Bitter Gourd Recipes for Tanzania

Bitter Gourd Recipes for Tanzania
Bitter Gourd Recipes
for Tanzania
AVRDC – The World Vegetable Center is an international nonprofit institute
committed to alleviating poverty and malnutrition through the increased
production and consumption of nutritious, health-promoting vegetables. The
Center’s improved vegetable lines and technologies help small-scale farmers
boost yields, increase their incomes, and safely grow nutritious vegetables for
their families and communities.
Published by
AVRDC – The World Vegetable Center
P.O. Box 42 Shanhua, Tainan 74199
Taiwan
T +886 6 583 7801
F +886 6 583 0009
[email protected]
avrdc.org
AVRDC Publication: 14-781
Editorial Direction: Maureen Mecozzi
Graphic Design: Vanna Liu
© 2014 AVRDC – The World Vegetable Center
Suggested citation
Damian GS, Luoh JW, Yang RY, Swai M. 2014. Bitter Gourd Recipes for Tanzania. AVRDC –
The World Vegetable Center. Shanhua, Taiwan. Publication 14-781. 26 p.
Bitter Gourd Recipes
for Tanzania
AVRDC – The World Vegetable Center
Kilimanjaro Christian Medical Center
Contributors
Recipe Design, Preparation and Description
Gloria Salla Damian, Jen Wen Luoh
Information
Jen Wen Luoh, Ray-yu Yang, Mark Swai
Photography
Ming-che Chen
Graphic Design
Vanna Liu
Acknowledgement
The recipe book is a joint effort from AVRDC – The World Vegetable Center and
Kilimanjaro Christian Medical Center for the project, “A better bitter gourd: Exploiting
bitter gourd (Momordica charantia L.) to increase incomes, manage type 2 diabetes, and
promote health in developing countries”.
Financial support provided by the Federal Ministry for Economic Cooperation and
Development (BMZ), Germany is gratefully acknowledged.
Table of Contents
Introduction
4
Words from Gloria Damian
6
Guide to Nutritional Information
7
RECIPES
9
Juices & Salads
10
Bitter Gourd Juice
10
Bitter Gourd Ginger Juice
11
Bitter Gourd Pineapple Juice
12
Bitter Gourd Salad
13
Sautéed Dishes
14
Bitter Gourd in Banana and Meat Broth
14
Bitter Gourd in Coconut Milk
16
Boiled Dishes
17
Bitter Gourd Mutton Soup
17
Bitter Gourd Chicken Pilau
18
Bitter Gourd Rice
19
Stewed Dishes
Bitter Gourd Stew
Pan-fried Dishes
20
20
21
Pan-fried Mixed Vegetables
21
Bitter Gourd Fries
22
Conversion Factors for Measurements
23
Nutrient Requirements
24
Macronutrients
24
Vitamins
25
Minerals
26
Introduction
Diabetes currently affects 285 million adults worldwide and the number is
growing. Africa alone will double its diabetic population in the next 16 years (Shaw
et al., 2010). India and China currently have the largest diabetic populations in
the world. It is estimated that up to 80% of coronary heart diseases and 90% of
type 2 diabetes could be prevented through healthier lifestyles (Boutayeb and
Boutayeb, 2005). As diabetes care and access to low-cost and readily available
treatment such as insulin and blood glucose monitoring are limited in these
countries, it is important to find food-based approaches to diabetes prevention
and management. Two of the most effective and practical means for preventing
and treating diabetes are dietary management and physical activity (Esposito et
al., 2010).
In 2011, AVRDC-The World Vegetable Center, Justus-Liebig University, Geissen
(Germany), Avinashilingam University for Women (India), Punjab Agricultural
University (India), Kilimanjaro Christian Medical Centre (Tanzania), and National
Taiwan University (Taiwan) initiated a project entitled, “A better bitter gourd:
Exploiting bitter gourd (Momordica charantia L.) to increase incomes, manage
type 2 diabetes, and promote health in developing countries”. Funded by the
Federal Ministry for Economic Cooperation and Development, Germany (BMZ), the
project studied the potential of bitter gourd in the prevention and management of
type 2 diabetes.
Bitter gourd (Momordica charantia L.) is a popular vegetable in Asia traditionally
used as a treatment for many illnesses, particularly diabetes. High in vitamin C
and fiber, bitter gourd contains insulin-like compounds and acts through different
mechanisms in the body to lower blood glucose levels. Bitter gourd is sometimes
called “plant insulin” due to its efficacy for glucose management. As a food-based
treatment for diabetes, bitter gourd can become an easily accessible and low-cost
alternative to insulin and medicinal drugs.
As lifestyle and eating habits in Tanzania have been changing in recent decades,
cases of type 2 diabetes have been increasing at a fast pace. The project aimed to
research the antidiabetic properties of bitter gourd to help improve the quality of
life of diabetics and to promote healthy eating for the general population.
Dietary management is an essential component of managing diabetes. The project
worked with nutrition experts from Avinashilingam University for Women in
Coimbatore, India and Kilimanjaro Christian Medical Centre in Moshi, Tanzania
to develop healthy and nutritious bitter gourd recipes designed to suit local food
4
preparation methods, ingredients, materials and taste. The recipes have been
modified for reduced sugar, salt, and oil content, and cooking time. Each dish has
been carefully planned and taste-tested to ensure these easy-to-prepare dishes
will delight the palates of everyone in your family. From soups to main dishes,
appetizers to snacks, there is a recipe suitable for you.
This recipe book was developed to promote the usage of bitter gourd in Tanzanian
cuisine. The recipes follow healthy dietary guidelines and incorporate bitter gourd
in everyday dishes. However, the recipes are not meant for diabetic patients under
treatment. Certain recipes need to be modified to accommodate the special
dietary guidelines for diabetics. Recommendations on the usage of bitter gourd for
diabetics will be made available.
On that note, we hope you will enjoy cooking from this healthy recipe book and
share these delicious dishes with family and friends.
References
Boutayeb, A. (2006) The double burden of communicable and non-communicable diseases in developing countries. Transactions of the Royal Society of Tropical Medicine and Hygiene, 100, 191.
Boutayeb, A. and Boutayeb, S. (2005) The burden of non-communicable diseases in developing
countries. International Journal for Equity in Health, 4, 2.
Esposito, K., Kastorini, C. M., Panagiotakos, D. B. and Giugliano, D. (2010) Prevention of type 2 diabetes by dietary patterns: a systematic review of prospective studies and meta-analysis. Metabolic
syndrome and related disorders, 8, 471-476.
Shaw, J., Sicree, R. and Zimmet, P. (2010) Global estimates of the prevalence of diabetes for 2010
and 2030. Diabetes Research and Clinical Practice, 87, 4-14. 5
Words from Gloria Damian
Bitter gourd, a nutritious vegetable that tastes slightly bitter when compared to
some bitter Tanzanian vegetables, is gaining popularity around the world due to its
antidiabetic and nutritional values.
When I first became aware of bitter gourd, I wondered how bitter it would taste.
After sampling these delicious recipes, I realized bitter gourd is an interesting
vegetable that is worth including in your meals.
The recipes are designed so that bitter gourd is cooked for less than 15 minutes
and in a minimum amount of water to allow maximum nutrient retention and a
better taste. When bitter gourd is eaten raw, such as in salad or juice, it provides
the most nutrients; however, a variety of healthy cooking methods are used to
give a wider range of choices for including bitter gourd in meals.
Most importantly, the starchy dishes recommended to eat along with bitter gourd
should be from whole grains. Refined starches such as pasta or highly milled flour
dishes should be avoided, especially when preparing meals for diabetics.
These typical Tanzanian dishes have been modified to accommodate bitter gourd
for healthier meals. Enjoy!
Gloria Damian
Dietician, Kilimanjaro Christian Medical Centre
6
Guide to Nutritional Information
Nutritional information for each recipe is included to help you understand the
nutritional value of your meal. Following the labeling criteria developed by the
U.S. Food and Drug Administration (FDA), the Daily Value is based on an intake of
2,000 calories for adults as a standard reference. For those who eat more or less
than 2,000 calories a day, the requirement will be higher or lower. The % Daily
Value illustrates the percentage of daily nutrient requirement met by the recipe.
It includes both the DRV (Dietary Reference Values) and RDI (Reference Dietary
Intakes). Daily Value is an expression similar to DRI (Dietary Reference Intake) and
RDA (Recommended Dietary Allowance).
The reference Daily Values based on an intake of 2,000 calories for adults:
Food Component
Daily Value (DV)
Total Fat
Saturated Fat
Cholesterol
Total Carbohydrate
Dietary Fiber
Protein
Vitamin A
Vitamin C
Vitamin D
Vitamin E
Vitamin K
Thiamine
Riboflavin
Niacin
Vitamin B6
Folate
Vitamin B12
Biotin
Pantothenic acid
Calcium
Iron
Sodium
Potassium
Phosphorus
Iodine
Magnesium
Zinc
Selenium
Copper
Manganese
Chromium
Molybdenum
Chloride
65 g
20 g
300 mg
300 g
25 g
50 g
500 µg RE
60 mg
400 IU
30 IU
80 µg
1.5 mg
1.7 mg
20 mg
2 mg
400 µg
6 µg
300 µg
10 mg
1,000 mg
18 mg
2,400 mg
3,500 mg
1,000 mg
150 µg
400 mg
15 mg
70 µg
2 mg
2 mg
120 µg
75 µg
3,400 mg
The nutrient content of the recipes is calculated for each serving. Micronutrients
higher than 8% Daily Value are highlighted in the nutritional information.
Recommended daily nutrient requirements are provided at the end of the book
for different age groups and gender.
7
8
RECIPES
Precautions
Consumption of high quantities of bitter gourd may not be suitable for:
*
*
*
*
People with low blood glucose levels (hypoglycemia)
Pregnant and lactating mothers
Young children
Diabetes patients on oral drug treatment
Bitter gourd should not be consumed on an empty stomach.
9
Juices & Salads
Bitter Gourd Juice
~ A nutritious drink, especially for diabetics ~
3 Servings
Preparation time: 5 minutes
Ingredients
1 large (300 g) bitter gourd with seeds, chopped
in cubes
1/2 L drinking water
Method
1. In a blender, add bitter gourd cubes and
drinking water. Blend until smooth.
2. Sieve and serve chilled.
Lime juice can be added to reduce the bitter
taste.
10
Nutritional Information (per serving)
Calories 6kcal
% Daily Value*
Total fat
0g
0%
Saturated fat
0 g
0%
Trans Fat
0 g
Cholesterol
0mg 0%
Sodium
4mg 3%
Total Carbohydrate1 g
0%
Dietary Fiber
1 g
4%
Sugars
3 g
Protein
0g
Micronutrient Highlights
31.5mg 52%
Vitamin C
*Percent Daily Values are based on a 2000
calorie diet.
Your daily values may be higher or lower
depending on your caloric needs.
Juices & Salads
Bitter Gourd Ginger Juice
~ A tasty juice high in Vitamin C and other micronutrients ~
Nutritional Information (per serving)
Calories 56kcal
% Daily Value*
Total fat
0g
0%
Saturated fat
0g
0%
Trans Fat
0g
Cholesterol
0mg 0%
Sodium
10mg 0%
Total Carbohydrate 14g
5%
Dietary Fiber
3g 12%
Sugars
9g
Protein
1g
Micronutrient Highlights
78 µg RE 16%
Vitamin A
Vitamin C
73.3mg 122%
Folate
55.1µg 14%
*Percent Daily Values are based on a 2000
calorie diet.
Your daily values may be higher or lower
depending on your caloric needs.
4 Servings
Preparation time: 10 minutes
Ingredients
1 (250 g) bitter gourd cut in cubes (with seeds)
1 (250 g) ripe mango cut in cubes
Lime juice from 1 fruit
1 cm root ginger, chopped (optional)
1/2 L drinking water
Method
1.Combine bitter gourd, mango, lime juice,
ginger and water in a blender. Blend until
smooth.
2.Sieve and serve chilled.
11
Juices & Salads
Bitter Gourd Pineapple Juice
~ A refreshing, naturally sweet drink high in antioxidants ~
4 Servings
Preparation time: 10 minutes
Ingredients
1 (250 g) bitter gourd, chopped with seeds
1/2 (250 g) pineapple, chopped
1/2 L water
Method
1.Combine bitter gourd, pineapple and water in
a blender. Blend until smooth.
2.Sieve and serve chilled.
12
Nutritional Information (per serving)
42kcal
Calories % Daily Value*
Total fat
0g
0%
Saturated fat
0 g
0%
Trans Fat
0 g
Cholesterol
0mg 0%
Sodium
9mg 0%
Total Carbohydrate11 g
4%
Dietary Fiber
3 g
11%
Sugars
6 g
Protein
1g
Micronutrient Highlights
82.4 mg 137%
Vitamin C
Folate
56.2µg 14%
Manganese
0.6mg 32%
*Percent Daily Values are based on a 2000
calorie diet.
Your daily values may be higher or lower
depending on your caloric needs.
Juices & Salads
Bitter Gourd Salad
~ An appetizing and rich salad ~
4 Servings
Preparation time: 10 minutes
Ingredients
1 (250 g) bitter gourd, sliced thinly
1 (50 g) carrot, grated
1 (50 g) tomato, sliced
1/2 (50 g) onion, chopped
Lemon juice from 1 lemon
1 chili, chopped (optional)
1 L water (for soaking)
Salt to taste
Method
1.Add salt to 1 liter of water. Soak slices of bitter
gourd in the salt water for 30 minutes then
squeeze the water out.
2.In a large bowl, combine all the vegetables
and add lemon juice.
3.Sprinkle some black pepper for a better taste,
toss and serve immediately as side dish.
13
Nutritional Information (per serving)
Calories 26kcal
% Daily Value*
Total fat
0g
0%
Saturated fat
0g
0%
Trans Fat
0g
Cholesterol
0mg 0%
Sodium
37mg 0%
Total Carbohydrate 6g
2%
Dietary Fiber
3g 10%
Sugars
2g
Protein
1g
Micronutrient Highlights
Vitamin A
246 µg RE 50%
Vitamin C
61.2mg 102%
Folate
53.2µg 13%
*Percent Daily Values are based on a 2000
calorie diet.
Your daily values may be higher or lower
depending on your caloric needs.
Sautéed Dishes
Bitter Gourd in Banana and Meat Broth
~ Typical Tanzanian delight with bitter gourd for more nutrients ~
6 Servings
Preparation time: 20 minutes
Ingredients
1/4 kg beef with bone
1/4 tsp crushed ginger
1 whole chili (optional)
Juice from 1/2 lemon
3/4 L water
2 tbsp vegetable oil
1 (50 g) onion, chopped
2 cloves of garlic, crushed
1 (50 g) carrot, chopped
2 (75 g) tomatoes, chopped
2 (250 g) bitter gourds, chopped (without seeds)
5 green bananas
Salt to taste
Nutritional Information (per serving)
235kcal
Calories % Daily Value*
Total fat
7g 11%
Saturated fat
1 g
7%
Trans Fat
0 g
Cholesterol
24mg 8%
Sodium
281mg 12%
Total Carbohydrate5 g
2%
Dietary Fiber
1 g
5%
Sugars
1 g
Protein
15g
Micronutrient Highlights
157 µg RE 31%
Vitamin A
Vitamin C
12.6mg 21%
Niacin
3.1mg 16%
Vitamin B6
1.0mg 51%
Vitamin B12
1.0µg 17%
Magnesium
43.8mg 11%
Phosphorus
104mg 10%
Potassium
534mg 15%
Zinc
3.6mg 24%
Selenium
14.6µg 21%
*Percent Daily Values are based on a 2000
calorie diet.
Your daily values may be higher or lower
depending on your caloric needs.
Method
1.Cut the meat in pieces and marinate with ginger and lemon.
2.Add a pinch of salt and let it sit for 10 minutes.
3.Add 3/4 liter water and whole chili to a cooking pot and bring to a boil. Add the marinated
meat and boil for 10 to 15 minutes (use a pressure cooker for best results).
4.In a medium sized pan, heat the oil to fry the onions, then add garlic and carrots. Cook until
brown.
5.Add tomatoes and a pinch of salt. Cover the pan with a lid and let it cook until the vegetables
are soft (2 to 3 minutes).
6.Add the plantain and bitter gourd pieces then add broth from the boiled meat. Simmer for
10 minutes until the plantains and bitter gourds are soft.
7.Add the meat pieces and mix well. Serve hot with steamed vegetables.
Irish potatoes or yams can be used instead of bananas.
14
15
Sautéed Dishes
Bitter Gourd in Coconut Milk
~ Serve hot with ugali and steamed vegetables for a tasty meal ~
3 Servings
Preparation time: 15 minutes
Ingredients
2 tbsp vegetable oil
1 (50 g) medium sized onion, chopped
1/4 tsp ginger, crushed
1 (50 g) medium sized carrot, chopped
2 (75 g) tomato, chopped
1 (200 g) bitter gourd, chopped
3 (50 g) okra, chopped
1 cup coconut milk
1/2 cup of warm water
Salt to taste
Method
1.In a medium sized pot, heat oil and fry onions
until brown then add carrots and ginger. Flip
constantly.
2.Add the tomatoes and place the lid on the
pot (for 3 minutes) to let tomatoes soften.
3.Add okra and bitter gourd, mix them well
then add 1/2 cup warm water and simmer for
5 minutes.
4.Add coconut milk and let it thicken for 5
minutes. Serve hot.
16
Nutritional Information (per serving)
278kcal
Calories % Daily Value*
Total fat
26g 40%
Saturated fat
15g 76%
Trans Fat
0g
Cholesterol
0mg 0%
Sodium
528mg 22%
Total Carbohydrate 12g
4%
Dietary Fiber
3g 12%
Sugars
3g
Protein
3g
Micronutrient Highlights
313 µg RE 63%
Vitamin A
Vitamin C
31.5mg 53%
Vitamin K
18.7µg 23%
Folate
59.9µg 15%
Iron
3.2mg 18%
Magnesium
59.2mg 15%
Phosphorus
122mg 12%
Potassium
528mg 15%
Copper
0.2mg 12%
Manganese
0.8mg 39%
*Percent Daily Values are based on a 2000
calorie diet.
Your daily values may be higher or lower
depending on your caloric needs.
Boiled Dishes
Bitter Gourd Mutton Soup
~ A complete breakfast dish ~
4 Servings
Preparation time: 20 minutes
Ingredients
1/4 kg mutton with bone, chopped
3/4 L water
1 bitter gourd (100 g), chopped
1 (50 g) carrot chopped in cubes
1(50 g) onion
1 chili pepper
Salt to taste
Method
1.In a cooking pot, boil meat (with the bone) in
3/4 liter of water. Add salt and a whole chili
and continue to boil for 10 to 15 minutes
(pressure cooker for best results).
2.When cooked, add the vegetables and boil for
3 minutes.
3.Serve hot with bread or steamed bananas.
17
Nutritional Information (per serving)
108kcal
Calories % Daily Value*
Total fat
2g
3%
Saturated fat
1g
3%
Trans Fat
0g
Cholesterol
47mg 16%
Sodium
362mg 15%
Total Carbohydrate 4g
1%
Dietary Fiber
1g
5%
Sugars
2g
Protein
18g
Micronutrient Highlights
227 µg RE 45%
Vitamin A
Vitamin C
25.5mg 43%
Riboflavin
0.4mg 24%
Niacin
2.7mg 14%
Vitamin B12
0.7µg 12%
Iron
2.6mg 15%
Phosphorus
148mg 15%
Potassium
419mg 12%
Zinc
3.6mg 24%
Copper
0.2mg 12%
Selenium
7.6µg 11%
*Percent Daily Values are based on a 2000
calorie diet.
Your daily values may be higher or lower
depending on your caloric needs.
Boiled Dishes
Bitter Gourd Chicken Pilau
~ A spicy balanced dish to serve with raw salad ~
4 Servings
Preparation time: 20 minutes
Ingredients
2 tbsp vegetable oil
1 (50 g) onion, chopped
1 head garlic, crushed
250 g chicken
1 big Irish potato, chopped
4 tbsp pilau masala
1 cup rice, washed
1 (250 g) bitter gourd cut in cubes
3 cups of hot water
Salt to taste
Method
1.In a big pot, heat oil on medium heat. Add
onions, cook until transparent then add
garlic and keep stirring for 2 minutes.
2.Add meat and potatoes, pilau masala and
mix well.
3.Add rice and bitter gourd cubes with a pinch
of salt, then stir until the water has dried.
4.Add hot water, cover the pot and then let it
simmer on low heat until the rice is cooked.
Serve hot as a main dish.
18
Nutritional Information (per serving)
Calories 271kcal
% Daily Value*
Total fat
8g 13%
Saturated fat
1g
4%
Trans Fat
0g
Cholesterol
6mg 2%
Sodium
1294mg 54%
Total Carbohydrate 43g 14%
Dietary Fiber
3g 12%
Sugars
1g
Protein
6g
Micronutrient Highlights
10.0 mg 17%
Vitamin C
Thiamin
0.2mg 15%
Niacin
2.7mg 13%
Vitamin B6
0.3mg 16%
Folate
58.2µg 15%
Magnesium
351mg 10%
Copper
0.2mg 10%
Manganese
0.5mg 25%
Selenium
7.5µg 11%
*Percent Daily Values are based on a 2000
calorie diet.
Your daily values may be higher or lower
depending on your caloric needs.
Boiled Dishes
Bitter Gourd Rice
~ Warm comfort food served with bean sauce ~
3 Servings
Preparation time: 15 minutes
Nutritional Information (per serving)
194kcal
Calories % Daily Value*
Total fat
5g
8%
Saturated fat
0g
2%
Trans Fat
0g
Cholesterol
0mg 0%
Sodium
397mg 15%
Total Carbohydrate 33g 11%
Dietary Fiber
1g
6%
Sugars
1g
Protein
4g
Micronutrient Highlights
Vitamin A
147 µg RE 29%
Vitamin C
12.4mg 21%
Thiamin
0.2mg 13%
Niacin
2.7mg 14%
Folate
79.3µg 20%
Iron
1.9mg 11%
Manganese
0.6mg 28%
Selenium
8.1µg 12%
*Percent Daily Values are based on a 2000
calorie diet.
Your daily values may be higher or lower
depending on your caloric needs.
Ingredients
1 cup rice, washed
2 cups water
1 (100 g) bitter gourd
1 (25 g) carrot
1 tbsp vegetable oil
2 (12 g) cloves garlic
1 teaspoon cumin seeds (jeera)
Salt to taste
Method
1.In a cooking pot, wash the rice and combine
all the ingredients.
2.Mix well and bring to a boil.
3.Turn the heat to a low setting when the rice
is beginning to dry and let it dry slowly until
cooked. Serve hot.
19
Stewed Dishes
Bitter Gourd Stew
~ An enjoyable side dish loaded with nutrients ~
4 Servings
Preparation time: 15 minutes
Ingredients
1 tbsp vegetable oil
1 (50 g) onion, chopped
2 (75 g) tomato, chopped
1 (50 g) carrot, chopped
1 (250 g) small bitter gourd
1/2 L warm water
Salt to taste
Method
1.Heat oil in a pot and fry onions until light brown
in color.
2.Add carrots, then tomatoes and salt, and cover
for 2-5 minutes to let the vegetables soften.
3.Add bitter gourd slices, mix thoroughly and then
add warm water and cook for 10 minutes until
stew texture.
4.Serve hot with boiled rice along with vegetables
and fruits.
20
Nutritional Information (per serving)
66kcal
Calories % Daily Value*
Total fat
4g
6%
Saturated fat
0g
2%
Trans Fat
0g
Cholesterol
0mg 0%
Sodium
392mg 16%
Total Carbohydrate 7g
2%
Dietary Fiber
2g
8%
Sugars
2g
Protein
1g
Micronutrient Highlights
Vitamin A
2325 IU 47%
Vitamin C
25.1mg 42%
*Percent Daily Values are based on a 2000
calorie diet.
Your daily values may be higher or lower
depending on your caloric needs.
Pan-fried Dishes
Pan-Fried Mixed Vegetables
~ This delicious and colorful dish serves a variety of nutrients ~
2 Servings
Preparation time: 15 minutes
Ingredients
1 tbsp vegetable oil
1 (50 g) onion, chopped
1 (50 g) carrot, chopped
1 (50 g) bitter gourd, chopped
1 (50 g) eggplant pieces
1 (50 g) small sweet pepper
1 (50 g) tomatoes, chopped
Salt to taste
A pinch of black pepper
Method
1.In a medium sized pan, heat oil and fry
onions, carrots and bitter gourd.
2.Add tomatoes and salt, mix and cover to let
it cook.
3.Add a small amount of water and cover the
pot until vegetables are thoroughly cooked.
4.Season with black pepper and serve hot as
an accompaniment to rice or ugali.
21
Nutritional Information (per serving)
Calories 120kcal
% Daily Value*
Total fat
8g 12%
Saturated fat
1g
3%
Trans Fat
0g
Cholesterol
0mg 0%
Sodium
480mg 20%
Total Carbohydrate 13g
4%
Dietary Fiber
3g 12%
Sugars
4g
Protein
2g
Micronutrient Highlights
5199 IU 104%
Vitamin A
Vitamin C
58.1mg 97%
Vitamin E
2.0mg 10%
Vitamin K
11.6µg 14%
Manganese
0.2mg 10%
*Percent Daily Values are based on a 2000
calorie diet.
Your daily values may be higher or lower
depending on your caloric needs.
Pan-fried Dishes
Bitter Gourd Fries
~ A simple and crispy bite for health ~
4 Servings
Preparation time: 10 minutes
Ingredients
1 cup vegetable oil
1 (250 g) bitter gourd, sliced
1 tbsp black pepper (optional)
Salt to taste
Method
1.In a bowl, mix together bitter gourd with black
pepper.
2.Heat oil on a frying pan until hot and add the
bitter gourd slices. Cook until brown and crispy.
3.Sieve out the oil and place on a dish with towel/
food paper to absorb the oil.
4.Sprinkle some salt and serve hot with salad or
alone as a snack.
Alternative to frying: Apply a little oil on
seasoned bitter gourd slices and bake for 8 to 10
minutes in a 150° C oven.
22
Nutritional Information (per serving)
Calories 76kcal
% Daily Value*
Total fat
7g 11%
Saturated fat
1g
3%
Trans Fat
0g
Cholesterol
0mg 0%
Sodium
179mg 7%
Total Carbohydrate 4g
1%
Dietary Fiber
2g
7%
Sugars
1g
Protein
1g
Micronutrient Highlights
21.0mg 35%
Vitamin C
Vitamin K
10.4µg 13%
*Percent Daily Values are based on a 2000
calorie diet.
Your daily values may be higher or lower
depending on your caloric needs.
Conversion Factors for Measurements
Metric
Exact Conversion
SPOONS
1/4 teaspoon (tsp)
1/2 tsp
1 tsp
2 tsp
1 tablespoon (tbsp)
CUPS
1/4 cup (4 tbsp)
1/3 cup (5 1/3 tbsp)
1/2 cup (8 tbsp)
2/3 cup (10 2/3 tbsp)
3/4 cup (12 tbsp)
1 cup (16 tbsp)
4 1/2 cups
DRY MEASUREMENTS
1 ounces (oz)
2 oz
3 oz
4 oz
5 oz
6 oz
7 oz
8 oz
16 oz
32 oz
1.2
2.4
4.7
9.4
14.2
56.8
75.6
113.7
151.2
170.5
227.3
1022.9
28.3
56.7
85.0
113.4
141.7
170.1
198.4
226.8
453.6
907.2
milliliter (ml)
ml
ml
ml
ml
Metric
Standard Measure
1
2
5
10
15
ml
ml
ml
ml
ml
ml
ml
ml
ml
ml
ml
ml
50
75
125
150
175
250
1000
ml
ml
ml
ml
ml
ml
ml (1 L)
grams (g)
g
g
g
g
g
g
g
g
g
30
55
85
125
140
170
200
250
500
1000
g
g
g
g
g
g
g
g
g
g (1 kg)
23
Nutrient Requirements
Macronutrients
Energy
Fat
Protein
Carbohydrate
kcal/day
g/day
g/day
g/day
Age
Children & Adolescents
Boys
1-3 years
1125
30-40
12
130
4-6 years
1350
25-35
17
130
7-9 years
1825
25-35
26
130
10-11 years
2150
25-35
33
130
12-14 years
2775
25-35
41
130
15-18 years
3325
25-35
58
130
1-3 years
1050
30-40
11
130
4-6 years
1325
25-35
13
130
7-9 years
1700
25-35
26
130
10-11 years
2000
25-35
34
130
12-14 years
2275
25-35
41
130
15-18 years
2500
25-35
47.4
130
Girls
Adults
Men
19-30 years
3050
20-35
58
130
31-60 years
2950
20-35
58
130
60 < years
2450
20-35
58
130
2400
20-35
50
130
Women
19-30 years
31-60 years
2350
20-35
50
130
60 < years
2100
20-35
50
130
Reference measurements for the table: i) moderate activity levels; ii) weight: 70 kg for men and 60 kg for
women.
Sources:
FAO/WHO. (2004). Human energy requirements. Report of a Joint FAO/WHO/UNU Expert Consultation. FAO
Food and Nutrition Technical Report Series No. 1. Food and Agriculture Organization, Rome.
FAO/WHO. (2007). Protein and amino acid requirements in human nutrition: Report of a Joint FAO/WHO/
UNU Expert Consultation. WHO Technical Report Series 935. World Health Organization, Geneva. WHO
Technical Report
Institute of Medicine, Food Nutrition Board. (2002). Dietary Reference Intakes for Energy, Carbohydrate,
Fiber, Fat, Fatty Acids, Cholesterol, Protein and Amino Acids (Macronutrients). National Academic Press:
Washington, DC. 24
Vitamins
WATER-SOLUBLE VITAMINS
FAT-SOLUBLE VITAMINS
Thiamin
Riboflavin
Niacin
Vit. B6
Folate
Vit.
B12
Vit.
C
Vit.
A
Vit.
D
Vit.
E
Vit.
K
mg/day
mg/day
mg/day
mg/day
µg/day
µg/day
mg/
day
µg
RE/
day
µg/day
mg/day
µg/
day
Age
Children & Adolescents
Boys
1-3 years
0.5
0.5
4-6 years
0.6
7-9 years
0.9
10-18 years
6
0.5
160
0.9
30
400
5
5
15
0.6
8
0.6
200
1.2
30
450
5
5
20
0.9
12
1
300
1.8
35
500
5
7
25
1.2
1.3
16
1.3
400
2.4
40
600
5
10
3565
1-3 years
0.5
0.5
6
0.5
160
0.9
30
400
5
5
15
4-6 years
0.6
0.6
8
0.6
200
1.2
30
450
5
5
20
7-9 years
0.9
0.9
12
1
300
1.8
35
500
5
7
25
10-18 years
1.1
1
16
1.2
400
2.4
40
600
5
7. 5
3555
Girls
Adults
Men
19-50 years
1.2
1.3
16
1.3
400
2.4
45
600
5
10
65
51-64 years
1.2
1.3
16
1.7
400
2.4
45
600
10
10
65
65 + years
1.2
1.3
16
1.7
400
2.4
45
600
15
10
65
19-50 years
1.1
1.1
14
1.3
400
2.4
45
500
5
7.5
55
50-65 years
(menopausal)
1.1
1.1
14
1.5
400
2.4
45
500
10
7.5
55
65 + years
1.1
1.1
14
1.5
400
2.4
45
600
15
7.5
55
Women
(pre-menopausal)
Source:
FAO/WHO. (2002.) Human vitamin and mineral requirements. Report of a Joint FAO/WHO Expert
Consultation. FAO/WHO non-series publication. Food and Agriculture Organization: Rome.
25
Minerals
Calcium
Magnesium
Selenium
Zinc
Iron
Iodine
mg/day
mg/day
µg/day
mg/day
mg/day
µg/day
Age
Children & Adolescents
Boys
1-3 years
500
60
17
4.1
6
75
4-6 years
600
73
21
5.1
6
110
7-9 years
700
100
21
5.6
9
100
10-11 years
1300
250
34
9.7
15
135
12-14 years
1300
250
34
9.7
15
110
15-18 years
1300
250
34
9.7
19
110
1-3 years
500
60
17
4.1
6
75
4-6 years
600
73
21
5.1
6
110
7-9 years
700
100
21
5.6
9
100
10-11 years
1300
230
26
7.8
14
140
12-14 years
1300
230
26
7.8
33
100
15-18 years
1300
230
26
7.8
31
100
Girls
Adults
Men
19-65 years
1,000
260
34
7
14
130
65 + years
1,300
230
34
7
14
130
19-50 years
(pre-menopausal)
1,000
220
26
4.9
29
110
51-65 years
(menopausal)
1,300
220
26
4.9
11
110
65 + years
1,300
190
26
4.9
11
110
Women
Source:
FAO/WHO. (2002.) Human vitamin and mineral requirements. Report of a Joint FAO/WHO Expert
Consultation. FAO/WHO non-series publication. Food and Agriculture Organization: Rome.
26
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AVRDC – The World Vegetable Center
P.O. Box 42 Shanhua, Tainan 74199
Taiwan
T +886 6 583 7801
F +886 6 583 0009
[email protected]
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