Li-Ion Batteries for Low Voltage Applications
Li-Ion Batteries for
Low Voltage Applications
Christoph Fehrenbacher
19 October 2016
©2016 A123 Systems, LLC. All rights reserved.
OEM Portfolio Planning; A Balanced Strategy for Fuel Economy
Low voltage hybrids are a cost effective solution for higher volume
impact on fuel economy requirements
Low voltage
48V & 12V
EV
Fuel Economy /
Emsission
Requirements
HEV
Mild
hybrid
Micro-hybrid
sales volume
©2016 A123 Systems, LLC. All rights reserved.
Comparison of Lithium-Ion Chemistry Fit
Considerations for 48V mild HEV battery solutions
Transportation Battery Solutions
High
Energy
EV w/
w/ fast
fast charge
charge 12V
Single
Battery
Single
Battery HEV HEV
EV
Dual Battery/ Aux
EV
EV
Micro-Hybrid
(Europe/VDA)
PHEV
48V Hybrid 12V Micro-hybrid
PHEV
NMC
(13s)
(20s)
High
Power
LTO
LFP (14s)
•
Considerations of market solutions
+
+
Cost will limit favorability of LTO in this application due to inherent series cell counts
NMC and LFP have most potential for mainstream success based on cost
•
A123 concluded that LFP could be optimized to further reduce impedance and thus be the best fit chemistry
high P/E ratio 48V applications
•
NMC based solutions may be required for 48V applications with high E/P ratio
©2016 A123 Systems, LLC. All rights reserved.
3
Segmenting OEM Requirements
48V battery systems
Luxury features
& further fuel
efficiency
Fuel efficiency focus
One battery solution can
address the requirements
of this segment
©2016 A123 Systems, LLC. All rights reserved.
Sizing a 48V Battery
Market segment: “Fuel efficiency focus”
• Lithium-ion cells used for HEV applications have power/energy ratios that
work well in 48V applications, but most are not sized properly to balance
energy, thermal requirements, and cost
• Energy throughput requirements for 48V battery systems range from
100-200Wh
+ Sizing toward the maximum of 180-200Wh yields approximately 4Ah capacity at EOL
• Assuming 50% capacity needed for usable energy window and capacity fade
over life, approximately 8Ah BOL capacity is required
©2016 A123 Systems, LLC. All rights reserved.
5
Introducing UltraPhosphate™
8Ah prismatic cell
Impedance Change by Attribute
100%
HEV Electrode
Ultra Electrode
High P/E
Extreme P/E
14Ah
Nanophosphate®
[HEV]
8Ah
UltraPhosphate™
[48V]
80%
60%
40%
20%
0%
Cathode
Anode
Nanophosphate
Electrolyte
Loading
UltraPhosphate
UltraPhosphate improvements total 65%
additional power over previous HEV design
©2016 A123 Systems, LLC. All rights reserved.
6
A123 48V UltraPhosphate Battery
Launching in Q4 2016
Specification
Pack Configuration
Chemistry
Capacity
Minimum Voltage*
Nominal Voltage
Maximum Voltage*
SOC Range
10s Discharge @25°C, 50% SOC
60s Discharge @25°C, 50% SOC
10s Charge @ 25°C, 50% SOC
60s Charge @ 25°C, 50% SOC
Usable Energy @ 25°C
Mass
Communication Protocol
Length x width x height
Unit
Performance
Ah
V
V
V
%
kW
kW
kW
kW
Wh
kg
14s1p
UltraPhosphate
8
24
46
54
30 - 80
15
7.5
16
9
>180
8
CAN
304 x 180 x 96
mm
• Design goals
+ Compact with optimized height
profile
+ Thermal efficiency to avoid need
for active cooling in many
applications
+ Crush resistant for applications
packaged within crash zones
©2016 A123 Systems, LLC. All rights reserved.
7
Comparison of Lithium-Ion Chemistry Fit
Considerations for 12V battery solutions
Transportation Battery Solutions
High
Energy
EV w/
w/ fast
fast charge
charge 12V
Single
Battery
EV
Single
Battery HEVHEV
Dual Battery/ Aux
EV
EV
Micro-Hybrid
(Europe/VDA)
PHEV
48V Hybrid 12V Micro-hybrid
PHEV
NMC
High
Power
Not matched
for voltage
Nanophosphate®/Ultraphosphate™ (LFP)
Lithium Titanate (LTO)
• Key requirements
• Key applications
+ Meet todays power net operation voltage requirements
+ Balance of power (CCA) and energy (ignition-off draw)
+ Minimize cost
+ Light-weighting and micro-hybridization
+ Prepare for expiration of EU’s lead ban exemption
©2016 A123 Systems, LLC. All rights reserved.
Standard Construction Leads to Economies of Scale
Led by the five German automakers
Capacity
Size
20Ah
LN0
40Ah
LN1
60Ah
LN2
80Ah
LN4
Package
Lead ban preparation in
Europe is another driver to
economies of scale, although
legislation timing is unknown
• Common specification for Li-ion Starter Batteries (LiSB) was
initially released in December 2013
+ Form factor, capacity & cold crank performance
• Some OEM programs still deviate from this template spec
©2016 A123 Systems, LLC. All rights reserved.
UltraPhosphate also supports 12V Starter Battery
Cold crank gap with lead-acid addressed
Cold Cranking Amps
(7.5V minimum for 10 seconds*)
Ultra Electrode
HE Electrode
Extreme P/E
High E/P
8Ah
UltraPhosphate™
1000
900
800
700
600
500
400
300
200
100
0
20Ah
UltraPhosphate™
* Tested to BS EN 50342-1
-18degC
-30degC
lead-acid AGM
12V 60Ah
A123 Gen2
12V 60Ah
A123 Gen3
12V 60Ah
A123 has achieved parity with lead-acid cold
crank performance at -30oC, erasing the
performance barriers to mass market
©2016 A123 Systems, LLC. All rights reserved.
10
Li-Ion Batteries for Low Voltage Applications
UltraPhosphate™ Lithium-Ion Technology
12V Starter Battery
48V Battery
+
Outstanding cold cranking power
+
Compact solution
+
Outperforms lead-acid technologies
+
Supports fuel savings initiatives
+
Exceptional cycle-life
+
Powerful charge acceptance
+
High charge acceptance
+
+
60% weight reduction over lead-acid
Potential to eliminate battery cooling
system
+
Solution for start-stop and recuperation
demands
+
Supports engine downsizing and electric
supercharging
©2016 A123 Systems, LLC. All rights reserved.
©2016 A123 Systems, LLC. All rights reserved.
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