Li-Ion Batteries for Low Voltage Applications Christoph Fehrenbacher 19 October 2016 ©2016 A123 Systems, LLC. All rights reserved. OEM Portfolio Planning; A Balanced Strategy for Fuel Economy Low voltage hybrids are a cost effective solution for higher volume impact on fuel economy requirements Low voltage 48V & 12V EV Fuel Economy / Emsission Requirements HEV Mild hybrid Micro-hybrid sales volume ©2016 A123 Systems, LLC. All rights reserved. Comparison of Lithium-Ion Chemistry Fit Considerations for 48V mild HEV battery solutions Transportation Battery Solutions High Energy EV w/ w/ fast fast charge charge 12V Single Battery Single Battery HEV HEV EV Dual Battery/ Aux EV EV Micro-Hybrid (Europe/VDA) PHEV 48V Hybrid 12V Micro-hybrid PHEV NMC (13s) (20s) High Power LTO LFP (14s) • Considerations of market solutions + + Cost will limit favorability of LTO in this application due to inherent series cell counts NMC and LFP have most potential for mainstream success based on cost • A123 concluded that LFP could be optimized to further reduce impedance and thus be the best fit chemistry high P/E ratio 48V applications • NMC based solutions may be required for 48V applications with high E/P ratio ©2016 A123 Systems, LLC. All rights reserved. 3 Segmenting OEM Requirements 48V battery systems Luxury features & further fuel efficiency Fuel efficiency focus One battery solution can address the requirements of this segment ©2016 A123 Systems, LLC. All rights reserved. Sizing a 48V Battery Market segment: “Fuel efficiency focus” • Lithium-ion cells used for HEV applications have power/energy ratios that work well in 48V applications, but most are not sized properly to balance energy, thermal requirements, and cost • Energy throughput requirements for 48V battery systems range from 100-200Wh + Sizing toward the maximum of 180-200Wh yields approximately 4Ah capacity at EOL • Assuming 50% capacity needed for usable energy window and capacity fade over life, approximately 8Ah BOL capacity is required ©2016 A123 Systems, LLC. All rights reserved. 5 Introducing UltraPhosphate™ 8Ah prismatic cell Impedance Change by Attribute 100% HEV Electrode Ultra Electrode High P/E Extreme P/E 14Ah Nanophosphate® [HEV] 8Ah UltraPhosphate™ [48V] 80% 60% 40% 20% 0% Cathode Anode Nanophosphate Electrolyte Loading UltraPhosphate UltraPhosphate improvements total 65% additional power over previous HEV design ©2016 A123 Systems, LLC. All rights reserved. 6 A123 48V UltraPhosphate Battery Launching in Q4 2016 Specification Pack Configuration Chemistry Capacity Minimum Voltage* Nominal Voltage Maximum Voltage* SOC Range 10s Discharge @25°C, 50% SOC 60s Discharge @25°C, 50% SOC 10s Charge @ 25°C, 50% SOC 60s Charge @ 25°C, 50% SOC Usable Energy @ 25°C Mass Communication Protocol Length x width x height Unit Performance Ah V V V % kW kW kW kW Wh kg 14s1p UltraPhosphate 8 24 46 54 30 - 80 15 7.5 16 9 >180 8 CAN 304 x 180 x 96 mm • Design goals + Compact with optimized height profile + Thermal efficiency to avoid need for active cooling in many applications + Crush resistant for applications packaged within crash zones ©2016 A123 Systems, LLC. All rights reserved. 7 Comparison of Lithium-Ion Chemistry Fit Considerations for 12V battery solutions Transportation Battery Solutions High Energy EV w/ w/ fast fast charge charge 12V Single Battery EV Single Battery HEVHEV Dual Battery/ Aux EV EV Micro-Hybrid (Europe/VDA) PHEV 48V Hybrid 12V Micro-hybrid PHEV NMC High Power Not matched for voltage Nanophosphate®/Ultraphosphate™ (LFP) Lithium Titanate (LTO) • Key requirements • Key applications + Meet todays power net operation voltage requirements + Balance of power (CCA) and energy (ignition-off draw) + Minimize cost + Light-weighting and micro-hybridization + Prepare for expiration of EU’s lead ban exemption ©2016 A123 Systems, LLC. All rights reserved. Standard Construction Leads to Economies of Scale Led by the five German automakers Capacity Size 20Ah LN0 40Ah LN1 60Ah LN2 80Ah LN4 Package Lead ban preparation in Europe is another driver to economies of scale, although legislation timing is unknown • Common specification for Li-ion Starter Batteries (LiSB) was initially released in December 2013 + Form factor, capacity & cold crank performance • Some OEM programs still deviate from this template spec ©2016 A123 Systems, LLC. All rights reserved. UltraPhosphate also supports 12V Starter Battery Cold crank gap with lead-acid addressed Cold Cranking Amps (7.5V minimum for 10 seconds*) Ultra Electrode HE Electrode Extreme P/E High E/P 8Ah UltraPhosphate™ 1000 900 800 700 600 500 400 300 200 100 0 20Ah UltraPhosphate™ * Tested to BS EN 50342-1 -18degC -30degC lead-acid AGM 12V 60Ah A123 Gen2 12V 60Ah A123 Gen3 12V 60Ah A123 has achieved parity with lead-acid cold crank performance at -30oC, erasing the performance barriers to mass market ©2016 A123 Systems, LLC. All rights reserved. 10 Li-Ion Batteries for Low Voltage Applications UltraPhosphate™ Lithium-Ion Technology 12V Starter Battery 48V Battery + Outstanding cold cranking power + Compact solution + Outperforms lead-acid technologies + Supports fuel savings initiatives + Exceptional cycle-life + Powerful charge acceptance + High charge acceptance + + 60% weight reduction over lead-acid Potential to eliminate battery cooling system + Solution for start-stop and recuperation demands + Supports engine downsizing and electric supercharging ©2016 A123 Systems, LLC. All rights reserved. ©2016 A123 Systems, LLC. All rights reserved.