Level 2 - Ontario College of Trades

Level 2 - Ontario College of Trades
Apprenticeship
Curriculum Standard
Commercial Vehicle
And Equipment
Level 2
For the following Motive Power trades:
Agricultural Equipment Technician – 425A
Heavy Duty Equipment Technician – 421A
Date: 2010
COMMERCIAL VEHICLE AND EQUIPMENT LEVEL 2
TABLE OF CONTENTS
Introduction .........................................................................................................1
LEVEL 2.................................................................................................................4
Program Summary of Reportable Subjects ...........................................................5
S1248
S1248.1
S1248.2
S1248.3
S1248.4
Trade Practices .................................................................................6
Oxy-fuel Processes ........................................................................... 7
Air Conditioning Systems .................................................................. 9
Heating Ventilation and Air Conditioning (HVAC) Systems ............. 13
Operator Protection Devices ........................................................... 17
S1249
S1249.1
S1249.2
S1249.3
S1249.4
S1249.5
Fluid Power Systems .....................................................................19
Graphic Symbols and Calculations ...................................................... 21
Fluids and Conditioners ................................................................... 23
Fluid Conductors and Fittings .......................................................... 28
Hydraulic Control Valves ................................................................. 31
Hydraulic Pumps ............................................................................. 34
S1250
S1250.1
S1250.2
S1250.3
S1250.4
S1250.5
Engine Systems ..............................................................................37
Diesel Engine Fundamentals .................................................................... 39
Cylinder Heads, Valve Train Assemblies and Components ............ 41
Cooling Systems.............................................................................. 44
Lubricating Systems ........................................................................ 47
Air Induction and Exhaust Systems ................................................ 50
S1251
S1251.1
S1251.2
S1251.3
S1251.4
Electrical / Electronic Systems......................................................53
Electrical Fundamentals .................................................................. 54
Chassis Electrical and Power Accessories ...................................... 56
Cranking Systems ........................................................................... 59
Basic Electronic Devices ................................................................. 62
S1252
S1252.1
S1252.2
S1252.3
S1252.4
S1252.5
Fuel Systems ..................................................................................65
Governor Systems ........................................................................... 66
In-Line Injection Pump Systems ...................................................... 69
Distributor Injection Pump Systems ................................................. 72
Unit Injector Systems....................................................................... 75
Introduction to Electronic Fuel Injection ........................................... 78
Ontario College of Trades ©
COMMERCIAL VEHICLE AND EQUIPMENT LEVEL 2
S1253
S1253.1
S1253.2
Drive Train Systems .......................................................................81
Differential,Final Drives and Power Dividers ................................... 82
Power Shift Transmisison Systems ................................................. 85
S1254
S1254.1
S1254.2
S1254.3
Steering, Tires and Brake Systems ...............................................89
Steering Systems ............................................................................ 90
Tires,Wheels and Hubs ................................................................... 94
Hydraulic Brake Systems ................................................................ 97
Acronyms
Glossary
.......................................................................................................100
.......................................................................................................104
Ontario College of Trades ©
Please Note: Apprenticeship Training and Curriculum Standards were developed by the Ministry of
Training, Colleges and Universities (MTCU). As of April 8th, 2013, the Ontario College of Trades
(College) has become responsible for the development and maintenance of these standards. The
College is carrying over existing standards without any changes.
However, because the Apprenticeship Training and Curriculum Standards documents were
developed under either the Trades Qualification and Apprenticeship Act (TQAA) or the
Apprenticeship and Certification Act, 1998 (ACA), the definitions contained in these documents may
no longer be accurate and may not be reflective of the Ontario College of Trades and Apprenticeship
Act, 2009 (OCTAA) as the new trades legislation in the province. The College will update these
definitions in the future.
Meanwhile, please refer to the College’s website (http://www.collegeoftrades.ca) for the most
accurate and up-to-date information about the College. For information on OCTAA and its
regulations, please visit: http://www.collegeoftrades.ca/about/legislation-and-regulations
Ontario College of Trades ©
COMMERCIAL VEHICLE AND EQUIPMENT LEVEL 2
Introduction
The Commercial Vehicles and Equipment Curriculum (CVAE) Level 2 has been
developed in keeping with the prescribed Ministry of Training, Colleges and Universities
(MTCU) Training Standards, which are common in the two trades of Agricultural
Equipment Technician and Heavy Duty Equipment Technician. The curriculum layout
used provides an opportunity to cross-reference the in-school learning outcomes and
content to the specific workplace Training Standards.
For easy reference, a time allocation has been included for each reportable subject, along
with the Theory/Practical breakdown for the delivery of the Learning Content. More
detailed time allocations for the instructor have been provided for each topic area to
assure consistency for each apprentice intake.
The continual introduction of innovative techniques and more complex equipment is
resulting in increasing demands for tradespersons who are not only skilled in the practical
aspects of the trade, but who also have a sound theoretical knowledge of the inspecting,
diagnosing, repair, and servicing requirements. The curriculum has been developed to
provide this theoretical knowledge and to offer some practical applications to complement
the on-the-job work experiences of the Agricultural Equipment and Heavy Duty
Equipment apprentices.
The objective of the curriculum, therefore, is to provide a basis for:
a. Sound theoretical training that meet the challenges presented by the increasingly
more complex equipment designs and testing techniques.
b. A reinforcement of fundamental skills of the trade through the exposure to practical
applications.
c. Developing in the apprentices high standards of craftsmanship, problem-solving skills,
and personal pride in their trade.
d. Developing desirable work attitudes and a keen sense of responsibility, particularly
concerning public and personal safety.
The curriculum has been designed to give the instructor every reasonable opportunity for
flexibility and innovation without deviating to any significant degree from the subject
requirements, as determined by the Industry Committees and as prescribed in the
Regulations for the Trades. Since the scope of the prescribed curriculum is quite
extensive, the apprentices must be expected to reinforce the acquired knowledge through
regular independent out-of-classroom assignments. The curriculum has been presented
in a chronological sequence in keeping with sound teaching methodologies. However,
the actual application of the sequence may differ somewhat between colleges because of
scheduling, staffing, and facilities utilization.
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COMMERCIAL VEHICLE AND EQUIPMENT LEVEL 2
The curriculum includes specific references to the Ministry of Training, Colleges and
Universities Apprenticeship Training Standards. While these references to various
performance objectives in the Training Standards have been linked to the respective inschool outcomes, employers should not assume complete coverage to a journeyperson
level. The in-school delivery focuses primarily on the knowledge required to master the
respective objectives outlined in the Training Standards. Employers, therefore, are
expected to complete the training of these respective objectives by applying the
prescribed in-school knowledge to the required practical learning experienced in the work
setting.
To ensure that apprentices will be able to successfully demonstrate the learning
outcomes according to performance criteria, specific times have been allocated in the
respective areas to allow for some applications enhancement. It is of utmost importance
that all application assignments relate to prescribed experiences only. Time constraints
will not permit engaging apprentices in tasks of limited learning benefit that are unrelated
to the curriculum outcomes. In the Learning Content section, whenever an assigned
operation for an applied test or repair procedure indicates that a demonstration should be
performed, there is only enough time allocated for the instructor to perform the activity.
Regular evaluations of the apprentices' learning achievements must be performed in both
theory and practical applications throughout the program to ensure consistency with
learning outcome expectations. Testing of apprentice knowledge and skills will take place
during the allotted delivery hours for each unit. In addition to providing an evaluation of
apprentice competency, the review of test question answers is considered to be a
valuable learning opportunity.
In all practical activities, the apprentices will observe the Occupational Health and Safety
Act and the applicable regulations including use of personal protective equipment.
Institutional regulations and policies may also apply.
Participation by Stakeholders
A consortium of five colleges of applied arts and technology, working in collaboration
with the Ministry of Training, Colleges and Universities and industry stakeholders,
participated in the development of this document. The development and subsequent
revisions were based on the training standards that were previously revised by the
MTCU in consultation with industry advisory groups. The development was completed
using a process and format approved by MTCU.
Participating Colleges

Cambrian College of Applied Arts and Technology (Project Lead)(CVAE level 2 lead)

Algonquin College of Applied Arts and Technology

Centennial College of Applied Arts and Technology

Fanshawe College of Applied Arts and Technology

Mohawk College of Applied Arts and Technology

Sault College of Applied Arts and Technology
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COMMERCIAL VEHICLE AND EQUIPMENT LEVEL 2
Industry Representatives:
Equipment World Ltd
Sudbury Truck & Trailer Ltd
Toromont CAT Ltd
Nortrax Ltd
Xstrata Nickel Ltd
Atlas Copco Construction & Mining
Canada Ltd
Elmira Farm Service Ltd
Liftow Inc.
Vale Inco Ltd
Volvo Canada Ltd
McGavin Farm Equipment Ltd
The first step in the development process was to assemble a Project Steering
Committee (PSC), consisting of both industry representatives and apprenticeship inschool deliverers. The PSC initiated the plan for the project development that followed.
The PSC established six working teams, each responsible for the development of inschool apprenticeship curriculum documents for the specific motive power trades listed
below:






Level 1 common to Agricultural Equipment, Heavy Duty Equipment, Powered Lift
Truck, and Truck and Coach
Level 2 common to Agricultural Equipment and Heavy Duty Equipment
Level 3 specific to Agricultural Equipment
Level 3 specific to Heavy Duty Equipment
Level 2 and 3 specific to Powered Lift Truck
Level 2 and 3 specific to Truck and Coach
The six teams worked with advisory groups during the development of the curriculum.
The advisory groups were industry representatives who ensured content validity.
During various stages of the process, the PSC and participating industry advisory
groups evaluated the draft curriculum documents and provided feedback and
recommendations for revisions.
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Ontario College of Trades ©
COMMERCIAL VEHICLE AND EQUIPMENT LEVEL 2
Commercial Vehicle and
Equipment
Level 2
4
Ontario College of Trades ©
COMMERCIAL VEHICLE AND EQUIPMENT LEVEL 2
Program Summary of Reportable Subjects - Level 2
Number
Reportable Subjects
Hours
Total
Hours
Theory
Hours
Practical
S1248
Trade Practice
24
11.5
12.5
S1249
Fluid Power Systems
56
38
18
S1250
Engine Systems
32
19
13
S1251
Electrical Systems
40
29
11
S1252
Fuel Systems
32
19
13
S1253
Drive Train Systems
32
18
14
S1254
Steering, Tires & Brake
Systems
24
17
7
240
154.5
85.5
Total
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Ontario College of Trades ©
COMMERCIAL VEHICLE AND EQUIPMENT LEVEL 2
Number:
S1248
Reportable Subject:
TRADES PRACTICES
Duration:
Total 24 hours
Prerequisites:
C.V.A.E. Level 1
1.1
Practical: 8 hours
Theory: 5 hours
Practical: 3 hours
Heating, Ventilation and Air Conditioning (HVAC) Systems
4 Total Hours
1.4
Theory: 3 hours
Air Conditioning Systems
8 Total Hours
1.3
Practical 12.5 hours
Oxy-fuel Processes
11 Total Hours
1.2
Theory 11.5 hours
Theory: 3 hours
Practical: 1 hour
Theory: 0.5 hour
Practical: 0.5 hour
Operator Protection Devices
1 Total Hours
Evaluation Structure: Assignments related to theory and appropriate application skills.
Proctored final exam
Periodic quizzes.
Mark Distribution:
Theory
Practical
Testing
Application Testing
60%
40%
Instructional and Delivery Strategies:
Lecture and assignment work
Reference Materials:
O.E.M. Equipment Documentation
Recommended Minimum Equipment:
Basic hand tools
Oxygen and acetylene torch assemblies
Air conditioning reclaiming/ charging
equipment
Nitrogen pressure testing equipment
Manifold gauge set
Infra-red temperature measurement tool
Dye type leak detection equipment
Air conditioner components
Thermometer
Equipment with a ROPS, FOPS, OPS.
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Ontario College of Trades ©
COMMERCIAL VEHICLE AND EQUIPMENT LEVEL 2
S1248.1
Oxy-fuel Processes
Duration:
Total 11 hours
Prerequisites:
C.V.A.E. Level 1
Theory 3 hours
Practical 8 hours
Cross-Reference to Training Standard:
AET 5924.03, 5928.03, 5930.03, 5932.03, 5933.03, 5935.03, 5937.03, 5938.03, 5939.03
HDET 5893.03, 5897.03, 5897.06, 5899.03, 5899.06, 5900.03, 5903.03, 5904.06, 5906.03
GENERAL LEARNING OUTCOME
Upon successful completion the apprentice is able to perform heating, cutting, fusion welding
and brazing activities following manufacturers’ recommendations, government regulations, and
safe work practices.
LEARNING OUTCOMES AND CONTENT
Upon successful completion, the apprentice is able to:
1.1.1
[1/0]
1.1.2
[0.5/0]
1.1.3
[1/0]
Explain manufacturers’ precautions for using oxy-fuel equipment.
-
case hardening effects
effects of overheating forged and cast components
protecting seals and gaskets
fire prevention practices
personal protective equipment
Identify oxy-fuel equipment safe operating practices.
-
review pressure settings
plan and prepare the work area
Describe the manufacturers’ oxy-fuel equipment diagnostic procedures.
-
flash back
gas leakages

hoses

valves

regulators

gauges

fittings
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Ontario College of Trades ©
COMMERCIAL VEHICLE AND EQUIPMENT LEVEL 2
1.1.4
[0.5/0]
Describe start-up and shutdown of oxy-fuel equipment.
-
-
1.1.5
[0/8]
start-up

fuel selection and oxygen

selection of tips

ignition procedures
shutdown

sequential torch shutoff of fuel and oxygen gas valves

shut off of cylinder valves
Perform oxy-fuel processes following manufacturers’ recommendations, government
regulations, and safe work practices.
-
heat seized fasteners
fusion welding
brazing
surface preparation and finishing
GENERAL PRACTICES
This section captures concepts and topics that must be integrated into the learning for each unit.
No specific time is allocated for these items as it is deemed to be accounted for in the Learning
Content section.
-
-
-
safety precautions

eye, face, hand, foot, and clothing protection

fire prevention

ventilation

cut and burn treatment

flammable container welding precautions

electrical shock prevention

butane lighters
communications

information accessing

practical reporting

technical service bulletins

data management systems
o service records
o microfiche
o service information systems
o electronic format

current legislated requirements

WHMIS
mathematics

système international d'unités (s.i.) to Imperial conversion
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Ontario College of Trades ©
COMMERCIAL VEHICLE AND EQUIPMENT LEVEL 2
S1248.2
Air Conditioning Systems
Duration:
Total 8 hours
Prerequisites:
C.V.A.E. Level 1
Theory 5 hours
Practical 3 hours
Cross-Reference to Training Standard:
AET 5934.01, 5934.05, 5934.06, 5934.07
HDET 5902.01, 5902.05, 5902.06, 5902.06
GENERAL LEARNING OUTCOME
Upon successful completion the apprentice is able to describe air conditioning system testing
and repair procedures following manufacturers’ recommendations, government regulations, and
safe work practices.
LEARNING OUTCOMES AND CONTENT
Upon successful completion, the apprentice is able to:
1.2.1
[1/0]
Explain the purpose and fundamentals of air conditioning systems.
-
1.2.2
[2/0]
methods of heat transfer
temperature and humidity relationship
solid, liquid and gas states
properties of refrigerants
alternative refrigerants
gas laws, temperature, pressure and volume
air conditioning thermo-dynamics

heat absorption

liquid and gas states

temperature effects
thermal expansion and contraction
Ozone Depletion Program (ODP) certification requirements
Identify the function, construction features, composition, types, and application of
refrigerants and air conditioning components.
-
refrigerant characteristics
R12

dichlorodifluoromethane

boiling point, toxicity, flammability, etc.
R134a

tetrafluoroethane

boiling point, toxicity, flammability, etc.
lubricants for refrigerants—R12 and R134a systems
refrigerant identifying devices
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Ontario College of Trades ©
COMMERCIAL VEHICLE AND EQUIPMENT LEVEL 2
-
-
1.2.3
[1/0]
air conditioning thermo-dynamics
identify the major components used in mobile air
conditioning
identify the location of major components and controls

condenser

receiver dehydration

accumulator-dryer

evaporator

compressor

hoses, lines and fittings
describe the function of air conditioning control system
components:

low and high pressure cut-out

low charge protection

evaporator temperature control

cycling clutch control

orifice tubes

expansion valves

fan controls
Describe the principles of operation of air conditioning systems.
-
-
thermostatic expansion valve system
refrigerant compressors
system lubrication
control valves

low and high pressure cut-out

low charge protection

evaporator temperature control, including expansion valves

cycling clutch control

orifice tube

low temperature lockout
condenser
receiver dryer (dehydrator)
accumulator-dryer (dehydrator)
evaporator
compressors

piston
o axial
o radial

variable displacement

scroll

vane
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Ontario College of Trades ©
COMMERCIAL VEHICLE AND EQUIPMENT LEVEL 2
1.2.4
[0.5/1]
Demonstrate inspection and testing procedures following manufacturers’
recommendations, government regulations, and safe work practices for air conditioning
systems.
-
-
1.2.5
[0.5/2]
outline major differences in testing R12 and R134A systems
testing for refrigerant leaks
testing of system operating pressures and control
functions
system performance tests
identify leak testing methods

dyes

electronic leak detectors (must meet SAEJ1627 and
SAEJ1628 standards)

bubble producing solutions

nitrogen testing

trace gas testing
identify potential location of leaks

fittings

lines

seals

compressor

evaporator

condenser
Recommend reconditioning or repairs following manufacturers’ recommendations and
government regulations for air conditioning systems.
-
describe the recommended procedures to remove and
replace lines, hoses and fittings
describe the recommended procedures to remove and
replace compressors, evaporators, condensers, and control
devices
perform a demonstration of compressor drive belt
adjustment procedures
perform a demonstration of the discharging, evacuating,
recovery, recycling, and recharging procedures
11
Ontario College of Trades ©
COMMERCIAL VEHICLE AND EQUIPMENT LEVEL 2
GENERAL PRACTICES
This section captures concepts and topics that must be integrated into the learning for each unit.
No specific time is allocated for these items as it is deemed to be accounted for in the Learning
Content section.
-
-
-
safety precautions

eye, hand, face protection

high pressure

high temperature liquids
communications

information accessing

practical reporting

technical service bulletins

data management systems
o service records
o microfiche
o service information systems
o electronic format

current legislated requirements

WHMIS
mathematics

système international d'unités (s.i.) to Imperial conversion
12
Ontario College of Trades ©
COMMERCIAL VEHICLE AND EQUIPMENT LEVEL 2
S1248.3
Heating, Ventilation and Air Conditioning (HVAC) Systems
Duration:
Total 4 hours
Prerequisites:
C.V.A.E. Level 1
Theory 3 hours
Practical 1 hour
Cross-Reference to Training Standard:
AET 5934.01, 5934.02, 5934.04
HDET 5902.01, 5902.02, 5902.03, 5902.04
GENERAL LEARNING OUTCOME
Upon successful completion the apprentice is able to describe the operation of automatic climate
control systems (HVAC), testing and repair procedures following manufacturers’
recommendations, government regulations, and safe work practices.
LEARNING OUTCOMES AND CONTENT
Upon successful completion, the apprentice is able to:
1.3.1
[0.5/0]
Explain the purpose and fundamentals of (HVAC) automatic climate control systems.
-
1.3.2
[0.5/0]
air flow characteristics
inside and outside ventilation
air quality

air filtration
o fresh air filter
o recirculating filter
o particulate removal
o chemical removal
electronics fundamentals enhancement
body control module (BCM) and electronic control module
(ECM) input and output
thermistors
effects of humidity and sources of heat in the mobile
equipment environment
Identify the construction features, composition, types, and application of (HVAC)
automatic climate control systems.
-
blower motors and wheels
plenum chambers and ducts
air doors
heater cores
controls
body control module assembly
13
Ontario College of Trades ©
COMMERCIAL VEHICLE AND EQUIPMENT LEVEL 2
1.3.3
[1/0]
1.3.4
[0.5/1]
radiator fan circuit
compressor clutch circuit
blower motor circuit
programmer solenoids
air mixture doors circuits
switches and valves

evaporator pressure control valves
oil bypass lines
condensate drain tubes
Describe the principles of operation of (HVAC) automatic climate control systems.
-
ventilation systems
blower motor and wheels
plenum air flow
air doors
heater cores
controls
defrost
body control module assembly
radiator fan circuit
compressor clutch circuit
blower motor circuit
programmer solenoids and air mixture doors circuit
switches and valves
evaporator pressure control valves
oil bypass lines
condensate drain tubes
Demonstrate the inspection and testing procedures following manufacturers’
recommendations and government regulations for (HVAC) automatic climate control
systems.
-
-
heater assemblies:

leaks (air, coolant)

loose mountings

door operation

blower operation

contamination
climatic control system circuits using test equipment
14
Ontario College of Trades ©
COMMERCIAL VEHICLE AND EQUIPMENT LEVEL 2
-
1.3.5
[0.5/0]
body control module and electronic control module system
diagnosis

fault code interpretation using onboard diagnostics and
scan tools
outline the most common failures in the:

refrigerant systems

control systems
outline the recommended test procedures for R12 and
R134A refrigerant systems
Recommend reconditioning or repairs following manufacturers’ procedures, government
regulations, and safe work practices for (HVAC) automatic climate control systems.
-
identify the recommended repairs based on test results of
the system
outline the replacement procedures for

heater cores

heater hoses

ventilation controls
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Ontario College of Trades ©
COMMERCIAL VEHICLE AND EQUIPMENT LEVEL 2
GENERAL PRACTICES
This section captures concepts and topics that must be integrated into the learning for each unit.
No specific time is allocated for these items as it is deemed to be accounted for in the Learning
Content section.
-
-
-
safety precautions

eye, hand, face protection

high pressure

high temperature liquids
communications

information accessing

practical reporting

technical service bulletins

data management systems
o service records
o microfiche
o service information systems
o electronic format

current legislated requirements

WHMIS
mathematics

système international d'unités (s.i.) to Imperial conversion
16
Ontario College of Trades ©
COMMERCIAL VEHICLE AND EQUIPMENT LEVEL 2
S1248.4
Operator Protection Devices
Duration:
Total 1 hours
Prerequisites:
C.V.A.E. Level 1
Theory 0.5 hour
Practical 0.5 hour
Cross-Reference to Training Standard:
AET 5903.01, 5903.02, 5903.03, 5903.04
HDET 5903.01, 5903.02, 5903.03, 5903.04
GENERAL LEARNING OUTCOME
Upon successful completion the apprentice is able to identify unsafe/faulty operator protection
devices following manufacturers’ recommended practices and government regulations.
LEARNING OUTCOMES AND CONTENT
Upon successful completion, the apprentice is able to:
1.4.1
[0.5/0]
1.4.2
[0/0.5]
Explain and identify the purpose and functions of operator protection devices.
-
Roll Over Protection Systems (ROPS)
Falling Object Protection Systems (FOPS)
Operator Protection Systems (OPS)
seat belts
noise control
operator’s compartment shielding
legal requirements
fire extinguishers
Demonstrate the inspection and diagnostic procedures following manufacturers’
recommendations and government regulations for operator protection devices.
-
-
-
Roll Over Protection Systems (ROPS)

fastener torque

alterations

additions
Falling Object Protection Systems (FOPS)

fastener torque

alterations

additions
Operator Protection Systems (OPS)

fastener torque

alterations

additions
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COMMERCIAL VEHICLE AND EQUIPMENT LEVEL 2
-
seat belts
noise control
operator’s compartment shielding
fire extinguishers
GENERAL PRACTICES
This section captures concepts and topics that must be integrated into the learning for each unit.
No specific time is allocated for these items as it is deemed to be accounted for in the Learning
Content section.
-
-
-
safety precautions

eye and skin protection

control of hazardous material/solvents

ventilation of work areas

lifting/hoisting procedures

fire hazard prevention
communications

information accessing

practical reporting

technical service bulletins

data management systems
o service records
o microfiche
o service information systems
o electronic format

current legislated requirements

WHMIS
mathematics

système international d'unités (s.i.) to Imperial conversion
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Ontario College of Trades ©
COMMERCIAL VEHICLE AND EQUIPMENT LEVEL 2
Number:
S1249
Reportable Subject:
FLUID POWER SYSTEMS
Duration:
Total 56 hours
Prerequisites:
C.V.A.E. level 1
2.1
Theory: 7 hours
Practical: 4.5 hours
Theory: 7 hours
Practical: 3.5 hours
Theory: 9 hours
Practical: 3 hours
Theory: 10 hours
Practical: 3 hours
Hydraulic Control Valves
12 Total Hours
2.5
Practical: 4 hours
Fluid Conductors and Fittings
10.5 Total Hours
2.4
Theory: 5 hours
Fluids and Conditioners
11.5 Total Hours
2.3
Practical 18 hours
Graphic Symbols and Calculations
9 Total Hours
2.2
Theory 38 hours
Hydraulic Pumps
13 Total Hours
Evaluation Structure: Assignments related to theory and appropriate application skills.
Proctored final exam
Periodic quizzes.
Mark Distribution:
Theory
Practical
Testing
Application Testing
70%
30%
Instructional and Delivery Strategies:
Lecture and assignment work
Reference Materials:
O.E.M. Equipment Documentation
19
Ontario College of Trades ©
COMMERCIAL VEHICLE AND EQUIPMENT LEVEL 2
Recommended Minimum Equipment:
Equipment with open centre hydraulic system
Equipment with closed centre hydraulic
system (pressure compensated)
Equipment with closed centre hydraulic
system (pressure and flow compensated)
Axial piston pumps
Hydraulic flow meters
Pressure testing equipment: mechanical
gauges, electronic gauges
Hydraulic cylinders, control valves, and motors
Fluids, Fluid Conductors and Fittings
20
Ontario College of Trades ©
COMMERCIAL VEHICLE AND EQUIPMENT LEVEL 2
S1249.1
Graphic Symbols and Calculations
Duration:
Total 9 hours
Prerequisites:
C.V.A.E. Level 1
Theory 5 hours
Practical 4 hours
Cross-Reference to Training Standard:
AET 5922.02, 5922.05
HDET 5895.02, 5895.05, 5895.08
GENERAL LEARNING OUTCOME
Upon successful completion the apprentice is able to interpret schematics and perform pressure,
force, and area calculations related to hydraulics.
LEARNING OUTCOMES AND CONTENT
Upon successful completion, the apprentice is able to:
2.1.1
[1/0]
2.1.2
[1.5/0]
2.1.3
[0.5/0]
Explain the fundamental principles of hydraulic circuit schematics.
-
graphic symbols
hydraulic circuit layouts
pictorial drawings
diagrams
schematics
Society of Automotive Engineers (SAE)
International Standards Organisation (ISO)
Identify hydraulic component on diagrams and schematics.
-
pumps
valves
actuators
conductors
Draft a sample of a basic hydraulic system schematic.
-
open centre circuit
closed centre circuit
21
Ontario College of Trades ©
COMMERCIAL VEHICLE AND EQUIPMENT LEVEL 2
2.1.4
[2/4]
Perform basic mathematical calculations and identification for hydraulic system
applications.
-
pressure
force
area

imperial

système international d'unités (s.i.)
flow rate
fluid velocity
rod velocity
head pressure calculation
Identify components using manufacturers schematics
locate system test points and components on equipment
-
GENERAL PRACTICES
This section captures concepts and topics that must be integrated into the learning for each unit.
No specific time is allocated for these items as it is deemed to be accounted for in the Learning
Content section.
-
-
-
safety precautions

eye and hand, hearing protection

high pressure concerns for skin penetration

chemical hazards—WHMIS

high temperature
communications

information accessing

practical reporting

technical service bulletins

data management systems
o service records
o microfiche
o service information systems
o electronic format

current legislated requirements

WHMIS
mathematics

système international d'unités (s.i.) to Imperial conversion
22
Ontario College of Trades ©
COMMERCIAL VEHICLE AND EQUIPMENT LEVEL 2
S1249.2
Fluids and Conditioners
Duration:
Total 11.5 hours
Prerequisites:
C.V.A.E. Level 1
Theory 7 hours
Practical 4.5 hours
Cross-Reference to Training Standard:
AET 5922.01, 5922.02
HDET 5895.01, 5895.02
GENERAL LEARNING OUTCOME
Upon successful completion the apprentice is able to describe the service procedures of hydraulic
fluids, reservoirs, and conditioners following manufacturers’ recommendations.
LEARNING OUTCOMES AND CONTENT
Upon successful completion, the apprentice is able to:
2.2.1
[2/0]
Explain the purpose and fundamental information of hydraulic fluids and conditioners.
-
-
-
fluid type

petroleum base

fire resistant

synthetic
viscosity/index
friction
cavitation
velocity

laminar flow

turbulent flow

pressure and force
flow rate
aeration
wear prevention
oxidation inhibitors
rust and corrosion inhibitors
anti-foaming
water control
energy transmission

Pascal’s law

potential, heat, and kinetic
displacement
thermal expansion
23
Ontario College of Trades ©
COMMERCIAL VEHICLE AND EQUIPMENT LEVEL 2
-
2.2.2
[1/0]
Identify the purpose and fundamentals of fluid conditioners.
-
-
-
-
2.2.3
[2/0]
contamination

sources

oil analysis
post failure cleanout

procedures

equipment
o clean out filters
o auxiliary filtration
filter requirements
cleanliness requirements
schematics/symbols
filters

flow capacity

element rating
o micron rating
o beta ratio

type and location

pressure drop

indicators
coolers

flow capacity

oil to air

oil to oil

oil to coolant

pressure drop

indicators
reservoirs

vented

pressurized

physical features
oil heaters

electrical immersion

electrical surface mount

coolant to oil
Describe the construction features of fluid conditioners.
-
filters and strainers

surface media elements

depth media elements

type and location

pressure drop

restriction indicators
24
Ontario College of Trades ©
COMMERCIAL VEHICLE AND EQUIPMENT LEVEL 2
-
-
2.2.4
[2/0]
Describe the principles of operation of hydraulic fluid conditioners.
-
-
-
-
2.2.5
oil coolers

air to oil

coolant to oil

oil to oil
o tube
o tube and fin
o radiator
oil heaters
reservoirs

capacity

baffles

outlet and return

drain plugs

intake filter

venting

pressurized
filters and strainers

surface media elements

depth media elements

micron rating

beta ratio

type and location

pressure drop

restriction indicators
oil coolers

air to oil

coolant to oil

oil to oil
o tube
o tube and fin
o radiator
oil heaters

electrical immersion

electrical surface mount

coolant to oil
reservoirs

pressurized

cooling

aeration

venting
Demonstrate the inspection and testing procedures following manufacturers’
recommendations for oil conditioners.
25
Ontario College of Trades ©
COMMERCIAL VEHICLE AND EQUIPMENT LEVEL 2
[0/4.5]
-
the removal and replacement of filters and strainers

oil filters

strainers

coolers

heaters

oil sampling
26
Ontario College of Trades ©
COMMERCIAL VEHICLE AND EQUIPMENT LEVEL 2
GENERAL PRACTICES
This section captures concepts and topics that must be integrated into the learning for each unit.
No specific time is allocated for these items as it is deemed to be accounted for in the Learning
Content section.
-
-
-
safety precautions

eye and hand protection

high pressure concerns for skin penetration

chemical hazards—WHMIS

high temperature
communications

information accessing

practical reporting

technical service bulletins

data management systems
o service records
o microfiche
o service information systems
o electronic format

current legislated requirements

WHMIS
mathematics

système international d'unités (s.i.) to Imperial conversion
27
Ontario College of Trades ©
COMMERCIAL VEHICLE AND EQUIPMENT LEVEL 2
S1249.3
Fluid Conductors and Fittings
Duration:
Total 10.5 hours
Prerequisites:
C.V.A.E. Level 1
Theory 7 hours
Practical 3.5 hours
Cross-Reference to Training Standard:
AET 5992.01, 5992.02, 5992.03, 5992.04, 5992.05, 5922.06
HDET 5895.01, 5895.02, 5895.03, 5895.04, 5895.05, 5895.06, 5895.07
GENERAL LEARNING OUTCOME
Upon successful completion the apprentice is able to replace hydraulic lines and fittings following
manufacturers’ recommendations.
LEARNING OUTCOMES AND CONTENT
Upon successful completion, the apprentice is able to:
2.3.1
[1/0]
2.3.2
[3.5/0]
Explain the purpose and fundamental information of hydraulic fluid conductors.
-
pipes
tubes
hoses
fittings
adapters
Society of Automotive Engineers (SAE)
système international d'unités (s.i.)
Identify the types and construction features of hydraulic fittings and conductors.
-
-
pipe

schedules

threading

sizing
tubing

plastic

steel

sizing

bending

fabricating

sizing
28
Ontario College of Trades ©
COMMERCIAL VEHICLE AND EQUIPMENT LEVEL 2
-
-
-
2.3.3
[2/0]
hoses

sizing

pressure/vacuum ratings
o non-braiding types
o braiding types
o spiral wraps
fittings

permanent

reusable

hose assembly
adapters

thread forms

sealing element
fittings identification

Society of Automotive Engineers (SAE)

Joint Industry Conference (JIC)

O-Ring Face Seal (ORFS)

O-Ring Boss (ORB)

National Pipe (NP)

adapters

British Standard Pipe/Japanese Industrial Standard
(BSP/JIS)

Système International d'Unités (s.i.)
Describe the principles of operation of hydraulic conductors and fittings.
-
sealing methods
minimum bend radius
operating pressure ratings
burst pressure ratings
2.3.4
Demonstrate inspection, testing, and diagnostic procedures following manufacturers’
recommendations for hydraulic conductors.
[0.5/2.5]
-
-
identify potential for oil injection injuries

cracks

leaks

use a mechanical device to move hydraulic lines when
looking for leaks.
hydraulic conductor failures

fractures

restrictions
29
Ontario College of Trades ©
COMMERCIAL VEHICLE AND EQUIPMENT LEVEL 2
2.3.5
Recommend reconditioning or repairs following manufacturers’ recommendations for
hydraulic conductors.
[0/1]
-
demonstration of repairing and replacing hydraulic
conductors

depressurizing system
o accumulator circuits
o pressurized reservoirs
o vacuum transducers
o mechanical lock-outs

hose replacement
o contamination prevention
GENERAL PRACTICES
This section captures concepts and topics that must be integrated into the learning for each unit.
No specific time is allocated for these items as it is deemed to be accounted for in the Learning
Content section.
-
-
-
safety precautions

eye and hand protection

chemical hazards—WHMIS

high pressure concerns for skin penetration

high temperature
communications

information accessing

practical reporting

technical service bulletins

data management systems
o service records
o microfiche
o service information systems
o electronic format

current legislated requirements

WHMIS
mathematics

système international d'unités (s.i.) to Imperial conversion
30
Ontario College of Trades ©
COMMERCIAL VEHICLE AND EQUIPMENT LEVEL 2
S1249.4
Hydraulic Control Valves
Duration:
Total 12 hours
Prerequisites:
C.V.A.E. Level 1
Theory 9 hours
Practical 3 hours
Cross-Reference to Training Standard:
AET 5922.01, 5922.02, 5922.03, 5922.04, 5922.05, 5922.06, 5922.07
HDET 5895.01, 5895.02, 5895.03, 5895.04, 5895.05, 5895.06, 5895.07, 5895.08, 5895.09,
5895.10
GENERAL LEARNING OUTCOME
Upon successful completion the apprentice is able to recommend repairs of hydraulic control
valves following manufacturers’ recommendations.
LEARNING OUTCOMES AND CONTENT
Upon successful completion, the apprentice is able to:
2.4.1
[1/0]
2.4.2
[3/0]
Explain the purpose and fundamentals of hydraulic control valves.
-
pressure control
flow control
directional control
fundamentals enhancement

contamination and importance of cleanliness
Identify the types and construction features of hydraulic control valves.
-
-
pressure control valves

direct-acting relief

pilot-operated relief

pressure reducing

unloading

sequence

counter balance

brake valve
flow control valves

flow dividers

priority

proportional

pilot-operated

pressure compensated

restrictors

check valves
31
Ontario College of Trades ©
COMMERCIAL VEHICLE AND EQUIPMENT LEVEL 2
-
2.4.3
[4/0]
directional control valves

mono-block

sectional

serial/ parallel passage (normally open)

activation
o manual
o solenoid
o pilot
o pneumatic

spool

poppet

cartridge

rotary
Describe the principles of operation of hydraulic control valves.
-
-
-
-
pressure control valves

simple relief

pilot-operating relief

pressure reducing

unloading

sequence

counterbalance

brake valve
flow control valves

flow dividers

priority

proportional

pilot-operated

pressure compensated
o restrictors

check valves
directional control valves

oil flow circuit
o parallel passage

centre types

poppet

cartridge

rotary
monoblock
sectional
parallel passage
32
Ontario College of Trades ©
COMMERCIAL VEHICLE AND EQUIPMENT LEVEL 2
2.4.4
[1/3]
Demonstrate inspection and diagnostic procedures following manufacturers’
recommendations for hydraulic control valves.
-
inspect and examine control valves for physical damage
identify primary causes of failure
disassemble and reassemble hydraulic control valves
recommend reconditioning or repairs of hydraulic control
valves
GENERAL PRACTICES
This section captures concepts and topics that must be integrated into the learning for each unit.
No specific time is allocated for these items as it is deemed to be accounted for in the Learning
Content section.
-
-
-
safety precautions

eye and hand protection

high pressure concerns for skin penetration

chemical hazards

high temperature
communications

information accessing

practical reporting

technical service bulletins

data management systems
o service records
o microfiche
o service information systems
o electronic format

current legislated requirements

WHMIS
mathematics

système international d'unités (s.i.) to Imperial conversion
33
Ontario College of Trades ©
COMMERCIAL VEHICLE AND EQUIPMENT LEVEL 2
S1249.5
Hydraulic Pumps
Duration:
Total 13 hours
Prerequisites:
C.V.A.E. Level 1
Theory 10 hours
Practical 3 hours
Cross-Reference to Training Standard:
AET 5922.01, 5922.02, 5922.03, 5922.04, 5922.05, 5922.06, 5922.07
HDET 5895.01, 5895.02, 5895.03, 5895.04, 5895.05, 5895.06, 5895.07, 5895.08, 5895.09,
5895.10
GENERAL LEARNING OUTCOME
Upon successful completion the apprentice is able to recommend repairs of a hydraulic pump
following manufacturers’ recommendations.
LEARNING OUTCOMES AND CONTENT
Upon successful completion, the apprentice is able to:
2.5.1
[2/0]
Explain the purpose and fundamentals of hydraulic pumps.
-
inlet pressure parameters
internal oil flow

internal lubrication
pressure management

seals
bearing load
wear points
fundamentals enhancement

energy

contamination and importance of cleanliness

displacement calculations

delivery calculations

power calculations
o Imperial
o système international d'unités (s.i.)
34
Ontario College of Trades ©
COMMERCIAL VEHICLE AND EQUIPMENT LEVEL 2
2.5.2
[3/0]
Identify the types and construction features of hydraulic pumps.
-
-
2.5.3
[4/0]
positive and non-positive displacement pumps
gear pumps

external

internal
piston

radial

axial

fixed displacement

variable displacement

pressure compensated

flow compensated
vane pumps

balanced

unbalanced

fixed displacement

variable displacement

pressure compensated

flow compensated
Describe the principles of operation of hydraulic pumps.
-
-
gear pumps

external

internal
piston

radial

axial

fixed displacement

variable displacement

pressure compensated

flow compensated
vane pumps

balanced

unbalanced

fixed displacement

variable displacement

pressure compensated

flow compensated
35
Ontario College of Trades ©
COMMERCIAL VEHICLE AND EQUIPMENT LEVEL 2
2.5.4
[1/3]
Demonstrate inspection, testing, and diagnostic procedures following manufacturers’
recommendations for fixed displacement hydraulic pumps.
-
relationship between flow and pressure
inspect gear, vane, and piston pumps
pump failures and relate to damaged components
outline the recommended disassembly and reassembly
procedures
disassembly and reconditioning procedures for a hydraulic
pump assembly
GENERAL PRACTICES
This section captures concepts and topics that must be integrated into the learning for each unit.
No specific time is allocated for these items as it is deemed to be accounted for in the Learning
Content section.
-
-
-
safety precautions

eye and hand protection

high pressure concerns for skin penetration

chemical hazards—WHMIS

high temperature
communications

information accessing

practical reporting

technical service bulletins

data management systems
o service records
o microfiche
o service information systems
o electronic format

current legislated requirements

WHMIS
mathematics

système international d'unités (s.i.) to Imperial conversion
36
Ontario College of Trades ©
COMMERCIAL VEHICLE AND EQUIPMENT LEVEL 2
Number:
S1250
Reportable Subject:
ENGINE SYSTEMS
Duration:
Total 32 hours
Prerequisites:
C.V.A.E. Level 1
3.1
Theory: 6 hours
Practical: 4 hours
Theory: 3 hours
Practical: 3 hours
Theory: 2 hours
Practical: 2 hours
Lubricating Systems
4 Total Hours
3.5
Practical: 2 hours
Cooling Systems
6 Total Hours
3.4
Theory: 2 hours
Cylinder Heads, Valve Train Assemblies, and Components
10 Total Hours
3.3
Practical 13 hours
Diesel Engine Fundamentals
4 Total Hours
3.2
Theory 19 hours
Air Induction and Exhaust Systems
8 Total Hours
Theory: 6 hours
Practical: 2 hours
Evaluation Structure: Assignments related to theory and appropriate application skills.
Proctored final exam
Periodic quizzes.
Mark Distribution:
Theory
Practical
Testing
Application Testing
60%
40%
Instructional and Delivery Strategies:
Lecture and assignment work
Reference Materials:
O.E.M. Equipment Documentation
37
Ontario College of Trades ©
COMMERCIAL VEHICLE AND EQUIPMENT LEVEL 2
Recommended Minimum Equipment:
Diesel engines (parent block / wet sleeve)
Pressure gauge set / Manometer gauge set
Cylinder protrusion/ Counterbore measuring
tools
Bore Gauges / Inside Micrometers
Magnetic crack detection equipment
Precision measuring tools
Cylinder Sleeve puller
Seal removal/ installation tools
Engine timing tools
Piston ring and Piston installation tools
Basic hand tools / Torque wrenches
38
Ontario College of Trades ©
COMMERCIAL VEHICLE AND EQUIPMENT LEVEL 2
S1250.1
Diesel Engine Fundamentals
Duration:
Total 4 hours
Prerequisites:
C.V.A.E. Level 1
Theory 2 hours
Practical 2 hours
Cross-Reference to Training Standard:
AET 5923.01, 5923.08, 5923.09, 5923.10
HDET 5891.09, 5891.10, 5891.11
GENERAL LEARNING OUTCOME
Upon successful completion the apprentice is able to describe testing procedures for combustion
chamber condition following manufacturers’ recommendations and safe work practices.
LEARNING OUTCOMES AND CONTENT
Upon successful completion, the apprentice is able to:
3.1.1
[1/0]
3.1.2
[1/2]
Explain the fundamentals of applied calculations for compression pressure, cylinder
balance, and cylinder leakage.
-
clearance volume vs. pressure
mathematical formulas
effects of cylinder sealing defects on balance and leakage
Identify the procedures for diagnosing combustion chamber conditions.
-
determine combustion chamber conditions using the
following tests:

compression test

cylinder leakage test

cylinder balance test
39
Ontario College of Trades ©
COMMERCIAL VEHICLE AND EQUIPMENT LEVEL 2
GENERAL PRACTICES
This section captures concepts and topics that must be integrated into the learning for each unit.
No specific time is allocated for these items as it is deemed to be accounted for in the Learning
Content section.
-
-
-
safety precautions

eye, hearing, breathing, and hand protection

rotating components

wire and grinding wheels

cleaning agents
communications

information accessing

practical reporting

technical service bulletins

data management systems
o service records
o microfiche
o service information systems
o electronic format

current legislated requirements

WHMIS
mathematics

système international d'unités (s.i.) to Imperial conversion
40
Ontario College of Trades ©
COMMERCIAL VEHICLE AND EQUIPMENT LEVEL 2
S1250.2
Cylinder Heads, Valve Train Assemblies, and Components
Duration:
Total 10 hours
Prerequisites:
C.V.A.E. Level 1
Theory 6 hours
Practical 4 hours
Cross-Reference to Training Standard:
AET 5923.01, 5923.08, 5923.09, 5923.10
HDET 5891.08, 5891.09, 5891.10
GENERAL LEARNING OUTCOME
Upon successful completion the apprentice is able to describe the testing and servicing
procedures for cylinder heads, valve trains, and related components following manufacturers’
recommendations and safe work practices.
LEARNING OUTCOMES AND CONTENT
Upon successful completion, the apprentice is able to:
3.2.1
[1/0]
3.2.2
[1/0]
Explain the fundamentals of cylinder heads, valve train assemblies, and components.
-
purpose and application of cylinder heads and valve train
assemblies

interpret and draw valve timing diagrams including duration,
overlap, lead, and lag

cylinder head resurfacing

cylinder head torquing procedures when hot, cold, wet or dry

seat width, undercutting, fitting, and sealing

interference angle and multi-angle seats

variable valve timing
Identify the construction features of cylinder heads, valve train assemblies, and related
components.
-
function and types of major components
drive mechanisms
combustion chambers
gasket surfaces, gaskets and seals
41
Ontario College of Trades ©
COMMERCIAL VEHICLE AND EQUIPMENT LEVEL 2
3.2.3
[1.5/0]
Describe the principles of operation of cylinder heads, valve trains, and related
components.
-
3.2.4
[1.5/3]
combustion chamber operation
valve timing diagrams, including duration, overlap, lead,
and lag
valve components

valves
o metallurgy
o sodium filled

seats and guides

seals

springs, rocker arms, and shafts

pushrods, lifters, camshafts.

drive mechanisms
o exhaust brakes
cylinder head gaskets and seals
Perform inspection and testing procedures following manufacturers’ recommendations
on cylinder heads and valve train components.
-
-
-
outline removal and replacement procedures

de-torquing/torquing procedures

identification of head fasteners

inspection of head fasteners

inspection of reconditioned components
inspection of all accessible components with the head
removed

timing marks

lobe wear

cam followers
inspection on cylinder heads for:

cleaning procedure
o external / internal thread inspection
o blind hole clean-out

warpage

loose valve seats

guide wear

distortion

spring condition

valve protrusion

valve leakage test

valves
o wear/scoring
o stretch
o cracks
o overheating
o seizure
o corrosion
42
Ontario College of Trades ©
COMMERCIAL VEHICLE AND EQUIPMENT LEVEL 2
3.2.5
Recommend reconditioning or repairs following manufacturers’ recommendations for
cylinder heads and valve train components.
[1/1]
-
-
disassembly and assembly of a cylinder head
crack detection procedure
machining operations for:

valve and seat cutting and grinding
o seat replacement
o valve to seat contact
installation of:

valve guides
o reaming

valve seal
GENERAL PRACTICES
This section captures concepts and topics that must be integrated into the learning for each unit.
No specific time is allocated for these items as it is deemed to be accounted for in the Learning
Content section.
-
-
-
safety precautions

eye and hand protection

rotating components

hazards of spring tension

wire and grinding wheels

cleaning agents
communications

information accessing

practical reporting

technical service bulletins

data management systems
o service records
o microfiche
o service information systems
o electronic format

current legislated requirements

WHMIS
mathematics

système international d'unités (s.i.) to Imperial conversion
43
Ontario College of Trades ©
COMMERCIAL VEHICLE AND EQUIPMENT LEVEL 2
S1250.3
Cooling Systems
Duration:
Total 6 hours
Prerequisites:
C.V.A.E. Level 1
Theory 3 hours
Practical 3 hours
Cross-Reference to Training Standard:
AET 5923.01, 5923.02, 5923.03, 5923.04
HDET 5891.02, 5891.03, 5891.04
GENERAL LEARNING OUTCOME
Upon successful completion the apprentice is able to describe the testing and servicing
procedures for cooling systems components and coolants following manufacturers’
recommendations and safe work practices.
LEARNING OUTCOMES AND CONTENT
Upon successful completion, the apprentice is able to:
3.3.1
[1/0]
3.3.2
[1/0]
Explain the fundamentals of inspecting and testing engine cooling system components,
and coolants.
-
explain the significance of

heat transfer

coolants

cavitation

air cooling concepts
Identify the process of testing and inspecting cooling systems.
-
radiator shutters and controls
control fans
heat exchangers and coolers
air cooling
44
Ontario College of Trades ©
COMMERCIAL VEHICLE AND EQUIPMENT LEVEL 2
3.3.3
[0.5/2]
3.3.4
[0.5/1]
Perform inspection and testing procedures following manufacturers’ recommendations
for cooling systems.
-
inspection, cleaning and testing procedures for:

in/out temperatures using pyrometer

heat exchangers and coolers

fan controls

hydraulically controlled

operation cycle (fan)

coolant filters

pH levels of coolant

coolant strengths and condition

pressure test cooling system
Recommend reconditioning or repairs following manufacturers’ recommendations for
cooling systems.
-
-
demonstrate:

cooling system air-entrapment removal procedures

coolant filter service procedures

cooling system flushing procedures
explain coolant additive packages and contamination
checks
explain coolant pump shaft sealing devices and packing
45
Ontario College of Trades ©
COMMERCIAL VEHICLE AND EQUIPMENT LEVEL 2
GENERAL PRACTICES
This section captures concepts and topics that must be integrated into the learning for each unit.
No specific time is allocated for these items as it is deemed to be accounted for in the Learning
Content section.
-
-
-
safety precautions

eye and hand protection

hot coolant concerns

rotating components
communications

information accessing

practical reporting

technical service bulletins

data management systems
o service records
o microfiche
o service information systems
o electronic format

current legislated requirements

WHMIS
mathematics

système international d'unités (s.i.) to Imperial conversion
46
Ontario College of Trades ©
COMMERCIAL VEHICLE AND EQUIPMENT LEVEL 2
S1250.4
Lubricating Systems
Duration:
Total 4 hours
Prerequisites:
C.V.A.E. Level 1
Theory 2 hours
Practical 2 hours
Cross-Reference to Training Standard:
AET 5923.01, 5923.05, 5923.06, 5923.07
HDET 5891.05, 5891.06, 5891.07
GENERAL LEARNING OUTCOME
Upon successful completion the apprentice is able to describe the testing and servicing of
lubricating system, components, and lubricants following manufacturers' recommendations and
safe work practices.
LEARNING OUTCOMES AND CONTENT
Upon successful completion, the apprentice is able to:
3.4.1
[0.5/0]
3.4.2
[1/0]
Explain the fundamentals of testing and servicing lubricating system components and
lubricants.
-
purpose, function, types, styles, and application

crude oils

synthetic oils

significance of selecting correct lubricating oils for engine
service

viscosity ratings

grades

service ratings
Identify the principles of testing and servicing filters, heat exchangers, and oil coolers.
-
filters
by-pass

full flow

centrifugal
heat exchangers
oil coolers
pressure regulator
pressure relief valve
filter bypass valve
oil cooler bypass valve
thermostatic control

-
47
Ontario College of Trades ©
COMMERCIAL VEHICLE AND EQUIPMENT LEVEL 2
3.4.3
[0/1.5]
3.4.4
[0.5/0.5]
Perform inspection and testing procedures following manufacturers’ recommendations
for lubricating system components and lubricants.
-
service procedures for:

bearing leak down test

oil pressure tests

oil cooler test

vacuum test (coolers)

pressure test (coolers)
Recommend reconditioning or repairs following manufacturers' recommendations and
for lubricating system components.
-
-
demonstrate service procedures for:

changing oil and oil filters

centrifugal filters

by-pass filter

removing and installing oil pumps
explain oil and oil filter change interval requirements
describe requirements for priming oil pump and system
48
Ontario College of Trades ©
COMMERCIAL VEHICLE AND EQUIPMENT LEVEL 2
GENERAL PRACTICES
This section captures concepts and topics that must be integrated into the learning for each unit.
No specific time is allocated for these items as it is deemed to be accounted for in the Learning
Content section.
-
-
safety precautions

eye and hand protection

hot oil concerns
communications

information accessing

practical reporting

technical service bulletins

data management systems
o service records
o microfiche
o service information systems
o electronic format

current legislated requirements

WHMIS
mathematics

système international d'unités (s.i.) to Imperial conversion
49
Ontario College of Trades ©
COMMERCIAL VEHICLE AND EQUIPMENT LEVEL 2
S1250.5
Air Induction and Exhaust Systems
Duration:
Total 8 hours
Prerequisites:
C.V.A.E. Level 1
Theory 6 hours
Practical 2 hours
Cross-Reference to Training Standard:
AET 5924.01, 5924.02, 5924.03, 5924.04, 5924.05, 5924.06, 5924.07
HDET 5893.01, 5893.02, 5893.03, 5893.04, 5893.05, 5893.06, 5893.07, 5893.08, 5893.09,
5893.10
GENERAL LEARNING OUTCOME
Upon successful completion the apprentice is able to describe the testing and servicing
procedures for air induction and exhaust systems following manufacturers’ recommendations.
LEARNING OUTCOMES AND CONTENT
Upon successful completion, the apprentice is able to:
3.5.1
[1/0]
3.5.2
[2/0]
Explain the fundamentals of commercial vehicle air induction and exhaust systems.
-
purpose, function, types, styles, and application

air cleaners

turbochargers

Exhaust Gas Recirculation (EGR) Valves

volumetric efficiency

air charge temperature

cubic feet and cubic meters/minute air flow rate

mean effective pressure

exhaust system component overview
Identify the construction features of turbochargers, exhaust gas recirculation (EGR)
valves and air cleaners.
-
-
turbochargers

housing, shafts, turbine wheels, seals, bearings

variable geometry controls
intercoolers and aftercoolers
controls

wastegate

boost

variable volute
lubrication

oils, passages, lines
exhaust gas recirculation (EGR) valves
50
Ontario College of Trades ©
COMMERCIAL VEHICLE AND EQUIPMENT LEVEL 2
-
-
-
3.5.3
[2/0]
Describe the principles of operation of turbochargers, exhaust gas recirculation (EGR)
valves and air cleaners.
-
-
3.5.4
[0.5/1]
air cleaners

oil bath

dry type

pre-cleaners

two-stage
manifolds

intake

exhaust

exhaust gas recirculation (EGR) plumbing
exhaust after treatment

exhaust scrubbers

muffler
o water injection (spark arrest)

catalytic converters
o ceramic
o palladium

diesel particulate filter

aqueous urea injection
turbochargers

boost control, tip turbines, air flow, exhaust thrust,
wastegate, intercoolers, aftercoolers

variable geometry controls

thermodynamics of turbine operation
exhaust gas recirculation (EGR) valves
compare effectiveness of turbochargers

variable geometry controls
air cleaners

oil bath

dry

pre cleaners

two-stage
Demonstrate inspecting and testing procedures for air induction, exhaust systems,
turbochargers and exhaust gas recirculation (EGR) valves following manufacturers’
recommendations.
-
air induction system restrictions tests
exhaust system restrictions
air flow restriction indicators
noise level tests
turbocharger oil leak tests
air intake temperature test
boost pressure
wastegate operations
51
Ontario College of Trades ©
COMMERCIAL VEHICLE AND EQUIPMENT LEVEL 2
3.5.5
axial and radial movement
recommended start-up/shutdown procedures
exhaust gas recirculation (EGR) operation
Recommend reconditioning or repairs following manufacturers’ recommendations for air
induction, exhaust systems, exhaust gas recirculation (EGR) valves, and turbochargers.
[0.5/1]
-
-
demonstrate turbocharger

pre-lubrication requirements

lubrication requirements

clean air flow passages

mounting bolt torque
servicing air filters
servicing exhaust systems
servicing inter-coolers and after-coolers
installation precautions for turbocharger

pre-lubrication
servicing EGR (exhaust gas recirculation) valves
GENERAL PRACTICES
This section captures concepts and topics that must be integrated into the learning for each unit.
No specific time is allocated for these items as it is deemed to be accounted for in the Learning
Content section.
-
-
-
safety precautions

eye and hand protection

hot housings

lubrication requirements on start-up
communications

information accessing

practical reporting

technical service bulletins

data management systems
o service records
o microfiche
o service information systems
o electronic format

current legislated requirements

WHMIS
mathematics

système international d'unités (s.i.) to Imperial conversion
52
Ontario College of Trades ©
COMMERCIAL VEHICLE AND EQUIPMENT LEVEL 2
Number:
S1251
Reportable Subject:
ELECTRICAL/ELECTRONIC SYSTEMS
Duration:
Total 40 hours
Prerequisites:
C.V.A.E. Level 1
4.1
Practical: 0 hours
Theory: 8 hours
Practical: 3 hours
Theory: 10 hours
Practical: 6 hours
Theory: 7 hours
Practical: 2 hours
Cranking Systems
16 Total Hours
4.4
Theory: 4 hours
Chassis Electrical and Power Accessories
11 Total Hours
4.3
Practical 11 hours
Electrical Fundamentals
4 Total Hours
4.2
Theory 29 hours
Basic Electronic Devices
9 Total Hours
Evaluation Structure: Assignments related to theory and appropriate application skills.
Proctored final exam
Periodic quizzes.
Mark Distribution:
Theory
Practical
Testing
Application Testing
70%
30%
Instructional and Delivery Strategies:
Lecture and assignment work
Reference Materials:
O.E.M. Equipment Documentation
Recommended Minimum Equipment:
Heavy duty starters
Heavy duty carbon pile
Equipment (with electronic control systems)
Sealed wiring connector repair kits
Digital multimeters (DMMs)
Starter test stand
High Impedance multi-meters
(EST) Electronic service tool capable of
connection to onboard ECM systems
Personal computers PCs
Internet access
53
Ontario College of Trades ©
COMMERCIAL VEHICLE AND EQUIPMENT LEVEL 2
S1251.1
Electrical Fundamentals
Duration:
Total 4 hours
Prerequisites:
C.V.A.E. Level 1
Theory 4 hours
Practical 0 hours
Cross-Reference to Training Standard:
AET 5921.00, 5921.01, 5924.02, 5921.03, 5921.04, 5921.05, 5921.06, 5921.07, 5921.08,
5921.09, 5921.10, 5921.11
HDET 5892, 5894.00, 5903.00
GENERAL LEARNING OUTCOME
Upon successful completion the apprentice is able to describe the principles of electricity following
accepted scientific principles.
LEARNING OUTCOMES AND CONTENT
Upon successful completion, the apprentice is able to:
4.1.1
[4/0]
Explain and identify the purpose, fundamentals, and principles of electricity.
-
-
principles of electricity

electron theory

magnetism

left and right hand rules

units of measure

Ohm’s Law

Kirchoff’s Laws

capacitance, induction
perform circuit calculations for:

series, parallel, and series-parallel circuits
54
Ontario College of Trades ©
COMMERCIAL VEHICLE AND EQUIPMENT LEVEL 2
GENERAL PRACTICES
This section captures concepts and topics that must be integrated into the learning for each unit.
No specific time is allocated for these items as it is deemed to be accounted for in the Learning
Content section.
-
-
-
safety precautions

eye, hearing, breathing, and face protection

battery gas precautions

explosion precautions
communications

information accessing

practical reporting

technical service bulletins

data management systems
o service records
o microfiche
o service information systems
o electronic format

current legislated requirements

WHMIS
mathematics

système international d'unités (s.i.) to Imperial conversion
55
Ontario College of Trades ©
COMMERCIAL VEHICLE AND EQUIPMENT LEVEL 2
S1251.2
Chassis Electrical and Power Accessories
Duration:
Total 11 hours
Prerequisites:
C.V.A.E. Level 1
Theory 8 hours
Practical 3 hours
Cross-Reference to Training Standard:
AET 5921.01, 5921.04, 5921.07, 5921.10, 5921.11
HDET 5894.00, 5903.00
GENERAL LEARNING OUTCOME
Upon successful completion the apprentice is able to trace current flow through circuits with the
use of an electrical schematic
LEARNING OUTCOMES AND CONTENT
Upon successful completion, the apprentice is able to:
4.2.1
[1/0]
4.2.2
[2/0]
Explain wiring fundamentals.
-
wiring gauge numbers, colour

temperature effects of current flow through a conductor

SAE wire specifications

AWG wire specifications
Identify the construction features of chassis electrical and power accessory systems.
-
-
-
wiring
lighting

signal circuits

headlamp circuits

clearance circuits
wiper circuits
blower motor circuits
warning and monitoring devices for:

temperature

pressure

vacuum

engine speed

noise

fuel supply

charging
engine shut down systems
engine starting aid circuits

glow plugs

manifold heaters

starting fluid injection circuits
56
Ontario College of Trades ©
COMMERCIAL VEHICLE AND EQUIPMENT LEVEL 2
4.2.3
[4/0]
Describe the principles of operation of chassis electrical and power accessory systems.
-
-
-
4.2.4
[1/3]
wiring circuits
lighting

signal circuits

headlamp circuits

clearance circuits
wiper circuits
warning and monitoring devices for

temperature

pressure

vacuum

engine speed

noise

fuel supply

charging
engine shut down
engine starting aid circuits

glow plugs

manifold heaters

starting fluid injection circuits
Perform inspection and testing procedures following manufacturers’ recommendations
for chassis electrical and power accessory systems.
-
trace wiring circuits using manufacturers’ wiring diagrams
demonstration of wiper and warning system component
tests
identify circuit protection devices
develop a chronological sequence to trace wiring faults
demonstration of instrumentation troubleshooting

electronic service tools (EST)

visual
57
Ontario College of Trades ©
COMMERCIAL VEHICLE AND EQUIPMENT LEVEL 2
GENERAL PRACTICES
This section captures concepts and topics that must be integrated into the learning for each unit.
No specific time is allocated for these items as it is deemed to be accounted for in the Learning
Content section.
-
-
safety precautions

eye and hand protection

polarity
communications

information accessing

practical reporting

technical service bulletins

data management systems
o service records
o microfiche
o service information systems
o electronic format

current legislated requirements

WHMIS
mathematics

système international d'unités (s.i.) to Imperial conversion
58
Ontario College of Trades ©
COMMERCIAL VEHICLE AND EQUIPMENT LEVEL 2
S1251.3
Cranking Systems
Duration:
Total 16 hours
Prerequisites:
C.V.A.E. Level 1
Theory 10 hours
Practical 6 hours
Cross-Reference to Training Standard:
AET 5921.04, 5921.05, 5921.06
HDET 5894.00
GENERAL LEARNING OUTCOME
Upon successful completion the apprentice is able to recommend repair of a cranking system
following manufacturers’ recommendations.
LEARNING OUTCOMES AND CONTENT
Upon successful completion, the apprentice is able to:
4.3.1
[1/0]
Explain the purpose and fundamentals of cranking systems
-
4.3.2
[3/0]
battery

cables and connectors

switches, relays, condensers, and solenoids
cranking motor

thermal protection

starter drives
Identify the construction features of cranking system components.
-
-
-
cranking motors

configuration

internal circuits

thermal protection
starter drives

overrunning clutch

spragg

ramp and roller

posi-torque
control devices

relays

solenoids

series-parallel switch

master disconnect

pre-lubrication starting circuit

neutral safety switch
59
Ontario College of Trades ©
COMMERCIAL VEHICLE AND EQUIPMENT LEVEL 2
4.3.3
[4/0]
Describe the principles of operation of cranking systems and components.
-
-
-
4.3.4
[2/4]
electromagnetic principles
cranking motors

series

series-shunt

series-parallel

counter-electromotive force effect on current flow

temperature effect on load and torque output

configuration adjustment

thermal protection
drives

overrunning clutch

spragg clutch

ramp and roller

posi-torque
control devices

relays

solenoids

series-parallel switch

master disconnect

pre-lubrication starting circuit

neutral safety switch
Perform inspection, testing, and diagnostic procedures following manufacturers’
recommendations for cranking motors and control devices.
-
-
outline the recommended diagnostic sequence for cranking
system malfunctions
battery condition tests
cranking circuit current draw and voltage drop tests
identify specific cranking system faults from test results
demonstration of cranking no-load bench test
cranking motor component tests
demonstration of relay and solenoid testing
component failure analysis
outline the recommended procedures for boosting multiple
batteries

12 volt circuits

24 volt circuits
ring gear inspection

drive gear and ring gear

starter gear reduction
60
Ontario College of Trades ©
COMMERCIAL VEHICLE AND EQUIPMENT LEVEL 2
4.3.5
Recommend reconditioning or repairs following manufacturers’ recommendations for
cranking motors and control devices.
[0/2]
-
perform a starter motor removal and replacement
procedure as recommended by the manufacturer
GENERAL PRACTICES
This section captures concepts and topics that must be integrated into the learning for each unit.
No specific time is allocated for these items as it is deemed to be accounted for in the Learning
Content section.
-
-
-
safety precautions

eye, hearing, breathing, and face protection

battery gas precautions

explosion precautions
communications

information accessing

practical reporting

technical service bulletins

data management systems
o service records
o microfiche
o service information systems
o electronic format

current legislated requirements

WHMIS
mathematics

système international d'unités (s.i.) to Imperial conversion
61
Ontario College of Trades ©
COMMERCIAL VEHICLE AND EQUIPMENT LEVEL 2
S1251.4
Basic Electronic Devices
Duration:
Total 9 hours
Prerequisites:
C.V.A.E. Level 1
Theory 7 hours
Practical 2 hours
Cross-Reference to Training Standard:
AET 5926.01, 5926.02, 5926.05, 5926.08, 5926.13
HDET 5892.08, 5892.09
GENERAL LEARNING OUTCOME
Upon successful completion the apprentice is able to test basic electronic components following
manufacturers’ recommendations.
LEARNING OUTCOMES AND CONTENT
Upon successful completion, the apprentice is able to:
4.4.1
[1/0]
Explain the purpose and fundamentals of basic electronics.
-
4.4.2
[2/0]
semi-conductor materials
waveforms
voltage spike control
static electricity

electrostatic discharge
shielding
grounding
Identify the function, construction features, composition, types, and application of
electronic devices.
-
-
diodes

rectifying

zener

light emitting

photo
transistors

Positive-Negative-Positive (PNP)

Negative-Positive-Negative (NPN)
62
Ontario College of Trades ©
COMMERCIAL VEHICLE AND EQUIPMENT LEVEL 2
-
4.4.3
[3/0]
Describe the principles of operation of electronic devices.
-
-
4.4.4
[1/2]
sensors

reluctors

thermistors

piezoelectric

peizoresistive
variable resistor

rheostat

potentiometers
optical devices
capacitors
diodes

forward and reverse bias

current control
transistors

forward and reverse bias

positive-negative-positive (PNP) and negative-positivenegative (NPN)

gate controls

switching

amplification
capacitors
sensors

reluctors

thermistors

piezoelectric

piezorestive
variable resistor

rheostat

potentiometers
binary logic
Perform inspection and testing procedures following manufacturers’ recommendations
for electronic devices.
-
diodes
transistors
capacitors
resistors
potentiometer
sensors

reluctors

thermistors

piezoelectric

piezorestive
63
Ontario College of Trades ©
COMMERCIAL VEHICLE AND EQUIPMENT LEVEL 2
GENERAL PRACTICES
This section captures concepts and topics that must be integrated into the learning for each unit.
No specific time is allocated for these items as it is deemed to be accounted for in the Learning
Content section.
-
-
-
safety precautions

eye, hearing, breathing, and face protection

battery gas precautions

explosion precautions
communications

information accessing

practical reporting

technical service bulletins

data management systems
o service records
o microfiche
o service information systems
o electronic format

current legislated requirements

WHMIS
mathematics

système international d'unités (s.i.) to Imperial conversion
64
Ontario College of Trades ©
COMMERCIAL VEHICLE AND EQUIPMENT LEVEL 2
Number:
S1252
Reportable Subjects:
FUEL SYSTEMS
Duration:
Total 32 hours
Prerequisites:
C.V.A.E. Level 1
5.1
Theory: 3 hours
Practical: 3 hours
Theory: 5 hours
Practical: 3 hours
Theory: 5 hours
Practical: 3 hours
Unit Injector Systems
8 Total Hours
5.5
Practical: 2 hours
Distributor Injection Pump Systems
8 Total Hours
5.4
Theory: 2 hours
In-Line Injection Pump Systems
6 Total Hours
5.3
Practical 13 hours
Governor Systems
4 Total Hours
5.2
Theory 19 hours
Introduction to Electronic Fuel Injection
6 Total Hours
Theory: 4 hours
Practical: 2 hours
Evaluation Structure: Assignments related to theory and appropriate application skills.
Proctored final exam
Periodic quizzes.
Mark Distribution:
Theory
Practical
Testing
Application Testing
70%
30%
Instructional and Delivery Strategies:
Lecture and assignment work
Reference Materials:
O.E.M. Equipment Documentation
Recommended Minimum Equipment:
Running diesel engine equipped with
distributor pump fuel system
Assortment of EUI’s Electronic Unit Injectors
Hydraulic unit Injectors
Running diesel engine equipped with inline
Primary fuel system components
Inline / distributor Injection pumps with governors
Fuel injection system
Fuel system components
65
Ontario College of Trades ©
COMMERCIAL VEHICLE AND EQUIPMENT LEVEL 2
S1252.1
Governor Systems
Duration:
Total 4 hours
Prerequisites:
C.V.A.E. Level 1
Theory 2 hours
Practical 2 hours
Cross-Reference to Training Standard:
AET 5925.05, 5925.06, 5925.07, 5926.12
HDET 5892.02, 5892.02
GENERAL LEARNING OUTCOME
Upon successful completion the apprentice is able to describe the testing procedures for
mechanical governor systems following manufacturers’ recommendations.
LEARNING OUTCOMES AND CONTENT
Upon successful completion, the apprentice is able to:
5.1.1
[0.5/0]
5.1.2
[0.5/0]
Explain the purpose and fundamentals of diesel engine fuel injection system governors.
-
define terms

high idle

rated speed

governor cut-off

droop curve

torque curve

hysteresis

hunting

torque rise

aneroid
Identify the construction features of mechanical governors.
-
-
-
mechanical governors

variable speed

limiting speed

isochronous

linkages and control levers
aneroid

diaphragm, piston, or bellows

spring

boost pressure inlet

linkage rods

atmospheric vent
altitude compensators
66
Ontario College of Trades ©
COMMERCIAL VEHICLE AND EQUIPMENT LEVEL 2
5.1.3
[1/0]
Describe the principles of operation of mechanical governors.
-
-
5.1.4
[0/2]
mechanical governors

variable speed

limiting speed

isochronous

springs and flyweights

linkages and control levers

thrust collars
aneroid

diaphragm, piston, or bellows

spring

boost pressure inlet

linkage rods

atmospheric vent
altitude compensators
Perform testing procedures following manufacturers’ recommendations for mechanical
governor assemblies.
-
demonstrate testing engine-governed speed

high idle speed

low idle speed
67
Ontario College of Trades ©
COMMERCIAL VEHICLE AND EQUIPMENT LEVEL 2
GENERAL PRACTICES
This section captures concepts and topics that must be integrated into the learning for each unit.
No specific time is allocated for these items as it is deemed to be accounted for in the Learning
Content section.
-
-
-
safety precautions

eye protection

spontaneous combustion

CSA approved equipment for emptying tanks and storing fuel

priming and starting procedures, starting fluid applications

hazards of solvents

high pressure fuel lines

emergency shutdown procedures

high pressure injector spray precautions
communications

information accessing

practical reporting

technical service bulletins

data management systems
o service records
o microfiche
o service information systems
o electronic format

current legislated requirements

WHMIS
mathematics

système international d'unités (s.i.) to Imperial conversion
68
Ontario College of Trades ©
COMMERCIAL VEHICLE AND EQUIPMENT LEVEL 2
S1252.2
In-Line Injection Pump Systems
Duration:
Total 6 hours
Prerequisites:
C.V.A.E. Level 1
Theory 3 hours
Practical 3 hours
Cross-Reference to Training Standard:
AET 5925.05, 5925.06, 5925.07
HDET 5892.02, 5892.04, 5892.05
GENERAL LEARNING OUTCOME
Upon successful completion the apprentice is able to describe diesel in-line fuel injection pump
system service procedures following manufacturers’ recommendations and government policies.
LEARNING OUTCOMES AND CONTENT
Upon successful completion, the apprentice is able to:
5.2.1
[0.5/0]
5.2.2
[0.5/0]
Explain the purpose and fundamentals of diesel in-line injection pumps systems.
-
in-line pumps, metering, and controls

pump housing

camshaft

charging gallery

pumping elements
o port/helix
o sleeve metering

delivery valves

lubrication

high pressure lines
Identify the component construction features of diesel in-line injection pumps.
-
pump housing
camshaft
charging gallery
pumping element
plunger and barrel spill ports
delivery valves
69
Ontario College of Trades ©
COMMERCIAL VEHICLE AND EQUIPMENT LEVEL 2
5.2.3
[2/0]
5.2.4
[0/3]
Describe the principles of operation of diesel in-line injection pumps.
-
metering in-line injection pumps

gallery charging

pumping element operation

port closure and effective stroke

racks

cam profile and injection rate

delivery valves

residual line pressure

lubrication
o cam box
o viscous sealing

heat dissipation
Recommend reconditioning or repairs following manufacturers’ recommendations for inline injection pump systems.
-
demonstrate in-line injection pump static and dynamic
timing

timing pins

electronic alignment

dial indicator

high and low speed adjustment

spill port timing
70
Ontario College of Trades ©
COMMERCIAL VEHICLE AND EQUIPMENT LEVEL 2
GENERAL PRACTICES
This section captures concepts and topics that must be integrated into the learning for each unit.
No specific time is allocated for these items as it is deemed to be accounted for in the Learning
Content section.
-
-
-
safety precautions

eye protection

spontaneous combustion

CSA approved equipment for emptying tanks and storing fuel

priming and starting procedures, starting fluid applications

hazards of solvents

high pressure fuel lines

emergency shutdown procedures

high pressure injector spray precautions
communications

information accessing

practical reporting

technical service bulletins

data management systems
o service records
o microfiche
o service information systems
o electronic format

current legislated requirements

WHMIS
mathematics

système international d'unités (s.i.) to Imperial conversion
71
Ontario College of Trades ©
COMMERCIAL VEHICLE AND EQUIPMENT LEVEL 2
S1252.3
Distributor Injection Pump Systems
Duration:
Total 8 hours
Prerequisites:
C.V.A.E. Level 1
Theory 5 hours
Practical 3 hours
Cross-Reference to Training Standard:
AET 5925.05, 5925.06, 5925.07
HDET 5892.02, 5892.04, 5892.05
GENERAL LEARNING OUTCOME
Upon successful completion the apprentice is able to describe the timing procedures for distributor
pump systems following manufacturers’ recommendations.
LEARNING OUTCOMES AND CONTENT
Upon successful completion, the apprentice is able to:
5.3.1
[0.5/0]
Explain the purpose and fundamentals of inlet metering, opposed plunger and sleeve
metering distributor injection pump systems.
-
housing
opposed plungers
rotor
cam ring
hydraulic head
regulator assembly
timing advance
metering valve
transfer pump
fluid flow and capacity measurement
fuel supply system
72
Ontario College of Trades ©
COMMERCIAL VEHICLE AND EQUIPMENT LEVEL 2
5.3.2
[1.5/0]
5.3.3
[2/0]
5.3.4
[1/3]
Identify the construction features of inlet metering, opposed plunger and sleeve
metering distributor high-pressure pumps and controls.
-
distributor pump and controls

opposed plunger

single plunger

rotor

plungers

cam ring

hydraulic head

pressure regulator assembly

advance mechanism

metering valve

transfer pump
Describe the principles of operation of inlet metering, opposed plunger and sleeve
metering distributor high-pressure pumps and controls.
-
distributor pump and controls

opposed plunger

single plunger

rotor

plungers

cam ring

hydraulic head

pressure regulator assembly

advance mechanism

metering valve

transfer pump
Recommend reconditioning or repairs following manufacturers’ recommendations for
inlet metering, opposed plunger and sleeve metering distributor pumps.
-
demonstrate distributor pump timing and indexing
procedures
high and low speed adjustment
73
Ontario College of Trades ©
COMMERCIAL VEHICLE AND EQUIPMENT LEVEL 2
GENERAL PRACTICES
This section captures concepts and topics that must be integrated into the learning for each unit.
No specific time is allocated for these items as it is deemed to be accounted for in the Learning
Content section.
-
-
-
safety precautions

eye protection

spontaneous combustion

CSA approved equipment for emptying tanks and storing fuel

priming and starting procedures, starting fluid applications

hazards of solvents

high pressure fuel lines

emergency shutdown procedures

high pressure injector spray precautions
communications

information accessing

practical reporting

technical service bulletins

data management systems
o service records
o microfiche
o service information systems
o electronic format

current legislated requirements

WHMIS
mathematics

système international d'unités (s.i.) to Imperial conversion
74
Ontario College of Trades ©
COMMERCIAL VEHICLE AND EQUIPMENT LEVEL 2
S1252.4
Unit Injector Systems
Duration:
Total 8 hours
Prerequisites:
C.V.A.E. Level 1
Theory 5 hours
Practical 3 hours
Cross-Reference to Training Standard:
AET 5925.05, 5925.06, 5925.07
HDET 5892.02, 5892.04, 5892.05
GENERAL LEARNING OUTCOME
Upon successful completion the apprentice is able to describe the diesel unit injection system
repair procedures following manufacturers’ recommendations.
LEARNING OUTCOMES AND CONTENT
Upon successful completion, the apprentice is able to:
5.4.1
[1/0]
5.4.2
[2/0]
Explain the purpose and fundamentals of diesel fuel unitized injection systems.
-
fuel flow
fuel delivery
injector types
controls
actuation
Identify the construction features of diesel fuel unitized injection system components.
-
-
fuel delivery

fuel manifolds

jumper pipes
transfer pump
unit injectors

body

pumping element
plunger and bushing
upper and lower bushing ports
helix designs

needle valves
control rack assembly

tube

rack levers
75
Ontario College of Trades ©
COMMERCIAL VEHICLE AND EQUIPMENT LEVEL 2
5.4.3
[1/0]
Describe the principles of operation of diesel fuel unitized injection systems.
-
-
5.4.4
[1/1]
5.4.5
[0/2]
transfer pump

positive displacement gear
mechanically actuated unit injectors

effective stroke

timing of injection

nozzle-opening valves

pumping principle

upper and lower bushing ports

helix designs
control rack and cam shaft

injection rate

fuel flow
Demonstrate inspecting, testing, and diagnostic procedures following manufacturers’
recommendations for unit injectors and control devices.
-
diagnostic procedures of common failures
troubleshooting techniques

isolate faulty injector

engine misfire
Recommend reconditioning, repairs, or adjustment procedures following manufacturers’
recommendations for diesel fuel unitized injection systems.
-
demonstrate diagnostic procedures for:

unit injectors

return flow assessment
o temperature
o aeration
o volume

suction

pressure

high and low speed adjustment
76
Ontario College of Trades ©
COMMERCIAL VEHICLE AND EQUIPMENT LEVEL 2
GENERAL PRACTICES
This section captures concepts and topics that must be integrated into the learning for each unit.
No specific time is allocated for these items as it is deemed to be accounted for in the Learning
Content section.
-
-
-
safety precautions

eye protection

spontaneous combustion

CSA approved equipment for emptying tanks and storing fuel

priming and starting procedures, starting fluid applications

hazards of solvents

high pressure fuel lines

emergency shutdown procedures

high pressure injector spray precautions
communications

information accessing

practical reporting

technical service bulletins

data management systems
o service records
o microfiche
o service information systems
o electronic format

current legislated requirements

WHMIS
mathematics

système international d'unités (s.i.) to Imperial conversion
77
Ontario College of Trades ©
COMMERCIAL VEHICLE AND EQUIPMENT LEVEL 2
S1252.5
Introduction to Electronic Fuel Injection
Duration:
Total 6 hours
Prerequisites:
C.V.A.E. Level 1
Theory 4 hours
Practical 2 hours
Cross-Reference to Training Standard:
AET 5926.01, 5926.02, 5926.03, 5926.04
HDET 5892.06, 5892.07, 5892.08, 5892.09
GENERAL LEARNING OUTCOME
Upon successful completion the apprentice is able to identify injector replacement procedures
following manufacturers’ recommendations.
LEARNING OUTCOMES AND CONTENT
Upon successful completion, the apprentice is able to:
5.5.1
[0.5/0]
5.5.2
[1.5/0]
Explain the purpose and fundamentals of electronic fuel injection systems.
-
emission control
power/torque
economy
service intervals
Identify the construction features of electronic fuel injector components.
-
-
electronic unit injectors

poppet valve

nozzle

plunger

high pressure circuit

low pressure circuit

pressure regulation
o high pressure
o low pressure
hydraulic electronic unit injectors

poppet valve

nozzle

plunger

hydraulic control circuit
o pressure regulation

fuel circuits
o high pressure
o low pressure
78
Ontario College of Trades ©
COMMERCIAL VEHICLE AND EQUIPMENT LEVEL 2
5.5.3
[1.5/0]
Describe the principles of operation of electronic fuel injector system devices.
-
-
5.5.4
[0.5/2]
electronic unit injectors

fuel circuit
o low pressure
o cooling
o lubrication
o high pressure
o atomization
o fuel control
o metering
o delivery
o timing
hydraulic electronic unit injectors

hydraulic control circuit
o pressure regulation

fuel circuits
o high pressure
o low pressure
Perform replacement procedures following manufacturers’ recommendations operations
for electronic fuel injectors.
-
demonstrate injector replacement procedures
outline servicing precautions for injector replacement

electrical

hydraulic

fuel

mechanical
79
Ontario College of Trades ©
COMMERCIAL VEHICLE AND EQUIPMENT LEVEL 2
GENERAL PRACTICES
This section captures concepts and topics that must be integrated into the learning for each unit.
No specific time is allocated for these items as it is deemed to be accounted for in the Instructional
Activities.
-
-
-
safety precautions

eye protection

spontaneous combustion

CSA approved equipment for emptying tanks and storing fuel

priming and starting procedures, starting fluid applications

hazards of solvents

high pressure fuel lines

emergency shutdown procedures

high pressure injector spray precautions
communications

information accessing

practical reporting

technical service bulletins

data management systems
o service records
o microfiche
o service information systems
o electronic format

current legislated requirements

WHMIS
mathematics

système international d'unités (s.i.) to Imperial conversion
80
Ontario College of Trades ©
COMMERCIAL VEHICLE AND EQUIPMENT LEVEL 2
Number:
S1253
Reportable Subject:
DRIVE TRAIN SYSTEMS
Duration:
Total 32 hours
Prerequisites:
C.V.A.E. Level 1
6.1
Practical 14 hours
Differential, Final Drives, and Power Dividers
14 Total Hours
6.2
Theory 18 hours
Theory: 8 hours
Practical: 6 hours
Power Shift Transmission Systems
18 Total Hours
Theory: 10 hours
Practical: 8 hours
Evaluation Structure: Assignments related to theory and appropriate application skills.
Proctored final exam
Periodic quizzes.
Mark Distribution:
Theory
Practical
Testing
Application Testing
60%
40%
Instructional and Delivery Strategies:
Lecture and assignment work
Reference Materials:
Recommended Minimum Equipment:
Precision measuring tools
Pressure test equipment
Powershift transmissions
Single and Double speed Differentials
Internet access
Measuring Tools
Mechanical face seals, Lip seals.
Hydrostatic drive pumps and motors (from
heavy equipment)
Basic hand tools
Assortment of drive axle, power dividers and
final drives.
Hydraulic clutch packs
Planetary wheel end gear sets
EST’s Electronic service tools
Magnetic Dial indicator
Assortment of wheel end bearings
Bearing pullers and presses
81
Ontario College of Trades ©
COMMERCIAL VEHICLE AND EQUIPMENT LEVEL 2
S1253.1
Differential, Final Drives, and Power Dividers
Duration:
Total 14 hours
Prerequisites:
C.V.A.E. Level 1
Theory 8 hours
Practical 6 hours
Cross-Reference to Training Standard:
AET 5928.01, 5928.02, 5928.03, 5928.04
HDET 5897.02, 5897.04, 5897.05, 5987.07
GENERAL LEARNING OUTCOME
Upon successful completion the apprentice is able to describe repair procedures of drive train
systems following manufacturers’ recommendations and safe work practices.
LEARNING OUTCOMES AND CONTENT
Upon successful completion, the apprentice is able to:
6.1.1
[2/0]
6.1.2
[2/0]
Explain the purpose and fundamentals of drive train systems.
-
differentials
final drives
power dividers
fundamentals enhancement

centrifugal force

linear movement

angular movement

lubricating oils, including temperature and load requirements

planetary gear sets
Identify the construction features of drive train system components.
-
-
-
differentials

single- and two-speed
o standard
o no-spin and locking
o torsion

air shift

electrical shift
final drives

bevel gear

spiral gear

helical and hypoid gear

planetary

inboard and outboard
power dividers
82
Ontario College of Trades ©
COMMERCIAL VEHICLE AND EQUIPMENT LEVEL 2
6.1.3
[3/0]
Describe the principles of operation of drive train systems.
-
-
6.1.4
[0.5/3]
Perform inspection, testing, and diagnostic procedures following manufacturers’
recommendations for drive train systems.
-
-
6.1.5
[0.5/3]
differentials

single- and two-speed
o standard (open)
o no-spin
o locking
o limited slip
o torsen-gleason
o planetary

air shift

electrical shift

hydraulic shift
final drives

bevel gear

spiral gear

helical and hypoid gear

planetary

inboard and outboard
power dividers
differentials, final drives and power dividers :

pinion cone point adjustment

gear contact patterns

gear backlash

bearing pre-load
identify component failures and determine potential causes
for:

noises

wear

malfunctions

shift problems

overheating

lack of proper lubrication
Demonstrate service procedures following manufacturers’ recommendations for drive
train systems.
-
-
lubricating oil

level checks

breather service

filter service
seal replacement procedures

mechanical face-type seal

rubber packing

lip seals
83
Ontario College of Trades ©
COMMERCIAL VEHICLE AND EQUIPMENT LEVEL 2
GENERAL PRACTICES
This section captures concepts and topics that must be integrated into the learning for each unit.
No specific time is allocated for these items as it is deemed to be accounted for in the Learning
Content section.
-
-
-
safety precautions

eye and hand protection

dismantling

use of brass drifts

control of snap ring or circlip removal

hoist and stand use
communications

information accessing

practical reporting

technical service bulletins

data management systems
o service records
o microfiche
o service information systems
o electronic format

current legislated requirements

WHMIS
mathematics

système international d'unités (s.i.) to Imperial conversion
84
Ontario College of Trades ©
COMMERCIAL VEHICLE AND EQUIPMENT LEVEL 2
S1253.2
Power Shift Transmission Systems
Duration:
Total 18 hours
Prerequisites:
C.V.A.E. Level 1
Theory 10 hours
Practical 8 hours
Cross-Reference to Training Standard:
AET 5927.08, 5927.09, 5927.10, 5927.11, 5927.12, 5927.13
HDET 5896.11, 5896.13, 5896.14, 5896.16
GENERAL LEARNING OUTCOME
Upon successful completion the apprentice is able to describe testing and repair procedures
following manufacturers’ recommendations and safe work practices of power shift transmissions.
LEARNING OUTCOMES AND CONTENT
Upon successful completion, the apprentice is able to:
6.2.1
[1/0]
Explain the purpose and fundamentals of power shift transmission systems.
-
-
6.2.2
[4/0]
control systems

hydraulic

pneumatic

electronic

manual
planetary gear sets

simple

compound

ratio calculations
countershaft gear sets

ratio calculations
lubrication

filtration
Identify the construction features of power shift transmission system components.
-
control system

lubrication and cooling circuits

oil pump

filtration
o by-pass

pressure regulating valve

oil cooler

oil passages
85
Ontario College of Trades ©
COMMERCIAL VEHICLE AND EQUIPMENT LEVEL 2
-
-
-
-
control circuit

pressure regulating valve

adjustable orifice

modulation

accumulator

shift valves
o mechanical
o electrical
o rotary
o spool

inching pedal

transmission interlock (enable) circuit
holding and locking devices

hydraulic clutch assembly

discs and plates

pistons

input drum

hub and output shaft
o park lock
o dry disconnect clutch
o tow disconnect
planetary gear sets

simple

sun gear

planet pinions and carrier

ring gear

compound
counter shaft gear sets
electronic controls

controller

solenoids
o latching
o non-latching

on-off

modulation

sensors
o speed
o pressure
o temperature

dump valves
86
Ontario College of Trades ©
COMMERCIAL VEHICLE AND EQUIPMENT LEVEL 2
6.2.3
[5/0]
Describe the principles of operation of power shift transmission systems.
-
-
6.2.4
[0/6]
control system

oil pump

lubrication and cooling circuits

pressure regulating valve

oil cooler

control circuit

pressure regulating valve

adjustable orifice

accumulator
o spring
o pneumatic

shift valves
o rotary
o spool
o mechanical
o electrical

inching pedal
holding and locking devices

dry disconnect clutch

tow disconnect

hydraulic clutch assemblies
o holding clutch (brake pack)
o rotating clutch
o high and low speeds
o park lock
planetary gear sets

simple

compound
counter shaft gear sets
electronic controls

calibration
Perform inspection, testing, and diagnostic procedures following manufacturers’
recommendations for power shift transmission systems.
-
-
check and test fluid levels and condition
trace the power flow through gear sets and clutch packs

under drive

direct drive

overdrive
test transmission clutch and lube pressures and flow rates
according to recommended procedures
perform component examination, measurements,
clearance, and end play check
relate component failures to operational problems and
diagnostic procedures
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-
outline the recommended procedures to test the power shift
transmission electronic control devices
Demonstrate service procedures following manufacturers’ recommendations for power
shift transmission systems.
6.2.5
[0/2]
-
outline oil and filter changes

service intervals

oil sampling
adjust transmission regulating valve pressures
procedures to retrieve diagnostic codes

interpret diagnostic codes
recommended disassembly and reassembly procedures
GENERAL PRACTICES
This section captures concepts and topics that must be integrated into the learning for each unit.
No specific time is allocated for these items as it is deemed to be accounted for in the Learning
Content section.
-
-
-
safety precautions

eye and hand protection

dismantling

use of brass drifts

control of snap ring or circlip removal

hoist and stand use
communications

information accessing

practical reporting

technical service bulletins

data management systems
o service records
o microfiche
o service information systems
o electronic format

current legislated requirements

WHMIS
mathematics

système international d'unités (s.i.) to Imperial conversion
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COMMERCIAL VEHICLE AND EQUIPMENT LEVEL 2
Number:
S1254
Reportable Subject:
Steering, Tires and Brake Systems
Duration:
Total 24 hours
Prerequisites:
C.V.A.E. Level 1
7.1
Theory: 8 hours
Practical: 4 hours
Theory: 4 hours
Practical: 2 hours
Theory: 5 hours
Practical: 1 hour
Tires, Wheels, and Hubs
6 Total Hours
7.3
Practical 7 hours
Steering Systems
12 Total Hours
7.2
Theory 17 hours
Hydraulic Brake Systems
6 Total Hours
Evaluation Structure: Assignments related to theory and appropriate application skills.
Proctored final exam
Periodic quizzes.
Mark Distribution:
Theory
Practical
Testing
Application Testing
50%
50%
Instructional and Delivery Strategies:
Lecture and assignment work
Reference Materials:
O.E.M. Equipment Documentation
Recommended Minimum Equipment:
Operational equipment with hydraulic brakes
Assortment of pneumatic and mechanical
suspension components
Disassembled hydraulic brake components
Precision measuring equipment
Equipment with Inboard hydraulic brakes
Assortment of hydraulic brake components
Equipment with suspension systems
Equipment with articulating steering systems
Equipment with conventional steering systems
Equipment with outboard hydraulic brakes
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S1254.1
Steering Systems
Duration:
Total 12 hours Theory 8 hours Practical 4 hours
Prerequisites:
C.V.A.E. Level 1
Cross-Reference to Training Standard:
AET 5930.01, 5930.02, 5930.03, 5930.04
HDET 5898.01, 5898.02, 5898.03, 5898.04, 5898.05, 5898.06, 5898.07
GENERAL LEARNING OUTCOME
Upon successful completion the apprentice is able to recommend testing and servicing of steering
systems following manufacturers’ recommendations and safe work practices.
LEARNING OUTCOMES AND CONTENT
Upon successful completion, the apprentice is able to:
7.1.1
[1/0]
Explain the purpose and fundamentals of steering systems.
-
Ackerman’s principles
parallelograms
steering geometry
centre of gravity
levers, mechanical advantage
linear and angular measurement
metric and imperial units
hydraulic principles
outline the features of steering systems:

two wheel
o front axle
o rear axle

all wheel
o crab
o coordinated

articulated
o axle tracking

steering clutches

differential steering
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7.1.2
[3/0]
Identify the types and construction features of steering system components.
-
-
-
-
7.1.3
[4/0]
mechanical components

steering gear

steering arms and linkages

oscillating axle housing

variable tread width axle
hydraulic assist

pump and reservoir

power cylinder

gear assembly
fully hydraulic

reservoir

power cylinder

directional steering pump

steering arms and linkages

pilot operated

stick steer

wheel lean (graders)
dual steering axles

inter axle drag link
steering clutches

wet

dry
differential steering
hydrostatic steering

skid steer (wheel/track)
articulating steering

steering stops
o mechanical stops
o soft stops
Describe the principles of operation of steering systems.
-
-
hydraulic assist

pump and reservoir

power cylinder

gear assemblies
fully hydraulic

reservoir

power cylinder

directional steering pump

steering arms and linkages

pilot operated

stick steer

supplemental steering
o ground drive
o electric
o accumulator
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-
7.1.4
[0/2]
Demonstrate inspection, servicing, testing, and diagnostic procedures following
manufacturers’ recommendations for steering systems.
-
7.1.5
[0/2]
dual steering axles
steering clutches
differential steering

start up precautions
hydrostatic steering

skid steer (wheel/track)

independent track steer
articulating steering

steering stops
o mechanical stops
o soft stops
visual inspections
steering pump pressure tests
steering pump flow rate tests
pump internal leakage test
describe diagnostic procedures

malfunctions
service requirements

intervals

lubrication points

lubricant type

filter replacement

oil sampling
Demonstrate service procedures following manufacturers’ recommendations for steering
systems.
-
steering system adjustments for:

toe-in

steering gear

steering clutches

hydraulic pressures

steering columns
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GENERAL PRACTICES
This section captures concepts and topics that must be integrated into the learning for each unit.
No specific time is allocated for these items as it is deemed to be accounted for in the Learning
Content.
-
-
-
safety precautions

eye and skin protection

equipment lifting and supports

high pressure concerns

pinch points (articulating)
communications

information accessing

practical reporting

technical service bulletins

data management systems
o service records
o microfiche
o service information systems
o electronic format

current legislated requirements

WHMIS
mathematics

système international d'unités (s.i.) to Imperial conversion
93
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COMMERCIAL VEHICLE AND EQUIPMENT LEVEL 2
S1254.2
Tires, Wheels, and Hubs
Duration:
Total 6 hours
Prerequisites:
C.V.A.E. Level 1
Theory 4 hours
Practical 2 hours
Cross-Reference to Training Standard:
AET 5930.01, 5930.02, 5930.03, 5930.04
HDET 5904.01, 5904.02, 5904.03, 5904.04
GENERAL LEARNING OUTCOME
Upon successful completion the apprentice is able to describe the testing and servicing
procedures for tires, wheels, and hubs following manufacturers’ recommendations.
LEARNING OUTCOMES AND CONTENT
Upon successful completion, the apprentice is able to:
7.2.1
[1/0]
Explain the fundamentals of tires, wheels, and hubs.
-
7.2.2
[1/0]
purpose, function, types, styles, and application

tires, wheels, and hubs
fundamentals

tire composition

centrifugal force

centripetal force

sliding and rolling friction

ferrous and non-ferrous materials

fastener torque

rim sizing details
o tire/rim dimension matching

rolling radius

ballast

dual wheels
Identify the construction features of tires, wheels, and hubs.
-
-
tires

materials

radials, bias ply

floatation type

solid

semi-pneumatic

tread patterns
wheel rims

drop centre

lock rings
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-
7.2.3
[1/0]
Describe the operating principles of tires, wheels, and hubs.
-
-
-
-
7.2.4
[0/2]
hubs

cast spoke

mounting fasteners
tires

radial and bias ply

floatation type

solid

semi-pneumatic

pneumatic
o nitrogen
o air

ballasting
o liquid
o solid
tire matching for:

radials and bias ply

dual wheels

tandem axles
wheel:

rims
o single piece
o multi piece
o lock rings
o lock ring safety
o drive lugs
o lock ring retainers
hubs

fasteners

cast

steel

wedge lock safety
Demonstrate inspection, safe servicing and testing procedures following manufacturers’
recommendations for tires, wheels, and hubs.
-
-
inspect tires, wheels, and hubs for:

wear

fractures

leaks
test tires and wheels for:

pressure

distortion
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COMMERCIAL VEHICLE AND EQUIPMENT LEVEL 2
7.2.5
Recommend reconditioning or repair procedures following manufacturers’
recommendations for tires, wheels, and hubs.
[1/0]
-
-
outline the recommended procedures for dismantling
and assembly of tires and rims

safe handling practices
o heating or welding practices (explosion risks)

multi piece/one piece wheels
o deflate before removing from equipment (heavy
equipment)
outline the recommended maintenance procedures
for hub assemblies
GENERAL PRACTICES
This section captures concepts and topics that must be integrated into the learning for each unit.
No specific time is allocated for these items as it is deemed to be accounted for in the Learning
Content.
-
-
-
safety precautions

eye and skin protection

inflating precautions

caging of split rim assemblies

jacking and stand use

mounting and dismounting (off machine)
communications

information accessing

practical reporting

technical service bulletins

data management systems
o service records
o microfiche
o service information systems
o electronic format

current legislated requirements

WHMIS
mathematics

système international d'unités (s.i.) to Imperial conversion
96
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COMMERCIAL VEHICLE AND EQUIPMENT LEVEL 2
S1254.3
Hydraulic Brake Systems
Duration:
Total 6 hours
Prerequisites:
C.V.A.E. Level 1
Theory 5 hours
Practical 1 hour
Cross-Reference to Training Standard:
AET 5930.01, 5930.02, 5930.03, 5930.04
HDET 5891.01, 5891.02, 5891.03, 5891.04
GENERAL LEARNING OUTCOME
Upon successful completion the apprentice is able to perform repairs following manufacturers’
recommendations and safe work practices of hydraulic brake systems.
LEARNING OUTCOMES AND CONTENT
Upon successful completion, the apprentice is able to:
7.3.1
[2/0]
7.3.2
[1/0]
Explain the fundamentals of hydraulic brake systems.
-
brake assemblies

multi-disc

inboard/outboard

spring applied hydraulic release

hydraulic applied spring release

external disc brakes

brake components
Identify the construction, composition features, types, styles, and application of
hydraulic brake systems.
-
brake components

pistons

seals

springs

disc/plates

housings

retractors

calipers
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COMMERCIAL VEHICLE AND EQUIPMENT LEVEL 2
7.3.3
[1/0]
7.3.4
[0/1]
Describe the principles of operation of hydraulic brake systems.
-
Perform inspection, testing, and diagnostic procedures following manufacturers’
recommendations and safe work practices on brake systems.
-
7.3.5
[1/0]
brake components

pistons

seals

springs

disc/plates

housings

retractors

calipers
interpret test results and performance problems

noises

drag or lockup

vibrations

imbalance
check park brake operation
Recommend reconditioning or repairs following manufacturers’ recommendations for
hydraulic brake systems.
-
identify corrective repair actions according to
manufacturers’ recommended procedures
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GENERAL PRACTICES
This section captures concepts and topics that must be integrated into the learning for each unit.
No specific time is allocated for these items as it is deemed to be accounted for in the Learning
Content section.
-
-
-
safety precautions

pressure escape and containment

eye and skin protection from hot fluids

hazardous materials

lifting and hoisting

ventilation of work area

fire hazard

high pressure fluid injection/skin penetration

supporting and blocking of components
communications

information accessing

practical reporting

technical service bulletins

data management systems
o service records
o microfiche
o service information systems
o electronic format

current legislated requirements

WHMIS
mathematics

système international d'unités (s.i.) to Imperial conversion
99
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COMMERCIAL VEHICLE AND EQUIPMENT LEVEL 2
Acronyms:
This listing identifies acronyms found in the following motive power curriculum documents:
Level 1 – Commercial Vehicles and Equipment (Common Core)
Level 2 – Commercial Vehicles and Equipment (Common Core)
Level 3 – Agricultural Equipment Technician
Level 3 – Heavy Duty Equipment Technician
Level 2 – Powered Lift Truck Technician
Level 3 – Powered Lift Truck Technician
Level 2 – Truck and Coach Technician
Level 3 – Truck and Coach Technician
A
ABS
AC
A/C
AET
AFC
AGM
API
ANSI
ATA
ATC
AVR
AWG
AWS
anti-lock braking system
alternating current
air conditioning
Agricultural Equipment Technician
air fuel control
absorbed glass mat
American Petroleum Institute
American National Standards Institute
American Trucking Association
automatic traction control
amp, volt, ohmmeter
American Wire Gauge
American Welding Society
B
BCM
BSP
BTM
body control module
British Standard Pipe
brushless torque motor
C
CB
CDI
CD-ROM
CFC
CI
CMVSS
CNG
CPU
CSA
CVSA
CWS
citizen band
capacitor discharge ignition
compact disc read only memory
chlorofluorocarbons
compression ignited
Canadian Motor Vehicle Safety Standard
compressed natural gas
central processing unit
Canadian Standards Association
Canadian Vehicle Standards Association
collision warning systems
D
DC
DDC
DFF
direct current
Detroit Diesel Corporation
direct fuel feed
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COMMERCIAL VEHICLE AND EQUIPMENT LEVEL 2
DIN
DMM
DOS
DOT
DPF
Deutsche Institute fur Normung (German Standards Institute)
digital multimeter
Disk Operating System
Department of Transportation
diesel particulate filter
E
ECM
ECU
EPROM
EEPROM
EG
EGR
ELC
EPA
EST
EUI
EUP
electronic control module
electronic control unit
erasable programmable read only memory
electronically erasable programmable read only memory
ethylene glycol
exhaust gas recirculation
extended life coolant
Environmental Protection Act
electronic service tool
electronic unit injector
electronic unit pump
F
FHSL
FMIs
FMVSS
FOPS
FRP
Federal Health and Safety Legislation
fault mode indicators
Federal Motor Vehicle Safety Standards
Falling Object Protection System
fiberglass reinforced plywood
G
GCWR
GFI
GPS
GVW
GVWR
Gross Combined Weight Rating
gasoline fuel injection
global positioning satellite
Gross Vehicle Weight
Gross Vehicle Weight Rating
H
HC
HDET
HEUI
HCFC
HFC
HPI-TP
HVAC
hydrocarbon
Heavy Duty Equipment Technician
hydraulically actuated electronic unit injector
hydrochlorofluorocarbons
hydrofluorocarbons
high pressure injector-time pressure (Cummins)
heating, ventilation and air conditioning
I
ID
ISO
inside diameter
International Standards Organization
J
JIC
JIS
JIT
Joint Industry Conference
Japanese Industrial Standard
just in time
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COMMERCIAL VEHICLE AND EQUIPMENT LEVEL 2
K
KPI
king pin inclination
L
LED
LPG
LVD
light emitting diode
liquid petroleum gas
low voltage disconnect
M
MAP
MIDs
MIG
MSDS
MUI
MVSA
manifold absolute pressure
message identifiers
metal inert gas
material safety data sheet
mechanical unit injector
Motor Vehicle Safety Act (Canadian)
N
N/A
NOP
NPN
NPT
NV-RAM
not applicable
nozzle opening pressure
negative positive negative semi-conductor
National Pipe Thread
non-volatile random access memory
O
OD
ODP
OEM
OHSA
OOS
OPS
ORB
ORFS
outside diameter
ozone depletion prevention
original equipment manufacturer
Occupational Health and Safety Act
out of service criteria
operator protection system
o-ring boss
o-ring face seal
P
PC
PCV
PFI
PG
PHSL
PIDs
PLTT
PNP
PROM
PT
PTA
PTG-AFC
PTD
PTG
PTO
PWM
personal computer
positive crankcase ventilation
port fuel injection
propylene glycol
Provincial Health and Safety Legislation
parameter identifiers
Powered Lift Truck Technician
positive negative positive semi-conductor
programmable read only memory
pressure time
pressure time (injector) A series
pressure time governor/air fuel control
pressure time (injector) B series
pressure time governor (control pump)
power take-off
pulse width modulation
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R
RAM
RBM
ROM
ROPS
R.P.
RPM
random access memory
resist bend moment
read only memory
roll over protection system
recommended practices
revolutions per minute
S
SAE
SALT
SCA
SI
s.i.
SIDs
SMAW
SRS
STC
Society of Automotive Engineers
sealed and lubricated tracks
supplemental coolant additives
spark ignited
Système International d'Unités
sub-system identifiers
shielded metal arc welding
supplemental restraint systems
step timing control
T
TBI
TCT
TDS
TP
TPS
TQM
TMC
throttle body injection
Truck and Coach Technician
total dissolved solids
time/pressure injector
throttle position sensor
total quality management
Technical and Maintenance Council
V
VCO
VIN
valve closes orifice
vehicle identification number
W
WHMIS
WIF
Workplace Hazardous Materials Information System
water in fuel sensors
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Glossary:
This glossary provides definitions of terms found in the following motive power curriculum
documents:
Level 1 – Commercial Vehicles and Equipment (Common Core)
Level 2 – Commercial Vehicles and Equipment (Common Core)
Level 3 – Agricultural Equipment Technician
Level 3 – Heavy Duty Equipment Technician
Level 2 – Powered Lift Truck Technician
Level 3 – Powered Lift Truck Technician
Level 2 – Truck and Coach Technician
Level 3 – Truck and Coach Technician
A
ABS
AC
A/C
accumulator
Ackermann Angle
acronym
active codes
actuator
aeration
AFC
AFC (Cummins)
AFR
air/fuel ratio
air-to-air aftercooler
alcohol
aldehydes
alloy
alternating current
Anti-lock braking system. Electronically controlled brakes that
monitor vehicle wheel speeds and manage application forces
to prevent wheel lock-up.
See alternating current.
Air conditioning.
A cylinder or device used to store pressure, can contain a
diaphragm and pneumatic pressure. Used in hydraulic
systems.
Angle between the planes of the steered wheels of a vehicle
with zero steering angle; a measure of toe-in or toe-out.
A word formed by the initial letters of other words.
An electronically monitored system circuit, condition, or
component that is malfunctioning and logs an ECM code,
which may be displayed or read using an EST.
Any output device controlled by a computer. Also used in
hydraulics as an output device such as a linear or rotary
device (cylinder or motor).
The mixing of gas with a liquid, usually air with oil, fuel, or
coolant.
Air/fuel control.
A circuit that senses turbo boost sensing and is part of the fuel
management components on a Cummins PTC-AFC pump.
See air/fuel ratio.
The mass ratio of an air-to-fuel mixture; also AFR.
Heat exchanger that cools the intake air after the turbocharger
before going to the intake manifold, by using ambient air.
Any of a group of distillate hydrocarbon liquids containing at
least one hydroxyl group; sometimes referred to as
oxygenates.
A class of chemical compounds having the general formula
RCHO, where R is an alkyl (aliphatic) or aryl (aromatic) radical
(SAE J1213 NOV82).
The mixing of a molten base metal with metallic or nonmetallic elements to alter the metallurgical characteristics.
Electric current that reverses cyclically due to reversal of
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altitude-pressure
compensator
Amboid gear
ANSI
American Society for
Testing Materials
(ASTM)
ammeter
ampere (A)
analog
anaerobic sealant
aneroid
antifreeze
antifriction bearing
API
application software
Apprentice program
Apprentice technician
Aqueous Solution
Aqueous Urea Injection
arcing
articulating piston
ASTM
ATA
polarity at the voltage source; AC.
Any sensor or device that automatically compensates for
changes in altitude.
A bevel gear crown and pinion assembly where the axes are
at right angles but the pinion is on a higher plane than the
crown.
The American National Standards Institute.
Agency that sets industry standards and regulations, including
those for fuel.
Instrument for measuring current flow.
The unit of measurement for the flow of electric current. An
ampere is defined as the amount of current that one volt can
send through one ohm of resistance.
The use of physical variables, such as voltage or length, to
represent values.
Paste-like sealants that cure (harden) without exposure to air.
A device used to sense light pressure conditions. The term is
used to describe manifold boost sensors that limit fueling until
there is sufficient boost air to combust it and usually consists
of a diaphragm, spring, and fuel-limiting mechanism.
A liquid solution added to water to blend the engine coolant
solution that raises the boiling point and lowers the freezing
point. Ethylene glycol (EG), propylene glycol (PG), and
extended life coolants (ELC) are currently used.
A bearing that uses balls or rollers between a journal and a
bearing surface to decrease friction.
The American Petroleum Institute.
Programs that direct computer processing operations.
Any educational program designed to teach a trade through a
combination of on-the-job training and classroom study.
A beginner who is learning under the direction of one or more
experienced certified technicians.
a solution in water, eg. a homogeneous mixture of two or
more substances; frequently (but not necessarily) a liquid
solution; "he used a solution of peroxide and water"
Is a system that is designed for reducing NOx (Nitrous Oxide)
emissions formed in the presence of high combustion
temperatures in internal combustion diesel engines. By
injecting urea in the exhaust stream, it causes the NOx to
break down into nitrogen and oxygen.
Bearing or gear failure caused by electric arcing.
A two-piece piston with separate crown and skirt assemblies,
linked by the piston wrist pin and afforded a degree of
independent movement. The wrist pin is usually full floating or
bolted directly to the connecting rod, in which case it is known
as a crosshead piston.
American Society for Testing Materials. Standards rating
organization that classifies materials generally and all fuels.
American Trucking Association. Organization with a broad
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ATA data link
ATAAC
ATDC
atom
atomization
atomized droplets
audit trail
B
backfire
backlash
battery
battery capacity
battery charging
battery plate
battery rating
baud
baud rate
Bernoulli’s Principle
beta ratio
binary system
blower
spectrum of representation responsible for setting standards
in the U.S. trucking industry.
An SAE/ATA standard J1584/J1708/J1939, 6-pin Deutsche
connector currently used by all truck and truck engine OEMs
to access the on-board ECMs.
Air-to-air charge air cooling.
After top dead centre.
The smallest part of a chemical element that can take part in a
chemical reaction; composed of electrons, protons, and
neutrons.
The process of breaking liquid fuel into small droplets by
pumping it at a high pressure through a minute flow area.
The liquid droplets emitted from an injector nozzle.
A means of electronically tracking electronically monitored
problems in an engine management system. May be discreet,
that is, not read by some diagnostic ESTs and programs; also
known as tattletale.
Ignition/combustion of the fuel in an oxy-acetylene torch in the
torch tip causing a popping and squealing noise.
The clearance or "play" between two parts, such as the teeth
of two gears.
A device containing one or more cells that produces electricity
through electrochemical action.
The amount of current a battery is capable of delivering.
The process of restoring a battery's charge by passing current
through it in a reverse direction (positive to negative).
Battery components made of lead peroxide in sponge form
and porous lead.
Standardized measurement of a battery's ability to deliver an
acceptable level of energy under specified conditions.
Standards established by the battery council international
(BCI).
Times per second that a data communications signal changes
and permits one bit of data to be transmitted.
The speed of a data transmission.
The statement that an increase in the speed of a fluid
produces a decrease in pressure and a decrease in the speed
produces an increase in pressure
The beta ratio or rating is used for fine filters and is
determined under laboratory testing. Although not a true
measure of how well a filter will do in an operating system, the
beta rating is a good indicator of the filter performance. The
beta ratio of an operating filter during steady state flow test is
simply the count upstream divided by the count downstream
of fine test dust, based on any selected particle size.
A two-digit arithmetic, numeric system commonly used in
computer electronics.
A low-pressure air pump used on diesel engines to increase
the amount and pressure of the air coming into the engine.
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boost pressure sensor
boost pressure
bore
boundary lubrication
Boyle's Law
brake power
British thermal unit
(BTU)
broach
BTM
bypass filter
bypass valve
burst pressure
C
cache
calorific value
calibration parameters
calipers
cam ground
capacitance
capacitor
carbon (C)
carbon dioxide (CO2)
Sometimes referred to as a supercharger.
This sensor measures intake manifold air pressure and sends
a signal to the ECM.
A measure of positive air pressure provided by a supercharger
or turbocharger.
The diameter of an engine cylinder. Sometimes used to refer
to the cylinder itself.
Thin film lubrication characteristics of an oil.
The absolute pressure of a fixed mass of gas varies inversely
as the volume, provided the temperature remains constant.
Power developed by an engine measured at the flywheel
measured by a dynamometer or brake. Factored by torque or
RPM.
Measurement of the amount of heat required to raise the
temperature of one pound of water by 1 degree F, at sea
level.
A boring bit used for final, accurate bore sizing.
Brushless torque motor. Caterpillar rotary proportional
solenoid used for PEEC timing and rack position control.
A filter assembly plumbed in parallel with the lubrication
circuit, usually capable of high filtering efficiencies.
A diverter valve fitted to full flow filter (series) mounting pads,
designed to reroute lubricant around a plugged filter element
to prevent a major engine failure.
The pressure which causes rupture. Also, the inside out
differential pressure that causes out-ward structural failures.
High speed RAM located between the CPU and main memory
used to increase processing efficiency.
The heating value of a fuel measured in BTU, calories, or
joules.
The specific values required when setting performance to
specification.
Comparative measuring instrument used for measuring
outside diameter and inside diameter.
Trunk-type pistons that are machined slightly eccentrically.
Because of the greater mass of material required at the wrist
pin boss, this area will expand proportionally more when
heated. Cam ground pistons are designed to assume a true
circular shape at operating temperatures.
Measure of how much electrical charge can be stored for a
given voltage potential; measured in farads.
An electrical device that can store an electrical charge or
block AC and pass DC. Also known as condenser.
An element found in various forms including diamonds,
charcoal, and coal. It is the primary constituent element in
hydrocarbon fuels. Atomic #6.
One of the products of combustion. Also a dry chemical
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carbon monoxide (CO)
carcinogen
cardan joint
case-harden
catalyst
catalytic converter
cavitation
CCW
CD
CD-ROM
centrifugal filter
centrifugal force
centrifuge
centripetal force
cetane
cetane improver
cetane number (CN)
mixture that is an excellent fire retardant. Compressed into
solid form this material is known as dry ice, and remains at a
temperature of 109 degrees F.
A deadly colorless, odorless gas that is formed when fuel is
not burned completely.
Any substance, such as asbestos, and carbon tetrachloride,
that can cause cancer.
A universal joint commonly used as a driveshaft coupler
permitting articulation. Two yokes are united by a rigid cross
whose races run in a yoke supported needle bearings or
races.
A process of heating a piece of steel to harden its surface
while the inside remains relatively soft.
A substance that stimulates, accelerates, or enables a
chemical reaction without itself undergoing any change.
An exhaust system device that enables oxidation and
reduction reactions; in lean burn truck diesel engines, only
oxidation catalytic converters are used at this moment in time.
Describes metal erosion caused by the formation and
subsequent collapse of vapor pockets (bubbles) produced by
physical pulsing into a liquid such as that of a wet liner against
the wall of coolant that surrounds it. Bubble collapse causes
high unit pressures and can quickly erode wet liners when the
protective properties of the coolant diminish. Also known in
hydraulics as a gaseous condition within a liquid stream
causing the rapid implosion of a gaseous bubble.
Counter-clockwise or left hand rotation.
Compact disk. Optically encoded, digital data storage.
An optically encoded data disk that is read by a laser in the
same way an audio CD is read and is designed for read-only
data.
A filter that uses a centrifuge consisting of a rotating cylinder
charged with pressurized fluid and canted jets to drive it;
centrifugal filters often have high efficiencies and are often of
the bypass type.
The force acting outward on a rotating body.
A device that uses centrifugal propulsion or a centrifugal force
principle of operation.
Tendency to move toward a center; such as water draining
from a bathtub.
A colourless liquid (C16H34). Used as a basis to test the
performance characteristics of diesel fuel.
A diesel fuel additive designed to increase the cetane number
rating or ignition quality. Cyclohexanol nitrate is a commonly
used cetane improver.
The standard rating of a diesel fuel's ignition quality. It is a
comparative rating method that measures the ignition quality
of a diesel fuel verses that of a mixture of cretonne (good
ignition characteristics). A mixture of 45% cretonne and 55%
would have a CN of 45. Diesel fuels refined for use in North
America are classified by the ASTM as #1D and #2D and
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CFM
Charles' s Law
CI
clearance
clearance volume
clockwise rotation
coefficient of friction
Cold crank rating
(CCR)
Combustion
Combustion chamber
Combustion cycle
Compound
Compression
Compression ratio
Communication
Protocol
Concentric
Conductance
Conductors
Conduction
Connecting rod
Constant horsepower
Co-requisite
must have a minimum CN of 40.
Cubic Feet per Minute. Used as a measurement for the
amount of air entering an engine’s intake.
See Gay-Lussac's Law.
Compression ignition; an engine in which the fuel/air mixture
is ignited by the heat of compression.
A given space between two parts such as a piston and
cylinder.
Volume in an engine cylinder when the piston is at TDC.
Rotation is the same as the direction as the movement of the
hands of a clock.
A rating of a material's ability to generate friction. Describes
the "aggressiveness" of materials in contact with each other.
Affected by temperature and the presence of lubricants.
Standard battery rating system that identifies the maximum
current drain a fully charged battery can deliver at 0 degrees F
or -17 degrees C - measured in cold cranking amps (CCA).
The act of burning, oxidation.
In most current S.I. and C.I. engines, the engine cylinder and
the geometry of the head and piston crown form the
combustion chamber. In I.D.I. diesel engines, the combustion
chamber is a separate cell connected to, but not integral with,
the cylinder. Also, the area above the piston with the piston at
TDC. Measured in cubic centimeters.
The thermodynamic process of a heat engine cycle through
induction, compression, oxidation, and exhaust.
(i)
A substance consisting of two or more elements held
together by chemical force and not necessarily
retaining any of the characteristics of the composite
elements; i.e., Water: H2O:
(ii)
Auxiliary gearbox that "compounds" the main
transmission by increasing the available ratios and
ranges.
The process by which a confined fluid is reduced in volume
and increased in density with the application of pressure.
The ratio of the piston swept volume to the total cylinder
volume with the piston at BDC - a volumetric ratio and not a
pressure ratio.
SAE has specific protocols for mobile equipment
communication, such as J1939 J1587/1708
Circles having a common centre.
The ability of a material to carry an electrical current.
Materials that readily permit the flow of electrons from atom to
atom; usually metallic elements that have less than 4
electrons in their outer shells.
Heat transmission through solid matter, also the transfer of
heat from one object to another by being in direct contact.
The rigid mechanical link between the piston wrist pin and the
crankshaft throw.
Sometimes used to describe a high torque rise engine.
A unit of learning that can be taken concurrently with another
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Conventional theory
Convection
Counterbore
Crankshaft
Crank throw
Creep
Cross flow
Crosshead
Crosshead piston
Crude oil
Current
Curriculum hour
Cycle time
Cylinder block
Cylinder head
Cylinder sleeve
subject, but in order to be successful, both subjects must be
completed successfully.
(Of current flow) asserts that current flows from a positive
source to a negative source. Despite the fact that it is
fundamentally incorrect, it is nevertheless widely accepted
and used.
A transfer of heat from one object to another through a liquid.
Also heat transfer occasioned by the upward flow of hot air
and the downward flow of cool air.
Cylindrical enlargement of the cylinder bore at the block deck
to seat a liner flange.
A shaft with offset throws designed to convert the
reciprocating movements of the pistons into torque.
The offset part of the crankshaft where the connecting rods
fasten.
Describes the independent movement of two components
clamped by fasteners when they have different coefficients of
thermal expansion or have different mass, which means their
expansion and contraction rates do not concur.
Describes a four-stroke cycle engine breathing configuration
where intake and exhaust manifolds are located on opposite
sides of the cylinder head so gas flow is across the piston
crown.
Part of the valve train in an engine that actuates two valves
per cylinder. Permits two valves in the same cylinder to be
opened simultaneously by a single rocker arm.
An articulating piston with separate crown and skirt
assemblies in which the connecting rod is bolted directly to the
wrist pin.
The organic fossil fuel pumped from the ground from which
diesel fuel, gasoline, and many other petroleum products are
refined; raw petroleum.
The flow of free electrons through a conductor.
Is described as the breakdown of time for theory and practical
in-school delivery. It is timed at 50 minutes per curriculum
hour listed in the document.
A reoccurring period in which a series of actions take place in
a definite order. Also used in hydraulics as the time it takes
for an actuator or function to complete full extend to full
retract: thus a cycle time.
The main frame of any engine to which all the other
components are attached.
A detachable portion of an engine that covers the upper end
of the cylinder bores and forms part of the combustion
chamber. Also includes the valves in the case of overhead
valve engines.
A liner or sleeve interposed between the piston and the
cylinder wall or water jacket to provide an easily replaceable
surface for the cylinders.
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D
Damper
Data
Database
Data link
Data link connector
DC
DCA
DI
Dial indicator
Diesel cycle
Digital signal
Diode
Displacement
Direct current (DC)
Droop
Droop curve
Dry air filter
Dry liners
E
Electromagnetism
Electron
Electrolyte
Electron theory
A unit or device used to reduce or eliminate vibration,
oscillation, of a moving part, fluid, etc.
Raw (unprocessed) information.
A data storage location or program.
The connection point or path for data transmission in
networked devices.
Plastic plug-in terminal with two or more electrical connections
used to interface with engine or vehicle’s computers.
Direct current.
Diesel coolant additives. A proprietary supplemental coolant
additive.
Direct injection. Fuel is injected directly into the engine
cylinder. This is the common means of injecting, current C.I.
engines and used in some gasoline-fueled engines.
Tool used to precisely measure linear travel.
A four-stroke cycle similar to the Otto cycle (intake,
compression, expansion, and exhaust strokes) but where
ignition of the fuel charge is occasioned by the heat of
compression. A true diesel cycle engine is known as a
constant pressure engine, meaning that fuel is metered into
the cylinder at a rate that will produce constant pressure for a
number of crank angle degrees.
An electronic signal that uses on and off pulses.
A semiconductor device that allows current flow in one
direction but resists it in the other, which acts like an electrical
check valve.
The total volume displaced by the cylinders when moving from
BDC to TDC.
Electric current that flows steadily in one direction only.
An engine governor term denoting a transient speed variation
that occurs when engine loading suddenly changes.
A required hydro-mechanical governor characteristic in which
fueling drops off in an even curve as engine speed increases
from the rated power value to high idle.
A filter element that requires no oil or other liquid medium to
trap dirt particles. Most motive power air filters are of the dry
type.
Liners that are fitted either with fractional looseness or
fractional interference that dissipate cylinder heat to the
cylinder block bore and have no direct contact with the water
jacket.
Describes any magnetic field created by current flow through
a conductor.
A negatively charged component of an atom.
A solution capable of conducting electrical current.
The theory that asserts that current flow through a circuit is by
electron movement from a negatively charged point to a
positively charged one. See conventional theory.
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Electronic engine
management
Electronic control unit
(ECU)
Electronically controlled
unit injector
Emissions
End play
Energy
Ethylene glycol
Exhaust scrubber
Expansion ratio
F
Fatigue
Ferrous material
Fiber optics
Fire point
Flammable
Flashback
Fluid power
Flywheel
Force
Friction
Four-stroke cycle
engine
Computerized engine control.
Refers to the computer and integral switching apparatus in an
electronically controlled system. Some engine OEMs use this
term rather than the more commonly used ECM.
Mechanically actuated, electronically controlled unit injector
that combines pumping, electronic fuel metering, and injecting
elements in a single unit.
Any release of harmful materials into the environment. Gases
produced from exhaust, crankcase, and fuel tanks and their
contribution to smog.
Amount of lengthwise movement between two parts due to
clearance.
Any capacity for doing work.
A liquid chemical used in engine coolant. See antifreeze.
An exhaust emission device used to clean particulate matter
from engine exhaust. Used predominately in off road
equipment for use in underground mining and enclosed
buildings.
Ratio of cylinder volume at the moment the exhaust port or
valves open to clearance volume; usually less than
compression ratio.
Material failure or deterioration due to repetitive stress loading
or usage.
Metal containing metal or steel.
The transmission of laser light waves through thin stands of
fiber. Used to digitally pulse data more cheaply and at much
higher speeds than copper wire.
The temperature at which a flammable material or liquid
vaporizes at a rate sufficient to burn continuously.
Any substance that can be combusted.
A highly dangerous condition that can occur in operating oxyacetylene equipment in which the flame may travel behind the
mixing chamber in the torch and explode the acetylene tank
using the system oxygen. Most current oxy-acetylene torches
are equipped with flashback arresters.
The term used to describe both hydraulics and pneumatics.
A large heavy wheel that forms the base for the starter ring
gear and in which energy is absorbed and stored by means of
momentum. Also provides a mounting surface for the torque
converter or clutch assembly.
The action of one body attempting to change the state of
motion of another. The application of force does not
necessarily result in any work accomplished.
The resistance an object or fluid encounters in moving over or
though another.
An engine design where a power pulse occurs every other
revolution of the crankshaft. These strokes are (1) intake
stroke (2) compression (3) power or expansion stroke; and (4)
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Full-floating
Full floating axle
G
Gay-Lussac's Law
General Learning
Outcomes
General Practices
Governor
Grade markings
Gross Horsepower
Gross Torque
H
Hall Effect
Hazardous Waste
Heat
Helix
Hg manometer
High Idle Speed
Hooke's Law
exhaust stroke.
Used to describe components that permit more than the usual
amount of movement-for instance a full-floating piston pin is
retained in the pin boss, but permits independent movement
of both the piston and the rod eye.
A drive axle design where the axle shafts provide wheel
torque only and bear no part of the vehicle load.
The law that at constant pressure the volume of a fixed mass
or quantity of gas varies directly with the absolute
temperature; a close approximation. Also known as Charles’s
Law.
Learning outcomes represent culminating demonstrations of
learning and achievement. Outcomes are not simply a listing
of discrete skills, nor broad statements of knowledge and
comprehension. Outcomes describe performances that
demonstrate that significant learning has been achieved and
applied.
This section captures concepts and topics that must be
integrated into the learning for each unit. No specific time is
allocated for these items as it is deemed to be accounted for
in the learning content.
A component that manages engine fueling on the basis of fuel
demand (accelerator) and engine RPM; may be hydromechanical or electronic.
Lines placed on the heads of some bolts to indicate tensile
strength.
The brake horsepower of an engine with optimum settings and
without allowing for power absorbed by the engine-driven
accessories.
The maximum torque produced when measured at the
engine's crankshaft. Does not allow for torque consumed by
the engine-driven accessories.
A method of accurately sensing rotational speed and digitally
signaling it. A rotating metallic shutter alternately blocks and
opens a magnetic field from a semiconductor sensor.
Any chemical or material that has one or more characteristics
that make it hazardous to health, life, and/or the environment.
A form of energy associated with the motion of atoms or
molecules and capable of being transmitted by conduction,
convection, and radiation.
A spiral groove or scroll. The helical cut recesses in some
injection pumping plungers that are used to meter fuel
delivery. Plural: helices.
A mercury (Hg) filled manometer.
The highest no load speed of an engine.
The law that the stress of a solid is directly proportional to the
strain applied to it.
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Horsepower (hp)
H2O Manometer
Hunting
Hydraulics
Hydrodynamic
suspension
Hydraulic electronic
unit injector (HEUI)
Hydrocarbon
Hydrodynamic engine
management
Hydrometer
Hypoid gear
Hysteresis
I
Impedance
Indirect injection (IDI)
Indicated horsepower
Industry Committee
Inertia
Inline block
Insulator
Measurement of an engine's ability to perform work. One
horsepower is defined as the ability to move 33,000 pounds
one foot in one minute.
A water-filled manometer.
Rhythmic fluctuation of engine RPM usually caused by
unbalanced cylinder fueling.
The science and practice of confining and pressurizing liquids
in circuits to provide motive power.
The principle used to float a rotating shaft on a bed of
constantly changing, pressurized lubricant.
Unit injector featuring a hydraulically-actuated injection
pumping, with an electronically controlled injector. Combines
fuel metering and injecting elements into a single unit.
Describes substances primarily composed of elemental
carbon and hydrogen. Fossil fuels and alcohols are both
hydrocarbon fuels.
All engines managed without computers.
An instrument designed to measure the specific gravity of
liquids, usually battery electrolyte and coolant mixtures. Not
recommended for measuring either in truck engine
applications where a refractometer is the appropriate
instrument due to greater accuracy.
A bevel gear crown and pinion assembly where the axes are
at right angles but the pinion is on a lower plane than the
crown.
(i)
In hydro-mechanical governor terminology, a response
lag.
(ii)
Molecular friction caused by the lag between the
formation of magnetic flux behind the magneto motive
force that creates it.
The combination of resistance and reactance in an AC circuit.
Describes any of a number of methods of injecting fuel to an
engine outside of the cylinder. This may be to an intake tract
in the intake manifold or to a cell adjacent to the cylinder such
as a pre-combustion chamber.
Gross power produced in the engine cylinders often arrived at
by calculation and always greater than brake power because it
does not factor in pumping and friction losses.
A committee of industry members who are representative of
the province and help to guide the MTCU about
apprenticeship issues.
In physics, it describes the tendency of a body at rest or in
motion to continue that state unless it is changed by an
external force.
An engine that has all of its cylinders aligned in a straight row.
Materials that either prevent or inhibit the flow of electrons:
usually nonmetallic substances that contain more than four
electrons in their outer shell.
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Integral
Isochronous governor
J
Jounce
Journal
Jumper pipe
K
Kinetic energy
Kingpin inclination
Kirchhoff's 1st Law
Kirchhoff's 2nd Law
L
Lambda sensor
Laminar flow
Lead acid battery
L-head engine
Learning outcome
Learning content
Liner protrusion
Logic
Whole or combined with another component to act as a single
unit.
A zero droop governor or one that accommodates no change
in RPM on the engine it manages as engine load varies. In
electronically managed truck engines, the term is sometimes
used to describe engine operation in PTO mode.
Literally "bump"-used to describe the most compressed
condition of a suspension spring.
The part of an axle or shaft that actually contacts the bearing.
A term used to describe the pipes that connect the charge and
return galleries with DDC MUIs or with each other in multicylinder heads.
Any energy associated with motion.
Inclination angle of the steering axis to a vertical plane.
States that the current flowing into a point or component in an
electrical circuit must equal the current flowing out of it.
States that the voltage will drop in exact proportion to the
resistance in a circuit component and that the sum of the
voltage drops must equal the voltage applied to the circuit;
also known as Kirchhoff's Law of voltage drop.
An exhaust gas sensor used on electronically managed, SI
gasoline-fueled engines to signal the ECM the oxygen content
in the exhaust gas.
A condition where the fluid particles move in continuous
parallel paths; streamline flow.
Standard vehicle battery consisting of lead acid cells in series.
Twelve volt batteries have become standard and they can be
used in multiples in parallel or series for heavy duty
applications.
An in-line engine configuration where the intake and exhaust
valve ports are located adjacent to the cylinder in the block.
Seldom used in current engines.
Learning outcomes are discrete statements that describe the
elements leading to attainment of the general learning
outcome.
The learning activities required for the learner to achieve the
Learning Outcomes. A comprehensive list of activities to
guide the trainer.
The amount the liner protrudes above the deck of the block,
thus allowing retention when the head is properly torqued.
(i)
The science of reasoning.
(ii)
Arithmetic and data comparison protocols of a
microprocessor.
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M
Magnetism
Manometer
Mechanical efficiency
Micrometer
Micron
Muffler
Mechanical Unit
Injector (MUI)
Multimeter
Multi-orifii nozzle
Multiplexing
N
Nitrogen dioxide
Non-ferrous metal
Non-volatile RAM
Normal rated power
The phenomenon that includes the physical attraction for iron
observed in lodestone and associated with electric current
flow. It is characterized by fields of force, which can exert a
mechanical and electrical influence on anything within the
boundaries of that field.
A tubular, U-shaped column mounted on a calibration scale.
The tube is water or mercury-filled to balance at 0 on the scale
and the instrument is used to measure light pressure or
vacuum conditions in fluid circuits.
A measure of how effectively indicated power is converted into
brake power; factors in pumping and friction losses.
A precision instrument for measuring either internal, external,
or depth dimensions to within thousands or ten thousands of
an inch or millimeter.
One millionth of a meter or .000039 inch. The term used to
rate the size of filters for liquids, such as engine oil or
hydraulic fluids.
An engine silencer that uses sound absorption and resonation
principles to alter the frequency of engine noise.
Cam-actuated, governor-controlled unit injectors used by DDC
and Caterpillar.
A test instrument capable of reading volts, amps, and ohms.
A typical hydraulic injector nozzle whose function it is to switch
and atomize the fuel injected to an engine cylinder. Consists
of a nozzle body machined with the orifii, a nozzle valve, and
a spring. Used in most DI diesel engines using port helix
injection pumps, MUIs, EUIs, and HEUIs.
A method of using one communications path to carry two or
more signals simultaneously.
One of the oxides of nitrogen produced in vehicle engines and
a significant contributor in the formation of photochemical
smog.
Metals and alloys that contain little or no iron.
NVRAM-read-write RAM device capable of data retention in
cells in a vehicle module after the ignition circuit is opened;
also known as KAM
The highest power specified for continuous operation of an
engine.
O
O. Reg.631/94 section
3
OEM
Is an Ontario regulation for regulations as they apply to
overhead cranes.
Original equipment manufacturer.
Ohm
Ohm's Law
A unit for quantifying electrical resistance in a circuit.
The formula used to calculate electrical circuit performance. It
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Ohmmeter
Opacity meter
Orifice
Orifii
Oscilloscope
Otto cycle
Overhead camshaft
Oxy-acetylene
Oxidation
Oxides of nitrogen
(NOx)
P
Parallel port valve
configuration
Particulate trap
Pascal's Law
PC networks
Piezoelectric Principle
Pintle nozzle
Plenum chamber
asserts that it requires 1 v of potential to pump 1 A of current
through a circuit resistance of 1 ohm.
An instrument for measuring resistance in an electric
component or circuit.
A light extinction means of testing exhaust gas particulate and
liquid emission that rates density of exhaust smoke based on
the percentage of emitted light that does not reach the sensor,
so the higher the percentage reading, the more dense the
exhaust smoke.
A hole or aperture.
Plural of orifice.
An instrument designed to graphically display electrical
waveforms on a CRT or other display medium.
The four stroke, spark ignited cycle, patented by Nicolas Otto
in 1876 and consisting of induction, compression, power and
exhaust strokes.
An engine which locates the valve actuating camshaft(s) in the
cylinder head to either directly or indirectly actuate the valves
and in some diesel applications, the unit injectors.
A commonly used cutting, heating, and welding process that
uses pure compressed oxygen in conjunction with acetylene
fuel.
The act of oxidizing a material; can mean combusting or
burning a substance.
An undesirable compound of nitrogen and oxygen in exhaust
gases. Usually produced when combustion chamber
temperatures are excessively high.
Engine cylinder valve arrangement that locates multiple valves
parallel to crank centreline permitting equal gas flow through
each (assuming identical lift).
A canister in series with the exhaust piping containing a
filtering medium to entrap diesel HC exhaust particulates and
in some instances oxidize them.
A principle of fluids that states that when pressure is applied
to a confined fluid, it is transferred undiminished throughout
the fluid.
Any of a variety of small personal computers designed for full
function in isolation from other units but which may be used to
network with other systems.
Certain crystals become electrically charged when exposed to
pressure, the voltage produced increasing proportionally with
pressure rise. Quartz and Rochelle salt crystals have these
properties. Combustion pressure sensors may both use the
Piezoelectric Principle.
A type of hydraulic injector nozzle used in some IDI
automobile, small bore diesel engines until recently.
A chamber or cavity in which a fluid is held at a pressure
above atmospheric or above system mean pressure.
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Pneumatics
Poppet nozzle
Port-helix metering
Potentiometer
Power
Practical
Preloading
Prerequisite
Pressure
Pulse width modulation
Pyrometer
Q
Quenching
Quiescent Combustion
R
Radial
RAM
Rated power
Rated speed
Reluctor
Rebound
Reportable Subject
Reserve Capacity
Rheostat
Branch of fluid power physics dealing with pressure and gas
dynamics.
Forward opening injector nozzle valve used on older
Caterpillar IDI systems.
Consists of a pumping plunger and barrel assembly designed
to regulate fuel delivery.
A three-terminal variable resistor or voltage divider used to
vary the voltage potential of a circuit. Commonly used as a
throttle position sensor.
The rate of accomplishing work; it is necessarily factored by
time.
The hands-on element of learning in the curriculum document.
Apprentice activities develop skills to achieve completion of
psychomotor learning outcomes.
Process of adjusting a bearing so that it has a mild pressure
placed upon it, beyond zero endplay.
Learning that must be achieved prior to taking a given subject.
Force exerted per unit of area.
The shaping of pulses and waveforms for purposes of digital
signaling. Acronym PWM is often used.
A thermocouple type, high temperature sensing device used
to signal exhaust temperature. Consists of two dissimilar
wires (pure iron and constantan) joined at the hot end with a
millivoltmeter at the read end. Increase in temperature will
cause a small current to flow, which is read at the voltmeter as
a temperature value.
Process of dipping a heated object into water, oil, or other
substance to quickly reduce its temperature.
Non-turbulent flame propagation characteristic of slow running
diesel engines that are direct injected.
A line at right angles to a shaft, cylinder, etc., Centerline.
Random access memory. Electronically retained "main
memory.”
The highest power specified for continuous operation.
The RPM at which an engine produces peak power.
Term describing a number of devices that use magnetism and
motion to produce an AC voltage-a pick-up coil.
Reactive response of a spring, the opposite of jounce.
(i)
A clustering or grouping of related or like learning
outcomes.
(ii)
A standalone learning unit with a distinct start and
end.
(iii)
A course or module.
The amount of time a battery can produce an acceptable
current when not charged by the alternator.
A two terminal, variable resistor.
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S
SAE
SAE horsepower
Scoring
Semiconductor
Semi-floating axle
Sensor
Shunt winding
s.i.
Silicon
Silicon-controlled
rectifier
Spark ignition (SI)
Specific gravity
Spiral gear
Static electricity
Stoichiometric Ratio
Supercharger
Sulfur
Sulfur dioxide
Supplemental Restraint
System (SRS)
Swept Volume
Synthetic Oils
T
TDC
Society of Automotive Engineers.
A structured formula used to calculate brake horsepower data
that can be used for comparison purposes.
Scratch/gouge damage to a surface finish.
A substance, such as silicon, that acts as a conductor or
insulator, depending on its operating condition and
application.
A drive axle design in which the axle shaft imparts drive to the
wheel and supports the vehicle weight.
A term that covers a wide range of command and monitoring
input (ECM) signal devices.
A wire coil that forms an alternate path through which
electrical current can flow.
système international d'unités. A measure in metric units.
A non metallic element found naturally in silica, silicone
dioxide in the form of quartz.
Function similarly to a bipolar transistor with a fourth
semiconductor layer; used to switch DC.
Any gasoline-fueled, spark-ignited engine usually using an
Otto cycle principle.
A relative weight of a given volume of a specific material as
compared to an equal volume of water.
A winding helical protrusion or thread machined to a shaft, as
in a worm gear.
Accumulated electrical charge not flowing in a circuit.
The exact ratio of reactants participating in a reaction required
to complete the reaction. Most often used in the context of
explaining the mass of air required to completely combust a
fuel.
Technically any device capable of providing manifold boost,
but in practice used to refer to gear-driven blowers such as
the Rootes blower.
An element present in most crude petroleums, but refined out
of most current highway fuels. During combustion, it is
oxidized to sulfur dioxide, and classified as a noxious
emission.
The compound that is formed when sulfur is oxidized that is
the primary contributor to sulfurous type smog. Vehicles
contribute little to sulfurous smog problems due to the use of
low sulfur fuels.
An emergency inflatable air bag system designed to enhance
crash safety.
The volume displaced in a cylinder as a piston moves from
BDC to TDC.
Petroleum based oils that have been chemically compounded
by polymerization and other processes.
Top dead centre of an engine.
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Tensile strength
Theory
Thermal Efficiency
Thermistor
Thrust faces
Torque
Torque rise
Training Standards
Transducer
Trunk piston
Turbocharger
Turbulence
Turbulent Flow
Two-stroke cycle
U
Unit injector
Widely used term denoting the required unit stress to cause
material separation. In ferrous alloys, tensile strength usually
exceeds yield strength by about 10%. Measured in force per
unit area, psi.
The theoretical hours listed in the curriculum document that
represent learning in the cognitive domain, the thinking portion
of the training.
Ratio of brake power to that of the calorific value (heat energy
potential) of a material failure caused by engine performance.
A commonly used temperature sensor that is supplied with a
reference voltage and by using a temperature sensitive
variable resistor, signals back to the ECM portion of it.
A term used to describe loading of surface area generally but
most often of pistons. When the piston is subject to cylinder
gas pressure there is a tendency for it to cock (pivot off a
vertical centerline) and load the contact faces off its axis on
the pin.
Twisting effort or force. Torque does not necessarily result in
accomplishing work.
The increase in torque potential designed to occur in a diesel
engine as it is lugged down from the rated power RPM to the
peak torque RPM, during which the power curve remains
relatively flat. High torque rise engines are sometimes
described as constant horsepower engines.
Training standards are created by the MTCU with the Industry
Committee and are intended to be used by the apprentice,
instructors, and companies as a "blueprint" for on-the-job
training, or as a prerequisite for government certification.
A device that coverts energy from one power form to another
for instance, a physical pressure value to an electrical
pressure value.
A single piece piston usually constructed of aluminum alloy.
A turbine device that utilizes exhaust pressure to increase the
air pressure going into the cylinders. Used particularly in
reference to movement of air in the cylinder and combustion
chamber.
A violent irregular movement or agitation of a fluid or gas.
Violent swirling motion. Fuel injection provided some
turbulence. Additional turbulence is provided by the design
features of the combustion space.
A condition where the fluid particles move in random paths
rather than in continuous parallel paths.
An engine that requires one complete revolution of the
crankshaft to fire each piston once. An engine requiring only
one complete revolution of the crankshaft to complete the
cycle of events.
A diesel fuel injector which receives fuel at charging pressure
and performs the functions of metering, creating injection
pressure values and atomizing fuel-usually directly to the
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Universal joint
Urea
V
Valve timing
Valve train
V-engine
Volatility
Volute
Viscosity
Viscosity Index
Viscous damper
Voltmeter
Volumetric efficiency
W
Wastegate
Watt's Law
Wet liners
Wheatstone bridge
Y
Yield strength
Z
Zenor diode
engine cylinder. Mechanically or electronically controlled,
mechanically or hydraulically actuated.
A flexible joint that permits changes in driving angles between
a driving and driven shaft.
The chief solid component of mammalian urine; synthesized
from ammonia and carbon dioxide and used as fertilizer and in
animal feed and in plastics.
Crank angle locations in the cycle when the valves are open
and closed.
The sum of the components responsible for actuating a valve,
extending from the cam profile to the valve itself.
Engine configuration in which the cylinders are arranged so
that their axes form a V. Described by the angle, most
commonly, 45, 60, and 90 degrees.
The ability of a liquid to evaporate. Gasoline has greater
volatility than diesel fuel.
A snail-shaped diminishing sectional area such as used in
turbocharger geometry.
Denotes the fluidity of a liquid.
A measure of a liquid's fluidity at a specific temperaturediminishes as temperature drops and vice versa.
An engine vibration damper consisting of disc shaped housing
containing a fluid medium (silicon gel) and a solid inertia ring;
uses fluid friction to dampen torsional oscillation.
Instrument for testing charge differential or voltage in a circuit.
Engine breathing efficiency. Extent to which end gases are
purged from an engine cylinder, usually expressed as a
percentage of new charge to cylinder volume. A ratio of mass
not volume. Seldom 100% in naturally aspirated engines, can
be greater than 100% in boosted engines.
A valve that vents excess exhaust gas to limit the amount of
boost delivered by a turbocharger.
Formula for computing unknown power, voltage, or current in
a circuit by using two known factors to find the unknown value.
Cylinder block liners that have direct contact with the water
jacket and therefore must support cylinder combustion
pressures and seal the coolant to which they are exposed.
A galvanometer that bridges an electrical circuit to give a
resistance reading.
The stress loading required to permanently deform a materialautomotive construction materials, especially steels, are
classified by yield strength rating.
Specialty diode designed to conduct with a reverse bias
current after a specific voltage value is reached.
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