily with efficiency but are not limited to it. First, the amount of power consumed by the
load must be looked at. Different devices call for different power wattages. Because of this fact, our
inverter would not be able to power larger devices that require a lot of power. This does not affect the
efficiency of our device; it is just one of its limitations. Next, the sensitivity of the load being driven
should be considered. This means the output signal of the inverter must provide a cleaner signal without
distortion for more sensitive devices. The amount of undesired harmonics present in our output signal
would need to be limited.
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12 VDC INPUT
(Battery)
DC- DC
1291
CONVERTER
Transformer
H a lf-b rid g e
C o n v e rte r
P W M C o n tro l
C i rcu i t
L o w
P a s s
F i l t e r
F u ll-B rid g e
In v e rte r
DC-
120 VA C ,50H Z,
1000Watts
Sinusoidal PWM
Controller
AC I NVERTER
O U T P U T
Figure 1: Power inverter block diagram
The DC-DC converter consists of a battery which supplies the 12 VDC input voltage to the circuit. Then
the PWM control circuit which is used to pulse the half bridge converter. The half bridge converter will
chop up the 12 VDC supplied by a vehicle battery so that an AC is seen by the transformer. The
transformer is responsible for boosting the voltage by stepping up the voltage from the half bridge
converter.
In the DC-AC inverter stage, the sinusoidal PWM controller circuit produces two output pulses with
varying duty circles in order to drive the full bridge inverter circuit. The full bridge inverter converts the
DC voltage supplied by the DC-DC converter into a desired AC voltage. The low-pass filter eliminates
the switching frequency and multiples of the switching frequency. At the final output the 120 VAC is
being generated.
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The following equations were used to calculate the modulation amplitude and modulation frequency for
the PWM signal:
Amplitude Modulation Ratio =
Frequency Modulation Ratio =
Vcontrol
Vtri
fs
f1
(1)
(2)
Where, V control is the peak amplitude of the reference sine wave with frequency of f 1 and Vtri is the peak
amplitude of the saw-tooth wave with frequency of f S .
The following equation gives the minimum charge which needs to be supplied by the capacitor:
Qbs = 2Q g +
I gbs (max )
f
+ QIs +
I cbs (leak )
f
IR2181 data sheet [13]
where: Q g = Gate charge of high side FET.
Icbs(leak) = bootstrap capacitor leakage current.
Q Is = level shift charge required per cycle = 5nC (for the 600 IC that was used in this
I gbs = quiescent current for the high side driver circuitry.
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(3)
design).
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I gbs (max )
I cbs (leak ) 

+ QIs +
2 2Q g +

f
f 

C≥
(Vcc − V f − VIs )
(4)
where: V f = forward voltage drop across the bootstrap diode side FET
V Is = voltage drop across the low side FET
+5
R1
C1
40MHZ
C2
OSC
220uF
8
7
6
5
4
3
2
1
GND
M c34025
9
GND
10
11 12
P IC I8 F 4 5 2
13
14
15
16
40
31
GND
GND
G1
0.7uF
S1
GND
Ir2 1 8 4
12
G2
0.7uF
10 Ohm
Ir2 1 8 1
Ir2 1 8 1
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S2
0.7uF
10
+12
S2
S1
G2
G1
20.26uH
O/P,1000W,50HZ
G1
T1
G2
G2
T2
G4
0.7uF
0.7uF
10 Ohm
T3
10
G3
G1
50uF
G3
T4
G2 G2
G1
G1
G4
G3
G4
Figure 2: 1000W Pure Sine Wave Power Inverter Model
2.2 The Power Supply Stage
The power supply stage is specially designed for the charging section of the battery in other to power the
voltage controller of the charging stage. The most readily available power source, the 120V/50Hz A.C
wall outlet is used in the project. For a charging voltage of 120 VDC, this unregulated supply needs a
transformer of 12 2 = 16.97Vrms.
To achieve a fast charging rate, an 18V transformer is required for charging. A bridge rectifier was
selected to rectify the transformer output and a capacitor of 1000μF was used to filter the rectified
voltage. The regulator type used is a positive voltage regulator of 12V with three terminals was used.
2.3 The Battery Charger Stage
The charging circuit is a constant voltage type. The charging voltage is derived from a constant regulated
D.C voltage while the control for the charge is composed of transistors connected as switch. This circuit
is made of a voltage controller to automatically shut down the charger when the battery is fully charged
by a D.C voltage source, which is the charging voltage. A 12V relay was also used in this design.
2.4 DC-DC Converter Stage
The inverter stage is made up of the pulse width modulator, push- pull amplifier, driver circuit and the
MOSFET driver circuit.
2.4.1 The Pulse width Modulator
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The pulse width modulator produces the timing signals that trigger the gates of the MOSFET. The IR2181
transistor was used in this project.
From the IR2181 data sheet [8],
F=
1.3
RT C4
(6)
IR2181 data sheet [8],
RT =
1.3
FC 4
Where F = Frequency = 50Hz, Capacitor value, C 4 as a matter of choice is chosen to be 2.6μF. R T and C 4
are the frequency determining components.
RT =
1.3
= 10Ω
50 × 2.6 × 0.003
2.4.2 The MOSFET Driver Circuit
MOSFETs were chosen for use in this project due to its fast switching rate and ruggedness. The signal
from the push-pull amplifier driver circuit was used to trigger the gate of MOSFET to enable it to start
conducting at the rate at which the pulses switches. 10Ω resistors were connected between the output
from the driver circuit and then gate of the MOSFET to prevent static electricity from getting into the
gate. This was necessary because the gates are prone to static electricity which can damage them. Since a
large amount of power is needed, the MOSFETs have to be cascaded to get the desired amount of power
at the output.
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The power output needed is 1000VA. By applying a power factor of 0.7 (due to loses). The output power
= 0.7 x 1000VA = 700watts.
For power to be equal to 700watts. According to Akande et al, (2007) [1];
I =
I=
P
V
700
= 58.33
12
(7)
(Using 12V battery).
This implies that the power element must have a current handling capability in excess of 58.33A.
IR2181 MOSFETs with the following specifications were thus selected for use.
TABLE 1: TABLE SHOWING IR2181 SPECIFICATIONS
I D (MAX)
V DS (MAX)
39A
60V
P D (MAX)
200Watts
Where I D = Drain current, V DS = Drain source voltage, P D = Power dissipated.
2.5 DC-AC Inverter Circuit
In this circuit, the only necessary adjustment will be in the choice of transformer rating and the MOSFETs
to be used.
2.5.1 The Transformer Choice
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Primary winding;
Secondary winding;
IP =
1294
P 1000
=
= 83.33 A
12
V
IS =
P 1000
=
= 8.33 A
V 120
Each half of the centre tapped transformer will therefore carry 8.33A. Hence, a transformer with the
following parameters will be required:
Primary winding: 12V, 83.33A
Secondary winding: 12-0-12, 8.33A
2.5.2 The MOSFET Choice
The same MOSFET type can be employed. The only change will be in the number of MOSFETs
employed. The power output is 1000VA. By applying a power factor of 0.7 (due to loses).
The output power = 0.7 x 1000VA = 700watts.
For power to be equal to 700watts;
I=
700
= 58.33 A (Using 12V battery).
12
This implies that the power element must have a current handling capability in excess of 58.33A. Using
the IRFF740A power MOSFET {P D (MAX=200W)}.
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Using the design parameters and formulas below according to Akande et al (2007) [1], Alade and Akande
(2010) [2], with G = Power gain, P out = the AC output power, P dc = DC input power, η = the efficiency,
V out = output voltage, Vcc = supply voltage, I dc= direct current, R L= load and V = input voltage.
V = IR
I=
(8)
5
= 0.5 A
10
Pin = I R
2
(9)
Pin = 0.25 × 10 = 2.5W
Vout
8 RL
340
= 4.25W
Pout =
8.0 × 10
P
G = out
Pin
4.25
G=
= 1.7
2.5
Pout =
Pdc = Vcc I dc
(10)
(11)
(12)
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Pdc = 12.0 × 0.5 = 6.0W
Pout
× 100%
Pdc
4.25
η=
× 100% = 71%
6.0
η=
(13)
The following equation gives the minimum charge which needs to be supplied by the capacitor:
Qbs = 2Q g +
I gbs (max )
f
+ QIs +
I cbs (leak )
f
(14)
IR2181 data sheet, http://www.irf.com/product-info/datasheets/data/ir2181.pdf [8].
The elements of the equation above were determined from data sheets as;
Q g = Gate charge of high side FET=110nC
Icbs(leak) = bootstrap capacitor leakage current=250μA
Q Is = level shift charge required per cycle = 5nC
I gbs = quiescent current for the high side driver circuitry =230μA
By substitution,
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Qbs = 9 × 10 −3 C
Q
V
9 ×10 −3
C=
= 0.7 µF
12
From C =
(15)
2.6 RESULTS AND DISCUSSION
2.6.1 Test Specification
2.6.2 Hardware
All individual hardware design is tested using an oscilloscope and a digital multi-meter. The key
components of the overall power inverter are a PWM control circuit, a half-bridge inverter, a transformer,
a sinusoidal PWM controller, a full-bridge inverter, and a low-pass filter. Each component was tested for
the desired voltages, currents, efficiencies, and frequencies. The following sub-sections demonstrate the
results of the tests that were performed on the power inverter hardware. The test specifications explain the
methods used to show that design constraints have been met. The power inverter is composed of many
components that require testing separately and as a complete system. Testing each component
individually helps to locate unique problems that are specific to each component. Complete system testing
will ensure that each hardware and software component is fully functional at a mutual level. Table 4
illustrates each main system component, the design constraints relative to each component, and the
various testing methods with results that will be utilized in designing a single phase power inverter.
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TABLE 2: COMPONENT CONSTRAINTS AND TESTING METHODS
Testing Equipments
DC-DC Converter
Components
Oscilloscope
Results
√
√
108.0767kHz
11.6V
√
√
109.875kHz
12.8V
Output voltage
Sinusoidal PWM
Controller
Output Voltage
√
34.5V
√
1.24V
Frequency
Full Bridge
Inverter
Output voltage
√
18.937kHz
√
34.0V
Frequency
√
Half-bridge PWM
Control Circuit
Frequency
Output voltage
Half-Bridge
Converter Output
Waveform
Frequency
Output voltage
Low Pass Filter
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DC-AC Inverter
Final Inverter
Frequency
√
63.661kHz
Output voltage
√
34.0V
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Figure 3: Half-Bridge Control Circuit Pulses
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Figure 4: Half-Bridge Converter Output Waveform
Figure 5: Sinusoidal PWM Inverter Control Circuit Pulses
Figure 6: Full-Bridge Inverter Unfiltered Voltage Output Waveform
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Figure 7: Low-Pass Filter Voltage Output Waveform
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Figure 8: Control Pulses from PICI8F522 Microcontroller
Figure 9: Voltage Waveform of Final Inverter Output
TABLE 3: PACKAGED PRODUCT RESULTS VERSUS DESIGNED CONSTRAINTS
Name
Design Constraint
Voltage
Convert 12VDC to
120VAC
Packaged Product
Results
Pass/Fail
12VDC to 120VAC
Pass
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>600W Continuous
Fail
Efficiency
Provide 1000W
Continuous Power
˃70% Efficient
˃71% Efficient
Pass
Waveform
Pure 50Hz Sinusoidal
Pure 50Hz Sinusoidal
Pass
Total Harmonic
Distortion
Physical Dimension
˂ 3% THD
˂ 9% THD
Fail
8” x 4.75” x2.5”
9” x 6.5” x 2.5”
Fail
Costs
₦35,000
₦25,000
Pass
Power
TABLE 4: BILL OF QUANTITY
ITEM
QUANTITY
UNIT
PRICE(₦)
1
1000
3
Inverter
Transformer
Charger
Transformer
MOSFETs
4
S/N
1
2
TOTAL AMOUNT(₦)
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1000
2
500
1000
4
100
400
Resistors
20
100
2000
5
Capacitors
20
100
2000
6
MC34025
1
1000
1000
7
Microcontroller
1
3000
3000
8
IRF758A
5
100
500
9
Battery
1
10000
10000
10
Full-bridge
Rectifier
1
200
200
11
IR2181
3
100
300
12
Casing
1
2500
2500
13
Transistors
6
100
600
14
Inductor
5
200
1000
15
Diodes
10
100
1000
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TOTAL
1300
23 600
3. SUMMARY
The design of 1kVA pure sine wave power inverter demonstrated above if well assembled and integrated
will undoubtedly supply 1000W of continuous power for our electronic gadgets at the power outage. In
this study, the methods implemented for the design were two circuit topologies. The circuit topologies
were DC-DC converter and DC-AC inverter topologies. The DC-DC converter in the design made use of
a high switching frequency transformer, enabling the reduction of size of the parts and to meet the
efficiency constraint, while the DC-AC inverter circuit made use of a microprocessor to digitally pulse the
transistors on the inverter side of the circuit.
In this design, the PICI8F252 and IR1281 transistors used were specially designed to produce optimum
pure sine wave output. Some of the inverters in the market, unless otherwise told are either square wave
or modified sine wave inverter that capable of generating great noise and high total harmonic distortion
and eventually cause havoc to our sensitive devices. But with this pure sine wave power inverter, the
sensitive devices are guaranteed from expected damages as a result of amount of unwanted harmonics and
some other possible defects that can be caused by square wave and modified sine wave power inverter.
Again, the output power of 600 – 1000W that can be accommodated with 12VDC battery by this inverter
is unique when compare to the previous work.
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The project was broken down into smaller components and tested individually at every different stage of
the design by the oscilloscope and digital multi-meter for their unique specifications. After component
tests, they were incorporated for final assembly and integration. The results of the oscilloscope and digital
multi-meter tests showed that half-bridge converter produced square wave output waveforms, sinusoidal
pulse width modulated controller circuit yielded modified sine wave. After filtering, the full bridge
inverter gave clean sinusoidal sine wave. The inverter was successfully converted 12VDC into 120VAC
at 50Hz frequency and 1000W output power for a special laboratory equipment. The inverter produced a
sinusoidal output signal with 7% total harmonic distortion with more than 70% efficiency. The real life
testing result shows that at the electric power outage, the inverter is able to power the electronic devices
like TV set and standing fan for six hours successively with 48Ah battery.
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[1]
Akande S.F, Kwaha B.J, Alao S.O (2007) Fundamentals in Electronics. First edition
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[2]
Alade O.M, Akande S.F (2010) On Various Oscillators and Power Amplifiers Design
Methods Employed for the Development of Power Inverters. IJRAS 5 (3).
[3]
Alaskan ABS (2006) DC to AC Inverters. Retrieved on September 1, 2010 from
http://www.absak.com/basic/inverters.html.
[4]
Babarinde,O. O., Adeleke, B. S., Adeyeye, A. H., Ogundeji, O. A., and Ganiyu A. L (2014) Design
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and
Technology. Volume 2, pp 201-212 ISSN: ISSN 2349-4409.
[5]
Dustin B, Jason H, Deniel M and Min-chiat W (2004): Design and Construction of
120 VDC/120 VAC 300W Power Inverter. Retrieved on September 1, 2010 from
file///C:/Users/my computer/Documents/Power-Inverter-Hard-Wave-Design
special.htm.
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ISBN: 978-166-
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ISSN 2229-5518
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[6]
Geethalakshmi, B. and Dananjayan, P. (2010) A Combine Multipulse -Multilevel Inverter
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For High Power Applications. International Journal of Computer and Electrical Engineering, Vol. 2, No 2.
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Hazlan.B.M.R (2009) Design and Construction of a 12 VDC/230 VAC Power Inverter.
Retrieved on September 1, 2010 from http://doc.www.umpir ump.edu.my/443/1/HAZLAN_BIN_MD_ROSDAN_3310.pdf.
[8]
IR2181(4)(s) High and Low Side Driver, International Rectifier – The Power Management
Leader (online) 1995-2004. Retrieved on September 1, 2010 from
http://www.irf.com/product-info/datasheets/data/ir2181.pdf.
[9]
IR2184(4)(s) Half-Bridge Driver, International Rectifier- The Power Management Leader
(online) 1995-2004. Retrieved on September 1, 2010 from http:www.irf.com/product
-info/datasheets/data/ir2184.pdf
[10]
Muhamed Faizal Bin Abd Razak (2010) Designed of HVDC to LVAC Inverters by Using
PWM. Retrieved on September 1, 2010 from
http://www.WTB83Wnm6Qoj:psm.fke.utm.my/libraryfke/files/520_MUHAMMADFAIZALBI
NABDULRAZAK2010.pdf .
[11]
Mushairin Bin Mukhtar (2006) Design and Construction of Low Voltage Power Inverter
Using PWM signal. Retrieved on September 1st, 2010 from
http://www.library.utem.edu.my/index2.php.
[12]
Mushairi Bin Mukhtar (2006) Develop Low Voltage Power Inverter Using PWM Signal. Thesis of
Bachelor Degree of Electronic Engineering, Faculty of Electronic and Computer Engineering, Kolej
Universiti Teknikal Kebangsaan Malaysia.
[13]
PICI8F252 Data Sheet, Microchip Graphic Explorer-Parent Tab: PICI8F252 Device (online)
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PLATE 1
IJSER
The Voltage Waveform of Final Inverter Output (Signal Response)
IJSER © 2015
http://www.ijser.org
International Journal of Scientific & Engineering Research, Volume 6, Issue 3, March-2015
ISSN 2229-5518
PLATE 2
The Assembled Components of Inverter
PLATE 3
IJSER
The Final Stage of Inverter Coupled Together by the Researcher (Sheu, A.L.)
PLATE 4
IJSER © 2015
http://www.ijser.org
1302
International Journal of Scientific & Engineering Research, Volume 6, Issue 3, March-2015
ISSN 2229-5518
IJSER
The Completed Inverter, Battery, Oscilloscope and Digital Multi-meter
IJSER © 2015
http://www.ijser.org
1303
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